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Published by ciksitifatimah, 2022-01-13 20:23:29

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Tourism

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Tourism

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION TO

TOURISM MANAGEMENT

PREPARED BY: MS SITI FATIMAH MADZALAN

LEARNING OUTCOME

Here’s what you’ll find at the end of this chapter:

1. Specify the commonly understood definitions of tourism and tourist
2. Classify tourism into distinct industry group
3. Understand of the tourism categories
4. Gain knowledge about the nature of tour
5. Understand the tourist destination

01

DEFINITION OF
TOURISM & TOURIST

WHAT IS
TOURISM?

• United Nations World Tourism
Organization defined:

• “Tourism comprises the activities
of persons traveling to and staying in
places outside their usual
environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business,
and other purposes.” (UNWTO)

TOURISM
DEFINITION

• Goeldner et al. (2000) defined
tourism as the process, activities, and
outcomes arising from the
relationships and the interactions
among tourists, tourism suppliers,
host governments, host communities
and surrounding environments that
are involved in the attraction and
hosting of visitors.

TOURISM PERSPECTIVES

• Four different perspectives of tourism can be identified:
❖ The tourist

▪ The tourist seeks various psychic and physical experience and satisfactions.
▪ The nature of these will largely determine the destinations chosen and the activities enjoyed
❖ The business providing tourist goods and services
▪ Business people see tourism as an opportunity to make a profit by supplying the goods and services that the tourist markets

demand

▪ Example: Souvenir shops along the famous Ao Nang Beach, Krabi
❖ The government of the host community or area

▪ Politicians view tourism as a wealth factor in the economy of their jurisdiction
▪ Their perspective is related to the income their citizens can earn from this business
▪ They also consider the foreign exchange receipts from international tourism as well as the tax receipts collected from tourist

expenditures, either directly or indirectly.

▪ The government can lay an important role in tourism policy, development, promotion and implementation
❖ The host community

▪ Local people usually see tourism a cultural and employment factor.
▪ Of importance to this group, for example is the effect of the interaction between large numbers of international visitors and

residents.

▪ This effect may be beneficial or harmful, or both

WHO IS
TOURIST?

• Person who travels away
from home for leisure,
business or other
purposes for longer than a
day, 24 hours but less
than a year.

WHO IS
EXCURSIONIST?

An excursionist is a person who arrives at the
destination and departs on the same day.
This visitor do not spend the night in a
collective or private accommodation in the
country visited

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VISITOR,

TOURIST AND EXCURSIONIST

VISITOR TOURIST EXCURSIONIST

Any people visiting a country Any person coming to country for Any person visiting a country
other than that in which he/she legitimate reason other than other than his residence and
has his usual place of residence, immigration and who stays at remaining less than 24
for any reason other than least 24 hours and at most 6 hours.
following occupation remunerated months during the same year.
from with country visited and
remaining at least 24 hours.

They stay more than 24 hours and They stay more than 24 hours and They stay less than 24 hours.
less than 1 month. less than 6 months.

They are not involved in Their activities should be of They shouldn’t get involved in
earning activities. ‘Economic Nature’. earning activities.

All visitors are not tourists. All the tourists are called visitors. All visitors may be excursionists.

02

TOURIST
CATEGORIES

TOURIST
CLASSIFICATION

• Business and professional

tourist

• Leisure and holiday

tourists

• Tourists travelling to visit

friends and relatives (VFR)

• Youth tourists, including

backpackers and gap year
travelers

1. BUSINESS &
PROFESSIONAL TOURIST

• Business tourist
• Education tourist
• Incentive tourist
• Health or medical tourist

1. BUSINESS TOURIST

• Travel is related to business and the world of work
• Travel for MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conventions &

Exhibition)

• All major cities have conference centers that cater

for the needs of business tourists

• Example: A salesman who travels to another city

to attend a trade show and promote the products
he sell

2. EDUCATION TOURIST

• Travel to attend a place of learning in another

town, city or country, in order to study for or
improve a qualification.

• They may also be people that attend workshops

to learn new skills or improve existing ones.

• Example: A Malaysian resident studying abroad in

New Zealand

3. INCENTIVE TOURIST

• People who are rewarded in the form of a company paid holiday for their hard work, or

for achieving goals set by their company.

• This incentive to travel motivates employees to work harder, improves work

relationships, and builds team spirit..

• Example: A staff in HAI O company who receives a holiday package to China for

achieving the most sales in the company

4. HEALTH OR MEDICAL
TOURIST

• Travel because they want to visit a

holiday spa, needs medical special
treatment that is only available away
from home, undergo procedures that
are cheaper in another country, or
are recovering from an illness in a
healthier climate.

• Many tourist come from overseas

countries to South Africa to have
plastic surgery.

LEISURE AND HOLIDAY
TOURISTS

• Adventure tourist
• Cultural tourist
• Eco-tourist
• Leisure tourist

1. ADVENTURE TOURIST

• Want an unusual and exciting experience
• They want to participate in activities that

may be dangerous, such as rock climbing,
river rafting, skydiving, shark cave diving
and bungee jumping

2. CULTURAL TOURIST

• The tourist to participate in local cultural activities,
like festivals and rituals.

• As a result, the tourist can enjoy a genuine cultural
exchange with the locals.

• Example: Attending Holi Festival in India

3. ECO TOURIST

• Tourists wishing to experience the natural environment without

damaging it or disturbing its habitats.

• It is a form of tourism involving responsible travel to natural

areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being
of the local people.

4. LEISURE TOURIST

• Wants to rest and relax and have a break
from usual routine

• Example: Tourist who went for a cruise
liner, a trip on a Blue train, attending a
special music performance or relaxing on
the beach

TOURIST TRAVELLING TO VISIT
FRIENDS AND RELATIVES

• Tourist who wants to stay in contact with
friends and relatives and travel away from
home to visit them.

• These tourists may travel to attend a
wedding, funeral or birthday celebration
of friends and relatives

YOUTH TRAVEL

• Backpacking or youth tourist:
• Generally have little luggage or on a

limited budget, wants to experience
adventure and excitement, tend to

travel independently, enjoy meeting
other traveler and have flexible travel

schedules
• Gap year travelers:
• Do not study further or enter job
opportunity after school, instead they
take break called a gap year.
• They travel, work and earn money, learn
new skills and life experience before
starting tertiary education

03

PURPOSES OF
TRAVEL

PURPOSES OF
TRAVEL

• Business
• Primary activities
✓ Conventions
✓ Consultations
✓ Inspection

• Secondary activities
✓ Dining out
✓ Recreation
✓ Shopping
✓ Sight seeing
✓ VFR

PURPOSES OF TRAVEL

• Visiting Friends and Relatives
• Primary activities
✓ Socializing
✓ Dining in
✓ Home entertainment

• Secondary activities
✓ Dining out
✓ Physical Recreation
✓ Shopping
✓ Sight seeing
✓ Urban entertainment

PURPOSES OF TRAVEL

• Other personal business
• Primary activities
✓ Shopping
✓ Religious visit
✓ Medical appointment
• Secondary activities
✓ Dining out
✓ VFR

PURPOSES OF
TRAVEL

• Pleasures
• Primary activities
✓ Recreation
✓ Sight-seeing
✓ Dining out

• Secondary activities
✓ Convention
✓ VFR
✓ Business
✓ Shopping

04

TOURISM
CATEGORIES

TOURISM CATEGORIES

● Tourism can be divided by four
category:

1. International tourism
2. Internal tourism
3. Domestic tourism
4. National tourism

1. INTERNATIONAL
TOURISM

● It can be divided into two categories:
● Inbound tourism

○ Visits to a country by non residents
○ Example: A group of tourists from

India visiting Malaysia

● Outbound tourism
○ Visits by residents of a country to

another country

○ Example: Malaysian visiting

Scandinavia countries

2. INTERNAL TOURISM

● Visits by resident and non residents
of the country of reference

● Example: Tourist from Europe &
Malaysian visiting Redang Island,
Terengganu

3. DOMESTIC TOURISM

● Visits by resident of a country to their own
country

● Example: Malaysian travelling inter-states
(staying in Kuala Lumpur and visiting
Langkawi for honeymoon)

4. NATIONAL TOURISM

● Internal tourism plus outbound tourism

05

TOURISM
PRODUCTS

TOURISM PRODUCTS

• Tourism products are the dealings in which a visitor takes a

vigorous factor and which often utilize the natural and
cultural resources of a nation

• Tourism product includes the total tourist experience with

housing, natural and cultural attractions, entertainment,
transportation, catering, hosts etc

COMPONENT PRODUCT AND SERVICES

• Accommodation
• Transport
• Hire car
• Entrance fees to attractions, museum etc
• Food, beverage and catering
• Entertainment
• Tours
• Cruises
• Conference facilities
• Tour guiding services
• Activities
• Meals
• Functions
• Venue hire
• Speaker services
• Equipment hire

06

TOURIST
DESTINATION

TOURIST DESTINATION

• A tourist destination is basically a travel destination
that attracts large numbers of travelers or tourists

• Travelers may visit these destinations to see
historical sites, natural wonders or buildings

• Some tourist attractions also have activities such as
rides or games, or unusual novelties

TOURIST DESTINATION

• Souvenirs are often sold at tourist destinations, and
many of these areas rely on the income generated
by the travelers that visit.

• Also sometimes referred to as tourist traps, tourist
destinations are places of interest in highly traveled
areas.

• A tourist destination can be in a city or rural area. It
will typically have some sort of appeal that draws
travelers to it.

HISTORICAL SITES

• Historical sites are often
considered tourist
destination.
Monuments and
battlegrounds can be
considered historical
tourist attractions.

• International : Athens, Greece

• Local: Melaka, Pulau Pinang, Pasir
Salak, Bukit Kepong

NATURE SITES

• Areas with beautiful or unusual natural
creations can also be considered tourist
destinations

• Visitors to these areas are usually able to see
amazing natural wonders, such as a waterfalls
or canyons

• Example: Niagra Falls – it is considered to be
one of the Seven Natural Wonders of The
World

URBAN AREA

• Some buildings may also attract tourists. A building that is unusually high or oddly
shaped might be considered a tourist attraction.

• Comprehensive road system (MRT, LRT, monorail, airport rail)

• International: The Empire State Building in New York City .Built in 1931, this 102-
story building was once the tallest in the world.

• Local: Petronas Twin Tower-a landmark of Kuala Lumpur

THEME PARK

• An amusement park is also often a tourist
destination, especially if it’s very large

• International: Cedar Point in Sandusky,
Ohio. It features many rides, games, and
other attractions that draw tourists

• Local: Genting Highlands, Sunway Lagoon

CITIES, MOUNTAINS AND COASTS

• Cities:
✓ Popular destinations include: London, New York, Paris and Rome

• Cultural places
✓ Museums, galleries, art centre

• Shopping spree
✓ Shopping malls
✓ Example: Galleria Victoria Emmanuel, Milan

• Entertainment
✓ Bars, restaurants, theatre

• Coastal areas:
✓ Popular destinations: Maldives, Caribbean, Seychelles

CITIES, MOUNTAINS AND COASTS

• Activities include skiing, scenery, snow boarding, walking, climbing
• Mountain areas:

✓ Popular destinations include:
✓ Alps, Dolomites, Rockies

07

IMPACTS OF
TOURISM

TYPES OF TOURISM
IMPACTS

● Economic impacts
● Socio-cultural impacts
● Environmental impacts

1. ECONOMIC IMPACTS

POSITIVE IMPACTS NEGATIVE IMPACTS

• Creates direct employment (in hotel) • High initial costs in setting up
• Creates indirect employment (retailing
infrastructure such as roads, hotels and
and transport) airports

• Creates multiplier effect in the • Seasonal jobs are created
• Tourism often pushes the prices of
economy – people are employed &
spend their wages property up in the host country

• It provides business opportunities for • Leads to increase in the prices of goods

small scale business and services

• Generates extra revenue through taxes • Revenue benefited the local community

– improving infrastructure but syphoned away by big hotel chains
who invest heavily in this industry

• Destinations relying on tourism can be

adversely affected by terrorism, natural
disasters and economic recession

2. SOCIAL IMPACTS

POSITIVE IMPACTS NEGATIVE IMPACTS

• Increase in cross-cultural • Damage and commodification of host’s

understanding culture

• Counters poverty • Invasion private / sacred space
• Maintenance/celebration of local host • Can contribute to increased crime,

culture begging, gambling etc

• Vehicle for empowerment of women, • Result in displacement
• Unequal relationships between hosts and
minority groups and economically poor
guests

• Inequitable distribution of profits


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