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Published by zamzilah05, 2021-12-26 21:06:45

Basic Material Handling Equipment and System_MHE

Basic Material Handling Equipment and System_MHE

Keywords: Business

BASIC

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

& SYSTEM

HASNIEZA BT MOKHTAR
NIK NOR AZILA BT NIK ZAID

JABATAN PERDAGANGAN
POLITEKNIK SEBERANG PERAI

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System i

Basic Material Handling Equipment & System

Hasnieza bt Mokhtar
Nik Nor Azila binti Nik Zaid

2021
Jabatan Perdagangan
Politeknik Seberang Perai

©All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated or reproduced in
any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from
Politeknik Seberang Perai

ii eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

All rights reserved

No part of this publication may be translated or reproduced in any retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or

otherwise, without prior permission in writing from Politeknik Seberang Perai.

Published by

Politeknik Seberang Perai
Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh

Pulau Pinang

Tel : 04-538 3322 Fax : 04-538 9266
Email : [email protected] Website : www.psp.edu.my
FB : politeknikseberangperai Ig : politeknikseberangperai

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Hasnieza Mokhtar, 1980-
Basic Material Handling Equipment & System / Hasnieza bt Mokhtar,
Nik Nor Azila binti Nik Zaid.
Mode of access: Internet
eISBN 978-967-0783-91-8
1. Materials handling.
2. Materials handling equipment industry.
3. Pallets (Shipping, storage, etc.).
4. Government publications--Malaysia.
5. Electronic books.
I. Nik Nor Azila Nik Zaid. II. Title.
658.781

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System iii

Preface

Material handling equipment, is to describe the process of how a product is moved
from one place to another in a short period of time using the lowest cost with the
least manual labour.

This publication will give you an idea of the different material handling equipment
and their uses. Also in this book all relevant aspects such as storage space layout,
selection, maintenance and design are discussed as far as possible according to the
scope of the book’s view. Whenever possible new developments related to basic
equipment are also added. The new thing for this book is that it contains ways on
how material handling equipment systems are used according to different methods
for material handling and a list of material handling equipment used in most
warehouse operations in Malaysia.

We hope that this publication can help to guide you to the best solutions to many
material handling equipment problems, which you may face on a fundamental basis.

Hasnieza Bt Mokhtar
Nik Nor Azila Binti Nik Zaid

iv eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System Pages
1
Table of Content 2
4
Topic 5
7
1.0 | The Concepts Of Materials Handling 7
1.1 | The Objectives Of Material Handling 9
1.2 | The Key Principles Of Materials Handling 11
1.3 | The Factors Of Equipment Selection 18
1.4 | The Steps In Designing Material Handling System
2.0 | The Storage And Equipment For Palletized Goods 29
2.1 | Equipment For Pallet Movement
2.2 | Equipment for pallet stacking/racking
2.3 | System for Pallet Storage

Tutorial/Exercise

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 1

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT is an integral part of every logistics system that plays a vital
role in providing the desired level of customer service at the lowest possible total cost.

Numerous factors should be considered in managing a warehouse such as operational
process and procedures, storage method, material handling, workforce, Warehouse
Management System and Inventory management as well as security and safety factors in
warehousing.

1.0 The Concepts Of Materials Handling

Figure 01: The concept flow of material handling
Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_handling

 Material handling is the movement, storage, control, and protection of
materials, goods, and products throughout the process of manufacturing,
distribution process including their consumption and disposal.

 Haynes defines “Material handling embraces the basic operations in
connection with the movement of bulk, packaged and individual products in a
semi-solid or solid state by using gravity manually or power-actuated
equipment and within the limits of individual producing, fabricating,
processing or service establishment”.

2 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

 Materials handling can be also defined as ‘the function dealing with the
preparation, placing and positioning of materials to facilitate their
movement or storage’. Material handling is the art and science involving the
movement, handling, and storage of materials during different stages of
manufacturing.

 Thus, the function includes every consideration of the product except the
actual processing operation. In many cases, handling is also included as an
integral part of the process. Through scientific material handling
considerable reduction in the cost as well as in the production cycle time can
be achieved.

Material Handling is the function of
moving the right material to the right

place in the right time, in the right
amount and in the right condition with

the right cost by using right method

1.1 The Objectives Of Material Handling

Material handling is one of the most critical activities taking place in an
organization. Material handling makes a large portion of the total business
expense of a company. Therefore, achieving the lowest cost and maximum
production can be considered as the main objectives of the material
handling process.

 Reduced cost using a material handling

The first and foremost objective of material handling is lowering the cost of
production.

 Reduced waste of material

Another significant concern of an organization is to minimize material waste.
Sometimes, the material gets wasted because of poor storage, or sometimes
it gets wasted while moving it from one place to another.

 Improved work condition

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 3

Before the inclusion of technology, all movement and storage works were
done manually. Some labourers were responsible for performing these tasks.
They were responsible for all the loading and unloading work.

Poor results in frequent accidents on-site because of poor work conditions. A
proper and well-thought material handling also takes care of people
performing the work.

 Enhanced distribution

Distribution means the delivery of final goods to the retailers and wholesalers.
A lot of material gets damaged during transportation because of poor packing
and poor storage.

It helps in the reduction of damage to products during shipping and handling

 Optimized warehouse capacity

Warehouse cost also adds to the price of the final product. Warehouse
capacity means the ability for storing goods. It is essential to take care of the
layout of the warehouse, flooring of the warehouse, and aisle space in the
warehouse to have optimized warehouse capacity.

 Improved flow of material

A smooth flow of material is when material enters the company in raw
material form at the time when it is required and exits the organization in
the form of final goods.

The flow of material gets disturbed when the material is not available when
it is needed for the production or gets damaged rather than being used for
the production process.

 Full equipment utilization

Expensive machinery and equipment are used for the production process.
This equipment fails to perform at its maximum capacity because of poor
material handling.

Because the performance of these equipment depends mainly on the speed
at which the material is supplied and received. Therefore, material handling
also helps in the full utilization of the capacity of the equipment.

4 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

 Workers’ safety

Poor material handling can result in accidents in the factory, which are very
risky for workers working there

1.2 The Key Principles Of Materials Handling

Following are the principles of material handling

Planning principle - All handling activities should be planned

Systems principle - Plan a system integrating as many handling activities as
possible and co-ordinating the full scope of operations (receiving, storage,
production, inspection, packing, warehousing, supply, and transportation).

Space utilisation principle - Make optimum use of cubic space

Unit load principle - Increase quantity, size, the weight of load handled.

Gravity principle - Utilise gravity to move a material wherever practicable

Material flow principle - Plan an operation sequence and equipment
arrangement to optimise material flow

Simplification principle - Reduce combine or eliminate unnecessary
movement and/or equipment

Safety principle - Provide safe handling methods and equipment

Mechanisation principle - Use mechanical or automated material handling
equipment

Standardisation principle - Standardise method, types, size of material
handling equipment.

Flexibility principle - Use methods and equipment that can perform a variety
of tasks and applications

Equipment selection principle - Consider all aspects of material, move, and
method to be utilised

Deadweight principle - Reduce the ratio of dead weight to payload in mobile
equipment

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 5

Motion principle - Equipment designed to transport material should be kept
in motion.

Figure 02: Material handling equipment
Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_handling

1.3 The Factors Of Equipment Selection

- Selection of Material Handling equipment is an important decision as it affects

both the cost and efficiency of the handling system. The following factors are to be
taken into account while selecting material handling equipment.

a) Properties Of The Material

- Whether it is solid, liquid, or gas, and in what size, shape, and weight it is to

be moved, are important considerations and can already lead to a
preliminary elimination from the range of available equipment under review.

- Similarly, if material is fragile, corrosive, or toxic this will imply that certain

handling methods and containers will be preferable to others.

b) Layout And Characteristics Of The Building

- Another restricting factor is the availability of space for handling. The low-

level ceiling may preclude the use of hoists or cranes, and the presence of
supporting columns in awkward places can limit the size of the material-
handling equipment.

- If the building is multi-storeyed, chutes or ramps for industrial trucks may be

used.

6 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- The layout itself will indicate the type of production operation (continuous,

intermittent, fixed position, or group) and can indicate some items of
equipment that will be more suitable than others. Floor capacity also helps
in selecting the best material handling equipment.

c) Production Flow

- If the flow is fairly constant between two fixed positions that are not likely to

change, fixed equipment such as conveyors or chutes can be successfully
used.

- If, on the other hand, the flow is not constant and the direction changes

occasionally from one point to another because several products are being
produced simultaneously, moving equipment such as trucks would be
preferable.

d) Cost Considerations

- This is one of the most important considerations. The above factors can help

to narrow the range of suitable equipment, while costing can help in making
a final decision.

- Several cost elements need to be taken into consideration when

comparisons are made between various items of equipment that are all
capable of handling the same load.

- Initial investment and operating and maintenance costs are the major cost to

be considered. By calculating and comparing the total cost for each of the
items of equipment under consideration, a more rational decision can be
reached on the most appropriate choice.

e) Nature Of Operations

- Selection of equipment also depends on the nature of operations like

whether handling is temporary or permanent, whether the flow is
continuous or intermittent, and material flow pattern-vertical or horizontal.

f) Engineering Factors

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 7

- The selection of equipment also depends on engineering factors like door

and ceiling dimensions, floor space, floor conditions, and structural strength.

g) Equipment Reliability

- Reliability of the equipment and supplier reputation and the After sale

service also play an important role in selecting material handling
equipments.

1.4 The Steps In Designing Material Handling System

- A common approach to the design of MH systems (MHSs) is to consider MH as a

cost to be minimized. This approach may be the most appropriate in many
situations because, while MH can add real value to a product, it is usually difficult
to identify and quantify the benefits associated with MH; it is much easier to
identify and quantify the costs of MH (e.g., the cost of MH equipment, the cost of
indirect MH labor, etc.).

- Once the design of a production process (exclusive of MH considerations) is

completed, alternate MHS designs are generated, each of which satisfies the MH
requirements of the production process. Least cost MHS design is then selected.

- The appropriateness of the use of MHS cost as the sole criterion to select a MHS

design depends on the degree to which the other aspects of the production
process can be changed.

- If a completely new facility and production process is being designed, then the

total cost of production is the most appropriate criterion to use in selecting a
MHS-the lowest cost MHS may not result in the lowest total cost of production.

- If it is too costly to even consider changing the basic layout of a facility and the

production process, then MHS cost is the only criterion that needs be considered.

- Aspects of the design that have the largest impact on total cost are at some point

fixed and become constraints conserning the remaining aspects of the design.

2.0 The Storage And Equipment For Palletized Goods

- Palletization is the logistics process consisting of placing goods together on top of

a pallet to consolidate the load, making it easier for the handling equipment to
transport it.

8 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- The pallet, a horizontal platform formed by boards, provides a base for the

products so that the forks of a forklift or pallet jack can pick up and move the load
as a whole

a) Pallet Movement
- This pallet is accurately positioned on the conveyor, but the product can be

precisely located on the pallet. Not only that, pallet conveyors are suitable
for transporting products in two dimensions but can accommodate small
elevation changes

b) Pallet Storage
- In warehouse equipment for storage is using block stacking. A very basic

form of storage, in which objects are placed on a surface (usually a flat floor)
and stacked on top of one another in blocks, is known as block stacking.

- The clearance area can be various heights, up to several layers high

depending on the material being stacked. A form of palletized storage, it
does not require any type of storage equipment.

- Loaded pallets are placed directly on the floor and built up in stacks to a

maximum stable storage height.

c) Pallet Racking
- Pallet racking is a single or multi-level storage system that is utilized to

support the high stacking of single items or palletized loads.

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 9

- Pallet rack systems are a fundamental component of any distribution,

storage, or material handling operation.
Pallet racks allow rapid access to stored materials

- Pallet rack systems maximize facility space while simplifying inventory

requirements

2.1 Equipment For Pallet Movement

a) Hand Pallet Truck

- A pallet truck (also known as a pump truck or pallet jack) is a wheeled trolley

designed to lift and transport pallets. The truck's tapered forks slot
underneath the pallet and the pump handle can then be used to raise and
lower the load.

Figure 04: Hand pallet truck
Sources: https://hupshenghardware.com/product/

b) Powered Pallet Truck

- Powered pallet jacks are used to move palletized products from one area to

another with relative ease. A pallet jack’s front wheels are mounted inside
the end of the forks. As the hydraulic jack is raised, the forks are separated
vertically from the front wheels

10 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

Figure 05: Powered pallet truck
Sources: https://hupshenghardware.com/product/

c) Conveyor

- A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment

that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially
useful in applications involving the transport of heavy or bulky materials

- Conveyors are classified according to power, gravity, roller, or belt

movement.

 Belt Conveyor

Used in bulk handling conveyors due to their reliability, versatility, and
range of capacities. Able to handle fine powders to large, lumpy stone

 Overhead Conveyor

Provide continuous movement of materials overhead, as opposed to
standard floor conveying systems. Save space and are common for
moving materials around an industrial facility. Often used to sort,
distribute and buffer while maximizing space

- Characteristics:-
 Handle huge volume
 Low power usage but high equipment cost
 For intermittent or continuous movement
 Easy to control flows & fast response
 Cost-effective and the ease of expandability and reconfiguration
 To transfer uniform in size and shape material

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 11

Figure 06: Conveyor
Sources: https://hupshenghardware.com/product/

d) Lift Truck

 Lift trucks use either gasoline-powered engines, diesel engines, or electric

motors, with the power supplied by a rechargeable industrial battery that
can be raised and lowered for loading, transporting, and unloading goods,
particularly goods stacked on wooden pallets.

Figure 07: Lift truck
Sources: https://hupshenghardware.com/product/

2.2 Equipment for pallet stacking/racking

- The development of a material handling system to move materials from one level
to another is very important. Material handling inlcudes moving, packaging, and
storing all the materials used by the operating unit.

12 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Materials are received and handled using rail or trucks. It is moved to a storage
area and a production line. When materials are needed, it is moved along the
path of assembly. Warehouse layout and materials handling are interrelated. This
statement is true as materials handling activity needs to be adapted to the
warehouse operating arrangement.

- The different kinds of equipment which are used in the warehouse can be broadly
classified into TWO categories: Storing equipment and material handling
equipment. A judicious selection of different storage equipment is a key to the
succesful operation of a warehouse.

- To optimize the flow of warehouse operations, the efficiency and effectiveness of
some equipment is needed to aid the process of arranging goods on shelves and
arranging goods properly.

The common type of material handling equipment used for stacking/racking in a
warehouse is as follows:

i) Stacker truck
ii) Counterbalanced forklift truck
iii) Reach truck
iv) Double reach truck
v) Narrow aisle truck

A well-designed materials handling system strives to achieve the following:

1. Improving the efficiency of operating systems and activities by ensuring the right
quantity of material is delivered at the right place at the right time is the most
economical.

2. Reduce indirect labor costs

3. Reduces material damage during storage and movement.

4. Maximise space utilization with proper storage and thus reduce storage and
handling cost.

5. Minimize accidents during material handling

6. Reduce overall costs by improving material handling

7. Improve the efficiency and sales of warehouse features and material handling. The
selection of the material handling equipment depends on the size, shape, and
weight of the goods, the location of the goods in the warehouse.

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 13

i. Stacker truck

- Stacker trucks are powerful industrial trucks used to lift and
transport materials.

- The hydraulics of this truck is operated by either lever that directly
manipulates the hydraulics valves or by an electrically controlled
actuator, using small “finger” lever for control. It is available in
various variations and load capacities.

- Advantages :-

 It is useful for lifting heavy materials such as heavy machine
components or finished products which is heavily weighted.

 It reduces manpower as it helps to transport materials from
storage racks to trucks

 It has mobility or movement

 The fork can be adjusted and has an up-down movement
feature that makes it possible to lift the materials.

 The driver was at the back of the goods and the view was
unobstructed

 Truck power supply available in TWO types: 1) Electric, 2)
Internal Combustion (diesel/gasoline/LP gas)

Hydraulic Overhead Gaurd

Mast Mast

Forks Seat

Hydraulic

Load backrest

Forks

Load wheel

Battery or engine Drive wheels

Figure 08: Parts of a Stacker truck
Sources: https://tontio.com/forklifts-guides/parts-of-a-forklift-truck/

14 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Things to do before the operation:-

 Trucks require daily inspections for proper operation
 Daily inspections should include wheels, brakes, forks, chains,

hydraulics, steering wheel, horn, and fuel.
 Trucks with engines should be checked for engine coolant and

engine oil levels.

ii. Counterbalanced forklift truck

- The counterbalanced truck is a balanced truck that does heavy
lifting and to prevent it from overturning, it requires the weight to
be placed by way of lifting the load.

- This aspect is managed by a heavy cast iron mass that is attached to
the rear of the truck forklift frame.

- Advantages:-

 The cab frame. This is the part where all the movements of
the truck will be controlled. This section will have an area
where the truck operator will be seated. From here, the
operator will be able to access the control panel like control
pedals, steering wheel, levers, switches, and a dashboard
containing operator readouts.

 The mast. This is a vertical installation that does most of the
work of raising and lowering the load.

 There are TWO types of power sources you can use, a
combustion of fuel or electricity

Mast Battery / Fuel
Hydraulic

Fork

Wheel

Figure 09: Parts of a Counterbalanced forklift truck

Sources: https://www.shantuimachinery.com/products.html?searchType=All&keywords=counterbalanced+truck

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 15

- Things to do before the operation:-

 Trucks require daily inspections for proper operation
 Daily inspections should include wheels, brakes, forks, chains,

hydraulics, steering wheel, horn, and fuel.
 Trucks with engines should be checked for engine coolant and

engine oil levels.

iii. Reach truck

- A lift that the operator rides on and can be raised down on a
platform adjacent to the forks to retrieve items from storage racks.

- Powered by electricity / batteries depending upon design / use.

- Mast and fork at the counter-balance truck is fixed and involve
movement to the front

- Advantages:-

 Compact construction
 Lift height of up to 13 metres
 It also improves driving stability and minimises the need for

stability compensation via counterweights
 Reach trucks can be both stand-up and sit-down versions.
 Reach Trucks allow you to transport different loads capacities

quickly and safely to their destination.

Fork
Hydraulic

Mast Driver stand
Battery/Fuel

Figure 10: Parts of a Reach truck

Sources: https://www.shantuimachinery.com/products.html?searchType=All&keywords=reach+truck

16 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Things to do before the operation:-

 Trucks require daily inspections for proper operation
 Daily inspections should include wheels, brakes, forks, chains,

hydraulics, steering wheel, horn, and fuel.
 Trucks with engines should be checked for engine coolant and

engine oil levels.

iv. Double reach truck

- Double reach truck uses a scissor design reach mechanism to extend
the lifter forks forward, allowing it to reach the racking with a
double or a single reach configuration design

- It is also important to note that double reach truck has a higher lift
when fully expanded at double depth distances.

- The maximum lifting height is 10160mm with a load of 3200 lbs
(1450kg). Its unique reach structure will help it reach up to
1080mm and reach double deep shelves.

- Advantages:-

 Able to handle double-deep racking applications where
moving mast require additional tools to handle double deep
racking

 Reach trucks are designed to work in narrow aisle
warehousing spaces

 It is suitable for double deep shelves space access opertaion
and significantly increases the storage density

Overhead Guard

Hydraulic

telescopic forks

Battery/Fuel

Fork
Wheel

Figure 11: Parts of a Double reach truck

Sources: https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp/public/hasl_get_blob.cfm?ID=10934

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 17

- Things to do before the operation:-

 Check the gauges:- Battery discharge indicator, Hour meter
 Test the standard equipment:- Steering, Brakes, Lights Horn
 Test the control lever
 Check the operation of load handling attachments

v. Narrow aisle truck

- Standard equipped with Electro-hydraulic proportional valve, valve
speed can be adjusted according to the will, making it easier and
more accurate to pick up/unload pallets in the narrow aisle.

- Narrow aisle trucks are designed to withstand heavy-duty use both
inside and outside.

- It can drive on any floor surface, eliminating double handling,
moving pallets from lorry to racks in one step

- Advantanges:-

 Comparing to reach truck, narrow aisle truck creates 30%
more pallet positions, comparing to counterbalance truck, it
creates 50% more pallet positions.

 Users can save much time, space, and money.
 Offer more storage opportunities, but create challenges in

turning within the narrow aisles using forklifts for stocking and
order picking.

Hydraulic

Overhead guard Mast

Fork

Figure 12: Parts of a Narrow aisle truck

Sources: https://www.mecalux.co.uk/warehouse-manual/forklifts/narrow-aisle-forklift-truck

18 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Things to do before the operation:-

 Check the gauges:- Battery discharge indicator, Hour meter
 Test the standard equipments:- Steering, Brakes, Lights Horn
 Test the control lever
 Check the operation of load handling attachments

2.3 System for Pallet Storage

- Pallet storage system

The most popular pallet storage systems are:

 Block stacking
 Rack storage
 Wide aisle pallet racking
 Double deep racking
 Narrow aisle racking
 Drive-in / Drive through racking
 Live storage
 Push back racking
 Pallet mobile racking

i. Block stacking

- Refers to unit loads stacked on top of each other and stored on the
floor in storage lanes (blocks), two to ten loads deep. Depending on
the weight and stability of the loads, stacks may range from two
loads high to a height determined by

 Acceptable safe limits
 Load stackability
 Load weights
 Pallet conditions
 Floor loading restriction
 Weather (due to corrugated softening in high humidity)
 Vehicle lift height capacity
 Crushability of the loads
 Building clear height

- Each of these factors needs to be considered carefully to ensure
that safe stacking levels are selected.

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 19

- One key limitation of block stacking is that SKU’s are only accessible
in a Last In First Out (LIFO) method. Floor stacking is extremely
space intensive and hence requires very large areas for storing large
quantities of stock.

- Advantages:-

 Very low setup cost
 Flexible

- Disadvatages:-

 Low-density storage
 Need to move /clear the top pallet to get the pallet

underneath (LIFO)

Figure 13: Block stacking

Sources: https://www.adaptalift.com.au/blog/2012-07-24-block-stacking-warehouse-basics

ii. Rack storage

- Racking layouts should always be based on the type of equipment
you need not the other way around.

- Rack storage is the common type of warehouse racking; it has the
lowest pallet storage capacity, but is also the lowest cost per square
metre of racking.

- However, in terms of high volume storage greater than 3000 pallets
its often the most expensive solution

- The racking layout is only one pallet deep; with a maximum of two
racks being able to be placed back to back.

20 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Advantages:-
 Direct access to every pallet in storage
 No special truck requirements
 Cheapest type of racking (per square metre)
 First in First out (FIFO) inventory management
 Multiple access (more than one truck in the same aisle)

- Disadvantages:-
 Requires a large amount of warehouse space to store high
volume of stock
 Limited storage height (12m)
 A High storage cost when volumes are medium and above
 Increased loading and unloading times of limited product or
stock lines; as the same stock would need to be placed on
different individual rack heights/widths

Figure 14: Rack Storage

Sources: rackandshelf.com

iii. Wide aisle pallet racking

- Wide aisle pallet racking provides warehousing teams with
unrestricted access to all your pallets at all times.

- The system delivers versatility and assembly as single or double
depth racks

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 21

- This racking will fit into any space available and is suited to all kinds
of pallets

- Advantages:-

 Unrestricted access at all times
 High stability and high quality workmanship
 Rack heights of up to 30 meters and maximum bay loads of

more than 30 tons

Figure 15: Wide aisle pallet racking

Sources: rackandshelf.com

iv. Double deep racking

- Double deep pallet racks are merely selective racks that are two
pallet positions deep.

- The advantage of two-deep rack facings is that fewer aisles are
needed. In most cases, a 50 percent aisle space savings is achieved
versus a single-deep selective rack.

- This type of racking, therefore, requires specialised pallet handling
equipment using either a specialised forklift or a standard unit a
with double deep handling attachment

- Double deep rack stores two pallets deep in a single entry rack or
four pallets deep in a double entry rack, allowing for rapid dispatch
of large, single-SKU orders.

22 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

A more efficient system, which eliminates unnecessary aisles and
increases the use of available space.

- Advantages:-
 Reduces required aisle width when compared to manual fork
extensions
 Increases handling of pallets and reduces stock damage
compared to manual fork extensions
 Faster pallet handling times

- Disadvantages:-
 Special trucks required
 LIFO inventory management

Figure 16: Double deep racking
Sources: https://www.adaptalift.com.au/blog/2011-10-13-what-is-double-deep-racking-warehouse-

racking-guide-part-3

v. Narrow aisle racking

- Narrow aisle racking is an adaptation of standard adjustable pallet
racking systems, but compacted into a very small area, creating a
high-density storage system that makes it possible to increase the
capacity of the warehouse without expanding the space.

- The dimensions of the forklift enable its correct movement along
the aisle, generally helped by a guidance system on both sides of
the aisle or the floor ensuring safer movements

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 23

- It is adaptable to any type of goods, by weight or volume, regulating
the load levels or adding any of the accessories for special loads that
it has.

- Advantages:-

 Narrow aisle pallet racking maintains direct access to all the
unit loads, so it is a fully accessible and selective system

 Allows pallet storage at floor level on the lowest level of the
racking

 Much better use of space at height

Figure 17: Narrow aisle racking
Sources: http://habib-sons.com/narrow-aisle-pallet-racking

vi. Drive-in / Drive-through racking

- Drive – in racking

This is the most common compact racking system and only needs a
single access aisle for the forklift. It uses the LIFO method (Last In
First Out), so the last load in is the first one out. Drive-in compact
racking is indicated for warehouses with low material turnover.

- Drive – through racking

This solution requires two accesses, one on each side of the racking.
It uses the FIFO method (First In First Out), as the first load in is the
first one out. Because it allows access from both the front and rear
sides, drive-through compact racking is a suitable system for high
turnover products.

24 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

- Advantages :-

 Low maintenance and low assembly costs make this system
one of the most cost-effective systems

 Maximised storage floor and height
 Trucks enter the system for loading.
 Products of the same type
 Low stock rotation

Drive in racking Drive through racking

Figure 18: Drive-in / Drive-through racking
Sources: http://habib-sons.com/narrow-aisle-pallet-racking

vii. Live storage

- Live storage is ideal for warehouses where stock turnover control
and space saving are critical.

- The live storage racking compact structure uses slightly inclined
roller beds on each level to allow unit loads to be moved more
easily.

- The typical live rack contains roller conveyors and is elevated higher
than the front, causing a gravity flow forward. When unit loads are
removed from the front, all other loads in that specific rack
automatically move forward.

- There are live storage systems for both FIFO (First In, First
Out) and LIFO warehouse management (Last in, First Out).

- FIFO system, so the first pallet in is the first pallet out.

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 25

 Operation is simple and dynamic, the pallets enter the
structure through the loading area, the highest area of the
level, and thanks to the incline (4% in most cases) enter the
interior of the structure and move along at a controlled speed
to the other end, in the unloading area.

 The separate aisles for loading and unloading make it possible
to separate flows and improve the productivity and safety of
the transit of vehicles. It is an ideal solution for products with
shorter expiration dates.

- LIFO type warehouse management, where the last pallet in is the
first pallet out. In other words, the loading and unloading process
takes place in the same work aisle

 The operation of the push-back pallet racking systems is based
on the unit load deposited pushing the previous loads towards
the back of the structure

 For unloading, the slight incline of the rail is exploited so that
the pallets slide as they are unloaded.

- Advantages:-

 Higher stock-flow speed, as the goods are moved
automatically towards the exit.

 Reduction in movement times due to fewer aisles. Increased
productivity with better use of space.

 Excellent space utilisation.
 High density up to five pallets deep

26 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

Figure 19: Live storage racking
Sources: https://www.unracking.com/Heavy-duty-push-back-pallet-racking-system-for-sale.html

viii. Push Back Racking

- Push-back pallet racking systems, unlike gravity live storage, are
designed for LIFO type warehouse management, where the last
pallet in is the first pallet out. In other words, the loading and
unloading process takes place in the same work aisle.

- The operation of the push-back pallet racking systems is based
on the unit load deposited pushing the previous loads towards the
back of the structure, thanks to the system displacement method
(rollers or shuttles)

- For unloading, the slight incline of the rail is exploited so that the
pallets slide as they are unloaded.

- the pushing force is used for the loading of the pallets and the force
of gravity for their unloading

- There are two types of push-back pallet racking systems, depending
on the element used to move the unit loads, rollers, or shuttles,
however, their operation is similar:

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 27

 Push-back pallet racking with rollers: the pallets are pushed
towards the back of the racking and slide on roller beds with a
slight incline.

 Push-back pallet racking with shuttles: in this storage system,
the pallets are deposited on a set of shuttles, which are placed
on rails with a slight incline

- Advantages:-

 Excellent use of space: As a live system it is a high-density
storage solution, i.e. it optimises storage capacity for the
same space

 An ideal for homogeneous non-perishable products: When
implementing the LIFO (Last in, First out) management
system, the last unit load in is the first load out.

 Ideal system for cold storage or freezing due to its high
compaction and the resistance of roller and shuttle systems at
low temperatures

 The LIFO push-back racking structure has a safety system for
controlling and braking loads which minimises the risks in
both the shuttle and roller system

Figure 20: Push back racking
Sources: https://www.unracking.com/Heavy-duty-push-back-pallet-racking-system-for-sale.html

28 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

ix. Mobile Pallet Racking

- Mobile Pallet Racking is a system where the pallet racks are placed on
chassis or mobile bases guided through fixed tracks on the floor.

- The base of this type of racking is equipped with an electrical motor
and remote push-pull elements allowing the racks to move along
the tracks in order to open only one forklift access aisle

- Mobile pallet racking is a high density storage system, providing
simple access for conventional forklift pallets

- The aisle to be accessed for work is automatically opened using
electric motors and moving components fitted on the base of the
racking.

- Advantages:-
 Simplifies access to all pallets
 Efficient use of space. High density storage system, i.e., the
same space with a higher storage capacity
 Direct access to any stored pallet, implying a saving in time.
 Allows picking work to take place at lower levels
 Excellent use of space

Figure 21: Mobile pallet racking
Sources: https://www.srs-i.com/blogs/what-are-the-advantages-of-using-mobile-racking/

eBook PSP – Basic Material Handling Equipment and System 29

Tutorial/Exercise

1. What is Material Handling?
2. Why we need Material Handling Equipments?
3. Explain importance of Material Handling Equipments?
4. Classify Material Handling Equipments?
5. Explain what is the use of Principles?
6. Explain the principles related to the equipment design
7. Explain how product is important in selection of MHE
8. Write down importance factors in selection of MHE
9. What are the advantages of MHE system
10. Explain how reduction in handling can be done

30 eBook PSP– Basic Material Handling Equipment and System

Reference

David Frederick Ross. (2015), Distribution Planning and Control: Managing in the Era of Supply
Chain Management (3rd Edition). Springer.

Donald W. et al. (2014,) Global Logistics: New Directions in Supply Chain Management (7th
Edition). Kogan Page.

Gwynne Richards. (2017), Warehouse Management: A Complete Guide to Improving Efficiency and
Minimizing Costs in the Modern Warehouse (3rd Edition). Kogan Page

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_handling
https://tontio.com/forklifts-guides/parts-of-a-forklift-truck/
https://www.shantuimachinery.com/products.html?searchType=All&keywords=reach+truck
https://www.mecalux.co.uk/warehouse-manual/forklifts/narrow-aisle-forklift-truck
http://habib-sons.com/narrow-aisle-pallet-racking
https://www.unracking.com/Heavy-duty-push-back-pallet-racking-system-for-sale.html
https://www.srs-i.com/blogs/what-are-the-advantages-of-using-mobile-racking/

POLITEKNIK SEBERANG PERAI
JALAN PERMATANG PAUH
13500 PERMATANG PAUH
PULAU PINANG
http://www.psp.edu.my


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