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National Geographic’s “The Genographics Project” Geno 2.0 DNA analysis - 16Dec2018

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Published by evansfan, 2018-12-18 20:48:57

The Geno 2.0 DNA Analysis Results of Ramon David Evans

National Geographic’s “The Genographics Project” Geno 2.0 DNA analysis - 16Dec2018

Keywords: Genographics Project,Ramon Evans,Geno 2.0,DNA analysis

1

The Geno 2.0 DNA Analysis Results of
Ramon David Evans

Compiled by Ramon Evans

Introduction

My wife Anne Baehr Evans is the genealogist for the family, and together we
published the book Baehr-Evans Family History. As it was very difficult to document
our ancestors beyond the 18th Century, we decided to let our DNA give us a view of
our ancestors’ migration going back 150,000 years. Anne used Living DNA My
Ancestry and my daughter Rachel Spitz Evans used 23andME for their DNA analysis.
Their results did show how the migration of their ancestors verified what we know
of our ancestors over the last 300 years.

I decided to use National Geographic’s “The Genographics Project” Geno 2.0 DNA
analysis. According to the genetic and paleontological record, we only started to
leave Africa between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago. What set this in motion is
uncertain, but we think it has something to do with major climatic shifts that were
happening around that time—a sudden cooling in the Earth’s climate driven by the
onset of one of the worst parts of the last Ice Age. This cold snap would have made
life difficult for our African ancestors, and the genetic evidence points to a sharp
reduction in population size around this time. In fact, the human population likely
dropped to fewer than 10,000. We were holding on by a thread, but thanks to global
warming, our ancestors survived. My DNA results seemed to verify what we know
of our paternal and maternal line.

I hope you find my ancestors’ migration interesting.

I also want to thank my wife Anne for spending time editing this book and
correcting the many grammatical errors.

Ramon D. Evans

December 2018

2

Overview of my Geno 2.0 ancestry DNA Analysis

With the DNA sample I sent to Geno 2.0, they ran a comprehensive analysis to identify
thousands of genetic markers—breadcrumbs—in my DNA, which are passed down from
generation to generation. By looking at the order in which these markers occurred over
time, I can follow the breadcrumbs and trace the journey of my ancestors across the
globe. In order to understand my Ancestry DNA Analysis results I recommend your
understanding what a Marker is in the next three paragraphs.

Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother
and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease
susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA is passed directly
from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line.
Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA), on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their
children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely
maternal line. My matches show when in ancient history my maternal and/or paternal line
diverged.

The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring,
usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a Marker, acts as a beacon;
it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of
years.

When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred,
and in which geographic region of the world. Furthermore, with these markers, a human
family tree has been created. Everyone alive today falls on a particular branch of this tree.
My markers were examined to determine which branch I belong to. Tracking the lineages
provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of
years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.

Note: A haplogroup is the order of phylogenetically equivalent group of markers that
will be seen on the migration maps below that define a Maternal Branch and a Paternal
Branch. for the DNA ancestry analysis final results.

3

Going back 150,000 years, all seven billion humans on earth share one single, common
maternal ancestor: A Mitochondrial Eve. Her male counterpart was Y- chromosome
Adam. Actually, any two individual people that ever lived may share a match (an Eve or
an Adam) at a more recent point in time. First maternal cousins, for example, share a
match at the grandmother level. Although it’s true that every two living persons share a
common ancestor, in reality, we share multiple ancestors. Some of these common
ancestors lived centuries ago, while others lived and migrated across the earth millennia
ago.

The following summary and illustrations describe the route my ancestors took over
many thousands of years. My Geno-2.0 DNA analysis takes me back through the stories
of my distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to
my lineage.

4

Ramon Evans Ancestors Migration Routes
(Maternal and Paternal)

Each segment on the maternal and paternal maps below represents the migratory
path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form my branch of the tree.

My maternal ancestors’ migration begins with marker (L3) for my oldest maternal
ancestor, and continues forward (markers N, R, T) to more recent times, showing at each
step the line of my ancestors who lived up to that point. My mother’s ancestors eventually
migrated over 500 years ago to Iberia, the peninsula of Spain and Portugal. My mother
was born in Spain in 1917, and her family immigrated to New York City in 1920.

My Maternal Branch is T2e, and my maternal lineage began about 150,000 years
ago. My maternal ancestors carried farming culture from the region of the Fertile
Crescent into Europe. This revolutionized not only the way food was grown, but also
introduced a shift from a nomadic lifestyle to a settled one. Changes to tools, pottery,
and weapons may not have been otherwise possible. Thus, my cousins have played an
important part role in the history of the Fertile Crescent region and of Europe.

5

My paternal ancestors’ migration begins with marker (P305) for my oldest paternal
ancestor, and continues forward (markers:M42, M168, P143, M89, M578, P128, M526,
M45, M207, P231, M343, M269, P310, P312) to more recent times, showing at each
step, the line of my ancestors who lived up to that point.

My Paternal Branch is R-Z211, and my paternal lineage began at least 180,000
years ago. My paternal ancestors left Africa and moved north through Western and
Central Asia. They then turned west and crossed the grasslands of southern Russia into
Europe. There, they eventually drove the Neanderthals to extinction, though they did
interbreed with them. Living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, my early ancestors set the stage
for European history. My father’s ancestors eventually migrated to Wales, where we
believe they immigrated to the New England colonies in the 18th Century. They moved
in the early 19th Century to the state of Georgia, where my father was born in 1917.

6

Regional Ancestry Of Ramon Evans
(500 Years to 10,000 Years Ago)

We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most
fascinating and newest information possible with my Geno 2.0 Next Generation test. In
this section, is displayed my affiliations with a set of twenty-two world regions. This
information is determined from my entire genome, so we’re able to see both parents’
information, going back six generations, or more. My percentages reflect both recent
influences and ancient genetic patterns in my DNA due to how groups migrated to and
from different regions, mixing for hundreds or even thousands of years. My ancestors
may have also mixed with ancient, now extinct, hominid cousins, like Neanderthals. If
my parents or I have an admixed background, this pattern can get complicated very
quickly! The reference population matches below to help understand my results.

Continental Averages for Ramon Evans– Europe 99%

Ever since our ancestors first left Africa some 65,000 years ago and began to spread
and settle across the globe, they evolved genetic signatures in relative isolation, which in
turn became unique to each continental region. Here I see how much of my DNA traces
back to each of the world’s major continents of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and
Oceania.

7

Regional Average of My Ancestors

Southwestern Europe – 75%

Interestingly, Southwestern Europe may have been the last refuge of the Neanderthals,
due to its relatively sheltered position during the last glacial maximum. European hunter-
gatherers also may have taken refuge there 20,000 years ago. Eventually, the first
farmers arrived in the region from the eastern Mediterranean, and these are the
ancestors of the modern-day inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula and neighboring
regions. Connections across the Mediterranean, dating back to prehistory and down to the
medieval period, connect Iberians with other coastal peoples, especially groups in
Northern Africa. Some Southwestern Europeans also migrated across the Strait of
Gibraltar, leading to a mutual genetic exchange. This cluster was also the pioneer
Explorer, the group that expanded over 500 years ago to the Americas, as the Spanish and
Portuguese established empires around the world.

Northwestern Europe – 17%

This region of Northern Europe is a biogeographical composite of populations that
include British, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Northern French, Belgians, Dutch, Danish,
and some Scandinavian and German groups. So, much more than an established
historical population, it is a prehistorical region characterized early on by a long period
of glaciation, with episodic habitation by hunter-gatherer groups migrating from the south
and east. With the advent of agriculture and the spread of plant domestication some 8,000
to 6,000 years ago, the people of Northwestern Europe grew from the mix of the early
settlers and new farmers. Over the last 4,000 years, the region became subdivided into
the ethnic and political entities we now know. This biogeographical region is seen in
many people of European ancestry, as well as most people living in the U.S., Canada, and
Australia today. It is also seen in small percentages in groups from Latin America, as well
as in countries that were part of the British Empire of the 18th and 19th Centuries.

Northeastern Europe - 7%

Hunter-gatherers were the first peoples to settle in Northeastern Europe, initiating a
unique ancestry that would be traced back to this region. The region stretches from
Lapland to parts of Siberia to the east, and although this cluster is genetically diverse, the
root of many of these populations is a genetic signature found most often in Finnish,
Northern Russian, and some Baltic peoples. The first humans in the regions pushed into
the deep north only around 30,000 years ago, migrating to where no other Neanderthal
had dared. The northerners maintained long-term lateral connections and developed a
coherence as the ice retreated, all the while keeping in touch with populations in the south.
Today, this ancestry is seen in Saami hunters and fishermen, as well as Uralic, Russian,
Finnish, and some Scandinavian peoples.

8

Reference Populations for Ramon Evans Ancestry

First Reference Population: Iberian (Spain)

This reference population is based on groups native to Iberia, the peninsula of Spain
and Portugal. The large Southern Europe component reflects the strong influence of
agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East who arrived here some 10,000
years ago. The Western European and Great Britain and Ireland components likely come
from mixture with neighboring groups with genetic links to the pre-agricultural
population of Europe. The North African component reflects the historic migration of
populations north across the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia in the past 2,000 years.

Iberian (Spain) % Ramon Evans %
Southwestern Europe - 75%
Southwestern Europe - 59% Northwestern Europe - 17%
Northeastern Europe - 7%
West Mediterranean - 18%

Northwestern Europe - 15%

Northern Africa - 8%

Second Reference Population: Puerto Rican %

This reference population is based on people living in Puerto Rico and reflects the
wide ethnic diversity found there, both recent and ancient. Puerto Rico was originally
populated by the Taino peoples (with ties to South America), accounting for the small
Native American component. Columbus claimed the island for Spain, and the Spanish
influence accounts for the heavy European components there. These regions in
Europe reflect ancient migrations in Europe over the past 40,000 years. The African
components are due to the slave trade of the 16th through the 19th Centuries, which had
a significant influence on the local genetic patterns on the island.

Southwestern Europe - 42% Northern Africa - 9%
Northwestern Europe - 5%
Western Africa - 14% Central Africa - 5%
North America & Andes - 3%
West Mediterranean - 11%

South America & Amazon - 11%

9

Maternal Ancestry Line

Maternal Branch: L3

Age: 67,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: East Africa

This woman’s descendants would eventually account for both out-of-Africa maternal
lineages, significant population migrations in Africa, and even take part in the Atlantic
Slave Trade related dispersals from Africa.

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa
around 180,000 years ago. Dubbed “Mitochondrial Eve” by the popular press, she
represents the root of the human family tree. Eve gave rise to two descendant lineages
known as L0 and L1’2’3’4’5’6, characterized by a different set of genetic mutations their
members carry.

10

Current genetic data indicates that indigenous people belonging to these groups are
found exclusively in Africa. This means that, because all humans have a common
female ancestor, and because the genetic data shows that Africans are the oldest groups
on the planet, we know our species originated there.

Eventually, L1’2’3’4’5’6 gave rise to L3 in East Africa. It is a similar story: an
individual underwent a mutation to her mitochondrial DNA, which was passed onto her
children. The children were successful, and their descendants ultimately broke away
from L1’2’3’4’5’6, eventually separating into a new group called L3.

While L3 individuals are found all over Africa, L3 is important for its movements
north. My L3 ancestors were significant because they are the first modern humans to
have left Africa, representing the deepest branches of the tree found outside of that
continent.

From there, members of this group went in a few different directions. Many stayed
on in Africa, dispersing to the west and south. Some L3 lineages are predominant in
many Bantu-speaking groups who originated in west-central Africa, later dispersing
throughout the continent and spreading this L3 lineage from Mali to South
Africa. Today, L3 is also found in many African-Americans.

Other L3 individuals, my ancestors, kept moving northward, eventually leaving the
African continent completely. These people gave rise to two important macro-
haplogroups (M and N) that went on to populate the rest of the world.

Why would humans have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds
and into unexplored lands? It is likely that a fluctuation in climate may have provided
the impetus for my ancestors’ exodus out of Africa.

The African Ice Age was characterized by drought rather than by cold. Around
50,000 years ago the ice sheets of northern Europe began to melt, introducing a period
of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara
briefly became habitable. As the drought-ridden desert changed to savanna, the animals
my ancestors hunted expanded their range and began moving through the newly
emerging green corridor of grasslands. My nomadic ancestors followed the good
weather and plentiful game northward across this Saharan Gateway, although the exact
route they followed remains to be determined.

Point of Interest

The L branch is shared by all women alive today, both in Africa and around the
world. The L3 branch is the major maternal branch from which all mitochondrial DNA
lineages outside of Africa arose.

11

Maternal Branch: N

Age: About 60,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: East Africa or Asia

My next ancestor is the woman whose descendants formed haplogroup N.
Haplogroup N comprises one of two groups that were created by the descendants of L3.

One of these two groups of individuals moved north rather than east and left the
African continent across the Sinai Peninsula, in present-day Egypt. Also faced with the
harsh desert conditions of the Sahara, these people likely followed the Nile basin, which
would have proved a reliable water and food supply in spite of the surrounding desert and
its frequent sandstorms.

Descendants of these migrants eventually formed haplogroup N. Early members of
this group lived in the eastern Mediterranean region and western Asia, where they likely
coexisted for a time with other hominids, such as Neanderthals. Excavations in Israel’s
Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel) have unearthed Neanderthal skeletons as recent as
60,000 years old, indicating that there was both geographic and temporal overlap of
these two hominids. This likely accounts for the presence of Neanderthal DNA in
people living outside of Africa.

12

Some members bearing mutations specific to haplogroup N formed many groups of their
own which went on to populate much of the rest of the globe. These descendants are
found throughout Asia, Europe, India, and the Americas. However, because almost all of
the mitochondrial lineages found in the Near East and Europe descend from N, it is
considered a western Eurasian haplogroup.
After several thousand years in the Near East, members of my group began moving into
unexplored nearby territories, following large herds of migrating game across vast plains.
These groups broke into several directions and made their way into territories surrounding
the Near East.
Today, haplogroup N individuals who headed west are prevalent in Turkey and the
eastern Mediterranean, they are found further east in parts of Central Asia and the Indus
Valley of Pakistan and India. And members of my haplogroup, who headed north out of
the Levant across the Caucasus Mountains, have remained in southeastern Europe and
the Balkans. Importantly, descendants of these people eventually went on to populate the
rest of Europe, and today comprise the most frequent mitochondrial lineages found there.

Point of Interest

This line and its sister lineage are the only two founding lineages to expand out of
Africa.
My line probably mixed with Neanderthals, resulting in the approximately 1.4 %
Neanderthal found in my DNA test.

13

Maternal Branch: R

Age: About 55,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: West Asia

After several thousand years in the Near East, individuals belonging to a new group
called haplogroup R began to move out and explore the surrounding areas. Some moved
south, migrating back into northern Africa. Others went west across Anatolia (present-
day Turkey) and north across the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia and southern Russia.
Still others headed east into the Middle East, and on to Central Asia. All these individuals
had one thing in common: they shared a female ancestor from the N clan, a recent
descendant of the migration out of Africa.

The story of haplogroup R is complicated, however, because these individuals can be
found almost everywhere, and because of their origin which is quite ancient. In fact, the
ancestor of haplogroup R lived relatively soon after humans moved out of Africa during
the second wave, and her descendants undertook many of the same migrations as her own
group, N.

14

Because the two groups lived side by side for thousands of years, it is likely that the
migrations radiating out from the Near East comprised individuals from both these
groups. They simply moved together, bringing their N and R lineages to the same places
around the same times. The tapestry of genetic lines became quickly entangled, and
geneticists are currently working to unravel the different stories of haplogroups N and R,
since they are found in many of the same far-reaching places.

Point of Interest

Descendants of this line dominate the European maternal landscape, making up 75 to
95 percent of the lineages there.

15

Maternal Branch: T

Age: About 25,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: West Asia

Haplogroup T was a group of individuals who descended from a woman in the R
branch of the tree. The divergent genetic lineage that constitutes haplogroup T indicates
that these ancestors lived sometime around 25,000 years ago.

Haplogroup T has a very wide distribution and it is present as far east as the Indus
Valley bordering India and Pakistan and as far south as the Arabian Peninsula. It is also
common in eastern and northern Europe. Although my haplogroup was present during
the early and middle Upper Paleolithic, T is largely considered one of the main genetic
signatures of the Neolithic expansions.

While groups of hunter-gatherers and subsistence fishermen had been occupying much
of Eurasia for tens of thousands of years, around ten thousand years ago a group of
modern humans living in the Fertile Crescent, present-day eastern Turkey and northern
Syria, began domesticating the plants, nuts, and seeds they had been collecting. What
resulted were the world’s first agriculturalists, and this new cultural era is typically
referred to as the Neolithic.

16

Groups of individuals able to support larger populations with this reliable food source
began migrating out of the Middle East, bringing their new technology with them. By
then, humans had already settled much of the surrounding areas, but this new agricultural
technology proved too successful to ignore, and the surrounding groups quickly copied
these new immigrants. Interestingly, DNA data indicate that while these new
agriculturalists were incredibly successful at planting their technology in the surrounding
groups, they were far less successful at planting their own genetic seed. Agriculture was
quickly and widely adopted, but the lineages carried by these Neolithic expansions are
found today at frequencies seldom greater than 20 percent in Europe, the Middle East,
and Central Asia.

Point of Interest

Although part of the Paleolithic period, population geneticists use this branch as a
marker of the Neolithic expansions that introduced farming to Eurasia.

17

Maternal Branch: T2

Age: About 19,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: West Asia

This point in my maternal ancestors’ journey began in West Asia. The woman who
had the genetic markers for this point was born about 20,000 years ago at the end of the
Paleolithic period. From West Asia, her descendants spread across Anatolia and into
much of Europe.

Today, this line is present most often in Iraq, where it is around 21 percent of
maternal lineages. It is 16 percent of the population in Croatia and about 11 percent of
the population in Greece. It is around 15 percent of the population in Belgium, around
13 percent of the population in Denmark, and around 11 percent of the population in
Switzerland. It is between 9 and 10 percent of maternal lineages in Bulgaria, the Czech
Republic, Wales, and Tunisia. Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major
movement on the map, and research on this branch is continuing.

A small branch (subclade) of haplogroup T, known as T2e [6,7], comprises only a
fraction (0.2%) of those from England and some other Northern European locales but is
much more prevalent in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Italy [8,9].

18

A notable feature of subclade T2e is that it houses two different motifs on distinct
branches believed to be affiliated with peoples of Sephardic Jewish descent. The
Sephardim refer to Jews that settled in Spain and Portugal following the Diaspora [10],
which led to1500 hundred years of genetic and cultural isolation from other Jewish
groups, such as the Ashkenazi (Europe) and Mizrahi (Near East). One of the motifs was
reported by Behar et al. [11] as a founding lineage for the Sephardic Bulgarian
community. Bulgaria was a part of the Ottoman Empire that welcomed Jews from the
Iberian region, following their expulsion from Spain in 1492. Inclusion is defined by a
9181G mutation in the coding region within subclade T2e. Behar et al. [11] sequenced
the complete mtDNA for one person from this group and deposited the sequence to the
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Genbank, the central registry for
DNA sequences. Originally labeled as T2f to highlight its distinctiveness, the motif meets
all the inclusion criteria for T2e. The second motif was identified by Bedford [8], it was
found to be a rare subclade harbored by Sephardics descending from the Ottoman Empire
and also appeared, quite surprisingly, in a number of individuals from Northern Mexico
and South Texas in the USA. These are regions where suspicion of converso Sephardic
origin is high [12]. The motif is identified by a pair of control region mutations, 16114T
and 16192T, within subclade T2e. One person with this Sephardic signature (ancestral
origin Salonica, Ottoman Empire) was fully sequenced and deposited in Genbank.

However, questions about T2e subclades remain. T2e has had the technological good
fortune of being distinguishable from other branches of T2 by mutations only in the
control regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16153A in control region 1 and 150T in
control region 2). There are no additional mutations from the coding region that define
the subclade. This means that a sample can be definitively classified as belonging or not
belonging to T2e, without further sequencing beyond the first control region. Because the
vast majority of the extensive worldwide accumulated databases on mitochondrial DNA
continue to be from the first control region, perfect control region identification has
permitted accurate analyses of T2e, thus far, including the creation of phylogenetic trees
showing the relation between different patterns of mutations (haplotypes), and the
assessment of the frequency of the subclade in different geographic regions [8,9,13,14].
Despite this advantage enjoyed by subclade T2e, there are issues that cannot be addressed
without consideration of the coding region. In particular, the two Sephardic haplotypes
require inspection of the coding region to clarify the significance of these subclades.

For the 16114T-16192T cluster, it remains uncertain if people of Mexican descent
who harbor these mutations truly share a common origin with the known Sephardim who
have the same mutations. On the other hand, finding an exact coding region match
would provide firm genetic evidence that there are surviving Catholic Mexicans
today who descend from Spanish and Portuguese Jewish women fleeing Iberia,
presumably in attempt to escape persecution for practicing Judaism.

19

Likewise, the 9181G cluster also requires coding region testing, but for a different
reason. Unlike the Ottoman Sephardic/Mexican signature with control region mutations
at positions 16114 and 16192, the 9181 cluster cannot be identified by means of any
control region mutations. Inspection of just the first control regions show only the
ancestral T2e haplotype, a very common non-identifying result found in more than half
of all T2e samples [8,14].

Notable People

Russian Emperor Nicholas II and American outlaw Jesse James belonged to this
lineage.

20

Migration-Heatmap for Maternal Branch: T2e

This next step in my journey is a map showing the frequency of my haplogroup (or
the closest haplogroup in my path that we have frequency information for) in indigenous
populations from around the world. This will provide a more detailed look at where my
more recent ancestors settled in their migratory journey. What do we mean by recent? It's
difficult to say, as it could vary from a few hundred years ago to a few thousand years
ago depending on how much scientists currently know about my particular haplogroup.
As we test more individuals and receive more information worldwide, this information
will grow and change.

The colors on the map represent the percentage frequency of my haplogroup in
populations from different geographic regions. Red indicates high concentrations, and
light yellow and grey indicate low concentrations. The geographic region with the highest
frequency isn’t necessarily the place where the haplogroup originated, although this is
sometimes the case.

The map for T2 shows that it is widespread in Eurasia. While it originated in the
Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic, around 20,000 years ago, it was during the
spread of agriculture during the Neolithic (around 10,000 years ago) that this lineage
became much more widespread. Today it is found at highest frequencies in Europe and
the Middle East, and at somewhat lower frequencies in northern India. Does this mean
you’re related to people in the areas highlighted on my map? Distantly, yes! We are all
connected through our ancient ancestry.

21

Paternal Ancestry Line

Paternal Branch: P305

Age: More than 100,000 years old

Location of Origin: Africa

The common direct paternal ancestor of all men alive today was born in Africa
between 300,000 and 150,000 years ago. Dubbed “Y-chromosome Adam” by the popular
press, he was neither the first human male nor the only man alive in his time. He was,
though, the only male whose Y-chromosome lineage is still around today. All men,
including my direct paternal ancestors, trace their ancestry to one of this man’s
descendants. The oldest Y-chromosome lineages in existence, belonging to the A00
branch of the tree, are found only in African populations.

22

Around 100,000 years ago the mutation named P305 occurred in the Y chromosome
of a man in Africa. This is one of the oldest known mutations that is not shared by all
men. Therefore, it marks one of the early splits in the human Y-chromosome tree, which
itself marks one of the earliest branching points in modern human evolution. The man
who first carried this mutation lived in Africa and is the ancestor to more than 99.9% of
paternal lineages today. In fact, men who do not carry this mutation are so rare that its
importance in human history was discovered only in the past two years.

As P305-bearing populations migrated around the globe, they picked up additional
markers on their Y chromosomes. Today, there are no known P305-bearing individuals
without these additional markers.

23

Paternal Branch: M42

Age: About 80,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: East Africa

Around 80,000 years ago, the BT branch of the Y-chromosome tree was born, defined
by many genetic markers, including M42. This is the common ancestor of most men
living today. Some of this man’s descendants would begin the journey out of Africa to
the Middle East and India. Some small groups from this line would eventually reach the
Americas, while other groups would settle in Europe, and some would remain near their
ancestral homeland in Africa.

Individuals from this line whose ancestors stayed in Africa often practice cultural
traditions that resemble those of the distant past. For example, they often live in traditional
hunter-gatherer societies. These include the Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies of central Africa,
as well as Tanzania’s Hadza.

Point of Interest

The M42 branch is shared by almost all men alive today, both in Africa and around
the world.

24

Paternal Branch: M168

Age: About 70,000 years ago

Location of Origin: East Africa

Skeletal and archaeological evidence suggest that anatomically modern humans evolved
in Africa around 200,000 years ago and began moving out of Africa to colonize the rest of
the world around 60,000 years ago. The climate at this time made a temporary retreat of
Ice Age, and Africa moved from drought to warmer temperatures and moister conditions.
There were an estimated 10,000 Homo sapiens at this time. Stone tools found during this
time show the earliest evidence of art and advanced conceptual skills

When humans left Africa, they migrated across the globe in a web of paths that spread out like
the branches of a tree, each limb of migration identifiable by a marker in our DNA. For male
lineages, the M168 branch was one of the first to leave the African homeland.

25

The man who gave rise to the first genetic marker in my lineage probably lived in northeast
Africa in the region of the Rift Valley, perhaps in present-day Ethiopia, Kenya, or Tanzania.
Scientists put the most likely date for when he lived at around 70,000 years ago. His descendants
became the only lineage to survive outside of Africa, making him the common ancestor of every
non-African man living today.

But why would man have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds and
into unexplored lands? It is likely that a fluctuation in climate may have provided the
impetus for my ancestors' exodus out of Africa.

The African ice age was characterized by drought rather than by cold. It was around
50,000 years ago that the ice sheets of northern Europe began to melt, introducing a period
of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara
briefly became habitable. As the drought-ridden desert changed to a savanna, the animals
hunted by my ancestors expanded their range and began moving through the newly
emerging green corridor of grasslands. My nomadic ancestors followed the good weather
and the animals they hunted, although the exact route they followed remains to be
determined.

My nomadic ancestors would have followed the good weather and the animals they hunted,
although the exact route they followed remains to be determined. In addition to a favorable change
in climate, around this same time there was a great leap forward in modern humans’ intellectual
capacity. Many scientists believe that the emergence of language gave us a huge advantage over
other early humanlike species. Improved tools and weapons, the ability to plan ahead and
cooperate with one another, and an increased capacity to exploit resources in ways we hadn’t been
able to earlier, allowed modern humans to rapidly migrate to new territories, exploit new resources,
and replace other hominids such as the Neanderthals.

Point of Interest

This male branch is one of the first to leave the African homeland.

26

Paternal Branch: P143

Age: About 60,000 years old

Location of Origin: Southwest Asia

This mutation is one of the oldest believed to have occurred outside of Africa and
therefore marks a pivotal moment in the evolution of modern humans. Moving along the
coastline, members of this lineage were some of the earliest settlers in Asia, Southeast
Asia, and Australia.

But why would man have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds
and into unexplored lands? The first migrants likely ventured across the Bab-al Mandeb
strait, a narrow body of water at the southern end of the Red Sea, crossing into the Arabian
Peninsula and soon after developing mutation P143—perhaps 60,000 years ago. These
beachcombers would make their way rapidly to India and Southeast Asia, following the
coastline in a gradual march eastward. By 50,000 years ago, they had reached Australia.
These were the ancestors of some of today’s Australian Aborigines.

It is also likely that a fluctuation in climate may have contributed to my ancestors’
exodus out of Africa. The African ice age was characterized by drought rather than by
cold. Around 50,000 years ago, though, the ice sheets of the Northern Hemisphere began
to melt, introducing a short period of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa
and the Middle East. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara briefly became habitable. As the
drought-ridden desert changed to a savanna, the animals hunted by my ancestors
expanded their range and began moving through the newly emerging green corridor of
grasslands.

27

Paternal Branch: M89

Age: About 55,000 Years Old

Location of Origin: Southwest Asia

The next male ancestor in my ancestral lineage is the man who gave rise to M89, a
marker found in 90 to 95 percent of all non-Africans. This man was likely born around
55,000 years ago in the Middle East.

The first people to leave Africa likely followed a coastal route that eventually ended
in Australia. My ancestors followed the expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the
Middle East and beyond and were part of the second great wave of migration out of
Africa.

Beginning about 40,000 years ago, the climate shifted once again and became colder
and more arid. Drought hit Africa and the grasslands reverted to desert, and for the next
20,000 years, the Saharan Gateway was effectively closed. With the desert impassable,
my ancestors had two options: remain in the Middle East or move on. Retreat back to the
home continent was not an option.

28

While many of the descendants of M89 remained in the Middle East, others continued
to follow the great herds of wild game through what is now modern-day Iran, then north
to the Caucasus and the steppes of Central Asia. These semiarid, grass-covered plains
would eventually form an ancient “superhighway” stretching from France to Korea. A
smaller group continued moving north from the Middle East to Anatolia and the Balkans,
trading familiar grasslands for forests and high country.

29

Paternal Branch: M578

Age: About 50,000 Years Old

Location of Origin: Southwest Asia

After settling in Southwest Asia for several millennia, humans began to expand in
various directions, including east and south around the Indian Ocean, but also north
toward Anatolia and the Black and Caspian Seas. The first man to acquire mutation M578
was among those staying in Southwest Asia before moving on.

Fast-forwarding to about 40,000 years ago, the climate shifted once again and became
colder and more arid. Drought hit Africa and the Middle East, and the grasslands reverted
to desert, and for the next 20,000 years, the Saharan Gateway was effectively closed.
With the desert impassable once again, my ancestors had two options. They could remain
in the Middle East but some ancestors decided to move on.

30

Paternal Branch: P128

Age: About 45,000 years ago

Location of Origin: South Asia

The next male ancestor in my ancestral lineage is the man who gave rise to P128, a
marker found in more than half of all non-Africans alive today. This man was born around
45,000 years ago in south Central Asia and was likely part of the second wave of migrants
to move east from Southwest Asia.

Some of the descendants of P128 migrated to the southeast and northeast, picking up
additional markers on their Y chromosomes. This lineage is the parent of several major
branches on the Y-chromosome tree: O, the most common lineage in East Asia; R, the
major European and Central Asian Y-chromosome lineage; and Q, the major Y-
chromosome lineage in the Americas. These descendant branches went on to settle the
rest of Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Still many others traveled to Southeast Asia, and
some descendants of P128 individuals moved across the waters south and east and are
most commonly seen in Oceanian and Australian Aboriginal populations.

31

Paternal Branch: M526

Age: About 42,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: South or Southeast Asia

The man who first carried mutation M526 was part of the second wave of settlers that
migrated around the Indian Ocean and settled in Southeast Asia. This mutation is shared
by men from haplogroups M, N, O, P, Q, R, and S; these are groups common in East
Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

32

Paternal Branch: M45

Age: Around 35,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: Central Asia or South Asia

The next marker of my genetic heritage, M45, arose around 35,000 years ago, in a
man born in Central Asia.

This paternal ancestor traveled with groups to the open savannas between Central and
South Asia during the Paleolithic. These big-game hunters were the parents to two of the
most widespread male lineages in modern populations, one that is responsible for the
majority of pre-Columbian lineages in the Americas (haplogroup Q)—among others from
Asia and Europe—and one that spread farther north and west into Asia and produced the
highest frequency lineages in European populations (haplogroup R).

Although big game was plentiful, the environment on the Eurasian steppes became
increasing hostile as the glaciers of the Ice Age began to expand once again. The reduction
in rainfall may have induced desert like conditions on the southern steppes, forcing my
ancestors to follow the herds of game north.

33

To exist in such harsh conditions, they learned to build portable animal-skin shelters
and to create weaponry and hunting techniques that would prove successful against the
much larger animals they encountered in the colder climates. They compensated for the
lack of stone they traditionally used to make weapons by developing smaller points and
blades—microliths—that could be mounted to bone or wood handles and used
effectively. Their tool kit also included bone needles for sewing animal-skin clothing that
would both keep them warm and allow them the range of movement needed to hunt the
reindeer and mammoth that kept them fed.

My ancestors' resourcefulness and ability to adapt was critical to survival during the
last ice age in Siberia, a region where no other hominid species is known to have lived.

Today, members of this lineage who do not belong to a descendant branch
(haplogroups Q or R) are rare, and geneticists have found them most often in India. These
populations include such diverse groups as the Saora (23 percent), the Bhumij (13
percent), and Muslims from Manipur (33 percent).
Point of Interest

The M45 Central Asian Clan gave rise to many distinct lineages that spent the next
30,000 years gradually populating much of the planet. The man who was at the source of
the M45 Central Asian Clan is the common ancestor of most Europeans and nearly all
Native American men.

34

Paternal Branch: M207

Age: About 30,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: Leaving Central Asia

M207 was born in Central Asia around 30,000 years ago, when glaciers were
expanding over much of Europe and western Eurasia. There were an estimated 100,000
Homo sapiens at that time.

His descendants would go on to settle in Europe, South Asia and the Middle East over
the following 20,000 years. Today, most western European men belong to one branch, R-
M342, that descended from this lineage. While it appears to have been one of the earliest
lineages to settle in Europe more than 25,000 years ago, more recent population
expansions associated with the post-glacial repopulation of northern Europe after the end
of the last ice age, as well as the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic, also
contributed to its high frequency in Ireland, the United Kingdom, France and Spain.

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta
in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[5] In 2013, R-M207 was found in one out of 132 males from
the Kyrgyz people of East Kyrgyzstan.[9]

35

One descendant lineage, R-L62, is common in Eastern Europe and India. It was likely
spread in part through the migration of Indo-European steppe nomads over the past 5,000
years.

After spending considerable time in Central Asia, refining skills to survive in harsh
new conditions and exploit new resources, a group from the Central Asian Clan began to
head west towards the European subcontinent.

An individual in this clan carried the new M207 mutation on his Y chromosome. His
descendants ultimately split into two distinct groups, with one continuing onto the
European subcontinent, and the other group turning south and eventually making it as far
as India.

My lineage falls within the first haplogroup, R1, and gave rise to the first modern
humans to move into Europe and eventually colonize the continent.

36

Paternal Branch: P231

Age: 25,000 – 30,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: Central Asia

The Paleolithic ancestor who founded this lineage lived a nomadic lifestyle. His
descendants include two major descendant branches that today account for most
European men and many others from Central Asia, West Asia, and South Asia.

37

Paternal Branch: M343

Age: 17,000 – 22,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: South Asia or West Asia

The first members of this lineage lived as hunter-gatherers on the open savannas that
stretched from Korea to Central Europe. They took part in the advances in hunting
technology that allowed for population growth and expansions.

When the Earth entered a cooling phase, most from this line sheltered in refugia to the
southeast of Europe and in West Asia. It was from these refugia that their populations
rapidly expanded when the ice once more receded. Some traveled west across Europe.
Others moved back toward their distant ancestors’ homelands in Africa, passing through
the Levant region. Through these movements and the population boom triggered by the
Neolithic Revolution, this lineage and its descendant lineages came to dominate Europe.

Around 30,000 years ago the Ice sheets continuing to creep down Northern Europe. A
descendant of the clan making its way into Europe gave rise to marker M343, the defining
marker of my haplogroup. I am a direct descendent of the people who dominated the
human expansion into Europe, the Cro-Magnon.

38

The Cro-Magnon are responsible for the famous cave paintings found in southern
France. These spectacular paintings provide archaeological evidence that there was a
sudden blossoming of artistic skills as my ancestors moved into Europe. Prior to this,
artistic endeavors were mostly comprised of jewelry made of shell, bone, and ivory;
primitive musical instruments; and stone carvings.

The cave paintings of the Cro-Magnon depict animals like bison, deer, rhinoceroses,
and horses, and natural events important to Paleolithic life such as spring molting,
hunting, and pregnancy. The paintings are far more intricate, detailed, and colorful than
anything seen prior to this period.

My ancestors knew how to make woven clothing using the natural fibers of plants, and
had relatively advanced tools of stone, bone, and ivory. Their jewelry, carvings, and
intricate, colorful cave paintings bear witness to the Cro-Magnons' advanced culture
during the last glacial age.

Today, it has a wide distribution. In Africa, geneticists have found this lineage in
Northern Africa (6 percent) and central Sahel (23 percent). Its frequency in Europe is at
times high and at other times moderate. It represents about 7 percent of Russian male
lineages, about 13 percent of male lineages in the Balkans, about 21 percent of Eastern
European male lineages, 55 to 58 percent of Western European lineages, and about 43
percent of Central European male lineages. In Asia, most men of this lineage are found
in West Asia (6 percent) and South Asia (5 percent). However, trace frequencies of
around half a percent from this lineage are present in East Asia.

Notable People
Russian Emperor Nicholas II belonged to this lineage.

39

Paternal Branch: M269

Age: 6,500 – 15,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: West Asia

Groups containing this branch spread west toward Europe and east to Central Asia,
then south into the Levant region. From the Levant and East Europe, my ancestors took
part in the Neolithic Revolution. The population boom, that resulted from the move from
a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to settled agricultural communities, helped push this line to
dominance.

Today, this lineage accounts for the majority of the male population in Europe. In
Wales, it is about 85 percent of male lineages. In Ireland, the frequency peaks along
the eastern coast at over 90 percent. It is about 32 percent of the male population in
Germany. Toward the southeast, it is 13 to 14 percent of the male populations in Greece
and Turkey. It is 6 to 8 percent of male lineages in Iran and about 9 percent of male
lineages in Iraq. It is about 5 percent of the male population in Kazakh

40

R-M269 is the most common European haplogroup, greatly increasing in frequency
on an east to west gradient (its prevalence in Poland estimated at 22.7%, compared to
Wales at 92.3%). It is carried by approximately 110 million European men (2010
estimate).[4] The age of the mutation M269 is estimated at roughly 4,000 to 10,000 years
ago, and its sub-clades can be used to trace the Neolithic expansion into Europe as well
founder-effects within European populations due to later (Bronze Age and Iron Age)
migrations.

Possible time of origin 4,500–
9,000 BP
Place of origin: Neolithic Europe
Ancestors R1b1a1 (R-L388)
Descendants: L23; L51/M412,
L151/P310; Z2103

In human genetics, Haplogroup R-DF27 (R1b1a2a1a2a) is a Y-chromosome
haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup R-M269 (more specifically, its subclade
R-) defined by the presence of the marker DF27 (also known as S250). Along with R-
U152 and R-L21, the lineage is to a significant extent associated with Proto-Celtic, Celtic
and later Celtiberian movements.

41

Branch: P310

Age: To Be Determined

Location of Origin: West Asia

Members of this lineage have traveled to Central Asia, Europe, and the Levant region.
One descendant branch has the highest frequency of any male line in Western Europe.
However, rather than a single movement across Europe, this lineage’s branches
may represent many simultaneous and successive waves of migration.

Today, it is 48 to 52 percent of male lineages in Ireland. It is 45 percent of those in
France. It is about 38 percent of the male population in Spain. It is about 8 percent of
male lineages in Italy. It is about 5 percent of male lineages in Oman. It is 1 to 2 percent
of the male population in Iraq and Lebanon. It is also 1 to 2 percent of the male population
in Kazakhstan.

Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major movement on the map, and research
on this branch is continuing.

42

Paternal Branch: P312

Age: 5,500 – 14,000 Years Ago

Location of Origin: West Asia

Born in West Asia, members of this lineage have traveled to Europe and North Africa.
Today, it is between 1 and 2 percent of the populations of Lebanon, Iraq, and
Kazakhstan. It is about 16 percent of the population of France. It is between 15 and 17
percent of male lineages in Spain and Portugal.

43

Migration-Heatmap for My Paternal Branch: R-Z211

44

Geno 2.0 Next Generation Helix Genographic Ancestry DNA Analysis
Review by Ramon Evans

A review of my DNA analysis seems to mesh with the genealogic history of my mother
and father. My mother was born in Barcelona, Spain of the Gonzálbez family with lineage
known in Spain from the 18th Century, and most likely further in the past. My father was
born in Cleveland, Georgia, USA, to the Evans family with lineage known in Georgia
from the 19th Century, and most likely further in the past in the American Colonies. We
also believe they immigrated from Wales to the American Colonies in the 18th Century,
according to the stories from the Evans family, but I have no documented proof.
My Geno-2 DNA Ancestry results can be accessed at>
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/results/signin

Further research into the Maternal branch T2e and Paternal branch Z211 can continue
using the references in the following pages.

45

Phylogenetic Ancestral Tree for [Z211 S358 PF7595 rs564896263]
on Chromosome Y (Tree 9793)

Tree Marker / Alternative Names Notes
Level Branch Name

1 HomoErectus 21292569-T-G Human and Denisovan diverge from ancestral
allele T found in chimpanzees at this position.
hg38 Ref is G.

2 YAdam 2844421-A-G Ancestral allele in chimpanzee is A implying this
is probably a human-defining SNP for homo
sapiens. hg38 Ref is G.

3 L1085 2922685-T-C Defining mutation for near-root haplogroup A0-T
(aka A0'1'2'3'4). That is to say father of ALL
modern Y-DNA lineages except A00. hg38 has
incorrect Ref versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

4 P305 rs72625368 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch A1.
2842113-A-G hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

5 P108 13314368-C-T Defining mutation for haplogroup branch A1b.
hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

6 L413 PF1409 V31 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch BT.
hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

7 M168 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch CT.
PF1416 rs2032595 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree

(2/24/2018).

8 P143 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch CF.
PF2587 rs4141886 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree

(2/24/2018).

9 M89 PF2746 rs2032652 Defining mutation for haplogroup F. hg38 has
incorrect Ref versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

10 F1329 M3658 PF2622 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch above
YSC0001299 GHIJK (sic). hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP
rs9786482 tree (2/24/2018).

11 F929 S6397 M578 PF3494 Mutation at haplogroup branch HIJK. hg38 has
rs73614810 S6378 incorrect Ref versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

12 L15 M523 PF3492 S137 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch IJK.
Z4413 rs9786139 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

13 M9 PF5506 Defining mutation for haplogroup K. Predecessor
of haplogroups T, P, and NO. Arose about 45,000

46

Phylogenetic Ancestral Tree for [Z211 S358 PF7595 rs564896263]

on Chromosome Y (Tree 9793)

Tree Marker / Alternative Names Notes
Level Branch Name

bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

14 F549 M2335 S22380 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch NO

rs72611690 V4208 (aka K2a). hg38 has incorrect Ref.

15 M214 Page39 Defining mutation for haplogroup branch NO1
PAGES00039 (aka K2a1). hg38 has incorrect Ref.
rs2032674

16 P295 Defining mutation for haplogroup P (K2b2).
PF5866 S8 rs895530 Predecessor of haplogroups R and Q. Arose about

43,000 bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref.

17 B253 rs1003790053 Unconfirmed defining mutation for haplogroup
branch P2 above QR. Arose about 38,000 bce.
hg38 has incorrect Ref.

18 M207 Page37 Designates major haplogroup R* (ancestor to
PAGES00037 R1b, R1a, and R2) aka K2b2a2 in early years.
PF6038 UTY2 Arose about 30,000 bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref
rs2032658 versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

P241 Page29 Designates major haplogroup branch R1*. Arose

19 M173 PAGES00029 about 26,000 bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus

PF6126 rs2032624 SNP tree (2/24/2018).

20 M343 Designates major haplogroup R1b. Arose about
PF6242 rs9786184 22,000 bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP

tree (2/24/2018).

21 L754 PF6269 Defining mutation for ISOGG haplogroup branch
YSC0000022 R1b1. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
rs7893073 (2/24/2018).

22 L389 PF6531 rs1358368 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

23 P297 PF6398 rs9785702 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

24 M269 Designates WAMH major European branch of
PF6517 rs9786153 R1b. Arose about 11,000 bce. hg38 has incorrect

Ref versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

25 L23 PF6534 S141 Found in haplogroup R1b. Arose about 6,000
rs9785971 bce. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

26 L51 M412 PF6536 S167 Under R1b M269 > L23. hg38 has incorrect Ref

rs9786140 versus SNP tree (2/24/2018).

47

Phylogenetic Ancestral Tree for [Z211 S358 PF7595 rs564896263]
on Chromosome Y (Tree 9793)

Tree Marker / Alternative Names Notes
Level Branch Name

27 P310 PF6546 S129 Under R1b M269. Believed coincident with
rs9786283 P311, CTS 7650, L52, YSC0000082. Changed
Ref value per YSeq 11/22/2017

28 L151 Under R1b M269 > L23 > L51 according to
PF6542 rs2082033 FTDNA. hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree

(2/24/2018).

29 P312 PF6547 S116 Major block under R1b. Arose about 5,000 bce.
rs34276300 hg38 has incorrect Ref versus SNP tree
(2/24/2018).

30 DF27 S250 rs577478344 Major lineage branch under R1b P312 which is
not L21, U152, or U106.

31 Z195 S227 rs568477247 Branch under DF27

32 Z274 S229 rs1271455812 Under R1b-DF27. May be coincident to Z272.

33 Z209 S230 rs750915391 Under R1b-DF27

34 Z295 S1217 rs745411176 Under R1b-DF27

35 Z270 PF7598 Under R1b-DF27
rs1217879601

36 Z211 S358 PF7595 Under R1b-DF27
rs564896263

Phylogenetic Ancestral Tree for [T2e] on Chromosome M (Tree 1356056)

Tree Marker / Alternative Names Notes
Level Branch
Name

1L MtDNAEve C15443 Phylogenetic root with C15443 probably
uniquely human marker. Neanderthal and
Denisovan samples have T allele at this position.
rCRS Ref: C Yoruba Position: 15444.

Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A11914G,

2 L1'2'3'4'5'6 T4312 i3002160 C10915T, C146T, C182T, G13276A, G16230A,

rs193303033 T4312C T10664C, T4312C. rCRS Ref: C Yoruba

Position: 4313

Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A2758G,

3 L2'3'4'5'6 A2758 rs2856980 C152T, C2885T, G7146A, T8468C. rCRS Ref:
A2758G G Yoruba Position: 2760. Also see branches:

L0d1b1c, L2'3'4'5'6

4 L2'3'4'6 T8655 i3002650 Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A10688G,
MitoC8656T A16129G, A247G, A825t, C10810T, C16189T,
rs2853822 T8655C C195T, G13105A, G15301A, T13506C,

48

Phylogenetic Ancestral Tree for [T2e] on Chromosome M (Tree 1356056)

Tree Marker / Alternative Names Notes
Level Branch
Name

T16187C, T8655C. rCRS Ref: C Yoruba
Position: 8656

5 L3'4'6 G4104 MitoA4105G Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A7521G,
rs1117205 G4104A G4104A. rCRS Ref: A Yoruba Position: 4105

6 L3'4 T3594 MitoC3595T Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: T13650C,
rs193303025 T16278C, T182C!, T3594C, T7256C. rCRS Ref:
rs2854134 T3594C C Yoruba Position: 3595

7 L3 A769 i3001949 Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A1018G,
rs2853519 A769G A769G, C16311T. rCRS Ref: G Yoruba
Position: 771

8N Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A15301G!,
C10873T, C9540T, G10398A, G8701A.

9R T12705C T12705 Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: T12705C,
MitoT12706C T16223C. rCRS Ref: C Yoruba Position: 12706.
rs193302956 Also see branches: L0g, R

10 R2'JT Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: T4216C.

A11251 MitoA11252G Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A11251G,

11 JT rs869096886 C15452a, T16126C. rCRS Ref: A Yoruba

rs3915952 A11251G Position: 11252

12 T Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A15607G,
A4917G, C16294T, G13368A, G14905A,
G15928A, G1888A, G709A, G8697A, T10463C.

13 T2 A11812 MitoA11813G Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: A11812G,
rs3088053 A11812G A14233G, C16296T. rCRS Ref: A Yoruba
Position: 11813. Also see branches: C1b8a, T2

14 T2e' T2-C150T Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: C150T.

15 T2e Phylogenetic branch with SNPs: G16153A.

49

50


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