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Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Published by xiao sun, 2019-04-15 18:12:22

group work ASD

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Touro College, EDSN 650
Educational Technology in General and Special Education

Janice Farmer –
Michelle Sun –
Maria Stefanidis –

Autism Spectrum Disorder

There are 13 different disability categories as described by the
Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA). They are listed below.
The disability of focus for this presentation is autism.

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Emotional Disturbance
Hearing Impairment
Intellectual Disability
Multiple Disabilities
Orthopedic Impairment
Other Health Impairment
Specific Learning Disability
Speech or Language Impairment
Traumatic Brain Injury
Visual Impairment (including blindness)

Autism Spectrum Disorder

§ Autism is defined as a development
disability which affecting verbal and
nonverbal communication and social
interaction, that affects a child’s
performance. (IDEA) Autism is a
lifelong development disability with
disturbances in “physical, social, and
language skills” (Gillingham,1995)
§ ASD is generally evident before age 3


How to Diagnose Autism:

§  Monitor your child’s development: Autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) involves a variety of developmental delays (social,
emotional, and cognitive).

§  Take action if you’re concerned: Every child develops at a
different pace, but if your child is not meeting the milestones for
his or her age, or you suspect a problem, share it with your

§  Don’t accept a wait-and-see approach. Waiting is the worst
thing you can do. You risk losing valuable time at an age where
your child has the best chance for improvement.

§  Trust your instincts. Sometimes, even well-meaning doctors
miss red flags or underestimate problems. Listen to your gut if
it’s telling you something is wrong, and be persistent.

Early Signs of Autism in Babies
and Toddlers (0-18 months):

The Following Delays Warrant an
Immediate Evaluation By Your Child’s

§  By 6 months: No big smiles or other warm, joyful

§  By 9 months: No back-and-forth sharing of sounds,
smiles, or other facial expressions.

§  By 12 months: Lack of response to name.
§  By 12 months: No babbling or “baby talk”.
§  By 12 months: No back-and-forth gestures, such as

pointing, showing, reaching, or waving.
§  By 16 months: No spoken words.
§  By 24 months: No meaningful two-word phrases that

don’t involve imitating or repeating.

Signs and Symptoms of Social
Difficulties in Autism:

§  1. Appears disinterested or unaware of other people or what’s going on
around them.

§  2. Doesn’t know how to connect with others, play, or make friends.
§  3. Prefers not to be touched, held, or cuddled.
§  4. Doesn’t play "pretend" games, engage in group games, imitate others,

or use toys in creative ways.
§  5. Has trouble understanding or talking about feelings
§  6. Doesn’t seem to hear when others talk to him or her
§  7. Doesn't share interests or achievements with others (drawings, toys)
§  8. Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism

spectrum disorders. Many kids on the autism spectrum seem to prefer to
live in their own world, aloof and detached from others.

Common Self-Stimulatory

§ 1. Hand flapping.
§ 2. Rocking back and forth.
§ 3. Spinning in a circle.
§ 4. Finger flicking.
§ 5. Head banging.
§ 6. Staring at lights.
§ 7. Moving fingers in front of the eyes.
§ 8. Flicking light switches on and off.
§ 9. Repeating words or noises.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Educational Interventions:

§  1- Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA): works to systematically change
behavior based on principles of learning derived from behavioral
psychology and encourages positive behavior as well teaching new

§  2- Speech Therapy: with a licensed speech-language pathologist is
important in helping to improve a person’s communication skills,
allowing better expression. Some individuals with ASD are nonverbal,
so the use of gestures and sign language are useful.

§  3- Occupational Therapy (OT): used as a treatment for the sensory
integration issues associated with ASDs. Improves the individual’s

mquality of life and ability to participate fully in daily activities.
§  4- Physical Therapy (PT): to improve gross motor skills and handle

sensory integration issues, particularly those involving the individual’s
ability to feel and be aware of his body in space.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Medical Management:

§  Pharmaceutical treatments can help ameliorate some of the
behavioral symptoms of ASD, including irritability and aggression
such as, Risperidone and Aripriprazole.

§  Medications should be prescribed and monitored by a qualified
physician. However, medications may have adverse effects.

§  Stem cell therapy is a new effective approach to treating ASD and
is based on the unique ability of stem cells to influence metabolism,
immune system and restore damaged cells.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Strategies For ASD:

§  Students with autism have communication problems. Giving
too many directions and explanations at one time becomes

§ Giving explicit instruction-one step at a time. Broke down into
small chunks.

§ An augmentative alternative system-The Picture Exchange
Communication System (PECS). Use picture to form
sentences to learning sentence structure and better
communication skills, positive behavior management

§ Many ASDs are visual learners

§ Making generalization is difficult for students has ASD. They
need to practice skills that are functional for real-life situation.

Helping Children With Autism:

Don’t wait for a diagnosis:

As the parent of a child with autism or
related developmental delays, the best
thing you can do is to start treatment
right away.

Stick to a schedule:

Children with autism tend to do best
when they have a highly-structured
schedule or routine.

Helping Children With Autism:

Reward good behavior.

§  Positive reinforcement can go a long way with children with
autism, so make an effort to “catch them doing something
good.” Praise them when they act appropriately or learn a new
skill, being very specific about what behavior they’re being
praised for.

Make time for fun:

§  A child coping with autism is
still a kid. For both children
with autism and their parents,
there needs to be more to life
than therapy.


§  PowerPoint Presentation Adapted from: Autism. Be Aware. Be

Originally Created By:
§  Rawan AlBawardi
§  Rana Zread
§  •Alanoud AlHussayen
§  Raghad Kul Alnas
§  Shahad AlMasri

§  Definition and Strategies Copied from: Nielsen, Lee B., Brief
Reference of Student Disabilities, (Second Edition) 2009, pg. 65,
70; Corwin Press

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