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Published by Enhelion, 2020-07-05 02:17:20

Module 12

Module 12




Simply put, design management is the business side of ‘designs’. Design management
includes continuing procedures, company choices, and policies enabling development and
creating efficiently designed products, facilities, operations, settings, and brands that improve
our standard of lives and deliver organizational achievement.1

Peter Gorb, defines design management as:

“Design management is the effective deployment by line managers of the design resources
available to an organization in the pursuance of its corporate objectives. It is therefore
directly concerned with the organizational place of design, with the identification with
specific design disciplines which are relevant to the resolution of key management issues, and
with the training of managers to use design effectively.”2

John Thackara, defines design management as:

“Design management is a complex and multi-faceted activity that goes right to the heart of
what a company is or does [...] it is not something susceptible to pat formulas, a few bullet
points or a manual. Every company's structure and internal culture is different; design
management is no exception. But the fact that every firm is different does not diminish the
importance of managing design tightly and effectively.”

On a broader stage, design management seeks to connect architecture, creativity,
technologies, leadership, and clients to deliver competitive advantage across the three-
pronged upper row: financial, social/cultural, and social. To improve development efficiency,
it is the practice and science of empowering architecture to improve cooperation and synergy
between "architecture" and "company."3

1 What is Design Management?, Design Management Institute (2019), available at: (last visited on Sept 24th, 2019).
2Peter Gorb, Design Management Interface, Design Thinkers (2001), available at:
on (last visited
Sept 24th, 2019).
3 Supra note 1.

The range of design management varies from tactical leadership of corporate design tasks and
architecture organizations, including development activities, employees, techniques, and
processes, to the global promotion of development across the organization as the main
differentiator and motor of organizational achievement. It involves using layout thinking —
or using procedures of architecture to address overall company issues.4

Design management has traditionally been seen as restricted to layout project management,
but it has developed over millennia to include other elements of an organization at the
operational and strategic level. The latest discussion addresses the incorporation of
development reasoning as a cross-disciplinary and human-centered strategy to leadership into
strategic management.5

Examples of experts who exercise design management include architecture department
managers, brand managers, creative directors, design supervisors, development supervisors,
project strategists and architecture scientists, as well as managers and managers accountable
for deciding how architecture is used in the organization.6

A design management plan should at least cover:

§ Design responsibility matrix.
§ Schedules of drawings to be produced by each discipline/specialist.
§ Design program, including key dates for reviews and information exchanges.
§ Schedules of information required/release dates.
§ The size and format of drawing types.
§ Procedures for CAD / BIM (see BIM execution plan).
§ Estimates of staff hours to be spent by designers on each element or drawing.
§ Monitoring of design resources expended compared to planned estimates.
§ Initiating procedures for design changes.
§ Requirements for collateral warranties.
§ Incorporation within the design schedule of key dates for review of design performance

to check:

1. Compliance with brief.

4 Ibid. at:
5 Shruti Hemani, Design Management: An Introduction, D' source, available (last visited on Sept 24, 2019).
6 Ibid.

2. Cost acceptance.
3. Value engineering analysis.
4. Health and safety issues.
5. Completeness for tender.

12.1.1 Evolution of Design Management

Design management has only been formalized as an individual discipline quite recently (in
the latter half of the 20th century) however; the tasks of design management have been taking
place since the earliest corporations began to invest in design.7

Early design management inputs show how distinct architecture fields were aligned to attain
company goals at a national stage and demonstrate early knowledge of architecture as a
strategic power. Design was simply recognized in this sense as an aesthetic feature, and
design management was at the project planning stage.8

First recorded in 1907 was the method of handling layout to attain a company goal. Twelve
engineers and twelve company companies set up the Deutscher Werkbund (German Work
Federation) in Munich as a state-sponsored attempt to contend superior with Britain and the
United States by incorporating traditional art and manufacturing mass production methods.

A German designer and architect, Peter Behrens, created the entire corporate identity
(logotype, product design, advertising, etc.) of the Allgemeine Elektrizitätsgesellschaft
(AEG) and is considered to be the first industrial designer in history. His work for AEG was
the first large-scale demonstration of the viability and vitality of the Werkbund's initiatives
and goals.

Before the 1960s, design management was mainly concerned with managing the aesthetic
components of design in terms of products and the corporate brand. In the 1960s and 1970s,
design management became concerned with systemizing the design function so that output
became more reliable – checklists and tools for quality control became more widely used.9

7 Design Management (An Introduction)- Taking Charge of Processes and People, Interaction Design
Foundation (2019), available at:
introduction-taking-charge-of-processes-and-people (last visited on Sept 24th, 2019).
8 Frederic J. Schwartz, The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before First World War, Semantics
Scholar, available at: (last
visited on Sept 24th, 2019).
9 Supra note 7.

Then, in the 1980s and 1990s, design managers became more high profile as their
contributions to a business’s success became better understood and the focus of design
management became more strategic with the objective being to secure design as a strategic
asset. Design began to work alongside production and marketing at the highest levels of

The financial impact of architecture was noticed by several executives in the 1980s, which
enhanced the requirement for design management. Because businesses were uncertain how to
handle design, there was a consultant industry; concentrating on assisting organizations
handle the method of brand growth, including industry studies, brand ideas, initiatives,
marketing, and business start phases— as well as brand and business placement.

Three major papers were released in 1990: Mark Oakley's Publication of Design
Management–A Handbook of Issues and Methods (Editor), French scientist Brigitte Borja de
Mozota's library Design Management, and Peter Gorb's Publication of Design Management–
Papers from the London Business School. This fresh method-based strategy to design
management assisted the technical and marketing executives to enhance communication.
Trend studies, brand impact triad, fashion modeling, milieus, item tests, empirical design
methods, and service design included examples of the latest techniques, providing
development a more communicative and key position within organizations.10

The subjects of management theory, placement approach, brand management, strategic
management, advertising, competitive strategy, leadership, business ethics, mass
customization, key skills, financial purpose, reputation management, and system theory have
been discussed in the management society. Key problems and discussions in design
management included subjects such as design leadership, design thinking, and corporate
identity; plus engaging design management at organizational, tactical, and economic stages.

In the 2000s (and until now), the focus shifted again. Design started to become a proactive
strategic tool and managing design was now all about ensuring the ability to innovate and
lead markets rather than to respond to market needs.11

10 Ibid, at 8.
11 Supra note 7.

12.1.2 Different types of Design Management

• Product Design Management: Design management relies primarily on product design
management in product-focused businesses, including strong interactions with product
design, brand advertising, study and growth, and new product development. This design
management view focuses primarily on the product's aesthetic, semiotic, and ergonomic
elements to convey the characteristics of the brand and to handle various item classes and
consumer architecture platforms and can be implemented in conjunction with a user-
centered design view.12

• Brand Design Management: As brands have become one of the firms' most valuable
assets, the search for new ways to build brands that achieve a differentiated status in the
minds of customers has become of central importance for companies. If the design is
guided by the brand, it can serve as the cohesive factor for all elements that configure a
brand experience and represent an unequivocal source of differentiation.

Design management relies primarily on brand design management in business and brand-
focused businesses, including commercial brand management and product brand
leadership. Focusing on the brand as the heart of development choices leads to a powerful
concentrate on brand knowledge, customer touchpoints, efficiency, appreciation, and
relationships of confidence. The brand image and approach drive the layout.

• Corporate brand design management: Market and brand-focused organizations are
concerned with the expression and perception of the corporate brand. Corporate design
management implements developments and maintain the corporate identity or brand. This
type of brand management is strongly anchored in the organization to control and
influence corporate design activities. The design program plays the role of a quality
program within many fields of the organization to achieve uniform internal branding. It is
strongly linked to strategy, corporate culture, product development, marketing,
organizational structure, and technological development. Achieving a consistent corporate
brand requires the involvement of designers and widespread design awareness among
employees. A creative culture, knowledge sharing processes, determination, design
leadership, and good work relations support the work of corporate brand management.

12 Ibid.

• Product design management: The main focus of product brand management lies on a
single product or product family. Product design management is linked to research and
development, marketing, and brand management, and is present in the fast-moving
consumer goods (FMCG) industry. It is responsible for the visual expressions of the
individual product brand, with its diverse customer–brand touchpoints and the execution
of the brand through design.

• Service design management: Management of service design deals with the freshly
evolving service design sector. It is the scheduling and organization operation of a
service's individuals, infrastructure, communication, and material elements. The goal is to
improve the service quality, the interaction between the service provider and their
customers, and the experience of the customer.

The growing significance and scope of the service sector in aspects of hired individuals
and financial significance need well-designed facilities to stay viable and proceed to draw
clients. Systematic and strategic service design management enables the company to
achieve competitive benefits and enter fresh economies. Companies that proactively
define their clients ' concerns and use this data to develop facilities that generate excellent
client interactions will open up fresh company possibilities that are lucrative.

• Business Design Management: Business design management deals with the newly
emerging field of integrating design thinking into management. In organization and
management theory, design thinking forms part of the Architecture / Design /
Anthropology (A/D/A) paradigm which characterizes innovative, human-centered
enterprises. This paradigm focuses on a collaborative and iterative style of work and an
adductive mode of thinking, compared to practices associated with the more
traditional Mathematics / Economics / Psychology (M/E/P) management paradigm.

Since 2006, the term Business Design is trademarked by the Rotman School of
Management; they define business design as the application of design thinking principles
to business practice. The designerly way of problem-solving is an integrative way of
thinking that is characterized by a deep understanding of the user, creative resolution of

tensions, collaborative prototyping, and continuous modification and enhancement of
ideas and solutions.

This approach to problem-solving can be applied to all components of business, and the
management of the problem-solving process forms the core of business design
management activity. Universities other than the Rotman School of Management are
offering similar academic education concepts, including the Aalto University in Finland,
which initiated their International Design Business Management (IDBM) program in

• Engineering Design Management: Management of technology design is a region of
expertise within the leadership of technology. It reflects the adjustment and
implementation of usual leadership methods to achieve a successful construction layout

Management of technology model is mainly implemented in industrial development
groups where development teams operations, inputs, and impacts are scheduled, directed,
monitored and controlled. Ultimately, the production of an engineering design method is
a technical system outline. That technical scheme can be for the advantage of the
community or an artifact (technical item), a manufacturing facility, a process plant or any

• Urban Design Management: Management of urban design includes mediation among a
variety of self-interested stakeholders involved in building area manufacturing. Such
mediation can foster a shared quest for mutually favorable results or integrative growth.
Integrative design seeks at producing sustainable alternatives by enhancing the fulfillment
of stakeholders with the method and the subsequent urban development.

• Architectural Management: Architectural management can be described as an orderly
manner of reasoning that helps to realize a quality construction at an appropriate price or
as a process function to deliver higher architecture importance to the customer and
community. Kiran Gandhi's research defines architectural management as a collection of

practical methods for an architect to conduct his practice effectively. Since the 1960s, the
word architectural management has been used.

Conventional real estate development and urban planning activities are subject to conflicting
interests and positional bargaining. The integrative negotiation approach emphasizes mutual
gains. The approach has been applied in land use planning and environmental management
but has not been used as a coordinated approach to real estate development, city design, and
urban planning.

Urban design management involves reordering the chain of events in the production of the
built environment according to the principles of integrative negotiation. Such negotiation can
be used in urban development and planning activities to reach more efficient agreements.
This leads to integrative developments and more sustainable ways to produce the built
Urban design management offers prescriptive advice for practitioners trying to organize city
planning activities in a way that will increase sustainability by increasing satisfaction levels.
Real estate development and urban planning often occur at very different decision-making
The practitioners involved may have diverse educational and professional backgrounds. They
certainly have conflicting interests. Providing prescriptive advice for differing, possibly
conflicting, groups requires the construction of a framework that accommodates all of their
daily activities and responsibilities. Urban design management provides a common
framework to help bring together the conventional practices of urban and regional planning,
real estate development, and urban design.

In today's rapidly changing VUCA world, businesses are increasingly required to have the
ability to create opportunity out of the ambiguous, tangibility out of the intangible and create
worth and wealth out of the constraints. This can only be achieved by the capability and the
capacity to continuously contextually reinvent, renovate and ‘design' their business strategies,
processes, tools, and techniques.

The competitive edge of the enterprises of the future will be dependent on their ability and
agility to dynamically steer and realign their modes of operation and further increasingly on
their ability to master the intangibles and the multifarious.

Basically, organizations will either win or perish based on their ability to detect and deliver to
both, the minds and hearts of the consumers by being able to sense and serve not only what is
wanted but also forecast and provide what may be wanted in a way that is biophilic -seeking
to improve, evolve and enrich the life and lives rather than just be profit maximising.

Design strategy is defined as the method of teaching and exploration in the latest paper in
HOW magazine; gaining a profound knowledge of the sector, rivals, objectives, and
possibilities of the client that allows developers to formulate an executable approach. The
goal is to determine what is suitable, achievable and meaningful. 13

So what components go into a design strategy? Below is a list from the ‘How’ article written
by Terry Lee Stone.

Any design strategy should address the following:
§ Existing problems and ongoing challenges
§ Current benefits and successes to be leveraged
§ Unmet client/customer needs
§ Changing client/customer behaviors and attitudes
§ Emerging ideas and trends
§ Opportunities to differentiate14

Some of the steps to take for performing a design strategy include15

§ REVIEW – What are the design’s measurable goals and objectives?
§ SCAN – What internal and external factors impact the design?
§ FORM – How will the design work to meet these challenges and opportunities?

13 Design Strategy, Thunder Struck, available at:
(last visited on Sept 24th, 2019).
14 Ibid.
15 Ibid.

§ IMPLEMENT – What exactly will we do? Who exactly will do it? How will it be

§ EVALUATE – How well does the design achieve its goals and objectives?
§ MAINTAIN – Do we need adjustments or do we keep the design as it is?

A design strategy affects every aspect- from advertising & promotions to employees to
product design and encompasses all media.

A good and effective strategy is simple and understandable, even when the objective is not. A
successful design strategy is communicated in easy to comprehend terms that the intended
audience will understand. You'll want to use all the tools at your disposal to get the strategic
value across.
Businesses today have to be inclusive and holistic and maximize worth and dignity rather
than just revenues. Such businesses require leaders who, apart from being entrepreneurial,
can adroitly envision and decode the future, simplify the complex and offer enchantment.

Such leaders can design contextually relevant imaginative, creative, transformational and
intuitive strategies, business processes, tools, and techniques rather than just copy, follow and
run the operations. They can design and make the future present. Management and leadership
practices of today are found wanting to meet these requirements and direly need re-
imagination. Design, as a discipline, has been addressing these issues

Strategic design is the application of future-oriented design principles to increase an
organization's innovative and competitive qualities. Its foundations lie in the analysis of
external and internal trends and data, which enables design decisions to be made based on
facts rather than aesthetics or intuition. As such it is regarded as an effective way to bridge
innovation, research, management, and design. The discipline is mostly practiced by design
agencies or by internal development departments.

The field of strategic design management is a significant part of the design's business part. It
is mostly termed as a business discipline, which helps in working on project management,
strategy, design, and supply chain techniques. These are used for controlling the entire
creative procedure and support the creativity culture now.

Businesses are the primary users of strategic design, but the practice is also increasingly
being used by the government, political and non-profit industries. Its apps are diverse but
often seek to reinforce one of the following: brand marketing, product development,
corporate identity, commercial marketing, company and working designs, and service

In latest years, the strategic design has become increasingly essential as companies and
organizations contend for a portion of today's fast-paced global marketplace.

"To survive in today's rapidly changing world, products and services must not only
anticipate change but drive it. Businesses that don't will lose market share to those that do.
There have been many examples of strategic design breakthroughs over the years and in an
increasingly competitive global market with rapid product cycles, strategic design is
becoming more important."


Strategic development can serve a part in assisting to solve the previous prevalent issues:

• Identifying the most significant issues that should be addressed by the goods and facilities
of a company (Example: John Rheinfrank of Fitch Design told Kodak that his disposable
devices were not intended to substitute traditional instruments but to satisfy particular
requirements such as marriages, submarine painting, and others).

• Prioritizing the order in which a portfolio of products and services should be launched
(Example: Apple Inc. laid out the iPod+iTunes ecosystem slowly over time, rather than
launching all of its pieces at once)

• Connecting design efforts to an organization's business strategy (Example: Hewlett-
Packard's global design division is focused most intently on designs that simplify
technology experiences. This leads to lower manufacturing costs at a time when CEO
Mark Hurd is pushing for cost-cutting.) Mark Hurd discussed HP's design strategy for
determining the environmental footprint of their supply chain.

• Integrating design as a fundamental aspect of strategic brand intent (Example: Tom
Hardy, Design Strategist, developed the core brand-design principle ″Balance of Reason
& Feeling″ for Samsung Electronics, together with rational and emotional attributes, to

guide design language within a comprehensive brand-design program that inspired
differentiation and elevated the company's global image.)

Step 1: Finding out if any registration already exists.
The Designs office can help you find out if the design has already been registered. If the
registration number is known, Form No.-6 and the prescribed fees should be filed.
If form No.-7 is filed along with the prescribed fees, the representation of the article or the
article specimen is required.
Step 2: Preparing a representation of the design.
The exact representation of the article on which the design was applied is the preparation of
a representation of the design representation. It should be prepared on white A4 size paper of
durable quality.

Do not make it on cardboard or attach it to other paper. Specify the design details and the

Step 3: Identifying the design class.
Design must be categorized into separate classes to ensure systematic registration.

An internationally accepted Industrial Design classification is required based on the article's
function. The application should mention the class and sub-class. There are 32 classes, and
the majority of classes are further sub-classified.

Step 4: Providing a novelty statement.

16 How to File an Application for Industrial Design? A ten-step guide, IP India, available at: (last visited on Sept 24th,

To specify the claim, a novelty statement should be included in the representation of a design
as per the Act. This will allow for more speedy examination and more specific protection.
The claim will protect the overall visual appearance of the design as described in the
representation of drawing.

Step 5: Including a disclaimer.

If an article's ornamental pattern is likely to be confused with a trademark, suggests any
mechanical action or contains words, letters, numerals, etc., the representation should include
a disclaimer.

Step 6: Claiming a priority date.

You may claim registration of the design citing a priority date in India if you have applied for
design protection in convention countries or countries that are members of intergovernmental
organizations. This is the date of filing of the request in any of these countries, provided that
the request is made in India within six months

Step 7: Determining the fee to be paid.
Applications must be accompanied by the fee required by check or draft payable at Kolkata
or in cash (if filed at Design Office, Kolkata). Application for design registration as well as
renewal is is given in the schedule.

Step 8: Ensuring all enclosures are attached .

Apply only after all enclosures and fees have been attached in the required numbers.
Applications may be filed at the Kolkata Design Office.

Step 9: Complying with objections, if any.

If the Design Office seeks additional information or clarifications after preliminary
examination, please ensure that these are provided promptly. This will help the office to take
up your application for early examination.

Step 10: Providing full details

While applying, make sure that all contact details and addresses are clearly and legibly filled
in. This will enable the office to keep in touch with you and convey decisions.


Design due diligence is a process that aims at: a) identifying key risks and opportunities
related to the adoption of design thinking in the company and b) developing a plan to mitigate
these risks and develop design culture further.

Due diligence is a term that is used to conduct business, asset, or person with some stage of
care investigation. Due diligence may be a legal obligation, but the term happens more
frequently for personal investigations. Common instances of owing diligence are the method
whereby a prospective customer evaluates a destination business or its procurement resources
or the method whereby a prospective shareholder evaluates a significant enterprise for its
expenses and advantages.

Due diligence is a legal concept. From the Concise Australian Legal Dictionary, due
diligence is, a minimum standard of behavior involving a system which provides against
contravention of relevant regulatory provisions and adequate supervision ensuring that the
system is properly carried out. The concept of due diligence has been captured in
Corporations Law, Environmental Law, and now the model Work Health and Safety

Due diligence is often only built to mean engineering compliance and technological context
compliance. That's not the case.

Due diligence is an aspect of moral philosophy, that's how humanity should be the universe
and how it should be achieved. Often this is along the lines of handling others as you want
them to help you.

Due diligence, in construction, utilizes the values behind the court's decisions and applies
them to guarantee correct decision-making. That is, as shown above, inverse engineering of

How this manifests itself is that sometimes poor events occur and Courts and Royal
Commissions challenge the method of construction and layout with the benefit of hindsight to
see what might have been in position if the poor thing/accident had been halted. The results
of such inquiries are then carried away to see if the construction sides were diligent.

Safety due diligence is all about showing pre-event that the operation is safe. This means that
when safety is being considered in the design process, all of the people that could be affected
by the design need to be taken into account and the potential hazards to which they are
exposed, over the entire lifecycle.

From a safety due diligence aspect, all reasonably practicable precautions need to be in place
applying the hierarchy of controls.

12.4.1 Design Risk Assessment

The method of determining the likelihood of design faults or engineering mistakes related to
a specific item or service influencing an organization's cash flow, notoriety, or other
dimensions. Design risk assessments assist in identifying and solving prospective issues
before manufacturing and selling an item.

A layout risk assessment is an act of identifying a prospective threat in a development
method, either in a layout idea or in a comprehensive layout. It offers a wider assessment of
your layout beyond just CTQs, enabling you to eliminate prospective errors and decrease the
effect of prospective mistakes. This guarantees that the quality of the layout is rigorously and
systematically examined and enables you to catch system-level danger.17

17 Design Risk Assessment, I SixSigma, available at:
assessment/ (last visited on Sept 24th, 2019).

12.4.2 Designer Risk Register
A CDM Designers Risk Register should be considered as a management tool to identify and
eliminate/reduce the risks and hazards associated with the project. The Designers Risk
Register can be used to produce a single paper to identify, collate, monitor and eventually
reduce all-important development hazards as a portion of the development method. The
registry will provide an audit trail of development choices after the development phase.18
A CDM Designers Risk Register should be regarded as a leadership instrument for
identifying and eliminating or reducing project-related risks and dangers.
The Designers Risk Register can be used as part of the design technique to create a single
document to define, collate, track and ultimately decrease all major growth risks. At the end
of the design stage, the registry will provide an audit trail of growth decisions.19
As each significant hazard is reduced to its lowest practicable level, the remaining hazard and
any identified control measures will be logged and subsequently communicated to
Contractors via the Pre-Construction Health and Safety Information and to the end-user by
the Health and Safety File.20

12.4.3 CDM Designers Risk Register its Purpose and Approach
This process describes how H&S, and when appropriate environmental issues, are taken into
account as an integral part of the design process for construction projects, so that:

Where reasonably practicable, design measures are taken to avoid or eliminate identified
risks details of significant residual risks are communicated at the appropriate time to those
who need to know progress and outputs are monitored and reviewed compliance with the
CDM Regulations can be demonstrated and is auditable

18 CDM Designer Risk Register, Veritas Consulting, available at: https://www.veritas- (last visited on Sept 24th, 2019).
19 Ibid.
20 Supra note 18.

12.4.4 How to Use a Design Register

List the construction activities comprising the design package or project element.
Identify the hazards and associated harmful events for each activity, package or element.
Assess the identified risks (pre-design) – Assume no design mitigations or site controls are in
place when assessing the risk.

The CDM designer must always look for opportunities to avoid or mitigate risks even when
the risks are considered to be normal to the type of work. Many such risks still have a high
associated incident/accident rate despite being ‘well known’

A simple qualitative assessment of High, Medium or Low is all that is needed. A H/H
assessment indicates a very high priority for the design to be altered. At the other end of the
scale, an L/L result indicates a low priority for an alteration.

12.4.5 Health and Safety Design Assumptions

Record any assumptions critical to the design risk control measures taken and outline the
controls that others will need to implement to ensure safe working Information/assumptions
critical to safety must be recorded, eg requirements for stability before structure/installation is

The data captured is more to show that the contractor has not been left with an impossible
problem and that provision has been made for a safe system of work than it is to tell the
contractor what to do in detail.

In practice, there may be instances where there is ‘no reasonably practicable' design measure
that can be adopted to avoid, or reduce an identified risk (if this is the case then this is noted
in the CDM Design risk register). However, it is not permitted to pass on a risk that cannot be
controlled by site/implementation measures during construction or subsequent cleaning or
maintenance, etc.

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