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The application of Psychology throughout the course of our daily lives

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Published by Steffi J, 2019-05-19 20:13:14

I-Psych Mo Ako

The application of Psychology throughout the course of our daily lives

Keywords: psychology,student,project,application




Image is from canva Stock Photo



About this work

This is a project for the Psychology 101 course at the University of the
Philippines Diliman Campus. It is a compilation of articles and images
detailing the relation of psychology to the degrees and daily life of the group


Regards to our professor
Ma'am Danielle "Den-Den"


Steff Bonifacio Earl Matammu Danica Navidad

I-Psych Mo Ako A
table f
of con - e
tents c
03 Man Proposes, Prof Disposes :
05 Sensation: In a Social Context B
09 Inner Me e
10 Choice Series! Psychology with a Bang! h
12 To Infinity and Beyond! a
14 A Day in the Life of Navi v
15 Of Love and Loss i
18 Fundamental Attribution Error and Political o
Science :
20 References C
Psychology 101 - WFU 2 g

Peer Reviewed Article 02

Man Proposes, Prof Disposes

Earl Matammu

A research paper suggest that teacher’s motivational style matters very
much to the influence of test anxiety and helplessness of students

Diana Raufelder, Nicola Regner & Megan A. Wood

A research conducted by Raufelder, et al. - research also had to explain its results that
(2018) attempted to explain how connected indicate why emotionality is positively
test anxiety is to learned helplessness and correlated with increased feelings of
how teachers play a critical role with these helplessness whilst feelings of worry which
two variables. In a sample of 845 the research did not fully expound and uses
secondary school student of 13 to 17 years it to discuss the need to evaluate the
olds in Germany, the researchers tested their multiple feelings and perceptions associated
hypothesis, which states that the detrimental with test anxiety and helplessness. The
effects of test anxiety and learned researchers did attempt to explain why
helplessness could be buffered or even worry is less associated with helplessness,
countered by the perception of the students by explaining that worry could be an
that the teacher is a positive motivator. indication of understanding how inadequate
Teachers are considered a positive motivator one’s position is in say an exam. This
if the students that the teacher are feelings of worry could push the individual to
responsible for the class are perceived as commit to the task given to them at hand,
supportive or understanding enough that which is the opposite of what an individual
makes the students more motivated to may do if one is going through a
achieve or do well in the class in comparison helplessness case. Thus, worry may not be
to teachers that the students feel less a positive indicator of helplessness and
motivated due to perceived lack of support of could be a sign of the opposite.
the teacher to any challenge the students
face in the class. The results of the experiment gave a
surprising different from the previous
In the research, the researchers discussed research that indicate that a positive
the essential components about test anxiety. motivation force from the teacher reduced
The first essential component is the feelings of helplessness and in this case of
emotionality which was noted to be positively the experiment showed that in some
associated with helplessness. The second instances, teachers as positive motivators
essential component was worry which was increased the sense of helplessness in
negatively associated with helplessness. The students. The general results are that TPM
experiment was undertaken with the use of has no effect on student’s test anxiety and
latent moderated structural equations. helplessness.
Aside from the research that implies a
negative association between worry and
emotionality, the -

Man Proposes, Prof Disposes 03

So what happened? The researchers discussed Based on my personal and other’s
several possibilities, It was possible that some of experiences, feelings of pleasing the teacher
the students with high emotionality perceived the or others in general do indeed make us feel
positive motivations of teachers as a sign of their anxious and in some cases can harm our
dependence on the teacher and thus feel productivity and quality of our work. I have
insecure and anxious in their performance in the many classes wherein the expectation that
class. Another reason given is that the students you need to “give your all” have hampered
perhaps interpreted the positive motivation done me. Sometimes, I end up delaying to commit
by the teachers as a sign that they are expected to tasks or failing to continuously work on the
to do “as much as they can” thereby increasing tasks because on the fear I have that I may
their concerns that they are not doing enough or not be “up to task.
not good enough in their class performance.
Lastly. The researchers highlight that there must
be a need to further specify the concept of
teachers as a “motivator” wherein the teacher
could “motivate” the students by simply
reminding them or telling them to “do their best or
give them all”. This is to contrast to the other
possibly more effective ways of teachers
motivating students.

I will never forget the class I had where the teacher It always bothered me that some teachers
always reminded the class that we were the best would spend more time “disciplining” students
and we had to “give our all” as we were “the best”. than teaching them the lessons and expect
When the overall results of the first exam came, she them to know how the lessons worked. I’ve
was disappointed. So much so, she gave us a always felt that was unfair or even painful to
problem set to complete the first half of the class say the least.
that was to be discussed today. Whilst we were
solving the problem giving to us, she ranted on and
on that the governments funds are being “wasted”
on you and that you don’t have the right to complain
about anything because you’re all lazy, naive,
spoiled and “can’t even get a real grade”. Me and
some of my classmates are still angry about this
event even today much more so as I am. It was
reminiscent of my younger, sadder days of
elementary teachers whom gave us lots of quizzes
and assignments and will rant how we were “lazy” if
we were not performing as well as the teacher
wanted us to much more so if one or two students
were not “catching up with the grades, and “call
them out” in front the class for their supposed

Man Proposes, Prof Disposes 04

Nevertheless, this paper does However, the research does not
indeed highlight the importance of go much into detail how to fully
considering the way how teachers gauge the perceptions of students
“motivates” their students. It shows of the supposed motivation brought
that the concept of “positive by the teacher hence the ambiguity
motivation” is still vague as students of the negative association between
may have various, perhaps test anxiety, helplessness and
idiosyncratic ways to interpret whether teacher’s positive motivation as
or not there are varying interpretations perceived by students. The
on the motivations done by teachers research also did not take into
towards their students. The research account the possibility of other
do imply that perhaps there are other factors that could influence
factors responsible for the test anxiety helplessness or test anxiety that is
and learned helplessness of the independent of positive motivation
students. The researchers highlight the of teachers.
need to have more “interventionist”
approaches towards flailing students.




A photo collection of the
experience of taste and touch 
and eating as social bonding

Image is from canva Stock Photo

Food connects us 06

At Shakey's
Ortigas with

the family
before New
Year's Eve
2018, Photo
courtesy of


Food has a way of connecting people. It is not
merely a means of providing nutrition for the body
but also a medium to communicate and emote.

I always find myself enjoying food more when I
have company with me. The smell of the upcoming
meal is even more pronounced when my companion
smells it as well. The taste of something new is
easier to process when you have someone insisting
you taste it.

Socializing also comes easier when you are
sharing food together. There is a certain intimacy to
knowing what the other person is eating.

(1) Beef Udon at (1)
Marugame Udon,
UP Town Center

during my
meeting with a
client, (2) Mocha
Frapuccino at

Mckinley Taguig,

(3) Wagyu
Cheeseburger at
Tokyo Tokyo, SM

North Edsa

(2) (3)

Sensations 07

08 Sensations


(1) With roommate at
Gongcha, UP Town

Center, (2) Budol Fight at
my house, Gumaca

Quezon, (3) With family at
Starbucks, Mckinley,




IMnneer Danica Navidad

Image is from canva Stock Photo

I always knew something is wrong with me.

Every night I go to bed, telling Taking up Psychology 101 made me I am very grateful to you ma’am. Not
myself, “You are not normal.” I do understand myself better. Made me only did I learn a lot from your class, I
not know what was wrong, but I know more about these stuff better. was able to help myself because of
always knew that something is. I’ve And it also made me stronger. Every you. Other than your cute slides, I
had countless suicide thoughts and meeting, I have been collecting my really loved the fact that you were
some of them were actualized. I’ve courage to reach out to my professor. I supporting to us all. I really and greatly
had marks in my wrist, I’ve been wanted help. I want to get better. But appreciate it and I hope you touch
hospitalized for countless times, and these inner me, it was already more students’ lives the way you did
so on. I never really understood conforming to how I was before. It was with me. Thank you so much ma’am
myself and I was afraid. I was afraid afraid to open up. It was afraid to show and I hope to be under your class
that I might be crazy. I was afraid to weakness. So I tried reaching out again.
know what was wrong. I was afraid through the minute reflections. Every
to ask for help. But I was dying to. I meeting, I try to make my intentions
never really told anyone that I more obvious, waiting for someone to
wanted to seek help and every help me. Until the sessions about
morning, I wake up telling myself to mental illness and stress. I was able to
put my game face on. To not show pour it there in my minute reflection.
them how weak I was inside. I do it And when I saw an e-mail from my
everyday that I feel like a robot. professor telling me that she’ll help me,
Being “not okay” was never in my I cried. I was happy. Even in the inner
options. I needed to fool myself that I me was happy. Finally, someone
was fine. But I knew I was not. noticed, someone will help us.

Featured Song Lyric: Moonchild

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Choice Series! 10

Series Review Psychology with a Bang!

Cast Of The Big Bang Theory - Image Taken From: Danica Navidad
Our group chose this series due to a lot of
connections that we think it had with Psychology.
This can be shown not only in the characters
alone, but also in certain episodes of the series.

We start discussing about the characters with
from the genius Sheldon Cooper who has an
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder which is shown a
lot of times in the movie. He also has a
germophobia. Something about his childhood also
influenced him that whenever he is sick, he needs
someone to sing to him the “Soft Kitty” lullaby
sung to him by his mother when he was a child.
He’s also surrounded by a group of friends who
are all doctors and an engineer, except for Penny.
Due to his high IQ, it may seem that Sheldon
lacks mostly in his social abilities which can also
be seen in the series. He does not even seem to
be aware that sometimes, what he says can
already be very insensitive.

In connection to the lecture on Mental Illnesses, he
also most likely suffers from Asperger’s Syndrome.
He is then married to Amy, who is a neurologist.
Amy is somewhat the female version of Sheldon
but a little better compared to him when it comes to
socializing. Leonard Hoefstader is the roommate
and best friend of Sheldon. He is an experimental
physicist working with Sheldon in Caltech. He is
very much in love with Penny.

Later in the series, Sheldon said that the reason Leonard is drawn to It may be due to his over shyness and anxiety
her is because of the strong personality of Penny which relates to the which is caused by his overly controlling parents.
strong personality of Leonard’s mother. Penny is an aspiring actress Next character is Howard Wolowitz, a jew, an
which was revealed later on by Leonard’s mother that people who engineer and an astronaut. Howard still lives with
pursue an that career suffer from external locus of identity, which his mom, who is infantilizing him. His mom is the
means seeing value of one’s self only by the approval of other people one that does everything around the house that is
which is commonly the result of unmet childhood emotional needs. why Howard is a very spoiled and still very
For Penny’s case, her dad really wanted a boy but got Penny instead. childish. Due to his mom, he was stuck in a phase
When Penny already got her first training bra, her dad stopped where someone needs to be an authority for him.
playing with her. Rajesh Koothrapali is another main character in the This can be shown when he was and married
series who is an astrophysicist. He has a problem talking to women Bernadette. Like his mom, Bernadette was a figure
and can’t even say a word with them unless he is drunk. It may look of authority to Howard. She became a replacement
like he has a selective mutism since he can talk with his mom and for his mom.
female relatives.

Psychology with a Bang! 11

Cast Of The Big Bang Theory - Image Taken

In one episode, Sheldon was using the positive reinforcement to Penny by giving her a chocolate everytime she does
something that is favourable for Sheldon. There was also an episode about Sheldon not being able to guess a chocolate
chip cookie in a game due to his lack of traditional prototypes, since he was focused on scientific objects all his life.
Another connection to psychology was when Leonard was giving Sheldon a cookie to back his argument with Raj about
zombies and vampires.

But when Leonard was not able to give Sheldon a cookie, Sheldon exhibits extinction and refuses to help Leonard
unless he gives him a cookie. Frued’s theory of penis envy was also tackled in the series when Amy talks about it with
Penny as “girl talk”. Amy said that she sometimes think that she really wants to have “one” because female genitals are
very high maintenance. There was also a scene where Amy tells Penny that she suffers from Night Terrors which are a
type of sleep disorder on stage 4 sleep. Sheldon also resorted to regression where he acts immaturely to amore infantile
stage in order to alleviate his negative feelings about losing his job.

Overall, the series is takes an interesting,
informative, albeit comedic take on the

concepts of psychology and is well worth the

To Infinity and Beyond! 12

Picture this, a tightly For the past five months, I have spent my
spaced room brightly Wednesday and Friday mornings in this
lit by fluorescent rods dainty space going through my notes and
athcarotsmsatkheesbietsigweay listening to the lectures delivered by my
opnaienetenddctoeitlihnegoftrhomer. Psych 101 professor. Those times were
productive moments where I learned
numerous things and received better and
wider insight to the many topics under
The chairs snuggled the umbrella of psychology. My favorite
up closely to each of these topics is the topic on Lifespan
other possibly too Development.

close for comfort. The Human development is the study in which
we elaborated and discussed the different

air conditioning unit’s changes in a person’s body, personality,
buzzing echoes into and cognition through the different
the room. A buzz that moments in their lifespan (Ciccarelli,
a newcomer might 2017). Concepts were thrown at us, such
claim as a nuisance to as the cohort effect. This referring to the
impact on people development being in a

one who is busy group of people who share the same life
listening to the person experience or the people who grew up in
ospldemakoinnigtoinr farnodnt. An time (Ciccarelli, 2017).
projection machine lay This topic made me reflect on three things.
forgotten at the First is the period of the development

corner of the room, as timeline I am in right now and what I can
eifvbeerayrbinagtcwhitonfess to take from it. Second is the evidence of the
lsetauvdienngttshcaotmsminaglland struggle between people experiencing
comfy space. different stages of life as well to reconcile
them. And last but not the least, the beauty
that there is always room to improve, to

grow, and to change as time passes.

I am now in my 20s and the young adult life is full of new challenges "The egocentrism of my teenager days is slowly
and hurdles to come my way. In Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of leaving the confines of my mind as I begin to
development, I am currently in a stage where the main conflict I face is recognize my trivial existence in the larger scope
Identity vs. Role Confusion (Ciccarelli, 2017). The question of who am I of society....." - more at the next page
and what I want to be is even more pronounced as I enter adulthood
and finish my college degree. I have also found myself having many
changes in my value system. One evident change is how I have slowly
become less dependent on religion in strengthening my faith in God.
Having been a devout Roman Catholic my entire life, the rigidness of
the church’s dogma and tradition have been lost to me as I figure out
more things about myself. Call it being rebellious but it felt healthier to
move towards something that will give me more complacency and

Image is from canva Stock Photo

To Infinity and Beyond! 13

In this phase of my life, I have found myself more I've moved past that and now living with the same thirst
accepting of others’ opinion and understanding of for equality and acceptance that they live with.
other world perspectives. The egocentrism of my
teenager days is slowly leaving the confines of my This capacity to change and grow as we begin to
mind as I begin to recognize my trivial existence in the understand more about the world is why I don't really
larger scope of society. There is just so much that we approve of "cancel culture" especially on social media
fail to acknowledge and comprehend, but the sites. This is the tendency to dig up quotes, interviews,
grandness of it all pushes me to learn about more and posts that have conservative views and outward
perspectives for the future. hate and using that to berate and criticize a person even
though that person has proven that they have grown
Given this variety of opinions and beliefs, it is always past these remarks. It is not hypocritical to have a
given that we struggle to understand one another. This change in worldview, even at an old age. We can
is more so evident when we put two people from become more understanding, more emphatic, and more
different stages of life together and ask them their open to the emotions and opinions of others even in our
opinion on the same thing. A seven-year-old will have difference in perspective.
something else to say about parks than a fifty-year-old.
The seven-year-old might notice the best areas to play And while the past is a fundamental aspect to determine
hide and seek or the trees to climb on while the latter who we are, it is most important to look forward. The
might see the peace sitting on a park bench can give. future holds more change and hopefully more growth.
While it may become more difficult, it is never out of the
It is no question that with this difference in opinion, equation. I have so much to look forward to and so
conflict and argument might arise. .Millenials especially much growth to fill myself in as well. It is scary but also
have had this constant back and forth argument with the exciting to see what awaits me. To end this, I would like
boomer and gen X generations. The difference in to quote myself quoting Buzz Lightyear during my
priorities and outlook create misunderstandings. Gibbs kindergarten graduation speech, "To infinity and
writes (2010) about the view on millenials of this issue beyond!"
of generation gap. Even in a more connected world, the
youth still see an evident difference in priorities of the Kyle Steffi Bonifacio
generations. Young people tend to be more progressive
and inclusive, pointing out offensiveness and political
correctness. The older would call this being too
sensitive, no backbone.

Older people tend to be more radical individualists in the
United States. There is an evident war torn image of
boomers, those who struggled through suffrage
protests, the civil rights movement, and war (Gibbs,
2010). While millenials, surprisingly come out as the
ones craving real community, a group to belong to.

This is the larger scale of it all an time period affects the
lifespan development of each generation. It is mostly
what people experience in their formative years that
greatly affect ones personality and behavior.

But that is still not the end of it. One's development
continues, unbeknownst to Freud who insists it stops
after puberty, Change is the only constant. Who we are
in ten years ago does not necessarily reflect who we are
now. Going back to being a devote Catholic, I also
begrudgingly admit of my homophobic tendencies
throughout my younger years. Meeting more LGBTQ+
people and also reflecting more on my own sexuality,


Photo Collection


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Choice Book! 15

Book Review Of Love and Loss

Steff Bonifacio

Ydkesonaeworlfwon-pftiiMtotyead.ngi”ndi–cnsaJe. lTorThaahnenidnqDkuildiiefniesogtnai(s,o2Tny0ho0oeuf5)

Grief and loss have always been very
interesting emotions portrayed in literature and
drama. We devote an entire genre of tragedy
for these emotions as they are as crucial to a
human being’s life as happiness and love.
Some might even define their most
memorable moments to be tied to the
emotions of grief and the memories that come
with it.

Joan Didion is no stranger to grief and loss. Her One can akin it to a silent thief affecting you

memoirs “The Year of Magical Thinking” and “Blue in waves of tumultuous sadness and loneliness.

Night” are both testaments to how much grief she She approaches the concept in a rational,

has etched on paper during the 21st century alone. calculated manner as if a doctor diagnosing a

The Year of Magical Thinking is a poignant terminal illness.

recollection and reflection of the events following Didion describes how she dealt with her

John’s, Didion’s husband, sudden death from a fatal husband’s death. She was calm, cool, and

heart attack on the evening of December 30, 2003. rational; not at all what the paramedics and

Unlike most stories of grief and loss that presents doctors expected. This shows how different

itself like hurricanes devastating the lifestyle of the people cope with distress. The calm

many people it comes across. Didion takes a quieter collectedness of Didion served as a mask of

take on grief. The book describes grief as her, as she called it, magical thinking.

something we never truly comprehend until it hits us.

She pointedly tells of our dreaded anticipation that

one day one of our loved ones will pass away.


This magical thinking is elaborated as Didion’s Didion’s way of writing her experiences with
denial of her husband’s death. She had been with grief is truly one of a kind. Her first solution to
her husband for decades, so the mere thought of grief as the book progresses is to learn more
his death is strange and unsettling to her. There about it. Grief was foreign to Didion, as to many
was always a glimmer of hope and a sense of of us. The unknown is a terrifying thing to
obsession from her that her husband will come approach. She cited numerous books and
back. She stated multiple times that she barely literature, such as the Journal of the American
cried during the first months. Instead she had Psychoanalytic. These were interesting ways to
reoccurring panic attack induced by her grieving present research information about grief and
mental state, showing how her body dealt with how rational it is of her to search for meaning
stress or how she was stopping herself from like this. Though in the end she found solace not
feeling grief. in removing her grief but accepting it.

She kept his shoes, his clothes, and all his The Year of Magical Thinking is a grounded
belongings. She continued her daily life, caring telling of one's experience with grief. It is an
for her daughter Quintana, who was hospitalized account that will resonate deeply to those who
for pneumonia. Knowledge of her husband’s struggle through it. It is hopeful in its goal to
death became somewhat stuck on the corner of reach a point of letting go but realistic in its
her mind, hoping that this was another one of detail that the process is not the removal of the
his trips and at the end of the day he will come sadness but making the emotion a necessary
back. part of one's life.

Didion and her husband John, 1977, Photograph CG/AP


Grief turns out to be a place none of us know until we reach it. We
anticipate (we know) that someone close to us could die, but we do not look

beyond the few days or weeks that immediately follow such an imagined
death. We misconstrue the nature of even those few days or weeks. We
might expect if the death is sudden to feel shock. We do not expect this
shock to be obliterative, dislocating to both body and mind. We might
expect that we will be prostrate, inconsolable, crazy with loss. We do not
expect to be literally crazy, cool customers who believe their husband is
about to return and need his shoe. - Joan Didion, The Year of Magical

Thinking Chapter 17, (2005)


Attribution Error
and Political Science

By Earl Matammu

My favorite part of the topic of Psych 101 was not TPhstseiohmyteMchilhtoeaorsr1pttS0iocSo1scuoiirstaaphrlhreeSiosrscwittnioersgipnokPicimcnaesgerstlo.oyofff
suprisingly the last topic, which was social psychology, for
many reasons, in part being a political science student,
where sociocultural factors are always emphasized, and my
general interests and concerns on how individuals shape
their behavior or assert their agency over the narratives,
norms, incentives and institutions they face, The most
significant topic I research in the case of political science is
the tendency of people to seem to “explain” the actions that
they do based on situations that “they can only understand”
whilst if others are faced with the same issues and do the
actions, it’s considered as something they did deliberately. At
first glance this may not seem much but it has profound
influence in the observations and research in politics. A very
good example of this is how people view “representation”.
For instance, say a group of people see the actions of
another group that they despise, they would often claim that
it is “inherent” to them or that it integral to their part of their
“nature”. However, when they themselves are the ones doing
it, it is often explained with a notion that it is justified. This
often create a scenario wherein when groups are pressed on
by criticisms of questionable actions, they reinterpret it as.

Thus a sort of “representational monopoly” occurs that only Fundamental attribution error (Jouffre &
certain individuals or groups can “truly represent what the Croizet, 2016) is defined as the
people want” whilst discrediting the interests or concerns underestimation of constraints in the actions
as others. On more extreme cases, dissenting interests are of others, especially if such actions are
ostracized, be it through legislations of laws, subverted use perceived to be negative by the person
of state institutions such as the police or courts, or even judging. It is characterized by explaining the
“the people” itself such as utilizing and co opting socially actions of others based on their own
dominant groups or interests to influence elections to wipe experience and the notion that it was
out opposition groups. deliberately made.
Common discussions of this will often highlight concepts
such as Ingroup-outgroup bias, group polarization, or
groupthink. However, a more subtle topic unites these
topics and further elevates the discussion from what is the
phenomena to the why such a phenomena exists and

Image is from canva Stock Photo


What is striking about the concept This is more so important in
of Fundamental attribution error is not democracies, wherein
how it expounds or even discredits the representation is considered
notion that people are simply everything. If the incentives or
hypocritical, but rather that the norms or institutions favor certain
thinking of individuals tend to delve individuals or groups, they can
more so on one’s perspective of ability become socially dominant and the
in achieving the actions. Individuals, opposing groups discredited and
whom are more aware of the one way of doing this is to use the
situations they face, can easily explain sociocultural factors influencing the
the constraints the have in making a community to favor them by
decision, whilst find it hard to explain emphasizing the situational
or even fathom that others also face constraints they face or highlight
constraints, more so than not, similar inherent perceived negative traits
constraints as their own. in opposing groups.

This has a broad implication here in
the case of Political Science. There is
a research conducted by Jouffre &
Croizet (2016) that argues
fundamental attribution error
intensifies when their perceived group
have a wider power asymmetry
between the two groups with the main
power asymmetry, being legitimacy.
In a test experiment, wherein a role is
given to a group (which is an act of
setting legitimacy) and are given
certain actions compared to the other
groups. Afterwards, the groups are
given a quiz game with an audience.
The audience reacted that the group
that was given more legitimacy were
given explanations of situations that
made them make bad answers whilst
the group with the lacking legitimacy
were evaluated more on their abilities
than on the constraints they face. This
research shows just how powerful
fundamental attribution error is and
how much an institution, in this case
the legitimized group, received more
sympathy than the group that did not
have the legitimacy.

References 20

Ciccarelli, S and White J.N. “Pschology, Global Edition” 5th
edition. Published by Pearson, 2017
Diana Raufelder, Nicola Regner & Megan A. Wood (2018) Test
anxiety and learned helplessness is moderated by student
perceptions of teacher motivational support, Educational
Psychology, 38:1, 54-74, DOI:
Didion, J. "The Year of Magical Thinking", Alfred E. Knopf
Publishing, 2005.
Gibbs, N. “How Millenials Perceive the new Generation Gap”,
Time Magazine, March 11, 2010. Taken from,9171,1971433,0
0.html, May 18, 2019.
Jouffre, S., & Croizet, J. (2016). Empowering and legitimizing
the fundamental attribution error: Power and legitimization
exacerbate the translation of role-constrained behaviors into
ability differences. European Journal of Social Psychology,
46(5), 621–631.

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