Quarter 4 – Module 2:
VS. OVER THE COUNTER
Science – Grade 9
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 4 – Module 2-3: PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES or OVER THE COUNTER
First Edition, 2021
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Quarter 4 – Module 2:
VS. OVER THE COUNTER
Aeron Jade P. Rillon
This Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners,
can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions,
directions, exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand
Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-
by-step as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you.
Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge on lessons in each
SLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed on completing this module or if you
need to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for better understanding
of the lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to self-
check your learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust
that you will be honest in using these.
In addition to the material in the main text, Notes to the Teacher are also
provided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they
can best help you on your home-based learning.
Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any
part of this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and
tests. And read the instructions carefully before performing each task.
If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering
the tasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator.
What I Need to Know
This module was designed and written with you in mind. It is here to help
you master the nature of Chemistry. The scope of this module permits it to be
used in many different learning situations. The language used recognizes the
diverse vocabulary level of students. The lessons are arranged to follow the
standard sequence of the course. But the order in which you read them can be
changed to correspond with the textbook you are now using.
The module contains:
● Lesson 1 – PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES or OVER THE COUNTER
This learning module is aligned on the learning competency:
Compare prescription medicines from over-the-counter (OTC) medicines
in terms of their chemical properties and uses
After going through this module, you are expected to:
1. differentiate the OTC and prescription medicines
2. give examples of OTC and prescription medicines
3. familiarize the proper usage of medicines
What I Know
Directions: Read the statements below. Choose your answer from the given
choices. Check the box that corresponds to your answer.
1. This is a type of medicine that only doctors are allowed give can
only be purchased from a pharmacist.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medicine
2. This is a type medicine bought in a drugstore or pharmacy and can be taken
without the doctor’s prescription.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medicine
3. If you use a household or kitchen spoon to measure liquid medicines, you can
be sure to get the right dose.
4. You can’t be harmed by over-the-counter medicines. After all, you can buy
them without a doctor’s prescription.
5. It’s okay to use someone else’s prescription medicine if you have the same
6. It’s okay to take more medicine than what is directed on the label if you are
7. All medicines have an expiration date.
8. Medicine should be kept in a place where children can’t reach them.
9. Taking more medicine than directed will help you feel better faster.
10. A pharmacist can answer questions about over-the-counter medicines.
Lesso Chemistry: PRESCRIPTION
1 MEDICINES or OVER THE
Pharmacology, the study of drugs and medications, is a complicated
subject. One of the ways to make it easier to understand is to have a good
knowledge of drug classification, or the system by which various drugs are
grouped together which was discussed last module. Drugs are categorized in a
variety of different ways. In the pharmaceutical industry, drugs are grouped
according to their chemical activity or conditions that they treat. There are many
reasons to classify drugs, ranging from understanding the usefulness of particular
types of drugs to formulating treatment plans based on chemically similar drugs.
Last module, learners learned the different classifications of medicines with their
Direction: Classify the following medicines according to their type.
Canesten cream (Clotrimazole) Glumet (Metformin)
Biogesic (Paracetamol) Stresstabs (Multivitamins+iron)
Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Myra –E (Tocophil vitamin E
Neozep(Phenyleprine hydrochloride) Neobloc (Metoprolol)
Eye Mo (Tetracycine hydrochloride) Sophia pills
Pharmacy (P) Prescription-Only- Over-the-counter
Medicine (POM) medicine (OTC)
Biogesic (Paracetamol) Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Myra-E (Tocophil vitamin E)
Neobloc (Metoprolol) Eye Mo (Tetracycline hydrochloride)
Sophia pills Neozep (Phenylephrine hydrochloride)
Glumet (Metformin) Canesten cream (Clotrimazole)
A drug is a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation,
treatment, or prevention of disease. Here are the main differences between OTC
drugs and prescription drugs.
Prescription drugs are:
• Prescribed by a doctor and bought at a pharmacy
• Prescribed for and intended to be used by one person.
• Regulated by FDA through the New Drug Application (NDA) process.
• Almost all prescription drug formulations are protected by patent laws for a
certain number of years, which means the drug company responsible for
creating a prescribed drug can price their exclusive drugs accordingly. Only
one drug manufacturer may make a prescription sleep aid called Ambien® ,
for instance, although other drugs may accomplish similar goals.
Direction: List five (5 examples of medicines you are familiar with and provide
their adverse reaction based on your experience.
Medicine Allergic Reaction/Side Effect
Claritin (Loratadine) Sleepiness, dry mouth
Eye Mo (Tetracycline hydrochloride Blurred vision
Stresstabs (Multivitamins+iron) Diarrhea
Tempra (Acetaminophen) Dry mouth, drowsiness
Neozep (Phenylephrine hydrochloride) Nausea diarrhea
Biogesic (Paracetamol) Dry mouth, drowsiness
What is It
What is the difference between prescription drugs and OTC
A drug is a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure,
mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Here are the main
differences between OTC drugs and prescription drugs.
Prescription drugs are:
• Prescribed by a doctor
• Bought at a pharmacy
Prescribed for and intended to be used by one
Regulated by FDA through the New Drug
Application (NDA) process. This is the formal
step a drug sponsor takes to ask that the FDA
consider approving a new drug for marketing
in the United States. An NDA includes all
animal and human data and analyses of the
data, as well as information about how the
drug behaves in the body and how it is manufactured.
OTC drugs are:
Drugs that do NOT require a doctor's
Bought off-the-shelf in stores
Regulated by FDA through OTC Drug
monographs. OTC drug monographs are a kind
of "recipe book" covering acceptable
ingredients, doses, formulations, and labeling.
Monographs will continually be updated adding
additional ingredients and labeling as needed.
Products conforming to a monograph may be
marketed without further FDA clearance, while
those that do not, must undergo separate
review and approval through the "New Drug
Top Ten Prescribed Drugs
1. VICODIN (HYDROCODONE/ACETAMINOPHEN)
Vicodin is a popular drug for treating acute or chronic moderate to
moderately severe pain. Its most common side effects are lightheadedness,
dizziness, sedation, nausea, and vomiting. Vicodin can reduce breathing, impair
thinking, reduce physical abilities, and is habit forming.
2. SIMVASTATIN (GENERIC FOR ZOCOR)
Simvastatin is one of the first "statins" (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors)
approved for treating high cholesterol and reducing the risk of stroke, death from
heart disease, and risk of heart attacks. Its most common side effects are
headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and muscle pain. Like
other statins it can cause muscle break down.
3. LISINOPRIL (GENERIC FOR PRINIVIL OR ZESTRIL)
Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for
treating high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and for preventing kidney
failure caused by high blood pressure and diabetes. Lisinopril side effects include
dizziness, nausea, headaches, drowsiness, and sexual dysfunction. ACE inhibitors
may cause a dry cough that resolves when the drug is discontinued.
4. LEVOTHYROXINE (GENERIC FOR SYNTHROID)
Levothryoxine is a man-made version of thyroid hormone. It is used for
treating hypothyroidism. Its side effects are usually result from high levels of
thyroid hormone. Excessive thyroid hormone can cause chest pain, increased
heart rate, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, nervousness, headache, and
5. AZITHROMYCIN (GENERIC FOR ZITHROMAX, Z-PAK)
Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for treating ear, throat, and sinus
infections as well as pneumonia, bronchitis, and some sexually transmitted
diseases. Its common side effects include loose stools, nausea, stomach pain, and
vomiting. Rare side effects include abnormal liver tests, allergic reactions,
nervousness, and abnormal heart beats.
6. METFORMIN (GENERIC FOR GLUCOPHAGE)
Metformin is used alone or in combination with other drugs for treating type
2 diabetes in adults and children. The most common side effects of metformin are
nausea, vomiting, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and loss of appetite.
7. LIPITOR (ATORVASTATIN)
Lipitor is a "statin" (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) approved for treating high
cholesterol. It also prevents chest pain, stroke, heart attack in individuals with
coronary artery disease. It causes minor side effects such as constipation,
diarrhea, fatigue, gas, heartburn, and headache. Like other statins it can cause
muscle pain and muscle break down.
8. AMLODIPINE (GENERIC FOR NORVASC)
Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker used for treating high blood
pressure and for treatment and prevention of chest pain. Its most common side
effects are headache and swelling of the lower extremities. Amlodipine can also
cause dizziness, flushing, fatigue, nausea, and palpitations.
Amoxicillin is a penicillin type antibiotic used for treating several types of
bacterial infections such as ear, tonsils, throat, larynx, urinary tract, and skin
infections. Its side effects are diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, itching, vomiting,
confusion, abdominal pain, rash, and allergic reactions.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (water pill) used alone or combined with
other drugs for treating high blood pressure. Its side effects include weakness,
low blood pressure, light sensitivity, impotence, nausea, abdominal pain,
electrolyte disturbances, and rash.
OTC drugs are:
Drugs that do NOT require a doctor's prescription and bought off-the-shelf
OTCs can be shared by friends and family;
Non-prescribed medicines, on the other hand, are generally formulated to
a strength deemed "safe and effective" by the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA). If dosing instructions are followed properly, many non-prescribed
medicines can be used together without fear of dangerous interactions or
Most over-the-counter drug formulas are no longer proprietary secrets, however,
so a number of companies can produce aspirin or cough syrup and compete side-
by-side on store shelves.
Top Ten Medicine Cabinet Essentials (Home Pharmacy OTC Drugs)
Common brand names: Tylenol, Panadol, and Tempra.
Acetaminophen is the most commonly recommended OTC medication for fever. It
works well for minor aches and pains, especially for people who cannot tolerate
anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin
2. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Common brand names: Motrin, Advil
Many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat inflammation,
fever, and pain are available over-the-counter. OTC ibuprofen is often
recommended by health care practitioners to decrease pain and inflammation
from minor orthopedic injuries.
Common brand names: (Delysm, Pedicare, Robitussin, Scot-Tussin, St.
Joseph, Theraflu, Triaminic, Vicks 44, and many others)
It is an over-the-counter product used to control cough. It is usually found as one
of many ingredients in cough syrups and cold medications (those that have the
DM in their names such as Robitussin DM or store brands).
Common brand names: (Robitussin, Mucinex among many others) is an
expectorant (it loosens mucus in the bronchi or large breathing tubes). It may
initially cause more coughing to remove the mucus but will then decrease the
cough intensity and frequency as the mucus is cleared out. Adequate hydration
will augment the effect of guaifenesin.
5. ORAL DECONGESTANTS come in either pill or liquid form and act by
shrinking engorged blood vessels in the nasal and sinus passages. It is important
to read the ingredient list since many preparations contain multiple medications.
These medications often contain an active ingredient such as pseudoephedrine
(Sudafed) which is an adrenaline like drug.
6. NASAL SPRAY DECONGESTANTS act similarly to oral decongestants but
have the advantage of acting only in the area applied, usually without the
stimulant side effects. The most common active ingredient in nasal sprays is
oxymetazoline (for example, oxymetazoline [Afrin], Dristan Nasal Spray,
phenylephrine [Neo-Synephrine]). Nasal sprays can cause a "rebound" effect
where nasal symptoms can return if they are used for more than 3 days and then
discontinued. It is important to read and follow the package label instructions
7. DIPHENHYDRAMINE (BENADRYL)
Common brand names: loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec), and fexofenadine
It is an antihistamine used to treat the symptoms of sneezing, runny nose, and
watery eyes. Its major side effect is drowsiness or sleepiness, so it also is the
active ingredient in many OTC sleeping pills.
8. CALCIUM CARBONATE
Common brand names: Caltrate 600, Os-Cal 500, Rolaids, Tums), aluminum
hydroxide (for example, ALternaGEL, Dialume), and magnesium hydroxide
(Phillips Milk of Magnesia) These are antacids that work immediately to relieve
acid indigestion and heartburn. They are available in both chewable tablets and
liquid forms. Aluminum based antacids may cause constipation, and the
magnesium based products may cause diarrhea. Maalox is a combination of the
two types of antacids.
9. Medications for Constipation
OTC medications to relieve constipation include glycerin suppositories as well as
medications that help bulk-up and lubricate the stool. Bisacodyl (Correctol,
Dulcolax), calcium docusate (Colace, Surfak), and Senna (Ex-lax, Senokot) are
the most commonly available medicine. Laxative dependence is a problem that
may occur with laxative use; use of these drugs continually over one week
indicates the individual should seek medical advice.
10. LOPERAMIDE (Imodium A-D) is often recommended as an OTC medication
for the treatment of diarrhea. However, if constipation, ileus (constipation,
abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting), fever, or bloating occurs, the
medication should be stopped.
ACTIVITY 1: OTC vs Rx
Direction: Read the statements at the bottom of the page and decide whether
they apply to over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription (Rx) medicines or
both. Use the Venn diagram below to classify the statements.
About Medicines: Rx, OTC, or both?
1. Children should take medicine with the supervision of permission of
parent or trusted adult. Prescription Medicines
2. This medicine should be used only by the person for whom
the medicine was ordered. Prescription Medicines
3. This medicine is prescribed by a doctor for one person. Prescription Medicines
4. The medicine label, including the directions, must be read and followed
carefully before use. Both
5. This medicine can be bought without a doctor’s prescription. Over-the-counter
6. Medicines are dangerous if misused or abused. Both
7. A healthcare professional or your local poison center can answer
questions about this medicine. Both
1. How does over the counter medicine differ from prescription medicine?
-OTC drugs are those that do not require a doctor’s prescription and can be bought in
2. How does over the counter medicine similar from prescription medicine?
-Both over-the-counter and prescription medications can be dangerous if misused.
3. Enumerate examples of medicines of prescription and over the counter drug.
Amoxil (prescription medicine)
Activity 2: Taking Medications
Direction: Read the statements below. Decide what should be done on each
situation. Write your answer on the blank.
1. My name is Trevor. I have felt puffy in my nasal and sinus passages.
What should I do? You need to take nasal congestion
2. My name is Lana. I have fever and minor aches and pains. What should
I do? You need to take paracetamol
3. My name is Jay. I feel pain and inflammation in my feet from walking
this morning. What should I do? You need to take acetaminophen
4. My name is Ted. I am sneezing and have watery eyes. What should I do? You
need to take antihistamines
5. My name is Tom. I haven’t excreted in the past few days. What should I
do? You need to take polyethylene glycol
6. My name is Ley. I went to gym and my leg muscle is aching. What should
I do? You need to take acetaminophen
7. My name is Lady. I have persistent loose stools for three days now. What
should I do? You need to take imodium
8. My name is Jam. It seems that I have phlegm. What should I do? You need to
9. My name is Garry. I feel a burning pain in my chest after I drank 6 cups
of coffee. What should I do? You need to take antacid
10. My name is Ann. I sneeze too many times today. What should I do? You need to
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Referring to the information, which of the following symptoms does
this antihistamine relieve?
a. Drowsiness c. Glaucoma
b. Emphysema d. Runny nose
2. How much of the antihistamine should an adult take?
a. 1 tablet every 4 hours
b. 2 tablets every 4 hours
c. No more than 12 tablets in 24 hours
d. Ask the pharmacist
3. Which of the following drugs can be purchased without a prescription?
4. Which drug is sold behind the counter and only a controlled amount can
be purchased per month
a. Benadryl (Diphenhydramine)
b. Allegra-D (Fexofenadine hydrochloride)
c. Robitussin DM (Dextromethorphan)
d. Zyrtec (Ceterizine)
5. Acetaminophen is less likely than aspirin to cause gastric distress, but
an overdose of as little as 4 grams can lead to irreversible liver
disease. Who is most at risk?
a. A drinker
b. A smoker
c. Anyone on a low sodium diet
d. Anyone over the age of 65
6. What is the greatest danger of taking OTC antacids?
a. Potential for overdose
b. Taken longer than recommended
c. Effect the absorption of other drugs
d. Have a rebound effect
7. What condition can Aspirin can cause problem?
a. Asthma c. Blood pressure
b. Bronchitis d. Gout
8. In giving a child more than one dose medicine, which section of The
Drugs Facts should be carefully reviewed?
a. Active ingredients
d. Inactive ingredients
9. Where are OTC medicines kept?
a. In a dark area
b. In the refrigerator
c. Out of reach of children
d. Not kept because OTC drugs are dispensed in single doses
10. What is the, 'Drugs Facts' label?
a. The label in front of the OTC package
b. The label of a prescription drug
c. The advertisement about the drug created by the manufacturer
d. No label
ACTIVITY 3: Right Dose
Direction: Below is a sample dosing table, similar to one you would find on a
Drug Facts label. Use the table as well as your knowledge about medicine safety
to answer the questions below.
Children under 6 years of Ask a doctor
2.5 mL (½ teaspoonful) two times
Children 6 to under 12 per day; do not give more than 5 mL
years of age (1
teaspoonful) in 24 hours
Adults and children 12 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) two times per
years of age and over day; do not take more than 10 mL (2
Adults 65 years of age and teaspoonful) in 24 hours
over 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) two times per
1. Olivia is 12 years old, and her parents gave her a first dose of this medicine at
8 a.m. They gave her a second dose at 3 p.m. the same day. By the evening, she
is still not feeling better. Based on the table above, when can Olivia’s parents give
her another dose of this medicine? She was only 12 years old and can only take
10mL in 24 hours so her parents can give her another dose of medicine next day.
2. What might happen if someone used a kitchen spoon to measure out a dose of
this medicine? Kitchen spoon makes hard to measure the right dosage in addition
it can be cause for overdose.
3. Why do you think doses aren’t the same for all age groups? Why might parents
of children under six needs to ask a doctor before administering this medicine?
For the reason of pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution,
metabolism and excretion undergo changes due to growth and development.
4. Why is it important to always discuss medicine dosing with a parent or trusted
adult? Because they are the one who’s more open about this.
5. How can you use what you’ve learned about dosing to help your family use
over-the-counter (OTC) medicines more safely?
I can share my knowledge to aware them in terms of medication.
1 What is a prescription?
-An instruction to a pharmacist, written by a medical practitioner, to dispense a stated
quantity of a particular drug in a specified dose.
2. How does a doctor determine the prescription a person needs?
-Doctor determine the prescription a person needs based on common symptoms,
medical history and others.
3. When do you consider a person has abused prescription drugs
-Some people abuse prescription drugs because they think they will help them to get
better faster if they take more doses.
What I Have Learned
ACTIVITY 4: OTC an Rx – Word Search
Direction: Find the following words in the puzzle. Words are hidden vertically,
horizontally and diagonally
1. List down three (3) OTC medicine and give their generic names.
Dyclonine (cepacol), Phenol (Chloraseptic), Acetaminophen (tylenol)
2. List down three (3) Rx medicine and give their generic names.
Amoxil (amoxicillin), Lipitor (atorvastatin), Glucophage (metformin)
What I Can Do
Reading a Prescription Drug Label
Direction: Using the sample label provided, answer the following questions
to determine what important information must be included on a prescription
1. What is the name of the pharmacy? MANITOBA Pharmacy
2. What is the brand name of this drug? APO-AMOXI
3. What is the generic’s name of this drug? Amoxicillin
4. How does should it take? It should take 1 capsule three times a daily until finished.
5. What is the strength of the medication? 500mg
Direction: Read the following item carefully. Write TRUE if the statement
is correct and FALSE if the statement is incorrect.
False 1. If you use a household or kitchen spoon to measure liquid
medicines, you can be sure you will get the right dose.
False 2. You can’t be harmed by over-the-counter medicines. After all, you
can buy them without a doctor’s prescription.
False 3. It’s okay to take two medicines with the same active ingredient at the
False 4. It’s okay to use someone else’s prescription medicine if you have the
same symptoms he or she had when he or she got it.
False 5. It’s okay to take your leftover prescription medicine later if you get
False 6. It’s okay to take more medicine than what is directed on the label
if you are very sick.
True 7. In a medicine, an active ingredient is what relieves a person’s
True 8. The Drug Facts label tells you what symptoms the medicine treats.
True 9. The Drug Facts label gives you the dosage information
True 10. A pharmacist can answer questions about over-the-counter
True 11. All medicines have an expiration date.
True 12. Children should not use prescription medicine without the
permission of their parent or a trusted adult.
True 13. Medicine should be kept in a place where children can’t reach it.
True 14. If you and your friend are the same age it will be safe for you
to take the same dose of an over-the-counter medicine.
True 15. Prescription medicine cannot be bought without a doctor’s
True 16. Children over 12 can take over-the-counter medicine without a
parent’s permission if they carefully read the label.
True 17. Medicine should be stored in the container it came in.
True 18. One gulp from a bottle of liquid medicine is exactly one tablespoon
True 19. Over-the-counter medicines can be dangerous when misused.
True 20. Prescription medicine can be found on the shelves in some stores.
Interview old ages/parents /adults regarding medicine they take (answer
and guide the learners through tabular form)
Name Age Medicine Uses Dosage
Dominador R. For hypertension or Take 1 tablet a
Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM. February 2020.12
Medicine Cabinet Essentials (Home Pharmacy OTC).
Omudhome ogbru, pharm.d.2020. Top 10 Drugs Prescribed in
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