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Published by santoshbhope, 2018-05-17 02:07:39

1857 che swatantrya samar 1

1857 che swatantrya samar 1

‚ãŸÀãÍãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔã½ãÀ

¼ããØã ¹ããäÖÊãã

•ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããè

© Himani Savarkar,

Savarkar Bhavan, Raja Thakur Path, Shanivar Peth, Pune.
tel :+912025544751

Internet Rights are with Swatantryaveer Savarkar
Rashtriya Smarak Trust, Dadar, Mumbai

‚ãŸÀãÍãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔã½ãÀ

¼ããØã ¹ããäÖÊãã

•ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããè

¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã ¹ããäÖÊãñ

ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã

£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ½ãÀãÌãñ, ½ãÀãñ¶ããè ‚ãÌãܾããâÔããè ½ããÀãÌãñý
½ãããäÀ¦ãã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ܾããÌãñ, À㕾㠂ãã¹ãìÊãñýý

--Àã½ãªãÔã

‚ãñŒããªñ ÊãÖã¶ãÔãñ ÜãÀ ºããâ£ããÌã¾ããÞãñ ‚ãÔãÊãñ ¦ãÀãèÖãè ¦¾ãã ÜãÀãÞãã ¦ããñÊã Ôããâ¼ããßÊãã •ãã‚ããèÊã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠã ¼ã‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ã ¹ãã¾ãã
ºããâ£ã¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ããñ. ¹ãã¾ãã ¼ã‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ã ãä¶ã ÜãÀãÞ¾ãã Ìã•ã¶ããÞãã ¦ããñÊã Ôããâ¼ããߥããÀã ‚ãÔãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¦¾ãã ¹ãã¾ããÌããÀ ‚ãì¼ããÀÊãñÊãñ ÜãÀ Öñ
¹ã§¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¦ãâºãîÖî¶ã •ããԦ㠼ã̾ã ãä¶ã ãäÌãÍããÊ㠇㊣ããèÖãè ‚ãìŸãäÌã¦ãã ¾ããÌã¾ããÞãñ ¶ããÖãè, Öñ ‚ããäÍããäàã¦ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÔãÖãè Ôã½ã•ã¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãñ.
¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ ‚ãØãªãè ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÊããÖãè ‚ãÌãØã¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããÀñ ̾ãÌãÖãÀ—ãã¶ã ãäÌãÔã¶㠕ãã‚ãî¶ã •ãñÌÖã ‚ãñŒããªã ÊãñŒã‡ãŠ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãÀÞã¶ãñÞãã
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ªñ¦ãã¶ãã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ¦ããè ¼ã̾ã ãä¶ã ãäÌãÍããÊã ãä‚ã½ããÀ¦ã ¦ããñÊ㥾ããÔã ½ãîÊã¼ãî¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããÀã ¹ãã¾ãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞãã Öãñ¦ãã ¾ããÞããè
½ããè½ããâÔãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ¶ããÖãè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦ãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã½ãâãäªÀ ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ØãÌã¦ããÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¡ãèÌãÀ ‚ãì¼ããÀÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ‚ãÔãñ ºãÀߦã Ôã웦ããñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¦ããñ
Ìãñ¡Øãß ¦ãÀãè ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¼ãã½ã›ã ¦ãÀãè ‚ãÔã¦ããñ. Ûãã ªãñÖãò¦ãî¶ã ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ããÖãè ãäÌãÍãñÓã¥ããÔã ¹ãã¨ã ‚ãÔãÊãã ¦ãÀãè
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãÊãñŒã¶ããÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããÔã ¦ããñ ÔãÌãéãõÌã ¶ããÊãã¾ã‡ãŠ ŸÀ¦ããñ.

½ããñŸ½ããñŸãʾãã £ã½ãÉãŠã⦾ãã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã À㕾ã‰ãŠã⦾ãã ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÌãÀÌãÀÞ¾ãã ÔÌãÁ¹ãã¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã ‚ãÔãâºã®¦ãñÞããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
ãäÌããä¼ã¸ã¦ãñÞããè ÔããŒãßãè ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠã⦾ããâÞãñ ½ãìßãÍããè ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã ¦ã§ÌããâÔã Ôã½ã•ãî¶ã Üãñ¦ãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ‡ãŠ£ããèÖãè •ãìßãäÌã¦ãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè.
‚ã¶ãñ‡ãŠ Þã‰ãñŠ ãä¶ã ‚ã¶ãñ‡ãŠ ÊããñÖ¼ããØã ¾ããâ¶ããè ¾ãì‡ã‹¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããÀñ ‚ãñŒããªñ ¼ã̾㠾ãâ¨ã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ Íã‡ã‹¦ããèÞããè ‡ãŠã½ãñ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ¦ããè Íã‡ã‹¦ããè
‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ãã ¾ãâ¨ãÍããÔ¨ããè¾ã ãä¶ã¾ã½ãã¶ãñ ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ Öñ ¹ãî¥ãà Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠßʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¹ãÆñàã‡ãŠãâ½ã£¾ãñ ‚ããÍÞã¾ããöãñ ‚ã즹ã¸ã
Öãñ¥ããÀãè ãäÌãÔ½ã¾ã¦ãã ‚ãìªá¼ãÌãñÊã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì —ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¾ãñ¥ããÀãè ½ãããä½ãÇ㊦ãã ½ãã¨ã ‡ãŠ£ããèÖãè ‚ãã¤ß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãÆòŠÞã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
ÖãùÊã⡽ã£ããèÊã £ã½ãÉãŠãâ¦ããè ¾ããÔããÀŒããè ‚ãªá¼ãî¦ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ •ãñÌÖã ÌããÞã‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ãä¶ã ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¼ã̾ã¦ãñ¶ãñ Þããä‡ãŠ¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã¦ã ¦ãñÌÖã
¦¾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¼ã̾ã¦ãñ¶ãñ Øããò£ãßî¶ã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ÌããÞã‡ãŠãâÞããè ÒÓ›ãè ãä¶ã ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâÞããè ÊãñŒã¥ããè Öãè ¦¾ããâÞãñ ½ãîÊã¼ãî¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã Íã‡ã‹¦ããé¶ãã
ãäÌãÌãÀ¥ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã £ã•ã¦ã ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãâÀ¦ãì ¾ãã ½ãîÊãÍã‡ã‹¦ããéÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÌãÀ¥ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããéÞãñ ŒãÀñ ÀÖԾ㠇㊣ããèÖãè Êãàãã¦ã ¾ã¥ñ ããÀñ
¶ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãÍããÔ¨ãã¦ã ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã Ìã¥ãöãã¹ãñàãã ½ãîÊããäÌãÌãÀ¥ããÊããÞã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ½ãÖ§Ìã ãäªÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ.

Öñ ½ãîÊããäÌãÌãÀ¥ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ¹ãìÓ‡ãŠß Ìãñßã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâÞããè ‚ãã¥ãŒããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Þãî‡ãŠ Ü㡦㠂ãÔã¦ãñ. ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ
‡ãŠã¾ããÃÔã ‡ãŠãÖãè ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ã¹ãƦ¾ãàã, ‡ãŠãÖãè ãäÌããäÍãÓ› ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãÖãè Ôãã½ã㶾ã, ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ
‡ãŠãÀ¥ããè¼ãî¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ¾ããâÞãñ ÌãØããê‡ãŠÀ¥ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ãÞã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâÞãñ ŒãÀñ ‡ãŠãõÍãʾ㠂ãÔã¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¹ãìÓ‡ãŠß
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâÞããè ¾ãã ÌãØããê‡ãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã ¦ããÀãâºãß ‚ãì¡î¶ã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããâ¶ããÞã ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããâÞãñ ÔÌãÁ¹ã ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ãñ.
‚ãñŒãã²ãã ÜãÀãÊãã ‚ããØã ÊããØãÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¦ããè ‚ããØã ÊããÌã¥ããžãã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã Öã¦ãã¦ããÊè ã ‚ããØã‡ãŠã¡ãèÌãÀ ÔãÌãÃ
•ãºããºãªãÀãè Êã㪥ããžãã ½ãîŒãà ¶¾ãã¾ãã£ããèÍãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¦ããñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀ ÖãÔ¾ããԹ㪦ãñÊãã ¹ãã¨ã Öãñ¦ããñ. ãä¶ããä½ã§ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ããâ¶ããÞã ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã
‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Ôã½ã•ãî¶ã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ‚ãõãä¦ãÖããäÔã‡ãŠ ¹ãÆÔãâØããÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ãäÊãÖî ÊããØãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ¹ãÆÔãâØããÞãñ ŒãÀñ ½ãÖ§Ì㠇㊣ããèÖãè Êãàãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã

¶ããÖãè. ãä‡ã⊺ãÖì¶ãã ¦ãñ ‚ãªá¼ãî¦ã ãä¶ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ¹ãÆÔãâØã ‚ãÔãʾãã àãìÊÊã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãã‡ãŠãäÀ¦ãã Üã¡Êãñ Öñ ¹ããÖî¶ã ¦¾ãã ¹ãÆÔãâØããºã−Êã ãä¶ã
¦¾ãã¦ããèÊã ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããºé ã−Êã ‚ã¾ã©ãã©ãúãì®ãè ‚ã즹ã¸ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØã¦ãñ. ¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãõãä¦ãÖããäÔã‡ãŠ ¹ãÆÔãâØããâÞãã ãä¶ã ãäÌãÍãñÓã¦ã: ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ
¹ãÆÔãâØããâÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ãäÊããäÖ¦ãã¶ãã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ¶ãìÔã¦ãñ Ìã¥ãö㠪ñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ºãÀãñºãÀ ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ªñ¦ãã ¾ãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦¾ããâÞãã ‚ãìØã½ã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ãä¶ããä½ã§ã-‡ãŠãÀ¥ãã¹ã¾ãĦãÞã Íããñ£ãî¶ã ½ããÜããÀñ ãä¹ãŠÀʾãã¶ãñÖãè ¦¾ããâÞãñ ¾ã©ãã©ãà ÔÌãÁ¹ã •ãã¥ã¦ãã ¾ãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè; ¦ãÀ •¾ããÊãã Ô㦾ã,
ãä¶ã:¹ãàã¹ãã¦ããè ãä¶ã ½ãããä½ãÇ㊠ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ãäÊãÖãÌã¾ããÞãã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ¹ãÆÔãâØããÞããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ‚ãì¼ããÀ¥ããè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ãã ¹ãã¾ããÌãÀ
‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ã§Ìã Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã Öãñ¦ããè ¾ããâÞãñ ¹ã¾ããÃÊããñÞã¶ã ‚ãÌã;㠇ãñŠÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ.

¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ã§Ìã ‚ãÔãÊãñÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ãÔãñ ãä‚ã›ÊããèÞãã ¹ãÆŒ¾ãã¦ã ¦ã§ÌãÌãñ§ãã ãä¶ã ªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ã
½ãùãä¢ã¶ããè Ûãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãÊããÃãä‚ãÊãÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆòŠÞã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÌãÀãèÊã ¹ãìÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÌãÀ ›ãè‡ãŠã¦½ã‡ãŠ ÊãñŒã ãäÊããäÖ¦ãã¶ãã ½Ö›ÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè ½Ö›Êããè
½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ããèÊã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãã¾ãìÓ¾ããÞããè ‚ãìÊã©ãã¹ããÊã©ã Öãñ¾ã. ÊããŒããñ ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããè •¾ããÔããŸãè ¢ã›¦ãã¦ã, Àã•ããâÞããè
ãäÔãâÖãÔã¶ãñ •¾ããÔããŸãè ¡ß½ãßî ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã, ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ½ãì‡ã슛 ¹ã슛Êãñ •ãã‚ãî¶ã, ¶ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ½ãì‡ã슛 •¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ã즹ã¸ã Öãñ¦ãã¦ã,
Ô©ãããä¹ãÊãñʾãã ½ãî¦ããëÞãã ¼ãâØã ãä¶ã ¶ãÌããè¶ã ½ãî¦ããëÞããè ‚ã즩ãã¹ã¶ãã Öãè •¾ããÔããŸãè Öãñ¦ãã¦ã ãä¶ã •¾ããÞ¾ãã¹ãì¤ñ À‡ã‹¦ããÞãñ ¹ãîÀ ÌããÖãäÌ㥾ããÞããè
‡ãŠãÖãèÞ㠇㊩ãã ¶ããÖãè, ‚ãÔãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ Ôã½ãîÖãâ¶ãã Ìãã›î ÊããØã¦ãñ ‚ãÍãã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã àããñ¼ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ¦ã§ÌãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ªìÔãžãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè àãìÊÊã‡ãŠ
ãä¶ã àããä¥ã‡ãŠ ¹ãã¾ããÌãÀ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ãä‚ã½ããÀ¦ã ‚ãì¼ããÀÊããè •ãã¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè ‚ãÔã¥ããÀñ Öñ ¦ã§Ìã •¾ãã
½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¹ããäÌã¨ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ã¹ããäÌã¨ã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦¾ãã ½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¦ããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ãÇ㊦¾ããà ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããéÞããè ÔÌã¹ãñ ãä¶ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ¹ããäÌã¨ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
‚ã¹ããäÌã¨ã ŸÀ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. Öñ¦ãîâÌã¶㠇ãðŠ¦¾ããâÞããè ¹ãÀãèàãã •ãÍããè ̾ãÌãÖãÀã¦ã ‡ãñŠÊããè •ãã¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ãÖãè ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããéÞ¾ãã
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÀãÓ›ÈãâÞ¾ãã Öñ¦ãìÌã¶㠦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããâÞãñ ÔÌã¹㠟À¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãñ. Öãè ‡ãŠÔããñ›ãè Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãäªÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããè¶ãñ ªìÔãžãã
̾ã‡ã‹¦ããèÊãã ½ããÀ¥ãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã Ôãõ¶¾ãã¶ãñ ªìÔãžãã Ôãõ¶¾ããÊãã ½ããÀ¥ãñ Ûãã¦ã ‡ãŠãÖãèÞã ¼ãñª ÀãÖ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÔããŸãè ¢ããÊãñʾãã
ãäÔã‡ã⊪ãÞ¾ãã ÔÌããžãã ãä¶ã ãä‚ã›ÊããèÞ¾ãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÔããŸãè ¢ããÊãñʾãã ؾãããäÀºããÊ¡ãèÞ¾ãã ÔÌããžãã Ûãã ÔããÀŒ¾ããÞã ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ŸÀ¦ããèÊã.
Ûãã ãä¼ã¸ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããâÞãñ ¾ã©ãã¾ããñؾ㠹ãÀãèàã¥ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔã •ãÔãã ¦¾ããâÞãã Öñ¦ãì Ôã½ã•ããÌãî¶ã Üãñ¦ãÊããÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ¦¾ããÞã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ
¾ã©ãã¾ããñؾã ãäÌãÌãñÞã¶ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔã ãä¦ãÞãã Öñ¦ãî ‡ãŠã¾ã Öãñ¦ãã, ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ‚ã¦â ã¾ããýããèÞããè ãä‚ãޜ㠇ãŠã¾ã Öã¦ñ ããè, ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ãã ¦ã§Ìããâ¦ãî¶ã ¦ããè
‚ãìªá¼ãÌãÊããè Öãñ¦ããè Öñ ‚ãÌã;㠹ãããäÖÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ.ÔããÀãâÍã, ‚ãõãä¦ãÖããäÔã‡ãŠ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã-ÊãñŒã‡ãŠã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¦ããèÊã ÌãÀÌãÀ
‚ãÔãâºã® ãäªÔã¥ããžãã ¹ãÆÔãâØãã¶ãã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãªá¼ãì¦ã¦ãñÊãã ¹ããÖî¶ã ãä¦ã©ãñÞã ãäÔ¦ããä½ã¦ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¶ã ºãÔã¦ãã ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãìØã½ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ Íããñ£ã
‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ØãñÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠÞãñ ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã Íããñ£ãã¦ã ¼ãÊ㦾ããÞã ãä¶ã ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã¦ã ãä¶ãÜããÊãñʾãã ¹ãŠã›¿ããâÔã Ôããñ¡î¶ã ‚ãØãªãè
½ãîÊã¦ã§Ìãã¹ã¾ãĦã Íããñ£ã ÊããÌãÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ, ½ãØã ¦¾ãã ¦ã§ÌããÞããè ªìãäºãÃ¥ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãà ¹ãƪñÍããÞãñ ãä¶ãÀãèàã¥ã ‡ãñŠÊãñ
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ããÔã ‚ã¶ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ãÔãâºã® ¹ãÆÔãâØãã¦ã ¹ãî¥ãà Ôãâºã®¦ãã ãäªÔãî ÊããØã¦ãñ, Ìã‰ãŠÀñÓãã ÔãÀß ¼ããÔãî ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã
ãä¶ã ÔãÀß ÀñÓãã Ìã‰ãŠ ¼ããÔãî ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. ‚ãâ£ã‡ãŠãÀã¦ã ¹ãƇãŠãÍã ãäªÔãî ÊããØã¦ããñ ãä¶ã ¹ãƇãŠãÍãã¦ã ‚ãâ£ã‡ãŠãÀ ãäªÔãî ÊããØã¦ããñ, ¶ããèÞã¦ãñ¦ã ‚ãìÞÞã¦ãã
ãä¶ã ‚ãìÞÞã¦ãñ¦ã ¶ããèÞã¦ãã ÒØØããñÞãÀ Öãñ¦ãñ, ãäÌã³î¹ã¦ãñ¦ã ÔãìÁ¹ã¦ãã ãä¶ã Ôãì¹ã¦ãñ¦ã ãäÌã³ì¹ã¦ãã ‚ãã¤ß¦ãñ ãä¶ã ‚ã¹ãñãäàã¦ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ã¶ã¹ãñãäàã¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ô¹ãÓ› ÔÌãÁ¹ãã¶ãñ ¦ããè ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Öãè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÞ¾ãã ÒÓ›ãñ¦¹ã§ããèÔã ¾ãñ¦ã.ñ

¹ãÀâ¦ãì ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä‚ã. Ôã. 1857 ÔããÊããè Üã¡Êãñʾãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ‚ãÍãã ÍããÔ¨ããè¾ã ¹ã®¦ããè¶ãñ
‡ãŠãñ¥ããèÖãè ÔÌãªñÍããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãäÌãªñÍããè ØãÆâ©ã‡ãŠãÀã¶ãñ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊãã ¶ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãºã−Êã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¦ã ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã, ¼ãÆã½ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ªìÓ›
Ôã½ã•ãì¦ããè ¹ãÆÞããäÊã¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ÌãÀ Ìã¥ãö㠇ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ÔãÌãà ªãñÓã Ûãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ‡ãŠãÖãè
ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ¦¾ããÞãñ Ìã¥ãö㠪ñ¥¾ãã¹ããäÊã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¹ãƾ㦶ãÞã ‡ãñŠÊãã ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ºãÖì¦ãñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ¦ããñ ¹ãƾ㦶㠪ìÓ› ºãìã䮶ãñ ãä¶ã ¹ãàã¹ãã¦ããè¹ã¥ãã¶ãñ
‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã½ãìßñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ªîÓããè¦ã ÒÓ›ãèÊãã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ½ãîÊã¦ã§Ìã ãäªÔãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãäªÔã¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããÖãè ¹ãÖãÌãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè.

ãä‚ã. Ôã. 1857 ÔããÀŒããè ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Öñ¦ãî̾ããä¦ããäÀ‡ã‹¦ã Üã¡¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¹ãñÍããÌãÀ¹ããÔãî¶ã ‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ãã¹ã¾ãĦã
•ããè Êãã› ‚ãìÔãßÊããè ¦ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Ôãã½ã©¾ããĶãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ¦ãÀãè ãäÌããäÍãÓ› ¹ãªã©ãà ºãì¡Ìãî¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥¾ããÞ¾ãã Öñ¦ãîãäÍãÌãã¾ãÞã ‚ã쟥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¦ãñ
‡ãŠã¾ã? ãäªÊÊããèÊãã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãñ Ìãñ¤ñ, ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÊãã ¢ããÊãñʾã㠇㊧ãÊããè, Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããâÞãñ ‚ãì¼ããÀÊãñÊãñ £Ìã•ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã £Ìã•ããŒããÊããè Ê㤦ã Ê㤦ã
ÍãîÀãâÞ¾ãã £ããÀã¦ããè©ããæ㠹ã¡Êãñʾãã ‚ãì¡¿ãã ÛããÔããÀŒããè ‚ãìªã§ã ãä¶ã Ô¹ãîŠãä¦ãÕã¶ã‡ãŠ ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ‚ãìªã§ã ãä¶ã
Ô¹ãîŠãä¦ãÕã¶ã‡ãŠ Ôã㣾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã Üã¡¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¦ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ‚ããŸÌã¡¿ããÊãã ¼ãÀ¥ããÀã ºãã•ããÀ ªñŒããèÊã ‡ãŠãÖãè ãäÌããäÍãÓ›
Öñ¦ãî̾ããä¦ããäÀ‡ã‹¦ã ¼ãÀÊãñÊãã ¶ãÔã¦ããñ. ½ãØã •ããñ ºãã•ããÀ ¼ãÀãäÌ㥾ããÞããè ¦ã¾ããÀãè ÌãÓããóÌãÓãó ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè, •¾ããÞããè ªì‡ãŠã¶ãñ

¹ãñÍããÌãÀ¹ããÔãî¶ã ‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ãã¹ã¾ãĦ㠂ãÔã¥ããžãã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÔãâÖãÔã¶ããÌãÀ ‚ãìÜã¡ÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè, •¾ããâ¦ã À㕾ããâÞããè ãä¶ã Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããâÞããè ªñÌãÜãñÌã
ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè, ãä•ã©ãñ À‡ã‹¦ããâÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ½ããâÔããÞ¾ãã ¶ã㥾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ªìÔãÀñ ÞãÊã¶ããè ¶ãã¥ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè •ãì½ãã¶ããè¦ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ ¦ããñ ºãã•ããÀ ‡ãŠã¾ã
‚ãìØããèÞã ¼ãÀÊãã, ‚ãìØããèÞã ‚ãìŸî¶ã ØãñÊãã? ¶ããÖãè, ¶ããÖãè. ¦ããñ ºãã•ããÀ ‚ãìØããèÞã ¼ãÀÊãã ‚ãÔãñÖãè ¶ããÖãè. ‚ãìØããèÞã ‚ãìŸî¶ã ØãñÊãã ‚ãÔãñÖãè ¶ããÖãè.
Öñ ‡ãŠß¥ãñ ¹ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠŸãè¥ã ‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ãÀ Öñ ‡ãŠßÊãñ ‚ãÔãñ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖ¦ããÞãñ ¶ã Ìãã›Ê¾ãã¶ãñ ¾ãã ½ãì−á¾ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâ¶ããè ½ãì−ã½ã ªìÊãÃàã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã ªìÊãÃàããÖî¶ãÖãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ¹ãŠÔããäÌã¥ããÀãè ãä¶ã 57 Þ¾ãã Ûãã
‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ÔÌã¹ã ÔãÌãæããñ¹ãÀãè ¼ãÆÓ› ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀãè ªìÔãÀãè ¾ãì‡ã‹¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ªìÔãÀãè Þãî‡ãŠ ãäÌã•ãã¦ããè¾ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ¢ããèÊã ‚ããñ¤¥ããžãã
ÔÌã•ãã¦ããè¾ã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâ¶ããè •ããè ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ¦ããè Öãè Öãñ¾ã ‡ãŠãè, Ûãã 57 Þ¾ãã ¹ãÆÊã¾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ªìÔãÀñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ¶ãÔãî¶ã ½ããÀ
‚ãã¹ã½ã¦ãÊãºããè Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‚ãìŸãäÌãÊãñÊããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞããè ‡ã⊡ãè Öãñ¾ã. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÌãÀ ãä¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ÊããÞãÊãìÞã¹ã¦ããèÌãÀ
Ìãã¤ÊãñÊãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ãñ¦ã−ñÍããè¾ã ØãÆâ©ã‡ãŠãÀ ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã : `‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããÔã Øãã‚ããÞè ããè ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè Þãºããê ÊãããäÌã¦ãã¦ã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ‡ãñŠÌãß ‚ãõ‡ããÞã
½ãîŒãà Êããñ‡ãŠ ãäºã©ãÀÊãñ. ‚ãõ‡ãŠÊãñÊããè ØããñÓ› ŒãÀãè ‡ãŠãè Œããñ›ãè ÛããÞãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè Íããñ£ã ‡ãñŠÊãã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ºããñÊãÊãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ªÔì ãÀã
ºããñÊãÊãã, ‚ãããä¥ã ªìÔãÀã ãäºãÜã¡Êãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãä¦ãÔãÀã ãäºãÜã¡Êãã ‚ãÍããè ‚ãâ£ã¹ãÀâ¹ãÀã ÞããÊãî¶ã ‚ããäÌãÞããÀãè ½ãîŒããÃÞãã Ôã½ãã•ã •ã½ãÊãã ‚ãããä¥ã
ºãâ¡ ½ãã•ãÊãñ.

‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞ¾ãã ØããñÓ›ãéÌãÀ Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‚ãâ£ã¹ãÀâ¹ãÀñ¶ãñ ãäÌãÍÌããÔã ŸñÌãÊãã ‡ãŠãè ‡ãŠã¾ã ÛããÞãã ãä¶ã¥ãþ㠹ãì¤ñ ¾ã©ããÌã‡ãŠãÍã
Öãñ‚ããèÊãÞã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã Œãžãã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Œããñ›¿ãã ãäÌãÍÌããÔãã¦ã ºãâ¡ãÞãñ ½ãîß Öãñ¦ãñ Öãè Ôã½ã•ãî¦ã ‡ãŠÀãäÌ㥾ããÞãã ‡ãŠÔãã ªãèÜãà ¹ãƾ㦶ã
ÞããÊãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã Öñ ¾ããÌã¶ã ãäªÔãî¶ã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã. 57 ÔããÀŒããè ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè ‚ãÔãʾãã‡ãŠãÀ¥ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã Öãñ‚ããèÊã Öñ ½Ö¥ã¥ããžãã
½ã⪠ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ªìÓ› ºãì®ãé¶ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ `‚ããäÌãÞããÀãè ½ãîŒããÄÞãã Ôã½ãã•ã` Öãñ¾ã ‚ãÔãñ Ìãã›Ê¾ããÔã ¦¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ããÍÞã¾ãà ¶ããÖãè.
•ãÀ 57 Þããè ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Öãè ½ã쌾ã¦ã: ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÌã¶ãÞã ¹ãƪã蹦㠢ããÊããè Öãñ¦ããè, ¦ãÀ ãä¦ãÊãã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã, ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ ºããªÍããÖ, ¢ããÍããèÞããè
Àã¥ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÀãñãäÖÊãŒãâ¡Þãñ Œãã¶ãºãÖãªîÀ Œãã¶ã Öñ ‡ãŠã ãä½ãßãÊãñ? ¾ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀã¦ã ¶ããñ‡ãŠÀãè £ãÀãÌã¾ããÞããè ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
ÜãÀãè ºãÔãÊãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ããè ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ¦ããñ¡ÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ¦ã ‚ãÔããÖãè Öì‡ã㠇ãŠãñ¥ããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÌãÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã. •ãÀ 57 Þããè
‚ãìŸãÌã¥ããè Öãè ‡ãñŠÌãß ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ½ã쌾ã¦ã: ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞ¾ãã Þãºããê¶ãñÞã ¢ããÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ¦ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÌãÀãèÊã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ØãÌÖ¶ãÃÀ •ã¶ãÀÊã¶ãñ ¦ããè
¶ã Ìãã¹ãÀ¥¾ããÞãã Öì‡ãã Ôããñ¡Ê¾ããºãÀãñºãÀ ¦ããè ¢ã›‡ãŠ¶ã Íã½ãÊããèÖãè ‚ãÔã¦ããè ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Öã¦ãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ
ºã¶ãÌããÌããè ‚ãÍããè ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ¹ãÀÌãã¶ãØããè ãä½ãßãʾããÌãÀÖãè ãä¦ãÞãã ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã Üãñ¥¾ããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ¶ããõ‡ãŠÀãè Ôããñ¡î¶ã
ÔãÌãÃÞ㠇㊛‡ãŠ› ãä½ã›ãäÌ㥾ããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ããèÞã ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ãÀ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãÍããè •¾ããâÞãã ‚ã©ããÂã©ããê Ôãâºãâ£ã ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÍãã ÊããŒããñ
Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè, Àã•ããâ¶ããè ãä¶ã ½ãÖãÀã•ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¹ãÆã¥ã À¥ããâØã¥ããâ¦ã ‡ãŠã ŒãÞãà ‡ãñŠÊãñ? ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ãä¶ã ãäºã¶ãÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè, Àã•ãã ãä¶ã Àâ‡ãŠ, ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã
½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ã ¾ãã ÔãÌããĶãã Ô¹ãìŠÀ¥ã ¾ãñ¥¾ããÔã ‚ãÔãʾãã ãä‡ãŠÀ‡ãŠãñß ØããñÓ›ãè ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããè¼ãî¦ã Öãñ¦ã ¶ãÔã¦ãã¦ã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ØããñÓ›ãéÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè
‚ãÔã¥ããÀñ ¦ã§Ìã ¦¾ããÔã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããè¼ãî¦ã Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãñ.

‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞããè ãä¼ã¦ããè Öñ ºãâ¡ãâÞãñ ¹ãƽãìŒã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‚ããÖñ. Ûã㠽֥㥾ãã¦ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ‚ã¾ã©ãã©ãæãã ‚ããÖñ ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãèÞã ¦¾ãã ºãâ¡ãÞãã
‚ãìØã½ã ‡ãñŠÌãß ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÊãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ, ¾ã㠽֥㥾ãã¦ã ãäªÔãî¶ã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ãã¦ããèÊã
ãäÖ¦ãããäÖ¦ããÍããè •¾ããâÞãã ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Ôãâºãâ£ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã ‚ãÔãñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ¦ãÀãè Êããñ‡ãŠ ¾ãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¦ã Öã¦ããÌãÀ ãäÍãÀ Üãñ‚ãî¶ã Ê㤦ã Öãñ¦ãñ!
½ãØã ¦¾ãã Ê㤥¾ãã¦ã ¦¾ããâÞãã ‡ãŠã¾ã Öñ¦ãì Öãñ¦ãã? Œãì− ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ ¶ãºããºã ¦ãÀ ‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ããÞ¾ãã ãä‡ãŠÊʾãã¦ã ‚㛇ãñŠ¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ,
¦¾ããâÞããè ¹ãÆ•ãã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâÞ¾ã㠽֥㥾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ½ãÊããÊã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ¶ããŒãîÓã ¢ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ½ãØã
¹ãâ•ããºãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ¦ããñ ºãâØããÊã¹ã¾ãĦ㠹㊇㋦ã Àã•ãñÞã ¶ãÌÖñ¦ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Êããñ‡ãŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ¦ã ¦ãÀ ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ãÔÔãÊã ãäÖâªãè ½ã¶ãìӾ㠂ãã¹ãÊããè
Ôã½ãÍãñÀ ‚ãì¹ãÔãî¶ã ‡ãŠã ‚ãì¼ãã ÀããäÖÊãã? Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèºã−Êã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÊãñŒã ºãâØããÊãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè `ãäÖâªî`¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔãÞã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ã¦ã
¹ãÆãäÔã® ‡ãŠÀãäÌãÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ¦¾ãã¦ã ¦ããñ ãÖä âªì ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ: ``•¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºããÊã㠇㊣ããè •ã¶½ãã¦ãÔãì®ã ºããäÜã¦ãÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
¹ãì¤ñÖãè ºãÜ㥾ããÞãã Ôãâ¼ãÌã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã, ‚ãÔãñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ÔãÀß ãä¶ã ª¾ãã³Ã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ã‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¢ããñ¹ã¡ãè¦ã ¶ãºããºããÞããè ªì:Œã ÔããâØã¦ãã¶ãã
¤Ôã¤Ôãã À¡¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã, ¾ããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ¦ãì½ÖãÊãã ¶ããÖãè! Öñ ‚ãÑãì Øãßî¶ã Øãñʾãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ÔÌã¦ã:ÌãÀÞã Öã ‰ãîŠÀ ¹ãÆÔãâØã

ØãìªÀʾãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ Ìã•ããèª ‚ãÊÊããèÍããÖ ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ããÞãã Ôãî¡ Üãñ¥¾ããÞããè ¹ãÆãä¦ã—ãã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ªÀÀãñ•ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ ÖñÖãè
1

¦ãì½ÖãâÔã ½ããÖãè¦ã ¶ããÖãè``.
Ûãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã Öãè ÔãÖã¶ãì¼ãî¦ããè ‡ãŠã Ìãã›î ÊããØãÊããè. •¾ããâ¶ããè ¶ãºããºããâ¶ã㠕㶽ãã¦ã ¹ãããäÖÊãñÊãñÖãè ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ ¦¾ããâÞãñ ¡ãñßñ ãä¶ã ‡ã⊟

‡ãŠã ¼ã¶㠂ããÊãñ? ¦ãñÌÖã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãñ ºãâ¡ ‚ãìªá¼ãÌãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ Öãè À㕾ãñ ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã •¾ãã
¦ã§ÌããâÞãã ‚ãì¹ã½ãªÃ Öãñ¦ã Öãñ¦ãã ¦¾ãã ¦ã§Ìããâ½ãìßñ ºãâ¡ ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãñ. ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞããè ãä¼ã¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ À㕾ã Öãè
‚ãã¶ãìÓãâãäØã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ Öãñ¦ã. Ûããâ¶ããÞã ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Ôã½ã•ãÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ ŒãÀñ ÔÌã¹㠇㊣ããèÖãè
‡ãŠß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè.

Ûãã ãä¶ããä½ã§ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ããâ¶ããÞã ½ãîß ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããâÞãñ ÔÌã¹ã ãäªÊ¾ããÔã ¦¾ããÞãã ‚ãÔãã ‚ã©ãà Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‡ãŠãè, •ãÀ Öãè ãäÌããäÍãÓ› ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ
Üã¡Êããè ¶ãÔã¦ããè ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâÞãñ ‡ãŠã¾ãÃÖãè Üã¡Êãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ •ãÀ ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞããè ãä¼ã¦ããè ¶ãÔã¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ ØãñÊãñ
‚ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãÀ 1857 Þããè ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Üã¡Êããè ¶ãÔã¦ããè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã Ôã½ã•ããÖî¶ã Ìãñ¡Øãß ãä¶ã ¼ãÆã½ã‡ãŠ ‚ãÔãã ªìÔãÀã Ôã½ã•ã Ôãã¹ã¡¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã
¶ããÖãè. ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞããè ãä¼ã¦ããè ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊããè ¶ãÔã¦ããè ¦ãÀãè ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Üã¡ÊããèÞã ‚ãÔã¦ããè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¦¾ãã ¼ããè¦ããèÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè ‚ãÔã¥ããÀñ ¦ã§Ìã Öñ
ªìÔãžãã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ¹ãÆÔãâØãã¦ã ÒØØããñÞãÀ ¢ããÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãñ. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ¢ããÊãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãÀãèÖãè Öñ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¾ãì® ¢ããÊãñÞã ‚ãÔã¦ãñ.
‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¦¾ãã À㕾ããÞ¾ãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ½ãìßãÍããè ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ¦ã§Ìã ‚ãã¥ãŒããè ªìÔãžãã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã À㕾ããÞ¾ãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã
¹ãÆãªì¼ãîæ㠢ããÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãñ. ¹ãÆŠã¶Ôã ªñÍãã¦ããèÊã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã •ãÔãñ £ã㶾ããÞ¾ãã Ìãã¤Êãñʾãã ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ºãùÔ›ããä‚ãÊã
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Àã•ããÞãñ ¹ãùãäÀÔã Ôããñ¡î¶ã •ãã¥ãñ, ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ½ãñ•ãÌãã¶ããèÞãã ÀâØã Öñ ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ã´¦ãÞã ÌãÀãèÊã ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ãäÌããäÍãÓ› ¹ãÆÔãâØã Öãè Ûãã
¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ ¶ãÔãî¶ã ‡ãñŠÌãß ãä¶ããä½ã§ã¼ãî¦ã ãä¶ããä½ã§ãñ Öãñ¦ã. Ôããè¦ããÖÀ¥ã Öñ Àã½ãã¾ã¥ããÞãñ •ãÔãñ ‡ãñŠÌãß ãä¶ããä½ã§ã ¢ããÊãñ
¦¾ããÞã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ÌãÀãèÊã ÔãÌãà ÊãÖã¶ã½ããñŸãè ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ Öãè ãä¶ããä½ã§ãñ ‚ãÔãî¶ã ½ã쌾㠹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ ½Ö›Êããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè
‚ãÔãÊãñÊããè ¦ã§ÌãñÞã Öãñ¦ã.

Öãè ¦ã§Ìãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè? Ö•ããÀãñ ÍãîÀãâÞ¾ãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½¾ãã¶ããâ¦ãî¶ã ‚ããñ¤î¶ã ‡ãŠã¤î¶ã À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã Þã½ã‡ãŠãäÌã¥ããÀãè Öãè
¦ã§Ìãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè? ãä¶ãÔ¦ãñ•ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ½ãì‡ã슛ãâ¶ãã Ôã¦ãñ•ã¦ãã ªñ¥ããÀãè ãä¶ã ½ããñ¡î¶ã ¹ã¡Êãñʾãã £Ìã•ããâÞãñ ¹ãì¶ãÁ®À¥ã ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀãè Öãè
¦ã§Ìãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè? •¾ããâÞ¾ããÌãÀ Ö•ããÀãñ ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããé¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ãìÓ¥ã À‡ã‹¦ããÞãã ‚ããä¼ãÓãñ‡ãŠ ÌãÓããöãìÌãÓãó ‚ãŒãâ¡ ¹ãÆñ½ãã¶ãñ Ôãì ŸñÌããÌãã
¦ããè Öãè ¦ã§Ìãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè? ½ããõÊãÌããé¶ããè •¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã ‡ãŠÀãÌãã, ºãÆãÚã¥ããâ¶ããè •¾ããâ¶ãã `ãäÌã•ã¾ããè ¼ãÌã` ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãããäÍãÌããê ²ããÌãñ,
ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ½ããäÍãªãè¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãÍããèÞ¾ãã ªñÌãßãâ¦ãî¶ã •¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¾ãÍã: ¹ãÆ㹦ããèÔããŸãè ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãäªÌ¾ã ¹ãÆã©ãöãã £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãã̾ãã,
•¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔããÛããÔããŸãè Ñããè½ã¦ãá Ö¶ãì½ãã¶ã•ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã À¥ããâØã¥ããÌãÀ Öìâ‡ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØããÌãã ãä¶ã •¾ããÔããŸãè ¢ããÍããèÞ¾ãã

1 Öã ÊãñŒã ãä‚ãâã䡾ãã ‚ããùãä¹ãŠÔãÞ¾ãã Êãã¾ãºãÆÀãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ. Öã ÊãñŒã ‚ã¶ãñ‡ãŠ ÒÓ›ãè¶ããè ¹ãŠãÀ ½ãÖ§ÌããÞãã ‚ããÖñ. ¾ãã ÊãñŒãã¦ããèÊã ¹ãì¤ãèÊã

‚ãì¦ããÀã ãäªÊ¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ÀãÖÌã¦ã ¶ããÖãè.

“Your (Englishmen’s) conduct has all along been mean and pettifogging. You
accuse our ancient Mogal rulers of despotism. They were despotic to some extent; but,
on the whole, they knew how to govern an empire-you know how to keep a shop. They
had a large mind; you have an ingenious and a crafty one, They could conceive of grand
projects. Despite their faults, they were loved by a grand people like us. They settled in
the country and tried to improve it. Your servants come here only to make money and
go home as soon as they have satisfied themselves on that score. Indeed, in as much as
we have come to know you, we have learnt to dispise you. With increasing knowledgc
we have known that the Anglo-Saxon race is selfish and hypocritical in the extreme and

always unprincipled in matters of gain!” Öã ÊãñŒã Ôãì½ããÀñ 25 ¹ãã¶ããâÞãã ‚ãÔãî¶ã ¦ããñ ãäª. 13 ‚ããù‡ã‹›ãñºãÀ 1857
Àãñ•ããè ¹ãÆãäÔã® ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ.

½ãÖãÊãà½ããè¶ãñ Íãìâ¼ããä¶ãÍãìâ¼ããâÞ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ãã¦ã ãä¼ã•ãÊãñÊããè ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ¹ãìÀã¥ã¹ãÆãäÔã® ¦ãÀÌããÀ ¹ãì¶Öã ‚ãì¹ãÔãî ÊããØããÌãñ ‚ãÍããè Öãè ¦ã§Ìãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããè
Öãñ¦ããè?

Öãè 1857 Þ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ ‚ãÔãÊãñÊããè ãäªÌ¾ã ¦ã§Ìãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ `ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã` Öãè Öãñ¦ã. ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾ㠣ã½ããÃÌãÀ ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ, ãäÌãÜãã¦ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ‡ãŠ¹ã›¹ãÞÆ ãìÀ ÖÊÊãã ‚ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¾ã©ãã©ãà Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãäªÔãî ÊããØã¦ããÞã ÔÌã£ã½ãÃ
Ààã¥ãã©ãà •ããè `ªãè¶ã ªãè¶ã` Öãè Øã•ãöãã Ôãì ¢ããÊããè, ¦¾ãã Øã•ãöãñ¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãä¶ãÔãØãê§ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÊã㠇㊹ã›ãè¹ã¥ãã¶ãñ ã䜶ããÌãî¶ã
‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãã¾ãã¦ã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã ÍãðâŒãÊãã Üãã¦ãʾãã Øãñʾãã Öñ ¹ããÖ¦ããÞã ÔÌãÀ㕾ãÔãâ¹ã㪶ããÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ãä‚ãÞœñ¶ãñ ¦¾ãã
ªãÔ¾ãÍãðâŒãÊãñÌãÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‚ããÜãã¦ãã¦ã ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãâÞãñ ½ãîß ‚ããÖñ. ÔÌã£ã½ãùãÆãè¦ããè ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã¹ãÆãè¦ããè Öãè ¦ã§Ìãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããâ¦ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã Ô¹ãÓ›¦ãñ¶ãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãìªã§ã¦ãñ¶ãñ ãªä Ôã¦ãã¦ã ¦¾ããÖî¶ã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ãäªÔã¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ¦ã? ¹ãÀ‡ãŠãè¾ã
ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ã½ã¦ãÊãºããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâ¶ããè ¦¾ãã ãäªÌ¾ã ãäÖâªì¼ãîÞãñ ãäÞã¨ã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããèÖãè Üãã¥ãñÀ¡¿ãã ÀâØãã¦ã ‡ãŠã¤ÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãÊãñ ¦ãÀãè •ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã
‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¶ããÌãÀãèÊã ãäÞã¦ããñ¡Þãñ ¶ããÌã ¹ãìÔãÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè, ãäÔãâÖØã¡Þãñ ¶ããÌã ¹ãìÔãÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè, ¹ãƦãã¹ããã䪦¾ããÞãñ ¶ããÌã
¹ãìÔãÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ØãìÁ ØããñãäÌãâªãäÔãâØããâÞãñ ¶ããÌã ¹ãìÔãÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã Öãè ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞããè ¦ã§Ìãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã
À‡ã‹¦ãã½ããÔããâ¦ã ãäŒãßî¶ã ÀãÖ¥ããÀãè ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÌãÀ àã¥ã¼ãÀ ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã ¼ãƽããÞãñ ¤Øã ¾ãñÌããñ¦ã- Ôãî¾ããÃÌãÀªñŒããèÊã ¤Øã ¾ãñ¦ãã¦ã -
¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ããñ àã¥ã Ôãâ¹ã¦ããñ ¶ã Ôãâ¹ã¦ããñ ¦ããñ ¦¾ãã ¦ã§ÌãÔãî¾ããÃÞ¾ãã ‚ãìÓ¥ã¦ãñ¶ãñ ¦ãñ ãäÌã¦ãßî¶ã •ãã¦ããèÊã ¾ãã¦ã ½ãìßãèÞã Íãâ‡ãŠã ¶ããÖãè.

ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞãñ ¹ãƾ㦶㠇ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè¦ã ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞãñ ãäªÌ¾ã
‚ãâØããè‡ãŠãÀÊãñ ¶ããÖãè? ``ÔãîÀã Ôããñ ¹ãÞãããä•ã¾ãñ •ããñ Êã¤ñ ã䪶ã‡ãñŠ Öñ¦ãý ¹ãìÀ•ãã ¹ãìÀ•ã㠇㊛ ½ãÀñ ¦ãºãÖî ¶ã œãñ¡ñ Œãñ¦ã!`` (ØãìÁ ØããñãäÌãâªãäÔãâÖ).
‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè À¥ããâØã¥ããÌãÀ ãä¦ãߦããèß ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ¢ããÊãñ ¦ãÀãè •ãñ Ö›¦ã ¶ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÍãã ¹ãÆÔãâØããâ¶ããè ¼ãÀ¦ã¼ãî½ããèÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã
‚ãã¹ãî¥ãà ¼ãÀÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ.

¾ãã ¹ãÀâ¹ãÀãØã¦ã ãä¶ã ãäªÌ¾ã ¦ã§ÌããâÞãã ÔãâÞããÀ Öãñ¥¾ããÔã 1857 ÔããÊããè ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ‡ãŠãÀ¥ãñ Öãñ¦ããè ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ¹ãîÌããê ¹ãŠãÀÞã
©ããñ¡¿ãã ÌãñßñÔã Üã¡î¶ã ‚ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ¾ãã ãäÌããäÍãÓ› ¹ãÆÔãâØããâ¶ããè ãäÖ⪼ãî½ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØãã¦ã ãä‡ãâŠãäÞã¦ã Ôãì¹ãÆÔã¸ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ¾ãã ½ã¶ããñÌãð§ããé¶ãã
ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã Þãñ¦ã¶ãã ãäªÊããè ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè Êããñ‡ãŠÍã‡ã‹¦ããè Ôã••ãÞãã¹ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãʾãã. ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ ºããªÍãÖãâ¶ããè
‡ãŠã¤Êãñʾãã ÔÌãÀ㕾ãÔãâÔ©ãã¹ã¶ãñÞ¾ãã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã: ``ãäÖâªÌãããäÔã¾ããâ¶ããñ, •ãÀ ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ÔãÌãÕã¥ã ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ãî ¦ãÀ
Íã¨ãîâÞãã àã¥ãã£ããæ㠣ãìÌÌãã ‚ãì¡Ìãî¶ã ªñ‚ãî ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾ㠣ã½ããÃÊãã ãä¶ã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾ㠪ñÍããÊãã ¹ãî¥ãà ¼ã¾ã½ãì‡ã‹¦ã ‡ãŠÂ!2

Ûãã Ìãã‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ãäªÌ¾ã ¦ã§ÌããâÔããŸãè •ããè ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Öãñ¦ãñ, ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾ㠣ã½ããÃÊãã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾã
ªñÍããÊãã ºãâ£ã½ãì‡ã‹¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè •ãñ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¾ãì® Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÖî¶ã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ‚ãÔãñ •ãØãã¦ã ªìÔãÀñ ‡ãŠã¾ã ‚ãã¤ß¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ?
ÔÌãªñÍãÀàã¥ã, ÔÌãÀ㕾ã ÔãâÔ©ãã¹ã¶ã ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ãà ¹ããäÀ¨ãã¥ã ¾ããÔããŸãè ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ãäÔãÖãÔã¶ããÌã¶㠹ãÆã©ãöãã ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ¾ãã Ô¹ãÓ›,
ãäªÌ¾ã ãä¶ã Ô¹ãîŠãä¦ãÕã¶ã‡ãŠ ½ãâ¨ãã¦ãÞã 1857 Þ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ ºããè•ã ‚ããÖñ! ºãÀñÊããèÊãã œã¹ãî¶ã ¹ãÆãäÔã® ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ãä¶ã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºããâ¶ããè
‡ãŠã¤Êãñʾãã ªìÔãžãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã: ``ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªî¶ããñ ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâ¶ããñ, ‚ãìŸã! ÔÌãªñÍã
ºããâ£ãÌãÖãñ, ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀã¶ãñ ãäªÊãñʾãã ªñ¥ãؾãã¦ã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ÑãñÓŸ ªñ¥ãØããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã (sovereign) Öãè Öãñ¾ã. Öãè ãä‚ãÍÌãÀª§ã
ªñ¥ãØããè •¾ãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ¹ãŠÔãÌãî¶ã, ã䜶ããÌãî¶ã ¶ãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ãã •ãìÊã½ããè ÀãàãÔããÊãã ¦ããè ¹ãŠãÀ ãäªÌãÔã ¹ãÞãñÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? Öñ ãä‚ãÍÌãÀãè
ãä‚ãÞœñãäÌãÁ® ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ‡ãðŠ¦¾ã ¹ãŠãÀ ãäªÌãÔã •ã¾ããÔã •ãã‚ããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¶ããÖãè ¶ããÖãè! ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ¶ããè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ •ãìÊãî½ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã
‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¹ããÞãñ Üã¡ñ ¹ãîÌããêÞã ¦ãì¡ìâºã ¼ãÀÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ã ‚ãã¦ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ããÃÞãã ¶ããÍã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã
‡ã슺ãìãä® ÔãìÞãÊããè! ‚ãã¦ãã ¦ãì½Öãè ‚ã•ãî¶ãÖãè ÔÌãÔ©ã ºãÔã¥ããÀ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ãì½Öãè ÔÌãÔ©ã ºãÔããÌãñ ‚ãÍããè ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞããè ãä‚ãޜ㠶ããÖãè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã
ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªîâÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ת¾ãã¦ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ããÞã ãä‚ãÞœñ¶ãñ ¾ãã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªñÍãã¦ãî¶ã Öã‡ã㠪ñ¥¾ããÞããè ºãìãä® ‚ã즹ã¸ã
¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ... ãä¶ã ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ãÞœñ¶ãñ ãä¶ã ¦ãì½ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãÀã‰ãŠ½ãã¶ãñ ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¦¾ããâÞãã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠã ¹ãî¥ãà ¶ãã¾ã¶ãã› Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‡ãŠãè,
Ûãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖªâ ìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¦¾ããâÞãã ½ããØã½ãîÔãÔãì®ã ‚ãìÀ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè! ...ÊãÖã¶ã ©ããñÀ Öñ ÔãÌãà àãìÊÊã‡ãŠ ¼ãñª ãäÌãÔã¶㠕ãã‚ãî¶ã Ûãã
Ôãõ¶¾ãã¦ã ÔãÌãèã Ôã½ã¦ããÞã ¶ããâªÊããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã •ãñ •ãñ ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ãþãì®ã¦ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ‚ãã¹ãÊããè Ôã½ãÍãñÀ ‚ãì¹ãÔã¦ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ÔãÌãÃ

2 ãäªÊÊããèÞãã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãã ‘Lackey’s Fictions Exposed’.

ÔããÀŒ¾ããÞã ¾ããñؾã¦ãñÞãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ¦ãñ ¼ãã‚ããè¼ãã‚ããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã¦ã ½ãßì ãèÞã ¼ãñª ¶ããÖãè¦ã... ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¹ãì¶Öã ‚ãñ‡ãŠªã ½ããè ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªãè
ºãâ£ãîâÔã ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ‚ãìŸã ãä¶ã ¾ãã ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãè ãä¶ã ãäªÌ¾ã ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾ããÔããŸãè À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã ‚ãì¡ãè ܾãã!!"3

Öãè ¦ã§ÌãÀ¦¶ãñ ¹ããÖî¶ã •¾ããÊãã Ûãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¾ãì®ãÞããè ‚ããñ•ããäÔÌã¦ãã ¼ããÔã¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¦ãÀ ½ã⪠ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¦ãÀ ¼ãã½ã›ã
‚ãÔãÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ãä‚ãÍÌãÀª§ã և㋇ãŠãâÔããŸãè Ê㤥ãñ Öñ ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã½ãã¨ããÞâ ãñ ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾ã Öãñ¾ã. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ãä¶ã
ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ãã ÌãñßÞ¾ãã ãäÖâªãè ÍãîÀãâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè ‚ãì¹ãÔãÊãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã Öñ ãäÔã® ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¾ããÖî¶ã Ôãºãß ¹ãìÀãÌãã ¦ããñ
‡ãŠã¾ã ªñ¦ãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ? ãä¼ã¸ããä¼ã¸ã Ô©ãÊããè ãä¶ã ãä¼ã¸ããä¼ã¸ã ‡ãŠãÊããè ãä¶ãÜããÊãñÊãñ Öñ •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãñ ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞ¾ãã ½ããè½ããâÔãñÌãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ
‚ãàãÀÖãè •ããÔ¦ã ãäÊããäÖ¥¾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‚ãì ªñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè¦ã. Öñ •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè ¼ãÊ㦾ããÔãÊ㦾ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠã¤ÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÔãî¶ã ÔãÌãÃÌãâ²ã ãä¶ã
ÔãÌããÃãä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ãäÔãÖãÔã¶ããÞããè ¦ããè ÍããÔã¶ã¹ã¨ãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ¦¾ãã ÌãñßÞ¾ãã àã캣㠽ã¶ããñÌãð§ããèÞãñ ¦ãñ ‚ãìӥ㠂ãìӥ㠂ãìÔããÔãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã.
¼ãã¡ãä¼ã¡ãè½ãìßñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¼ã¾ãã½ãìßñ •ãñÌÖã Œãžãã ½ã¶ããñÌãð§ããè ªãºãî¶ã ŸñÌ㥾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãƾããñ•ã¶ã ¶ãÔã¦ãñ, ‚ãÍãã À¥ã¹ãÆÔãâØãã¦ããèÊã Öñ
‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ããÞãñ Ô¹ãÓ› ºããñÊã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. •¾ãã ¾ãì®ã¦ã ``•ãñ •ãñ Ôã½ãÍãñÀ ‚ãì¹ãÔã¦ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ÔããÀŒ¾ããÞã ¾ããñؾã¦ãñÞãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã`` ‚ãÍãã
£ã½ãþãì®ã¦ã ‚ãìŸÊãñÊããè Öãè ÌããèÀØã•ãöãã `ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã` ¾ãã ¦ã§Ìã´¾ããâÞãã ‚ãìÞÞããÀ ãä¶ã •ã¾ãÜããñÓã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ!

¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öãè ªãñ¶ã ¦ã§Ìãñ ¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀãâÍããè ãäÌãÁ® ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãäÌããä¼ã¸ã Ôã½ã•ãÊããè •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠã¾ã? ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾㠾ããâ¶ãã
¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀãâÍããè ‚ã©ããÂã©ããê Ôãâºãâ£ã ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÍããè ãä¶ãªã¶ã ¹ããõÌããæ¾ããâÞããè ¦ãÀãè ‡ãñŠÌÖãÖãè Ôã½ã•ãî¶ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè. ½ãùãä¢ã¶ããèÞ¾ã㠽֥㥾ãã¹ã½Æ ãã¥ãñ
ÔÌãØãà ãä¶ã ¹ãð©Ìããè ¾ããâÞ¾ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ •ãâØããè ‚ã㡇ãŠãŸãè ‚ãì¼ããÀÊãñÊããè ¶ãÔãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠãÞã ÌãÔ¦ãîÞããè Öãè ªãñ¶ã ›ãñ‡ãñŠ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ‚ãÍããèÞã ¹ããõÌããæ¾ã
½ã¶ããÞããè ¹ãîÌããùããÀ ¾ã©ãã©ãà ãä¶ã ¹ããäÀ¹ã‡ã‹Ìã Ôã½ã•ãî¦ã ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãã½ãÞããè ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã Öãè ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÖî¶ã ãä¼ã¸ã ¶ããÖãè. ¦ããè ªãñ¶Öãè
Ôã㣾ã-Ôãã£ã¶ãñ ¶ã㦾ãã¶ãñ ÔãâÊãض㠂ããÖñ¦ã.ÔÌã£ã½ããÃãäÍãÌãã¾ã ÔÌãÀ㕾㠦ãìÞœ Öãñ¾ã ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ÔÌã£ã½ãà ºãÊãÖãè¶ã Öãñ¾ã.
ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Öãè ‚ãõãäև㊠Ôãã½ã©¾ããÃÞããè ¦ãÀÌããÀ, ÔÌã£ã½ãà Ûãã ¹ããÀÊããõãä‡ãŠ‡ãŠ Ôã㣾ããÔããŸãè Ôãªãñã䪦㠂ãì¹ãÔãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔããÌããè Öã ¹ããõÌããæ¾ã
½ã¶ããÞãã ‡ãŠÊã ãä‚ãã¦ä ãÖãÔãã¦ã ¹ãªãñ¹ãªãè ‚ãã¤ßî¶ã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã. ¹ããõÌããæ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ‰ãŠã⦾ããâ¶ãã £ãããä½ãÇ㊠ÔÌã¹㠇ãŠã
ãä½ãߦãñ, ãä‡ã⊺ãÖì¶ãã £ãããä½ãÇ㊠¹ãããäÌ㨾㠂ãÔãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä¶ã £ã½ãÃÔãâÊãضã¦ãã ‚ãÔãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Öãñ¥ãñ Öñ ¹ããõÌããæ¾ããâÞ¾ãã
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÊãã ½ãìßãèÞã Ÿã‚ãî‡ãŠ ‡ãŠã ¶ããÖãè ¾ããâÞãñ ºããè•ãÖãè ¾ãã £ã½ããÃÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÍÌã̾ãã¹ã‡ãŠ ÔÌãÁ¹ãã¦ãÞã ‚ããÖñ. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠂ãŒã⡦Ìãã¶ãñ ̾ã‡ã‹¦ã Öãñ¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ Öñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ãà ¾ããâÞ¾ãã Ôãã£ã¶ãÔã㣾ã¦ÌããÞãñ ¦ã§Ìã ¾ãã 1857
Þ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ã¦ãÖãè ̾ã‡ã‹¦ã ¢ããÊãñ ¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ¶ãÌãÊã ¶ããÖãè. ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ºããªÍãÖãâ¶ããè ‚ãØãªãè ¹ãÆ©ã½ã ‡ãŠã¤ÊãÊñ ¾ãã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ããÞãã
‚ãìÊÊãñŒã ¹ãîÌããê ‡ãñŠÊããÞã ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ãäªÊÊããèÊãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã Ìãñ¤ã ¹ã¡î¶ã ¾ãì® ¼ãÀ ÀâØãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ºããªÍãÖãâ¶ããè ÔãÌãÃ
ãäÖâªÌãããäÔã¾ããâÔã ‚ã¶ãìÊãàãî¶ã ªìÔãÀã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãã ‡ãŠã¤ÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ¦¾ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã:4 ``•ã½ããè Àã•ãØãã¶ã Ìããñ ÀãñÔãã‚ãñ

ãäÖ⪹ãÀ Ìãã¢ãñ Öãñ‡ãñŠ ¦ãì½ã ºãñÖã½ãã ‚ãì•ãî: ¶ãñ‡ãŠãè ‚ããõÀ ¹ãŠ¾¾ãã•ããè½ãò ½ãìͦã‚ããèÀ ‚ãì−‚ããèÀ Öãñ... ŒãìªãÌãâ¦ã¶ãñ ¦ãì½ã‡ãŠãñ ¾ãñ ½ã¦ãúã¾ãñ ‚ããÊããè
‚ããõÀ ½ãìʇ㊠‚ããõÀ ªãõÊã¦ã ‚ããõÀ Öì‡ãŠ½ã¦ã ãä‚ãÔããèÌããÔ¦ãñ ºãàããè Öõ ãä‡ãŠ ¦ãì½ã ‚ãì¶ã ÊããñØããò‡ãŠãñ •ããñ ¦ãì½ããÀñ ½ã•ãÖºã½ãñ ÀŒã¶ãã ‚ãâªã•ããè ‡ãŠÀñ,
ØããÀª ‡ãŠÀãñ.`` ‚ãã¹ãʾããÊãã ãä‚ãÍÌãÀã¶ãñ Ôãâ¹ã§ããè, ªñÍã, ‚ãã£ä ã‡ãŠãÀ Öñ ‡ãŠÍããÔããŸãè ãäªÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã? ¦ãñ ‡ãñŠÌãß Ì¾ããä‡ã‹¦ããäÌãÓã¾ã‡ãŠ
ãäÌãÓã¾ãÔãìŒããÔããŸãè ¶ãÔãî¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ãÃÔãâÀàã¥ããÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã Öñ¦ãîÔããŸãè Öãñ¦ã!

¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ãä¶ã ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã Öñ¦ãîÞããè Öãè Ôãã£ã¶ãñ ‚ãã¦ãã ‡ãŠãñŸñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã? ½ããØãñ ãäªÊãñʾãã •ãããÖä À¶ãã½¾ãã¦ã ½Ö›Ê¾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ
¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ªñ¥ãؾãã¦ã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ÑãñÓŸ ‚ãÍããè ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞããè ªñ¥ãØããè ‡ãŠãñŸñ ‚ããÖñ? ªãõÊã¦ã ‡ãŠãñŸñ ‚ããÖñ? ½ãìʇ㊠(ªñÍã) ‡ãŠãŸñ ñ
‚ããÖñ? Öì‡ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãñŸñ ‚ããÖñ? ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã ¹ÊãñØãã¦ã Öãè ÔãÌãà ªõãäÌã‡ãŠ ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãã ½ãð¦ã¹ãÆã¾ã ¢ããÊããè ‚ããÖñ. ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞãã Öã ¹ÊãñØã

3 ‘Lackey’s Fictions Exposed’. Öã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãã Ûãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞ¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã Êããñ‡ãŠÌãð§ããè ‡ãŠÍãã Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã¾ãì‡ã‹¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã
Öãñ¦¾ãã Öñ ªãŒããäÌ㥾ããÔã ¹ãŠãÀÞã ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØããè ‚ããÖñ. Öã ¹ãì¤ñ ©ããñ¡¿ããºãÖì¦ã ‚ãâÍãã¶ãñ ãäªÊãã •ãã‚ããèÊãÞã.
4 Öã Ôãâºãâ£ã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ã㠇㊶־ããÊããÊã ¾ããâ¶ããè ¹ãÆãäÔã® ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã `¦ããÀãèŒãñ ºãØããÌã¦ãñ ãäÖâª` ¾ãã ‚ãìªîà ¹ãìÔ¦ã‡ãŠã¦ã •ãÔããÞ¾ãã ¦ãÔããÞã
ãäªÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ. Öñ ØãðÖÔ©ã (?) ‡ãŠãñ¥¾ãã Þããè¹ãŠ ‡ãŠãä½ãÍã¶ãÀãÞãñ `ãä‚ãâ›Àãä¹ãÆ›À` ‚ãÔãî¶ã ¾ããâ¶ããè ºãâ¡ÌããʾããâÌãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâÖî¶ãÖãè •ããԦ㠦ããò¡ÔãìŒã Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ!

‡ãŠÔãã ÔãâÖãÀ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ Öñ ªãŒããäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè ÌãÀãèÊã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ãã¦ã, ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞããè, ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞããè ãä¶ã ¢ããÍããèÞããè ÔÌãÀ㕾ãñ ‡ãŠÍããè
£ãìßãèÔã ãä½ãßãäÌãÊããè ØãñÊããè ¾ããÞãñ ½ãããä½ãÇ㊠Ìã¥ãö㠇ãŠÂ¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ £ã½ãÃÀàã¥ããÞããè Ôãã£ã¶ãñ Øã½ãããäÌãʾãã½ãìßñ ¦ãì½Öãè
¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞãñ ÜãÀãè ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããè ãä¶ã £ã½ãóãñÖãè ŸÀãÊã ‚ãÍããè •ããØãÌã¥ãî‡ãŠ ãäªÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ.``ãä‚ãÍÌãÀãÞããè ‚ãã—ãã Öãè ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè, ÔÌãÀ㕾ã
Ôãâ¹ããªã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ÔÌã£ã½ãÃÔãâÀàã¥ããÞãñ ¦ãñ ½ãîÊã Ôãã£ã¶ã ‚ããÖñ. •ããñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ôãâ¹ã㪶㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã ¶ããÖãè, •ããñ ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè¦ã ¦ã›Ô©ã ºãÔã¦ããñ
¦ããñ ‚ã£ã½ããê ãä¶ã £ã½ãóãñÖãè Öãñ¾ã. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ‚ãìŸã ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ôãâ¹ã㪶㠇ãŠÀã!``

``ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ‚ãìŸã ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ôãâ¹ã㪶㠇ãŠÀã!`` Ûãã ¦ã§Ìãã¶ãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ªõãäÌã‡ãŠ Þã½ã¦‡ãŠãÀ
‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã? ÑããèÔã½ã©ãà Àã½ãªãÔããâ¶ããè ½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈãÊãã ‚ã¡ãèÞãÍãñ ÌãÓããùãîÌããê ÖãèÞã ªãèàãã ãäªÊããè Öãñ¦ããè! ``£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ½ãÀãÌãñý ½ãÀãñ¶ããè
‚ãÌãܾããâÔããè ½ããÀãÌãñý ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ܾããÌãñý À㕾㠂ãã¹ãìÊãñýý``

Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ÖñÞã ¦ãããä§Ìã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Öãñ¾ã. Ûãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ÖñÞã ½ã¶ã:ÍããÔ¨ã Öãñ¾ã. •¾ãã ªìãäºãÃ¥ããè¶ãñ ¦¾ãã
¾ãì®ãÞãñ Ô¹ãÓ› ãä¶ã Ô㦾ã ÔÌã¹ã ãäªÔãñÊã ‚ãÍããè ŒãÀãè ªìºããê¥ã ½Ö›Êããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ``£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ½ãÀãÌãñý ½ãÀãñ¶ããè ‚ãÌãܾããâÔããè ½ããÀãÌãñý
½ãããäÀ¦ãã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ܾããÌãñý À㕾㠂ãã¹ãìÊãñýý``

Ûãã ªìãäºãÃ¥ããè¦ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè‡ãŠ¡ñ ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ãä¶ãÀãßã ªñŒããÌãã ‚ãã¤ßî ÊããØã¦ããñ! ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ûãã
¹ããäÌã¨ã Öñ¦ãîâ¶ããè •ãñ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì® Üã¡Êãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞãñ ¹ãããäÌ㨾㠦¾ããÞ¾ãã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ¹ãÀã•ã¾ãã¶ãñ ¼ãâØã ¹ããÌã¦ã ¶ããÖãè. Øãì ØããñãäÌãâªãäÔãâØããÞãñ
¹ãƾ㦶㠦ããÒÍã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãäÌã¹ãŠÊã ¢ããÊãñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ãäªÌ¾ã¦Ì㠇㊽ããè Öãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã 1848 ÔããÊããè ãä‚ã›Êããè ½ã£¾ãñ •ããè
À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè •ãâØããè Êãã› ‚ãìÔãßÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ¦¾ãã¦ã ¦¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ¹ãì¤ãžããâÞãã Ôãâ¹ãî¥ãà ¹ãÀã•ã¾ã ¢ããÊãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Öñ¦ãîÞãñ
¹ã쥾ã¦ÌãÖãè àããè¥ã Öãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè!

•ã. ½ãù‡ãŠã©ããê ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã: ‘’ The fact was that throughout the greater part of the northern

and north-western provinces of the Indian peninsula, there was a rebellion of the native
races against the English power. It was not alone the Sepoy who rose in revolt- it was
not by any means a merely military mutiny. It was a combination of military grievence,
national hatred, and religious fanaticism against the English occupation of India. The
native princes and the native soldiers were in it. The Mahomedan and the Hindu forgot
their old religious antipathies to join against the Christian. Hatred and panic were the
stimulants of that great rebellious movement. The quarrel about the greased cartridges
was but the chance spark, flung in among all the combustible material. If that spark had
not lighted it, some other would have done the work... ...The Meerat Sepoys found, in a
moment, a leader, a flag and a cause, and the mutiny was transformed into a
revolutionary war. When they reached Jumna, glittrting in the morning light they had
all unconsciously seized one of the great critical moments of history and converted a

5

military mutiny into a national and religious war!’’
Charles Ball writes : “At length the torrent overflowed the banks, and saturated

the moral soil of India. It was then expected that those waves would overwhelm and
destroy the entire European element and that, when the torrent of rebellion should again
confine itself within bounds, patriotic India, freed from its alien rulers, would bow only
to the independent sceptre of native prince. The moment, now, assumed a more
important aspect. It became the rebellion of a whole people incited to outrage by

5 History of Our Own Times Vol. III.

resentment for imaginary wrongs and sustained in their delusions by hatred and

fanaticism.”6

White writes in his Complete History of the Great Sepoy War : “I should be
wanting in faithfulness as an historian if I failed to record the admiration, the courage
displayed by the Oudhians. The great fault of the Oudh Talukdars from a moral point of
view was their having made a common cause with the murderous mutineers. But for
this, they might have been regarded as noble patriots fighting in good cause, pro rage et
pro patia, for the king and the Motherland” - for Swaraj and Swadesh

6 Indian Mutiny Vol. I, page 644.

¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã ªìÔãÀñ

‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¹ãÀâ¹ãÀã

ÔÌã£ã½ãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾㠾ãã ªñÌã¦ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ããä£ãÓŸã¶ããŒããÊããè 57 ÔããÊããè Ôãì ¢ããÊãÊñ ¾ãã ¾ãã À¥ã½ãŒããÞãã Ôãâ‡ãŠÊ¹ã ‡ãŠ£ããè
Ôããñ¡Êãã ØãñÊãã Öã¦ñ ãã? ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀãâÞ¾ãã ½ã¦ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¾ãã À¥ã½ãŒããÞãã Ôãâ‡ãŠÊ¹ã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ÔããÖñºããÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãÀãä‡ãŠªãê¦ã
Ôããñ¡Êãã ØãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. Öãè ¦¾ããâÞããè Ôã½ã•ãî¦ã ‚ãØãªãè ¼ãÆã½ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ. •¾ãã àã¥ããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä‡ãŠ¶ããžããÊãã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ãã¶ãñ ¹ããäÖÊãã ¹ãã¾ã
›ã‡ãŠÊãã ¦ãñÌÖãÞã! ØãÀãèºã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè! ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ãäÌãÍãñÓã Ìãã‚ããè› ¦ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãñŠÊãñ? ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè •ã¶½ãª§ã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãã Ö¶ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ãäÐãÍÞãããä¶ã›ãè ªñ¥¾ããÞãñ ¹ãã¦ã‡ãŠãè ãäÌãÞããÀ •ãñÌÖã ¹ãÆ©ã½ã¦ã: ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè
̾ãã¹ããžããâÞãñ ¡ãñ‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ãäÍãÀÊãñ ¦ãñÌÖãÞã ãäÖ⪼ãî½ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãÞãñ¦ã¶ãã Öãè ÔãâÞããÀÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã
‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâÞ¾ãã `ÞããâØãʾãã ‚ãâ½ãÊããâ¦ã` ãä‡ãâŠÌãã `Ìãã‚ããè› ‚ãâ½ãÊãã¦ã` ¶ãÔãî¶ã ¦ãñ ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã `‚ãâ½ãÊãã¦ãÞã` ‚ããÖñ. ÞããâØãÊãã
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Ìãã‚ããè› Öã Øããõ¥ã ¹ãÆͶ㠂ãÔãî¶ã ½ã쌾㠹ãÆͶã `‚ãâ½ãÊã` Öã ‚ããÖñ. •¾ãã ªñÍããÊãã ãäÖ½ããÊã¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãì§ãÀñ‡ãŠ¡ñ ãä¶ã Ôã½ã쳪ñÌã¦ããâ¶ããè
ªãäàã¥ãñ‡ãŠ¡ñ ÔãâÀãäàã¦ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ, ¦¾ãã ãä¶ãÔãØãúããäÊãÓŸ ãä¶ã ãä¶ãÔãØãÃãä¹ãƾã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÌãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã ‚ã¶ãõÔããäØãÇ㊠‚ãâ½ãÊã ÞããÊãî
²ããÌãã ‡ãŠãè ¶ããÖãè Öã ½ã쌾㠹ãÆͶã Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã Ôã½ãÀ¹ã›ãÌãÀ Ôããñ¡ãäÌãÊãã •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ãã Öñ •ãÀ Ô㦾㠂ããÖñ, ¦ãÀ ½ãØã Ûãã Ôã½ãÀãÞããè
½ãîÊã ‚ã즹ããä§ã ¦ãñÌÖãÞã ¢ããÊããè ‚ãÔãÊããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‡ãŠãè •ãñÌÖã Öã ¹ãÆͶ㠹ãÆ©ã½ã ‚ãì¹ããäÔ©ã¦ã ¢ããÊãã.

½ãùãä¢ã¶ããè ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ : ``ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã Öã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠãÞãã ãä¶ãÔãØãê§ã և㋇㊠‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã և㋇ãŠãÞãã ‚ã¹ãÖãÀ ‡ãŠÂ
ãä‚ããäÞœ¥ããžãã •ãìÊãì½ããÞãã ‚ãìÞœñª ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öñ ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠãÞãñ ãä¶ãÔãØãÃãäÔã® ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾㠂ããÖñ. ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããèÞããè, ÀãÓ›ÈãÞããè ãä¶ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞããè
¹ãÆØããä¦ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããâ¦ã Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì •ãñ©ãñ ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãã ¶ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ‚ãÔã¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ¶ããÖãè. •ããñ Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞãñ
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã ãäÖÀãÌãî¶ã Üãñ¦ããñ ¦ããñ Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆØã¦ããèÞãã ãäÌãÀãñ£ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¹ãÀ¹ãã衶ããÞãñ ‚ãà㽾㠹ãã¹ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ããñ. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ ¶ã‡ãŠß¦ã
ÔãÌãà ½ãã¶ãÌããè •ãã¦ããèÞãñ ãä¶ã ‚ã¦ã‚ãñÌã ÔÌã¦ã:ÞãñÞã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ ‡ãìŠÅÖã¡ ½ãã¶ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ã㦽ãÖ§¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ¹ãã¹ããÞããÖãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè
Öãñ¦ããñ. Öãè ¹ãã¹ãñ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ã¦Ä ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ¦ãÀÊãã ‚ããÖñ? Öãè ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞããè ºãñ¡ãè ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ãÞœñãäÌãÁ® ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ½ãã¶ãÌããè
ºãâ£ãîâÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¾ãã¦ã ‚㡇ãŠÌãî¶ã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠇ãŠãñ¥ããÞãã ¹ãàã •ã¾ããÊãã ØãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ? ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãñÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã ¢ãØã¡¿ãã¦ã ÍãñÌã›ãè
ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãñÞããÞã •ã¾ã ŸÀÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ.1

ÔããèÊãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÍããè ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãã Ôãâºãâ£ã Öãè ãä¶ãÔãØããÃÞããè Þãñӛ㠂ããÖñ! Ûãã ªãñ¶ã ªñÍããâ¦ã
‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞãñ ¶ãõÔããäØãÇ㊠ºãâ£ã¶ã ¶ããÖãè. ¦¾ããâÞãñ À‡ã‹¦ã ãä¶ãÀãßñ ‚ããÖñ, ¦¾ããâÞãñ £ã½ãà ãä¶ãÀãßñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ¦¾ããâÞãñ ãäÖ¦ãããäÖ¦ã ãä¶ãÀãßñ
‚ããÖñ.2 ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ ÔãÌãà ãäÌãÔã¶㠕ãã‚ãî¶ã •¾ãã ÔããÊããè ‡ã‹Êãããä‚ãÌÖ¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ã½ã¦ãÊãºããÞãñ ãä¶ã ‚㶾ãã¾ããÞãñ Ôãã½ãÆ㕾㠂ãì¼ããÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè
¹ÊããÔããèÞãñ ½ãõªã¶ããÌãÀ À‡ã‹¦ãã½ããâÔããÞãã ¹ãã¾ãã Üãã¦ãÊãã ¦¾ãã 1757 ÔããÊããèÞã Ûãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãã Ôãâ‡ãŠÊ¹ã Ôããñ¡ÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ!

Ûãã ÔÌã-ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã - Ôãâ¹ã㪶ã - Ôãâ‡ãŠÊ¹ããÊãã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ããÖãè ØããñÓ›ãè¹ãñàãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñÞã •ãâØããè ÔããÛã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ!
¦¾ããâ¶ããè Ûãã Ôãâ‡ãŠãäʹã¦ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ã®ì ãÞããè ºããè•ãñ ‡ã슟ñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¹ãñÀÊããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã? ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Öãñ äÔ›âØ•ã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãÍããè¦ã, ÀãñãäÖÊãŒãâ¡ã¦ã ãä¶ã
ºãâØããʾãã¦ã ¦ããè ºãã•è ãñ ¹ãñÀÊããè ¦ãÀ ÌãñÊãÔÊããè¶ãñ ½ÖõÔãîÀ, ‚ããÔã‚ããè, ¹ãì¥ãñ, Ôãã¦ããÀã ãä¶ã ‚ãì§ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÞ¾ãã Ôãì¹ããè‡ãŠ •ããä½ã¶ããè¦ã ¦¾ããÞããè
¹ãñÀ¥ããè ‡ãñŠÊããè! ¾ãã ¹ãñÀ¥ããèÊãã ‡ãŠãÖãèÞã Ñã½ã ¹ã¡Êãñ ¶ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ¶ããÖãè. ¦ãÀÌããÀãé¶ããè ãä¶ã ¦ããñ¹ãŠãâ¶ããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè •ã½ããè¶ã ¶ããâØãÀãÌããè
ÊããØãÊããè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ¼ãÊ㦾ããÔãÊ㦾ãã ¶ããâØãÀãâ¶ãã ÑããèÌã£ãöãÞãñ ¦ã›, Íã¶ãÌããÀÞãñ Ìãã¡ñ, ÔãÛãã³ãèÞãñ ‚ãìâÞãÌã›ñ, ‚ããØãžããÞãñ ºãì•ã ãä¶ã
ãäªÊÊããèÞããè ‚ãÌã•ã¡ ãäÔãâÖãÔã¶ãñ ªãª ªñ¦ããè ¶ãã! ¾ã㠌㡇ãŠãß •ããä½ã¶ããéÌãÀ ¶ããâØãÀ ãä¹ãŠÀÌãî¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã Ôã¹ãã› ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ½ã£ããèÊã Þãì‡ãã
½ãã‡ã㠂ãìÀÊãñʾãã ÊãÖã¶ã ÊãÖã¶ã ¤ñ‡ãŠßãâ¶ããÖãè ¹ãŠãñ¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ. ÌãÞã¶ã¼ãâØã, ‚ããäÌãÍÌããÔã, Üãã¦ã, •ãìÊãî½ã ÌãØãõÀñ ÊãÖã¶ã ½ããñŸá¾ãã

1 Duties of Man.
2 Expansion of England _ page 214.

›ãñʾããŒããÊããè ãä‡ãŠÀ‡ãŠãñß ÔãâÔ©ãããä¶ã‡ãŠ ãäÞãÀ¡î¶ã ØãñÊãñ, Ôãõ¶¾ãã¦ã ¶ãñãä›ÌÖ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞãñ ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãñ. ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ã춽ã¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã
ãä¹ãŠÀâØããè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâÞ¾ãã Þããºã‡ãŠãŒããÊããè ½ããÀ ºãÔãî ÊããØãÊãñ. ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÀã‰ãŠ½ãã¶ãñ ¶ãÌãñ ¹ãÆãâ¦ã ãä½ãßãÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ¨ã ½ãÀãŸñ ãä¶ã
ãä¶ã•ãã½ã ¾ããâÞ¾ãã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¦¾ããâÔã •ãÖããäØãÀãè ãä½ãߦã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‡ã⊹ã¶ããè‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã Øããñ¡Øããñ¡ ©ãã¹ããâÞããè ºããäàãÔãñ Ìãã›Êããè •ãã¦ã!3 •¾ããâÞ¾ãã

¦ãÀÌããÀãè¶ãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ããÔããŸãè ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ãä•ãâ‡ãŠÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦¾ãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ‰ãîŠÀ¦ãñ¶ãñ ÌããØããäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããè ‡ãŠãè,
•ã¶ãÀÊã ‚ãã©ãÃÀ ÌãñÊãÔÊããè¶ãñ •ãŒã½ããè ¢ããÊãñʾãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞãñ ÔãâØããñ¹ã¶ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦ããñ¹ãñŠÞ¾ãã ¦ããò¡ãè ²ããÌãñ! ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
ãåÖªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãñ¶ãã‡ãŠãñ¹ãžããâ¦ãî¶ã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞããè ºããè•ãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãñ‡ãŠÔãÖã ¹ãñÀãè¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã
¹ãƾ㦶ããÔã ¾ãÍã:¹ãÆ㹦ããè ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‚ãÍããè ãäÞã¶Öñ ¹ãÆãªì¼ãîæã Öãñ¥¾ããÔãÖãè ¹ãŠãÀÔãã ‚ãìÍããèÀ ÊããØãÊãã ¶ããÖãè!

¡ÊãÖãõÔããè

•¾ãã ãäªÌãÍããè Ô¹ãñ¶ã ªñÍãã¶ãñ ¶ãñªÊãÄ¡Þ¾ãã ¼ãî½ããèÌãÀ ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãè ãä‚ãÞœñãäÌãÁ® ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞãñ •ããñŒã¡ ÊããªÊãñ ¦¾ããÞã
ãäªÌãÍããè ¶ãñªÊãÄ¡Þãñ ãä¶ã Ô¹ãñ¶ãÞãñ Ö•ããÀãñ Êã¤ã¾ããâ¶ããè ¼ãÀÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãñ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì® Öãñ¥ããÀ Öñ ãä¶ããäÍÞã¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ¦ãñ ‡ãñŠÌÖã,
‡ãŠãñŸñ ãä¶ã ‡ãŠÔãñ ÌÖãÌãñ Ûãã Øããõ¥ã ½ãì−á¾ããâÞãã ãä¶ã‡ãŠãÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ããñ ‚ããÊÌÖã ¶ããÌããÞ¾ãã Ô¹ãñ¶ãÞ¾ãã ØãÌÖ¶ãÃÀã¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãã. •¾ãã àã¥ããè
‚ããùãäԛȾãã¶ãñ ãä‚ã›ÊããèÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¾ãã¦ã ªãÔ¾ããÞããè ºãñ¡ãè Ÿãñ‡ãŠÊããè ¦¾ããÞã ãäªÌãÍããè ‚ã¶ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãÀã•ã¾ãã¶ããè ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã •ã¾ãã¶ãñ Üãã䛦㠢ããÊãñÊãñ
¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì® ãä¶ããäÍÞã¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ‚ãìÀÊãñÊãã ãä¦ããä©ããä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ããñ ½ãã›À¶ããèÞã ÛããâÞ¾ãã •ãìÊãì½ããâ¶ããè ¢ããÊãã.
¦¾ããÞã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ •¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ‚ããâØÊã¼ãî Öãè ãäÖ⪼ãî½ããèÌãÀ ªãÔããè¹ã¥ãã Êã㪥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ÀãàãÔããèÔããÀŒããè £ããÌãî¶ã ‚ããÊããè ¦¾ããÞã
ãäªÌãÍããè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ãä¶ã ãäÖâªîâÞãñ •ãñ ¾ãì® -¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ, ‚ã¼ãî¦ã¹ãîÌãÃ, ‰ãîŠÀ Ì㠇㊡ã‡ã‹¾ããÞãñ-ŸÀÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ, ¦¾ããÞãã ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãñŠÌÖã ÌÖãÌãã Öñ
‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ãñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ ŸÀãäÌãÊãñ. ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãÀãä‡ãŠªãê¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ‚ã½ãã¶ãìÓ㠂㶾ãã¾ããâÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè •ãÀãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ãä‡ãâŠãäÞã¦ã ½ãÌããß
‚ãâ½ãÊã ‡ãñŠÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã, ¦ã©ãããä¹ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ¾ããñØãã¶ãñ ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã À¥ãÔãâØãÆã½ã ¦¾ããÊãã ›ãߦãã ¾ãñ¦ãã ¶ãã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ªñÍãã¶ãñ ¹ãî¥ãà ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã
‚ãÔããÌãñ ÖãÞã ¶ãõÔããäØãÇ㊠¦ã‡ãÊÍããÔ¨ããÞãã ‚ãºãããä£ã¦ã ÀÖã¥ããÀã ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã ãäÔã®ãâ¦ã ‚ããÖñ. Ûãã ã¶ä ãÔãØãÃÖñ¦ãîÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÁ® •ãã‚ãî¶ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããèÖãè
‚ãñŒãã²ãã ÀãÓ›ÈãÞãñ ¹ãã¾ãã¦ã ºãß•ããñÀãè¶ãñ ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞããè ºãñ¡ãè- ½ãØã ¦ããñ Ôããñ¶¾ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠã ½ã¤ãäÌãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔãñ¶ãã- ÊããªÊããè ‡ãŠãè, ‡ãŠãßãÞ¾ãã
Üã¥ããŒããÊããè ãä¦ãÞãñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ‚ãì¡ãÌã¾ããÞãñ Öñ ŸÀÊãñÊãñÞã ‚ããÖñ. ¦ã©ãããä¹ã •ãñ©ãñ •ãñ©ãñ ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè ‚ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ •ãìÊãî½ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊããÞã
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ãä¶ã •ãñ©ãñ •ãñ©ãñ ãä¹ãŠÀâØããè À㕾㠂ããÖñ ¦ãñ©ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ‚ããÊãñÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ¦ã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ãäºã¶ã•ãìÊã½ããè ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè Öãè ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠãè
‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ØããñÓ› ‚ããÖñ ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãèÞã ãäºã¶ã¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ãä¹ãŠÀâØããè À㕾ã Öãè ØããñÓ›Öãè ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¾ã!

‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¹ãÀ‡ã‹¾ããâÌãÀ ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾ã½ãîÊã‡ãŠ Ôã§ãã ÞããÊããäÌã¥ãñ Öñ ãä•ã©ãñ ÔãÌãÃÔãâ½ã¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ, ãä¦ã©ãñ •ããñ Öãè Ôã§ãã ¹ãƇãŠÓããöãñ
Øãã•ãÌããèÊã ¦¾ããÊããÞã ÑãñÓŸããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ãä½ãߦãã¦ã. ¾ãã ¾ããñØãã¶ãñ •ããñ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ‚㶾ãã¾ããè ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ããñ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ÑãñÓŸ Øã¥ãÊãã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããÊãã

3 If he were to pass his whole life in the Company’s service and do what he might - he

could not rise higher than the Subhedar. Even an English sergeant commanded native
officers of the highest rank on parade the English officers made mistakes, used wrong
words of command and threw the blame upon the Sepoys and reviled them. Even native
officers, who had grown grey in the service, were publicly abused by European
Striplings... (They) had not, as in the armies of native potentates, elephants and
palanquins assigned to them for their conveyance how great so ever the distance which
they were obliged to traverse. “The Sepoys of the Nizam and Marhatta Chiefs”, they
said, “are better off than our Subhedars and Jamadars,” That the English officers could
jmport into Zananas the most beautiful women in the country... and to crown all it was
declared that General Aurther Wellesley had ordered his wounded Sipahis to be
mercilessly shot to death!” -Kaye Vol. I, page 160 - 61

¦¾ã㠂㶾ãã¾ããâÞããè ‡ãŠ½ããÊã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ªãŒããäÌãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ÑãñÓŸ¦Ìã ŸñÌ㥾ããÞããè ªìÔãÀãè ¾ãì‡ã‹¦ããè ãäÍãÊÊã‡ãŠ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
•ãñ©ãñ ‚㶾ãã¾ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ã£ã½ã¹ã¥ãã¦ã Àã•ãÀãñÔã Þã¤ã‚ããñ¤ Ôãì ‚ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ãñ ãä¶ã¹ã•ããÌã¾ããÞãñ! Öãè ‚ã¶ããèãä¦ã½ãîÊã‡ãŠ
Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ãñ •ãñ©ãñ •ãñ©ãñ ½ãã•ãÊããè ¦ãñ©ãñ ¦ãñ©ãñ ‚ãÔãʾãã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞããè Àã¶ãòÞããè Àã¶ãñ ÀããäÖÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè!

¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ¡ÊãÖãõÔããé¶ãã ½ããØãñ ›ã‡ãŠ¥ããÀã ‚ãÔãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ããâØÊã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè 1848 ÔããÊããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãã.
¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÊãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀ `Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞãã ¹ãÆ¥ãñ¦ãã` ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã. Ûãã ØããñÓ›ãèÖî¶ã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ‚ã£ã½ã ãä¶ã ¶ããèÞã
‡ãŠ¦ãúãØããÀãèºã−Êã ªìÔãÀãè Ôããàã ¦ããè ‡ãŠã¾ã ²ããÌããè? Íãâ¼ãÀ ÌãÓãó¹ã¾ãĦã ÞããÊããäÌãÊãñʾãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‚ã¶ããè¦ããèÞãã ½ãî¦ãà ¹ããäÀ¥ãã½ã, ÔÌã¼ããÌãã¶ãñ
Öñ‡ãŠãñŒããñÀ, ½ããè ½Ö¥ãñ¶ã ¦ããè ¹ãîÌãà ãäªÍãã ¾ãã ºã㥾ãã¶ãñ ÀãÖ¥ããÀã, Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞããè Þ㛇㊠ãä¶ã Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞãã ½ãã•ã •¾ããÞ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ãã½ããÔããâ¦ã
ãäŒãßî¶ã ØãñÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ‚ãÔãã Öã £ãî¦ãà ¶ãÔãÊãã ¦ãÀãè £ãã¡Ôããè ½ãì¦Ôã−ãè `ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè •ã½ããè¶ã Ôã¹ãã› ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè` ¾ãã •ããä½ã¶ããèÌãÀ
¾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãì¦ãÀÊãã.

ªÀãñ¡ŒããñÀãâÞ¾ãã ›ãñßãèÌãÀãèÊã ½ã쌾㠶ãã¾ã‡ãŠãÞãñ Êãàã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÞ¾ãã ÜãÀã¦ã Ôãâ¹ã§ããè ¼ãÀÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¹ãÆ©ã½ã¦ã: •ãã¥ãñ
‚ãØãªãè ÔããÖãä•ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãÔãñ Ôãâ¹ã§ããè¶ãñ ¼ãÀÊãñÊãñ ÜãÀ ¦¾ããÔã ãäªÔãÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ãã ÜãÀãÌãÀ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ¦¾ãã Àãè¦ãã¶è ãñ ªÀãñ¡ã ÜããÊ㥾ããÞããè
¦ã¾ããÀãè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¦ããñ ÞãîÀ ¢ããÊãÊñ ãã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ. ¾ãã Øãªãê½ã£¾ãñ ¶¾ãã¾ã㶾ãã¾ããÞãã ãäÌãÞããÀ Öã ÔãÌãÃÔÌããè ‚ãÔÌãã¼ãããäÌã‡ãŠ, ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ãä¶ã
ãäÌãÜãã¦ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ. •¾ããÞãñ ¶¾ãã¾ã㶾ãã¾ã-ãäÌãÞããÀ¹ã¥ã Ôãì Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞãñ ¦¾ããÞã àã¥ããè ªÀãñ¡ñŒããñÀ¹ã¥ã Ôãâ¹ã¦ãñ! ‚ãÍããè ÌãÔ¦ãìãäÔ©ã¦ããè
‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÌãÀ ¹ã¡Êãñʾãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ªÀãñ¡¿ãã¦ã4 ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ½ãÊãã¦ã ¦¾ãã ‚ãâ½ãÊããÊãã ãäÔ©ãÀ¦ãã ªñ¥ããÀãè

ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ªÀãñ¡¿ããÊãã Ìã£ãö㠇ãŠÀ¥ããÀãè ¦¾ããâÞããè ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ¶¾ãã¾¾ã Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾¾ã Öãñ¦ããè Öñ ŸÀãäÌ㥾ããÞããè ÜããÔããÜããèÔã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÊãã ̾ã©ãà ãäÍã¥ããäÌã¥ãñ Öãñ¾ã! ¦ãÖ¶ãã½ãñ, ÌãÞã¶ãñ, ªãñÔ¦ã¹ã¥ãã, ÌãØãõÀñ ‡ãŠÊã½ããâ¶ãã ªÀãñ¡ñŒããñÀ¹ã¥ããÞ¾ãã ÍããÔ¨ãã¦ã •ããØãã ãä½ãߦã
¶ãÔã¦ãñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ŸñÌãÊãñ ‡ãŠãè ½ãØã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÞããè ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ¦ãÀãè ¾ãã¦ã¾ãã¦ã ÌããÞãñÊã! ½ãØã ÌããùÀ¶ã ÖñãäÔ›âØ•ã¶ãñ ¶ã⪇ã슽ããÀÊãã
¶¾ãã¾ãã¶ãñ ½ããÀÊãñ ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾ãã¶ãñ. ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ÌããùÀ¶ã ÖñãäÔ›âØ•ãÞããè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ãä¶ãÀ¹ãÀã£ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Ôã웇ãŠã ‡ãŠã ‡ãñŠÊããè Öñ
ŸÀãäÌ㥾ããÔã ‡ãŠãØãªãâÞãñ ¤ãèØã ¶ããÔã¥ãñ ¶ã‡ãŠãñ. ‚ã—ã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¼ããñßÔãÀ ÔÌã¼ããÌãã¶ãì¹㠟ÀÊãñʾãã ¦ãÖãâÞ¾ãã ¾ãã²ãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã,
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¦ããÀŒãã ªñ‚ãî¶ã, £ã½ãÃÍããÔ¨ããâÞããè ÌãÞã¶ãñ ‚ãì¦ã¶ã, ‡ãŠãñã䛉㊽ããâÞããè •ããßãè ÀÞãî¶ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ½ããØããèÊã ¹ãÀâ¹ãÀñÞãñ ‚ãã£ããÀ ªãŒãÌãî¶ã
‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÜãÀãÌãÀ ÞããÊãî¶ã ‚ããÊãñʾãã ªÀãñ¡ñŒããñÀãâ¦ã ¹ãÀãÌãð§ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÔãÖã¶ãì¼ãî¦ããè ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã ¼ãÆã½ã‡ãŠ ¹ãƾ㦶㠇ãŠÀãñ¦ã, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì
£ãî¦ãà Êããñ‡ãŠ ¾ãã ãä¶ãÓ¹ãŠß Ìããâ¢ã Œã›¹ã›ãèÊãã ÖÔãʾããÌããÞãî¶ã ÀãÖ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè¦ã. Öãè ÔãÌãà ªÀãñ¡¿ããâ¶ãã ÊããØãî ‚ãÔã¥ããÀãè ØããñÓ›
¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ªÀãñ¡¿ããâ¶ãã ¦ãÀ ãäÌãÍãñÓãÞã ÊããØãî ¹ã¡¦ãñ ãä¶ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãÀãä‡ãŠªãê¦ã Üã¡Êãñʾãã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããÞâ ããè ¶¾ãã¾¾ã-¶¾ãã¾¾ã¦ãã
ŸÀãäÌ㥾ããÞããè Ìãñ¡Øãß Œã›¹ã› ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ºãÔã¥ãñ, Öã ½ãîŒãùã¥ãã Öãñ¾ã. `ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè •ã½ããè¶ã Ôã¹ãã› ‡ãŠÂ¶ã` ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãìÀãÌãÀ ª¥ãª¥ã
¶ããÞ㥾ããÔããŸãè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ‚ãñÌã¤ñ £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã £ãÀÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ºãÔÔã ‚ããÖñ. ãä¶ãÔãØãÃÔãìâªÀ ãäÖ⪼ãîÊãã ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ºã›ãè‡ãŠ
ºã¶ããäÌ㥾ããÞãã •¾ããÞãã ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã ‚ãì−Íñ ã Öãñ¦ãã ¦¾ãã ªì¾ããó£ã¶ããÊãã ¶¾ãã¾ã ‡ãŠÔãÊãã ãä¶ã ‚㶾ãã¾ã ‡ãŠÔãÊãã! Öãè ¹ãã¹ããè ÌããÔã¶ãã ¦ãð¹¦ã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã •ãñ •ãñ Ôãã£ã¶ã Ôãã¹ã¡ñÊã ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ¦ããñ ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ã¥ããÀ!

¾ãã Ôãã£ã¶ããâ¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ¹ããäÖÊãñ Ôãã£ã¶ã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¹ãâ•ããºãÍããè ¢ããÊãñÊããè Êã¤ã‚ããè Öãñ¾ã. ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¾ããâÞãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãñ
ãä‡ãŠ¶ããžããÔã Ô¹ãÍãà Öãñ¦ããÞã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã Öñ ¦ããºã¡¦ããñºã £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ ‡ãŠãè ¹ãâ•ããºã½ã£¾ãñ •ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã À¥ããä•ã¦ããäÔãâÖ ãä¶ã¹ã•ã¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã
¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠂ãã¹ãÊããè ¹ãã¹ãÌããÔã¶ãã ¹ãî¥ãà ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öñ ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Êãã ¹ãŠãÀ •ã¡ •ãã¥ããÀñ ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãÔãñ ¹ããÖî¶ã ¦¾ãã ¹ãâ•ããºããè ãäÔãâÖãÔã

4Malcolm Lewin says : “...Grasping everything that could render life desirable, we have

desired to the people of the country all that could raise them in society, all that could
elevate them as men... we have delivered up their pagoda- property to confiscation; we
have branded them in our official records as ‘heathens”. we have seized the possessions
of their native princes and confiscated the estates of the nobles; we have unsettled the
country by exactions and collected the revenue by means of torture; we have held India
as the highway man holds his neighbour’s purse for what it contains.”

ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã Ôãã¹ãß¿ãã¦ã ‡ãŠÔãñ ¦ãÀãè ¹ãã¡ÊãñÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ, ‚ãÔãã ¦¾ããÞãã Ò¤ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ¢ããÊãã ãä¶ã •ãÀãè ãäÞããäÊã¾ã¶ãÌããÊããÞ¾ãã
ªãÀã¦ãî¶ãÌã ºããÖñÀ ¹ã¡î¶ã ¦¾ãã ¹ãâ•ããºããè ãäÔãâÖãâ¶ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ Þã¹ãÀã‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Íã¨ãîÞ¾ãã œã¦ããèÌãÀ ½ããÀÊããè, ¦ãÀãè ½ããØãî¶ã
Øãì•ãÀã©ãÞ¾ãã ªãÀã¶ãñ Íã¨ãî ‚ãã¦ã ÜãìÔãÊãñ ãä¶ã ãåÔãÖãâÞããè ØãìÖã Öãè ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ãäÔãâÖãÞãã ãä¹ãâ•ãÀã ºã¶ãÊããè! À¥ããä•ã¦ããäÔãâÖãÞããè ¹ã›á›Àã¥ããè
Þã⪇ãìŠÌãÀ Öãè Êã⡶ã½ã£¾ãñ ‡ã슕ãî¶ã ½ãñÊããè ãä¶ã À¥ããä•ã¦ããäÔãâÖãÞãã £ãìÊããè¹ããäÔãâÖ Öã ¹ãÀ‡ã‹¾ããâÞ¾ãã ªãÀãè ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ½ããñ¡ãè¦ã ¹ã¡Êãã!5

‚ãã¦ãã ½ãã¨ã ãäÖ½ããÊã¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ‡ãŠ¶¾ãã‡ã슽ããÀãè¹ã¾ãĦã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ¦ããâºã¡ñ ¢ããÊãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ã•ãî¶ã ãäÔãâ£ãì¶ãªãè¹ããÔãî¶ã
ãä‚ãÀãÌã¦ããè¹ã¾ãĦ㠦ãñ ÌÖãÌãñ ¦ãÔãñ ¦ããâºã¡ñ ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ½ãØã ‚ãìÍããèÀ ‡ãŠÍããÊãã? ºãÆÚãªñÍãã½ã£¾ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Íããâ¦ã¦ãã ãä½ãÍã¶ã £ãã¡Êãñ ‡ãŠãè
‡ãŠã½ã ¹ãŠ§ãñ Öãñ¥ããÀñ ‚ããÖñ! ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ¦¾ãã Íããâ¦ã¦ãã ãä½ãÍã¶ã¶ãñ Íããâ¦ã¦ãñÊãã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ¹ãÆñ½ãã¶ãñ Ò¤ããäÊãâãäØãÊããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‡ãŠãè ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ºãÀØã¡¿ãã
½ããñ¡î¶ã ÞãìÀʾãã •ãã̾ãã! Öñ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ¹ãÆñ½ãß ‡ãŠã½ã ‚ãŒãñÀ ¹ããÀ ¹ã¡Êãñ ãä¶ã ºãÆÚãªñÍã ¦ããâºã¡¿ãã ÀâØãã¦ã ÀâØãî¶ã ØãñÊãã. ‚ãã¦ãã ½ãã¨ã
ãåÔã£ãì¶ãªãè¹ããÔãî¶ã ãä‚ãÀãÌã¦ããè¹ã¾ãĦã ãä¶ã ãäÖ½ããÊã¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã Àã½ãñÍÌãÀã¹ã¾ãĦã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ¦ããâºã¡ñ ¢ããÊãñ ŒãÀñ! -¹ã¥ã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ÊããÊã
¼ã¡‡ãŠÖãè Öãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè ‡ãŠÍããÌã¶ã!

¹ãâ•ããºã ãä¶ã ºãÆÚãªñÍã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ¶ããè ãä•ãâ‡ãŠÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãñŠÊãñ ÛããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã ¦¾ãã ¶ããÌããâ¶ããè ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè.
‚ãñ‡ãŠ›ã ¹ãâ•ããºã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¹ã¸ããÔã Ö•ããÀ ÞããõÀÔã ½ãõÊããâÞãã ¹ãƪñÍã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÞããè ÞããßãèÔã Êãàã Êããñ‡ãŠÔã⌾ãã! •¾ãã ¹ããâÞã ¶ã²ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãŸãè
¨ãÉÓããé¶ããè Ìãñª½ãâ¨ã ½Ö›Êãñ, ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã³Ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã •ããñ ¹ãƪñÍã ¦ããñ ¹ãâ•ããºã Öãñ¾ã! ‚ãÔãÊãã Öã ¹ãƪñÍã Üãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãÊãñ‡ã‹¢ããâ¡À ‚ããÊãã ãä¶ã
‚ãÔãÊãã Öã ¹ãƪñÍã ÀãŒã¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¹ããõÀÔã Êã¤Êãã! ¦ããñ Öã ¹ãƪñÍã Üãñ¦ãʾããÌãÀ ÀãÌã¥ããÞããè ½ãÖ§Ìãã‡ãŠãâàããÖãè ¦ãð¹¦ã ¢ããÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ããè.
¹ãâÀ¦ãì ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÊãã ¹ãâ•ããºã ãä¶ã ºãÆÚãªñÍã Ûãã ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãà ¹ãƪñÍããâÞ¾ãã ‚ã¹ãÖãÀãâ¶ããè ½ãìßãèÞã Ôã½ãã£ãã¶ã Ìãã›ñ¶ãã. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ÔãÀÖ−
•ãÀãè Ìãã¤Êããè ¦ãÀãè ‚ãã¦ãʾãã •ããä½ã¶ããè¦ã ¹ãîÌããêÞ¾ãã ºããªÍããÖãèÞããè ‡ãŠãÖãè ©ã¡Øããè ‚ãìÀÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ¦ããè ªñŒããèÊã ‚ãìŒã¡î¶ã ›ã‡ãã ãä•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ
ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ `Ôã¹ãã› ½ãªõ ã¶ã` ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¹ãÆãä¦ã—ãã ‡ãñŠÊããè. •ã춾ãã ºããªÍããÖãèÞããè Öãè ©ã¡Øããè ¶ãìÔã¦ããè •ããØãã ‚ã¡Ìããè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã
¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ Ûãã •ã춾ãã ©ã¡Ø¾ãã¦ã ¹ãìÀÊãñʾãã ¹ãÆñ¦ããâ¦ãî¶ãÞã ¼ããÌããè ºããªÍããÖãèÞãñ ¹ãì¶ãÁ••ããèÌã¶ã Öãñ¥¾ããÞãã Ôãâ¼ãÌã Öãñ¦ãã. Öã Ôãâ¼ãÌã
¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ¹ã¥î ãà £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. Ôãã¦ããžããÞãñ ©ã¡Ø¾ãã¦ã ãäÖâªì¹ãª¹ããªÍããÖãè ¹ãìÀÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ãä¶ã Ðãããä‚ãÔ›Þ¾ãã
¹ãìÀÁ••ããèÌã¶ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¦¾ãã ¹ãìÀÊãñʾãã ¹ãÆñ¦ãã¦ãî¶ãÞ㠇㊪ããäÞã¦ã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ¼ããÌããè ºããªÍããÖãèÞãñ ¹ãì¶ãÁªá¼ãÌã¶ã Öãñ‚ããèÊã Öãè ¼ããè¦ããè
Ðãããä‚ãÔ›Þãñ ÞããäÀ¨ããÌãÀ ãäÌãÍÌããÔã ŸñÌã¥ããžãã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÔã ¹ã¡Êããè ¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ¶ãÌãÊã ¶ããÖãè. ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1848 ÔããÊãÞ¾ãã ‚ãñãä¹ãÆÊã
½ããäÖ¶¾ãã¦ã Ôãã¦ããÀÞãñ ÍãñÌã›Þãñ ½ãÖãÀã•ã ‚ã¹¹ããÔããÖñºã Öñ ÌããÀÊãñ. Öãè ºãã¦ã½ããè ‡ãŠß¦ããÞã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ ¦ãñ ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ŒããÊãÔãã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ‡ãñŠÊãã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ãÀ Àã•ãÊãã ‚ããõÀÔã Ôãâ¦ã¦ããè ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè! ‚ããõÀÔã Ôãâ¦ã¦ããè ¶ãÔãʾãã½ãìßñ ½ããñÊã½ã•ãìÀãè
‡ãŠÀ¥ããžãã ØããâÌã¤ßãÞããè ¢ããñ¹ã¡ãèÔãì®ã ãäºã¶ãÌããÀÍããè ŸÀ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¶ãñ½ãÊãñʾãã ª§ã‡ãŠã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ¶ã•ããè‡ãŠÞ¾ãã
‚ã㹦ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¦ããè ãäªÊããè •ãã¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ôãã¦ããÀã Öãè ¦ãÀ ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ØããâÌã¤ßãÞããè ¢ããñ¹ã¡ãè ¶ãÔãî¶ã ¦ãñ ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâÞ¾ãã ºãÀãñºãÀãè¶ãñ `ªãñÔ¦ã
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ` Öãñ¦ãñ! ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1839 ÔããÊããè ¹ãƦãã¹ããäÔãâÖ œ¨ã¹ã¦ããéÌãÀ ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã À㕾ããÊãã ‚ãìÊã©ãî¶ã ¹ãã¡¥¾ããÔããŸãè Œã›¹ã› ‡ãñŠÊ¾ããÞãã
‚ããÀãñ¹ã (?) ŸñÌãî¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ØããªãèÌã¶㠹ãªÞ¾ãì¦ã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâÞãñ •ããØããè œ¨ã¹ã¦ããè ‚ã¹¹ããÔããÖñºã ¾ããâÞããè ¾ããñ•ã¶ãã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ¾ãã ¹ãªÞ¾ãì¦ããèÔãâºãâ£ãã¶ãñ ãä½ã. ‚ãã¶ããóÊ¡ Öã ‘Dulhousie’s Administration ¶ããÌããÞ¾ãã ¹ãìÔ¦ã‡ãŠã¦ã
½Ö¥ã¦ããñ : “It is not pleasant to dwell upon the circumstances of the dethronement- so
discreditable they were!” ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãÔãʾãã Ûãã ‚ãÌããÃ޾㠹ãªÞ¾ãì¦ããè¶ãâ¦ãÀ •¾ããÊãã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ¶ããè Ôãã¦ããÀÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÌãÀ
ºãÔããäÌãÊãñ ¦ããñ ¹ãƦãã¹ããäÔãâÖãÞãã ‚ããõÀÔã ¹ãì¨ã ¶ãÔãî¶ã ¼ãã‚ãî Öãñ¦ãã. ‚ã©ããæ㠂ããõÀÔã¹ãì¨ããÞãñ ‚ã¼ããÌããè ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ¶ãã¦ãÊãØããâÞãã ãäÖâªìÍããÔ¨ãã¦ããèÊã

5 À¥ããä•ã¦ããäÔãâÖãÞãñ Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞãã ½ããÊã‡ãŠ £ãìÊããè¹ããäÔãâÖ ¾ããÞããè Öãè ªìªÃÍãã ‚ãõ‡ã㠇ãŠãñ¥ããÔãÖãè ª¾ãã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì `ãä¶ã:¹ãàã¹ãã¦ããè`
Kaye ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ : “It was a happy change for Dhulipsingh... Becoming in his twelfth year the

ward of the Governor General, he was placed under the immediate tutelage of an
Assistant servant of the Bengal Army who was so fit a man for the office, so worthy of
the confidence reposed in him that the little Sikh Prince, under his wise ministrations,
developed into a Christian gentleman, an English courtier, a Scotch laird.”

¹ã®¦ããè¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãåÔãÖãÔã¶ããÌãÀ և㋇㊠ÊããØãî Öãñ¦ããñ Öñ Ûãã ÌãñßñÔã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè Ô¹ãÓ› ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. Öãè ‡ãŠºãìÊããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¶ãñÖ½ããèÞ¾ãã
ãäÌãÍÌããÔãÜãã¦ã‡ãŠãè Àãè¦ããè¶ãìÔããÀ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ÔããÖñºããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠã¤î¶ã Üãñ¦ãÊããè ÖñÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ãñ Ô㦾㠂ããÖñ.6 ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã À㕾ããâÍããè ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã

¦ãÖã¦ã ‚ãã½Öãè ¹ãîÌããê¹ããÔãî¶ãÞã ª§ã‡ãŠ Ôãâ¦ã¦ããè ‚ã½ã㶾㠇ãñŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¦¾ããÔã ‡ãŠãÊã¨ã¾ããèÖãè ½Ö¥ã¦ãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. ãä‚ã.Ôã.
1825 ÔããÊããè ‡ãŠãñ›ãÞ¾ãã Àã•ããÞãã ª§ã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãñÌãñßãè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‚ãÔãñ Ô¹ãÓ› ½Ö›Êãñ ‚ããÖñ:

“The prince of Kotah must be considered to possess the right, in concern with all

other... of adopting a son and a successor in conformity with the rules of the Shastras.”7

¹ãì¶Öã ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1837 ½ã£¾ãñ ‚ãîÞœãÃÞ¾ãã Àã•ãã¶ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ Üãñ¦ãÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¦ããñ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ¶ããè ŒããÊããèÊã ÌãÞã¶ã
ãäªÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ :

“Hindu sovereigns have a right to adopt to the exclusion of collateral heirs and
the British Government is bound to acknowledge the adoption provided it is regular and

not in violation of the Hindu Law.”8

‚ãÍãã Ô¹ãÓ› ¼ããÓãñ¦ã ãä¶ã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ã¶ä ãàãî¶ã ãäªÊãñÊããè ÌãÞã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãØãªãñ¹ã¨ããè ¶ã½ãîª ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¦ããè ‚ãã½Öãè ãäªÊããèÞã ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè Öñ
½Ö¥ã¥¾ããÞãñ £ããÓ›¿ãà ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ÌããÞãñãäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä¶ã¦ããèãäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ¨ã ‚ãã¤ß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè! ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ãñ ÌãÀãèÊã ªãñ¶ã
‚ãì¦ããÀñ ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ÔããâØããÌã¾ããÞãñ ‚ããÖñ. Öñ ‚ãì¦ããÀñ ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ªãñ¶ãÞã ‚ããÖñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ¶ããÖãè, ¦ãÀ ãäÖâªìÍããÔ¨ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ Üãñ¥¾ããÞãã
ÔãâÔ©ãããä¶ã‡ãŠãâÞãã և㋇㊠ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ‚ã¶ãâ¦ã Ìãñßã ãä¶ã ‚ã¶ãâ¦ã Í㺪ãâ¦ã ½ã㶾㠇ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ. ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã 1826 ¹ããÔãî¶ã 1847 ¹ã¾ãĦã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‚ãØãªãè Ô¹ãÓ› Í㺪ãâ¶ããè •ãÌãß•ãÌãß ¹ãâ£ãÀã À㕾ããâÞãñ ØããªãèÌãÀ ª§ã‡ãŠ Àã•ããâÞããè ¾ããñ•ã¶ãã ãä¶ã և㋇㊠½ã㶾ã
‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ÔããâãäØã¦ãÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ºãÔÔã! ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Ûãã ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ãñ ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ½ãîß ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ÌãÀãèÊã ¦ãÖãâÞãñ ãä¶ã
ÌãÞã¶ããâÞãñ ¼ããÓãñ¦ã Íããñ£ããè¦ã ºãÔã¥ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¹ãîÌãà ãäªÍãñÞãã Íããñ£ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãì§ãÀñ‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãã¥ãñ Öãñ¾ã. `ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè •ããä½ã¶ã Ôã¹ãã›`
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ãä¶ã Ôãã¦ããÀÞ¾ãã ãäÖâªì¹ãª¹ããªÍããÖãèÞãñ ©ã¡Øãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¡ãñ‡ãñŠ ‚ãìâÞã ‡ãŠÂ ¹ããÖã¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ã©ããæã
¹ãƦãã¹ããäÔãâÖ ãä¶ã ‚ã¹¹ããÔããÖñºã Ûãã ªãñÜããÖãè ºãâ£ãîâ¶ããè ÍããÔ¨ããñ‡ã‹¦ã ª§ããäÌã£ãã¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÖãè Ôãã¦ããÀÞãñ À㕾㠦¾ããÊãã ÌããÀÔã
¶ããÖãè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ! Ôãã¦ããÀÞãñ À㕾ã, Ôãã¦ããÀÞããè Øããªãè! ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1674 ÔããÊããè ØããØãã¼ã›á›ãâÞ¾ãã ÖÔ¦ãñ
‚ããä¼ããäÓã‡ã‹¦ã ¢ããÊãÊñ ãã ãäÍãÌãÀã•ã •ããèÌãÀ ãäÌãÀã•ã½ãã¶ã ¢ããÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦ããèÞã Öãè Øããªãè! •¾ãã ØããªãèÊãã ºãã•ããèÀãÌãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ãäÌã•ã¾ã ‚ã¹ãÃ¥ã
‡ãŠÁ¶ã ½ãì•ãÀã ‡ãŠÀãÌãã ãä¦ãÞã Öãè Øããªãè! ½ãÖãÀãÓ›Èã, ãäÍãÌãã•ããè ãä•ãÞ¾ããÌãÀ ºãÔã¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ãä¶ã Ôãâ¦ãã•ããè, £ã¶ãã•ããè, ãä¶ãÀã•ããè, ºãã•ããè,
ãä•ãÞ¾ãã¹ãì¤ñ `•ããè` ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¶ã½ãÆ Öãñ¦ã ¦ããè ¦ãì¢ããè Øããªãè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¹ãã¡î¶ã ›ã‡ãŠÊããè! ‚ãã¦ãã ¦ãî ŒãìÍããÊã ‚ã•ãÃ
ãäÊããä֦㠺ãõÔã ãä¶ã ¡ñ¹¾ãì›ñÍã¶ãñ £ãã¡ãè¦ã ºãõÔã! ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ‚ãõ‡ãŠ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ ¶ããÖãè. ãä‚ãâØÊã⡽㣾ãñ ¦¾ããÞ¾ããÌãÀÞãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ¦ãÀ ãä•ãÌãâ¦ã
‚ããÖñ¦ã ¶ãã? ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ºããñÊãî¶ã ÞããÊãî¶ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã, ¹ã¥ã ¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞãñ ÌãÀãèÊã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ªñÌã ¶ãÔã¦ããèÊã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‡ãŠÍããÌã¶ã? ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ‡ãŠã¾ã

6 Ôãã¦ããÀÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÌãÀ 1819 ÔããÊããè œ¨ã¹ã¦ããéÞããè ¢ããÊãñÊããè ¹ãì¶ã¾ããó•ã¶ãã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãñ Ìãñßãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ¦ãÖãÞãñ ¹ããäÖÊãñ
‡ãŠÊã½ã ‚ãÔãñ ‚ããÖñ :

“The valient English Government on its part agrees to give the country or territory
specified to the Government or State of His Highness the Maharaja Chatrapati (the Rajah
of Satara). His Highness the Maharaja Chtrapati and His Highness’s sons and heirs and
successors are perpetually, that is from generation to generation, to reign in sovereignty
over the territory, on account of this, these are given.”

7Parliamentary papers, 15 February 1850, page 153.
8 Ibid, page 141.

¦¾ããâ¶ãã ©ããñ¡ñÞã ¹ãããäÖÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ? ¦ãñÌÖã Öã ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè ¹ãŠãÀ ‚ãì§ã½ã ãä¶ã ÔÌãããä½ããä¶ãÓŸ ½ã¶ãìӾ㠂ããÖñ. ¦¾ãã¶ãñ Ôãã¦ããÀÞãñ ØããÅÖã¥ãñ
Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Êãã •ãã¥ãñ ‚ãØãªãè ¾ããñؾ㠂ããÖñ. ¹ããÌãÊãã ¦ãÀ ªñÌã, ¶ããÖãè¦ãÀ £ããò¡ã! ¹ã¥ã ¦ããñ ¹ããÌã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè ¶ããÖãè Öãè Ìãã› ¹ãÖã¦ã ¦ãî
ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè Ìãñß ºãÔã¥ããÀ? ‚ãã¦ãã ¦ãÀãè ¹ããÌãñÊã, ½ãØã ¦ãÀãè ¹ããÌãñÊã ‚ãÍãã ‚ããÍãñ¶ãñ ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè Êã⡶ã½ã£¾ãñ Êãã衶ã ÖãùÊã Ô›Èãè›Þ¾ãã
¹ãã¾ãžãã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè Ìãñß ãä¢ã•ããäÌã¥ããÀ? ÞãñÓ›ã Öãñ‚ããè¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã- ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ã Öãñ‚ããè¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã- ‡ãŠãñ›¿ãÌã£ããè Á¹ã¾ããâÌãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ºãùãäÀÔ›Àñ
¹ããñÔã¦ãã ¹ããñÔã¦ãã ÍãñÌã›ãè ¹ãÀ¦ã ¼ãã¡¿ããÊãã ª½ã¡ãèÖãè ¶ã ‚ãìÀñ¹ã¾ãĦã -Ìã ‚ãŒãñÀ ‚ãã½Öãè Ôãã¦ããÀã ¹ãÀ¦ã ªñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÔãã ‚ãì−ã½ã •ãºããºã
ãä½ãßñ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè Êã⡶ãÞ¾ãã ½ãðØã•ãßãÊãã ¹ãÆãÍããè¦ã ºãÔã¥ããÀ!

ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè Êã⡶ã‡ãŠ¡ñ •ã㥾ããÞ¾ãã ¼ãã¶ãØã¡ãè¦ã Øãìâ¦ãÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞãñ Êãàã ªìÔãÀãè‡ãŠ¡ñ Üããñ›ãߦã Öãñ¦ãñ.
½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞ¾ãã Ôã§ãñÞãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Àãñ¹ã›ñ ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÊãã •ããèÌã £ã¶ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ããÞãñ ‚ã춽ãîÊã¶ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥¾ããÞãã ¾ããñØã •ã½ãî¶ã ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã.
¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãñ ½ããÊã‡ãŠ ÀÜããñ•ããè ¼ããñÔãÊãñ Öñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Ìã¾ããÞ¾ãã 47 ̾ãã ÌãÓããê ‚ãñ‡ãŠã‚ãñ‡ãŠãè ½ãð¦¾ãì ¹ããÌãÊãñ. ÌãÅÖã¡Þ¾ãã Àã•ããÍããè
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãñ ¶ãã¦ãñ `Ô¶ãñÖãÞãñ` Öãñ¦ãñ.9 ãä¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã Öã `Ô¶ãñÖÞã` ÔãÌãèããÞãñ ¶ããÍããÔã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ããè¼ãî¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ! •¾ããâ¶ãã

•¾ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãã `´ñÓã` ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã¦ã Öñ ‡ãŠßÊãñ ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ºãÞããÌãÊãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì •¾ããâ¶ããè •¾ããâ¶ããè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã ‚ãã¹ãʾããÍããè `Ô¶ãñÖ` ‚ããÖñ
‚ãÔãñ ½ãã¶ãÊãñ ¦¾ããâÞããè ¦¾ããâÞããè ½ãã¶ã ‡ãñŠÔãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠã¹ãÊããè ØãñÊããè! ÌãÅÖã¡ãÞãñ À㕾ã Öãè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâÞããè •ãÖãØããèÀ ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè, ‡ãŠãè ¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞãñ
½ããâ¡ãäÊã‡ãŠ ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ¦ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã ãä¶ã ºãÀãñºãÀãèÞãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã À㕾ãã¦ããèÊã Àã•ãã ãä¶ã¹ãìãä¨ã‡ãŠ ÌããÀÊãã ¦ãÀ ¦ãñ
ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã `և㋇ãŠ` ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ãã ¹ããõÌããæ¾ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¹ãããäÍÞã½ã㦾㠶¾ãã¾ãã¶ãñ ãä½ãߦããñ Öñ ãäÔã® ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ªãŒããäÌ㥾ããÞãñ ‚ããÌÖã¶ã
•ãñ ãäÔããäÊÌÖ‚ã¶ã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÊãã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! ÔãØãßã ½ãã¶ã¼ããÌããè¹ã¥ããÞãã ºãã•ããÀ! ‚ãñ‡ãŠã¶ãñ ŒããÌãñ Ìã ªìÔãžãã¶ãñ
¹ãÞãÌããÌãñ! ‚ãñ‡ãŠã¶ãñ Øãßã ‡ãŠã¹ããÌãã ãä¶ã ªìÔãžãã¶ãñ ¦ããñ ‡ãŠã¹ãʾãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ãª¿ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ‡ãŠã¹ãÊãã Öñ ãäÌãÞããÀãÌãñ!- •ã¥ãî ‡ãŠã¾ã
Øãßñ ‡ãŠã¹ãîâ¶ãã ‡ãŠã¾ã²ããÞããè ¹ãŠãÀÞã ¹ãÌããà ‚ãÔã¦ãñ! ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1853 ÔããÊããè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã `Ô¶ãñÛããÞãã` Øãßã ‚ãŒãñÀ ‡ãŠã¹ãÊãã ãä¶ã
¦¾ããÊãã ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‚ãÔãñ ªãŒããäÌãÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, Àã•ãã¶ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠÞã Üãñ¦ãÊãã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã! Àã•ãñ ÀÜããñ•ããè Ôãâ¦ã¦ããèÞããè ÔãÌãÃÔÌããè ‚ããÍãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã
‚ãñ‡ãŠã‚ãñ‡ãŠãè ÌããÀÊãñ. ¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ãÖãè •ãÀãè ¦ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ ¶ã Üãñ¦ãã ÌããÀÊãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ããñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ã㠹㦶ããè‡ãŠ¡ñ ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. Àã•ã¹ã¦¶ããè¶ãñ
Àã•ã½ãð¦¾ãì¶ãâ¦ãÀ Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ¹ãîÌããê ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãÀ ØããñÓ› ãä¶ãÀãßãè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì 1826 ÔããÊããè ªãõÊã¦ãÀãÌã
ãäÍã²ããâÞ¾ãã ºãã¾ã‡ãŠãñÞãã ª§ã‡ãŠ, 1836 ÔããÊããè •ã¶ã‡ãŠãñ•ããè ãäÍãâ²ããâÞ¾ãã ºãã¾ã‡ãŠãñ¶ãñ Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãã ª§ã‡ãŠ, 1834 ÔããÊããè £ããÀÞ¾ãã
Àã•ã¹ã¦¶ããèÞãã ª§ã‡ãŠ, 1841 ÔããÊããè ãä‡ãŠÍã¶ã- Øã¡Þ¾ãã Àã—ããèÞãã ª§ã‡ãŠ- ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‡ãŠã ªãñ¶ã! Öñ ÔãÌãà ª§ã‡ãŠ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ
‚ããÖñ¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔ㠇㊺ãîÊã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ¹ãŠã¾ã²ããÞãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãã•ã ÀÜããñ•ããèÞ¾ãã ½ããØãñ ¦¾ããÞ¾ã㠹㦶ããè¶ãñ Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãã ª§ã‡ãŠ ¶ãã‡ãŠºãîÊã
‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ¹ãŠã¾ã²ããÞãñ ‚ããÖñ! ‡ãŠã¾ã ¹ãŠã¾ã²ããÞãñ ‚ããÖñ Öã ½ã쌾㠹ãÆͶã Öãñ¦ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ããÞã ‚ã¶ãÀì ãñ£ãã¶ãñ ÔãÌãà ØããñÓ›ãè ŸÀ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ª§ã‡ãŠ
Üãñ¦ãÊãã ¶ããÖãè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ ¦ãÀ Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãã ª§ã‡ãŠ ÌããÀÔã ¶ãÔã¦ããñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Ôãã¦ããÀÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ!
‚ãã¹ãÊãã •ããèÌã ºãÞããÌããÌãã ‚ãÍããè ŒãÀãè ŒãÀãè ãä‚ãޜ㠂ãÔãʾããÔã ¦ã‡ãÊÍããÔ¨ãã¶ãñ ‚ãÔãʾãã ¼ãã¶ãØã¡ãè¦ã ¶ã ¹ã¡¥ãñÞã ºãÀñ!

¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ 76432 Þããõ. ½ãõÊããâÞãã ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãà ¹ãƪñÍã 46,50,000 Êããñ‡ãŠÔã⌾ãã
ãä¶ã •ãÌãß•ãÌãß ¹ããÞã Êãàã ÔããÊããèÞ¾ãã ‚ã즹ã¸ããÞãã ½ãìÊãîŒã ãä½ãßãäÌãÊãã! Àã•ãÌãâÍãã¦ããèÊã ØãÀãèºã À㥾ãã ªì:Œãã¶ãñ ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã
‚ãÔã¦ãã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ããÞ¾ãã ªãÀãÌãÀ ©ãã¹ã ¹ã¡Êããè. ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¹ããÖ¦ãã¦ã ¦ããñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ã ÜãìÔãî ÊããØãÊãñ.
¦ãºãñʾãã¦ãî¶ã Üããñ¡ñ Ôããñ¡Êãñ ØãñÊãñ, Ö§ããèÞ¾ãã ¹ããŸãèÌãÀ ºãÔãÊãñʾãã À㥾ããâ¶ãã ŒããÊããè ‚ãì¦ãÀÌãî¶ã Ö§ããèÞããè ºãã•ããÀã¦ã ãäÌã‰ãŠãè ½ããâ¡Êããè ØãñÊããè.
Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã Ôããñ¶¾ããÞããâªãèÞ¾ãã ãä•ã¶ãÔãã ãäÖÔã‡ãŠãÌãî¶ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ÀÔ¦ããñÀÔ¦ããè ãäÌã‰ãŠãèÔã ŸñÌãʾãã Øãñʾãã!
Àã•ã¹ã¦¶ããèÞ¾ãã Øãß¿ãã¦ã ¡ìÊã¥ããÀã ÖãÀ ºãã•ããÀã¦ã £ãìß Œãã¦ã ¹ã¡Êãã ‚ããÖñ! Ö§ããèÞããè ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ã •ãñ©ãñ Íãâ¼ãÀ Á¹ã¾ãñ ¢ããÊããè ¦¾ãã
ãäÊãÊããÌãã¦ã Üããñ¡¿ããâÞããè ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ã -•¾ãã Üããñ¡¿ããâ¶ãã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã Œã㶾ããÖî¶ã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ½ããõʾãÌãã¶ã ŒãìÀã‡ãŠ ãä½ãߦ㠂ãÔãñ ¦¾ãã Üããñ¡¿ããâÞããè
ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ã Á¹ã¾ãñ 20 ãä¶ã Œãã•ãØããè •ããñ¡ãèÞããè ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ã 5 Á¹ã¾ãñ ¢ããÊããè Ûãã¦ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¶ãÌãÊã! Ö§ããè ãä¶ã Ö§ããèÞãñ Öãõªñ, Üããñ¡ñ ãä¶ã ºãõÊããâÞ¾ãã

9 ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1826 ÔããÊããè ¢ããÊãñʾãã ¦ãÖãÞãã ‚ããÀâ¼ãÞã ‚ãÔãã ‚ããÖñ :

Treaty of perpetual friendship and alliance between the honourable East India Company
and his Highness the Maharajah Ragoji Bhonslah, his heirs and successors”.

¢ãìÊããè ãäÌã‡ãŠÊ¾ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ã•ãî¶ã À㥾ãã ãä¶ã À㥾ããâÞãñ ªããäØã¶ãñ ÀããäÖÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ¶ãã? ½ãØã ¦ãñÖãè ‡ãŠã ãäÌã‡ãîŠ ¶ã¾ãñ¦ã? ‚ãâØããÌãÀãèÊã ÔãÌãÃ
ªããäØã¶ãñ •ãã‚ãî¶ã À㥾ãã ãä¶ãÓ‡ãŠãâÞã¶ã ¢ããʾãã ¦ãÀãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã `Ô¶ãñÖ` Íããâ¦ã Öãñ‚ããè¶ãã! ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Ìãã¡¿ããÔã Œã¥ã¦ããè ÊããØãÊããè! Œãì−
Àã¥ããèÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã•ããÌã¾ããÞ¾ãã ŒããñÊããè¦ã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâÞããè ‡ã슪ßãè ¹ã¡Êããè! ÌããÞã‡ãŠã, ©ããâºã. ‚ãâØããÌãÀ ÍãÖãÀñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã¦ãÞã ¾ãñ‚ãî ªñ‚ãî ¶ã‡ãŠãñÔã.
‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¦ããè ‡ã슪ßãè ‚ã•ãî¶ã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè¦ãÀãè ¹ãì¤ñ •ãã¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ -ÞããÊãÊããè ‚ããÖñ -¹ãÖã ¦ããè Àã¥ããèÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã•ããÌã¾ããÞ¾ãã ¹ãÊãâØããÊãã ¹ãŠãñ¡î¶ã
¹ãñŠ‡ã㠪ñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ŒããÊãÞããè •ã½ããè¶ã ‚ãì‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊããè.10 ‚ãããä¥ã Öñ ‡ãñŠÌÖã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã Íãñ•ããÀÞ¾ãã ŒããñÊããè¦ã ½ãÖãÀã—ããè
‚ã¸ã¹ãî¥ããúãã‚ããèÊãã ÍãñÌã›Þãã ÜããñÀ ÊããØãÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã! ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ¼ããñÔãÊãñ ÜãÀ㥾ãã¦ããèÊã Àã•ã¹ã¦¶ããèÊãã ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ããÞ¾ãã Ìãã¾ãî¶ãñ
ÍãñÌã›Þãã ÜããñÀ ÊããØãÊãñÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã •ã¶ãã¶ãŒã㶾ãã¦ããèÊã Íãñ•ããÀÞ¾ãã ŒããñÊããè¦ã Àã¥ããèÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã•ããÌã¾ããÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ¹ãÊãâØããÌãÀ ºãÔãî¶ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ‡ã슪ßãè¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ÞããñÀãÞãã ¦ããÊã £ãÀãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ! ‚ãããä¥ã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ãÀ Àã•ãã ÀÜããñ•ããè ª§ã‡ãŠ Üãñ¥¾ããÞãñ ‚ãã£ããèÞã ½ãñÊãã?

‚ãŒãñÀ ‚ã¸ã¹ãî¥ããúãã‚ããè ¦¾ãã ‚ãÔãÛã ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ÜããñÀã¦ãÞã ½ãñÊããè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Àã¥ããè ºããâ‡ãŠãºãã‚ããèÞããè ãäÌãÊãã¾ã¦ãñ¦ã ¶¾ãã¾ã
ãä½ãßãäÌ㥾ããÞããè ‚ããÍãã ½ãã¨ã ‚ã•ãî¶ã ½ãñÊããè ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè. ¦ã©ãããä¹ã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã ¡ãù‡ã‹›Àãâ¶ãã ÊããŒããñ Á¹ã¾ãñ ÞããÀʾããÌãÀ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè
ºãÀãèÞã Àã½ãºãã¥ã ‚ããõÓã£ãñ ªñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ‚ããÍãñÊãã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ãä¶ã•ã£ãã½ããÔã £ãã¡Êããè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ½ãØã Àã¥ããè ºããâ‡ãŠãºãã‚ããè ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè?
¦ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ÀããäÖÊãñÊãñ ‚ãã¾ãìÓ¾ã `À㕾ããä¶ãÓŸñ¦ã` ÜããÊãÌããè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! 1857 ÔããÊããè ¢ããÍããè‡ãŠ¡ñ ãäÌã•ã㠇㊡㡦㠂ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã Öãè ºããâ‡ãŠã
ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÊãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ½ãìÊããâÞãñ ½ã¶ãã¦ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè ¦ãÀÌããÀ ‚ãì¹ãÔ㥾ããÞãñ ¾ãñ‚ããèÊãÔãñ ¹ããÖî¶ã ``½ããè ÔÌã¦ã: ¦ãì½ãÞããè ¶ããÌãñ
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãÔã ‡ãŠßÌããè¶ã ãä¶ã ¦ãì½ãÞãã ãäÍãÀÞœñª ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ÔãÊÊãã ªñ‚ããè¶ã`` ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã £ãã‡ãŠ ÜããÊããè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! ‡ãìŠÊã‡ãŠÊãâãä‡ãŠ¥ããè
ºããâ‡ãñŠ, •ã㠹㡠¶ãÀ‡ãŠã¦ã -•ãÀ ãä¦ã©ãñ ¦ãÀãè ªñÍã³ãñÛããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¦ã Üãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããÊè ã ¦ãÀ!

10 Dalhousie’s Administratioo, pages 165-168.

¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã ãä¦ãÔãÀñ

¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ‚ãããä¥ã Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè

½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈãÞ¾ãã ¹ã쥾ã¼ãî½ããè½ã£¾ãñ ½ãã©ãñÀã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãäØããäÀãäÍãŒãÀãâÞããè ‚ãõ› ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ãäØãÀãèãäÍãŒãÀãâÞãñ ¹ãã¾ã©¾ããÍããè ãäÖÀ̾ãã
ÍããÊãî¶ãñ ŒãìÊã¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ¼ãî½ããèÞãã ¡ãõÊã ¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÞãñ Ìã¥ãö㠂ããä£ã‡ãŠ ‡ãŠÀãÌãñ Öñ ŸÀãäÌã¥ãñ ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ‚ããÖñ. ¾ãã ‚ãõ›ºãã•ã
½ãã©ãñÀã¶ãÞ¾ãã ªñŒãÀñŒããèŒããÊããè ãä¶ã Ûãã ¡ãõÊãªãÀ ¼ãî½ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ‡ãŠãÌãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ `Ìãñ¥ã`î ¶ããÌããÞãñ ãäÞã½ãì‡ãŠÊãñ Œãñ¡ñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔãÖ•ãÔãìâªÀ¦ãñ¶ãñ
¦¾ãã ‚ãã£ããèÞã ÔãìâªÀ ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ¹ãƪñÍããÔã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠÞã Ôããöª¾ãà ªñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ. Ìãñ¥ãìØãÆã½ããè •ããè ‡ãìŠÊããè¶ã ãä¶ã ÔãªãÞããÀÔãâ¹ã¸ã ‡ã슛ìâºãñ Öãñ¦ããè
¦¾ãã¦ã ½ãã£ãÌãÀãÌã ¶ããÀã¾ã¥ã ¾ããâÞãñ ‡ã슛ìâºã Öñ ¹ãƽãìŒã¦Ìãã¶ãñ ½ããñ¡¦ã ‚ãÔãñ. ½ãã£ãÌãÀãÌã ¶ããÀã¾ã¥ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ÔãìÍããèÊã ¼ãã¾ããà ØãâØããºãã‚ããè
Öñ •ããñ¡¹ãñ ØãðÖªããäÀ³¿ããÞãã ½ããÀã Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããÖãè ¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀ ¹ãÆñ½ããÞ¾ãã ÔãìŒãã¦ã ÔÌã¦ã:Ôã ¼ããؾãÌãã¶ã Ôã½ã•ã¦ã ‚ãÔãñ. Ûãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã
‡ã슛ìâºããÞ¾ãã ¦¾ãã ÊãÖã¶ãÍãã ÜãÀã¦ã ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1824 ÔããÊããè ÔãÌããÄÞããè ½ã¶ãñ ãä¶ã Ì㪶ãñ ‚ãìÊÖãäÔã¦ã ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊããè. Ôãã£Ìããè ØãâØããºãã‚ããèÞãã
Øã¼ãà ¹ãî¥ãýããÔã Öãñ¦ããÞã ¦¾ãã ãäÞã½ãì‡ãŠÊ¾ãã ‡ã슛ìâºããÊãã ¹ã¨ì ããñ¦ÔãÌããÞãã ‚ãã¶ã⪠ªñ¦ãã ¢ããÊãã. ¦ããñ Öã Ô㦹ãì¨ã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè ¶ãÔãî¶ã
•¾ããÞ¾ãã ¶ããÌãã¶ãñ •ãìÊã½ããè Àã•ããâÞãñ ªñÖ ¼ã¾ãã¶ãñ ©ãÀãÀ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã ãä¶ã •¾ããÞãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãñÔããŸãè Ê㤥ããžãã ½ãÖ¶ããè¾ã
ãäÌã¼ãî¦ããé¦ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¶ããÌã ‚ã•ãÀã½ãÀ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ŸñÌãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ ¦ãñ `Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ¹ãñÍãÌãñ` Öñ Öãñ¦ã! Öñ ¼ããؾãÍããÊããè ºããÊã‡ãŠ •ã¶½ãÊãñ
¦ããñ ãäªÌãÔã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ãã Öãñ¦ãã ¾ããÞããè ªñŒããèÊã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔ㠪㪠ÊããØã¦ã ¶ããÖãè! •¾ãã ãäªÌãÔããÞ¾ãã •ã¾ã⦾ãã ÌÖãÌã¾ããÞ¾ãã ¦¾ãã ãäªÌãÔããÞããè
Ô½ãðãä¦ã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔãÖãè ¶ãÔããÌããè Öãè ØããñÓ› ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ‚ãì´ñØã•ã¶ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ! ‚ãÔãÊãñ ãäªÌãÔã Öñ ÀãÓ›ÈãâÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ¹ãŠãÀÔãñ ‚ãìØãÌã¦ã
¶ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã Íãñ¥ãã¦ã ãäŒã¦ã¹ã¦ã ¹ã¡¥ããžãã Íãñ¥ããä‡ãŠ¡¿ããâ¶ã㠕㶽㠪ñ¥ããÀñ ãäªÌãÔã ÊããŒããñ ‚ãìØãÌã¦ãã¦ã ãä¶ã
½ããÌãߦãã¦ã, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãä‚ãÍÌãÀª§ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãã ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞãã ‚ã¹ãÖãÀ ‡ãŠÀ¥ããžããâÞ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ã¹ãÆãÍã¶ããÔããŸãè ¦ãðãäÓã¦ã
¢ããÊãñʾãã ½ãã¶ã£ã¶ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâ¶ã㠕㶽㠪ñ¥ããÀñ ãäªÌãÔã Íã¦ã‡ãŠãâ¦ãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠªãñ¶ãÞã ¾ããÌã¾ããÞãñ! ‚ãÔãʾãã ¾ãã ‚ãÊã¼¾ã ãäªÌãÔããâÞããè Öãè
Ôãâ¼ããÌã¶ãã ¹ããÖî¶ã ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀ ¹ãì¶Öã Öñ ‚ã¹ãã¨ããè ªã¶ã ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè ¾ããÞããè Êãã•ã, ½ãÖãÀãÓ›Èã, ¦ãìÊãã Ìãã›ãÌã¾ããÔã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ããÖñ!
•¾ãã¶ãñ ¦ã좾ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ¦ã좾ãã Ô㶽ãã¶ããÔããŸãè À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ À‡ã‹¦ã ‚ããñ‡ãŠãÌãñ, ¦¾ããÞããè •ã¶½ããä¦ã©ããè ¦ãìÊãã Ÿã‚ãî‡ãŠ ¶ãÔããÌããè ãä¶ã -
Öã¾ãÖã¾ã -¦¾ããÞããè ½ãð¦¾ãìãä¦ããä©ãÖ ¦ãìÊãã ½ããÖãè¦ã ¶ãÔããÌããè! ¦ãì¢ãñ ½ãã¶ããè ¹ãì¨ã •ã¶½ãÊãñ ‡ãŠ£ããè Öñ ¦ãìÊãã Ÿã‚ãî‡ãŠ ¶ãÔããÌãñ ãä¶ã ¦ãñ ¦ã좾ããÞã
ãäÌãÍÌããÔãÜãã¦ãã½ãìßñ ¶ããÍã ¹ããÌãî¶ã ½ãñÊãñ ‡ãŠ£ããè ÖñÖãè ¦ãìÊãã Ÿã‚ãî‡ãŠ ¶ãÔããÌãñ ¾ãã ‚ãà㽾㠇ãðŠ¦ãܶã¦ãñÊãã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞ¾ãã ºãñ¡ãèÞããèÞã ãäÍãàãã
¾ããñؾ㠂ããÖñ! ãä¶ã ¦ããè ¦ãî ¼ããñØããè¦ãÖãè ‚ããÖñÔã!

Öãè ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞããè ºãñ¡ãè ‚ã㟠Êãàã Á¹ã¾ããâÌããÀãè ¹ããäÖʾãã¶ãñ ãäÌã‡ãŠ¦ã Üãñ¥ããÀñ ‡ãìŠÊããâØããÀ ÍãñÌã›Þãñ ÀãÌãºãã•ããè ¹ã쥾ããÞãñ
¦ã‡ã‹¦ããÌã¶㠂ãì¦ã¶㠼ããØããèÀ©ããèÞãñ ¦ããèÀãÌãÀ ¾ããÞã Ôãì½ããÀãÔã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ºãÔãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ããâÞãñºãÀãñºãÀ ½ãÖãÀãÓ›Èã¦ããèÊã ºãÀãèÞã ‡ã슛ìâºãñ
ØãñÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ÔãÌãà ‡ã슛ìâºããâÞãã ¾ããñØãàãñ½ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ãã¦ãî¶ã ‚ãì§ã½ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãããä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ‚ããõªã¾ãà ¼ãÀÊãñÊãñ ‚ãõ‡ãã
ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¶ãÌããè ‡ã슛ìâºãñÖãè ¦¾ããâÞãñ ‚ããÑã¾ããÊãã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ÀãÖî ÊããØãÊããè. ½ãã£ãÌãÀãÌã ¶ããÀã¾ã¥ã ÖñÖãè ¾ãã ½ãâ¡ßãéºãÀãñºãÀ ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1827
ÔããÊããè ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã ÀãÌãºãã•ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ããÑã¾ããÔã ÀãÖ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ÔãÖ‡ã슛ìâºã ØãñÊãñ. ¦ãñ©ãñ ÀãÌãºãã•ããèÞããè ½ãã£ãÌãÀãÌããâÞãñ ½ãìÊããÌãÀ ¹ãŠãÀÞã
½ã½ã¦ãã •ã¡Êããè. ÔãÌãà ªÀºããÀã¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã Öñ ÊãÖã¶ã©ããñÀãâÞãñ ‚ãã¶ãâªãä¶ã£ãã¶ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ØãñÊãñ. ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ºããÊã¦ãñ•ããÊãã ¹ããÖî¶ã
ÀãÌãºãã•ããè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ Þããä‡ãŠ¦ã ¢ããÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, ½ãã£ãÌãÀãÌããâÞãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ÔãØããñ¨ã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ‡ãŠß¦ããÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÔã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
½ããâ¡ãèÌãÀ ¦ãã. 7 •ãî¶ã ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1827 Àãñ•ããè ª§ã‡ãŠ Üãñ¦ãÊãñ. ¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ Ìã¾ã ÔããÀñ ‚ã¡ãèÞã ÌãÓããÄÞãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
Ìãñ¥ãìØãÆã½ãã¦ã •ã¶½ã ¹ããÌãÊãñÊãã Öã ºããÊã‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãîÌãÔà ãâãäÞã¦ã ¹ã쥾ããâÍãã¶ãñ ½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈÀ㕾ãããä£ã¹ã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãã ÌããÀÔã ¢ããÊãã.
¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãã ÌããÀÔã Öãñ¥ãñ Öãè ØããñÓ› ½ãÖã¼ããؾããÞããè Öãñ¾ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ ¦ãñ•ãÔÌããè Àã•ã‡ã슽ããÀã, ¦¾ãã ¼ããؾããºãÀãñºãÀÞã ¾ãñ¥ããÀãè
•ãºããºãªãÀãè ¦ãì¢ãñ £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ ¶ãã? Öãè ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞããè Øããªãè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè Ôãã½ã㶾ã ØããñÓ› ¶ãÌÖñ! ãäÖÞ¾ããÌãÀ ºãã•ããèÀãÌã ºãÔãÊãñÊãñ
‚ããÖñ¦ã, ãäÖÞ¾ããÌãÀ ¹ãã¶ã¹ã¦ãÞ¾ãã Êã¤ã¾ãã Êã¤Êãñʾãã ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ãäÖÞ¾ããÌãÀ Ìã¡ØããÌãÞãñ ¦ãÖ ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãäÌãÍãñÓã ½ãÖ§ÌããÞããè ØããñÓ› Öãè
‡ãŠãè, ãäÖÞ¾ããÌãÀ ‚ãã¦ãã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¶ãÓ›Ô¹ãÍããöãñ ¼ãÆÓ› Öãñ¥¾ããÞãã ¹ãÆÔãâØã ØãìªÀ¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ ãä‡ã⊺ãÖì¶ãã ØãìªÀÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ, Öñ ÔãÌãà ¦ãî
£¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ŸñÌãÊãñ ‚ããÖñÔã ¶ãã? ØããªãèÞãã ÌããÀÔã Öãñ¥ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ÔãâÀàã¥ããÞããè ãä¶ã ‚ãºãÆîÞããè Ö½ããè Üãñ¥ãñ Öãñ¾ã. ½ãØã Ûãã ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞ¾ãã
ØããªãèÞããè ‚ãºãÆî ÔãâÀàã¥ã ‡ãŠÀÍããèÊã ‡ãŠãè ¶ããÖãè? ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¦ãÀ ãäÌã•ã¾ããÞãã ½ãì‡ã슛 Ûãã ØããªãèÞãñ ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÌãÀ Üãã¦ãÊãã ØãñÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ! ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦ãñ
¶ããÖãè¦ãÀ ãäÞã¦ãîÀÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ããè¶ããè¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ã䪹¦ã ãäÞã¦ãñ¦ã ã¦ä ãÞãñ ãäªÌ¾ã ¦ãÀãè ¢ããÊãñ ¹ããÖãè•ãñ! ÛãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞããè ‚ãºãÆî ãä¦ãÔãžãã

‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ‚ãì¹ãã¾ãã¶ãñ ÀãÖ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè! Öñ ¦ãñ•ãÔÌããè Àã•ã‡ã슽ããÀã, Öãè •ãºããºãªãÀãè £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã £ã¶㠦ãî Ûãã ½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈãÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÌãÀ
ŒãìÍããÊã ºãõÔã. ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞããè Øããªãè ÍãÀ¥ã ØãñÊããè ‚ãÔãñ ‚ãõ‡ãŠ¥¾ããÞãã ¹ãÆÔãâØã ¦ã좾ãã ºãã¹ãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¥ãʾãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ÔãÌãèã Êã••ãñ¶ãñ ‡ãŠãßñ
ã䟇㋇ãŠÀ ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ÔãÌãèããâÞããè ‚ãÍããè ãä‚ãÞœã Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãè, •ãÀ ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãã ÍãñÌã› Öãñ¥ãñÞã ‚ãÔãÊñ ã ¦ãÀ ¦ããñ ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã
‚ããÀâ¼ããÊãã Ôãã•ãñÊã ‚ãÔãã ÖãñÌããñ -½ãÀ¥ãñÞã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¦ããè `½ãããäÀ¦ãã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã` ¦ãÀãè ½ãÀãñ! ºããßã•ããè ãäÌãÍÌã¶ãã©ã •¾ãã ØããªãèÞãã ¹ããäÖÊãã
¹ãñÍãÌãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦¾ãã ØããªãèÞãã ÍãñÌã›Þãã ¹ãñÍãÌãã Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã Öãñ¦ãã Öñ ‚ããä¼ã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔã ÔããâØã¦ãã ¾ããÌãñ ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãÃ, Öñ
Àã•ã¦ãñ•ããè ºããÊã‡ãŠã, ¦ãî ½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈãÞãñ ¹ãñÍãÌãã‚ããèÌãÀ ãäÞãÀ‡ãŠãÊã ãäÌãÀã•ã½ãã¶ã Öãñ!

¾ããÔã Ôãì½ããÀãÔã Ñããèàãñ¨ã ‡ãŠãÍããèÊãã ½ããñÀãñ¹ãâ¦ã ¦ããâºãñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ÔãìÍããèÊã ¼ãã¾ããà ¼ããØããèÀ©ããèºãã‚ããè Öñ ªãâ¹ã¦¾ã ãäÞã½ã¥ãã•ããè
‚ãã¹¹ããÔããÖñºã ¹ãñÍãÌãñ ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãªÀãè ÀÖã¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¾ãã ªãâ¹ã¦¾ããÊãã ¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¶ããÌã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ‚ã•ãÀã½ãÀ Öãñ¥ããÀñ ‚ããÖñ Öñ
‡ãŠã¾ã ½ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããÀ! ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã Öã¦ãã¦ã ãäÌã²ãìÊÊã¦ãñ¹ã½Æ ãã¥ãñ ¦ãß¹ã¥ããÀãè •ããè Ôã½ãÍãñÀÞã Öãñ¦ããè ‚ãÍãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ‡ãŠ¶¾ãñÊã㠕㶽ã
ªñ¥¾ããÞãñ ¼ããؾ㠕¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãªÀãè Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ãã ¾ãã ªãâ¹ã¦¾ããÔã Öñ ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¼ããؾ㠦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ‡ã‹ÌããäÞã¦ãÞã ‡ãŠßÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãñÊã! ¦ãã. 19
¶ããñÌÖòºãÀ ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1835 ÔããÊããè ÌãÀãèÊã ªãâ¹ã¦¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã Ñããè½ã¦ããè ½ãÖãÀã¥ããè Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããèÔããÖñºã •ã¶½ã ¹ããÌãʾãã. ¾ãã
Íããõ¾ãÃÍãããäÊã¶ããèÞãñ ÊãÖã¶ã¹ã¥ããèÞãñ ¶ããÌã ½ã¶ãìºãã‚ããè ‚ãÔãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¾ãã ÔãìÊãàã¥ãñÞã㠕㶽ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦ããè¶ã-ÞããÀ ÌãÓãó Êããñ›Êããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã ¦ããñÞã ¦ãñ
ÔãÌãà ‡ã슛ìâºã ‡ãŠãÍããèÖî¶ã ãä¶ãÜãî¶ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããÞãñ ‚ãìªãÀ ‚ããÑã¾ããÔã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããê ØãñÊãñ ãä¶ã ¦ãñ©ãñ Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè ãä¶ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ¾ããâÞããè ¼ãñ›
Öãñ‚ãî¶ã À¦¶ããÞãã ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãâÞã¶ããÞãã Öã Ôã½ããØã½ã ¹ããÖî¶ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÊãã ‚ãã¶ã⪠Öãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè? ¼ããÌããè ‡ãŠãÊãã½ã£¾ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè
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Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¨ã Œãñߦãã¶ãã ¹ããÖî¶ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ãã ¶ãñ¨ããÔã Ôã½ãã£ãã¶ã Ìã㛥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè? ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÞããè Íã‡ã‹¦ããè ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ½ã¾ããÃã䪦㠂ããÖñ!
•¾ãã Ìãñßãè Àã•ã¹ãì¨ã ¶ãã¶ãã ãä¶ã œºãñÊããè Êãà½ããè ¦ãÀÌããÀ Œãñߥ¾ããÔã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¨ã ãäÍã‡ãŠ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã, ¦ãñÌÖã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ¦¾ãã ‚ããä´¦ããè¾ã ºããÊã‡ãŠãâÞãñ
¼ããäÌãÓ¾ã‡ãŠãÊããè¶ã ãäªÌ¾ã¦Ìã ãäªÔãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè ãä¶ã ‚ãã¦ãã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦ãñ ãäªÌ¾ã¦Ìã ãäªÔã¦ãñ ‚ããÖñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¼ãî¦ã‡ãŠãÊããè¶ã ºããÊãÊããèÊãã
ãäªÔã¦ã ¶ããÖãè¦ã! ¦ã©ãããä¹ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÞ¾ãã Þã½ãÃÞãàãîÞããè Öãè ‚ãªîÀÒãäÓ› ÜããÊããäÌ㥾ããÔã •ãÀ ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãñÞãã ÞãÓ½ãã ãä½ãßñÊã ¦ãÀ ¼ãî¦ã‡ãŠãÊãã¦ããèÊã
¦¾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ºããÊãÊããèÊãã ‚ãã¹ã¥ããÔã ÔãÖ•ã ¹ãÖã¦ãã ¾ãñ¦ããèÊã. Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ºãâ£ãì ÀãÌãÔããÖñºã Öñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
ãäÍãàã‡ãŠã¹ããÍããè ãäÌã²ãã¼¾ããÔã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã Öãè ¦ãñ•ãÔÌããè œºãñÊããè ‚ãã¹ã¥ãÖãè ‚ã¡Œãߦ㠂㡌ãߦã ÌããÞããÌã¾ããÔã ãäÍã‡ãŠ¦ã ‚ããÖñ,1

Ö§ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãâºããÀãè¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ºãÔãÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä¶ã Öãè Þã¹ãÊã ‡ã슽ããÀãè `½ãÊãã ÌãÀ ܾãã¶ãã` ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Êãããä¡Ìããß¹ã¥ãã¶ãñ ֛ᛠ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã
‚ããÖñ! ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Üããñ¡¿ããÌãÀ ¶ãã¶ãã ºãÔãÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä¶ã ªìÔãžãã Üããñ¡¿ããÌãÀ ºãÔãî¶ã Öãè ½ãî¦ãÃÊãà½ããè ‡ãñŠÌÖã ¾ãñ¦ãñ ¾ããÞããè Ìãã› ¹ãÖã¦ã ÊãØãã½ã
ŒãñÞããè¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ¦ããñÞ㠇㊽ãÀñÊãã ¦ãÀÌããÀ Ê㛇ãŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, ÌããžããÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãñ½ãÊã ÊãÖÀãè¶ãñ ‡ãìŠÀÊã ‡ãñŠÍã ãä‡ãâŠãäÞ㶽ãã¨ã ¡ìÊã¦ã ‚ããÖ¦ñ ã ãä¶ã
ãä•ãÞããè ØããõÀ¦ã¶ãì ‚ã춽ã§ã Üããñ¡¿ããÊãã ‚ãã›ãñ‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ŸñÌ㥾ããÞ¾ãã Ñã½ãã¶ãñ ØãìÊããºããè ¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, ‚ãÍããè Öãè œºãñÊããè? Üããñ¡¿ããÔãÖ
¾ãñ¦ããÞã ªãñÜãñÖãè ¼ãÀÜããÌã ãä¶ãÜãî¶ã •ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ Ìã¾ã Ôãì½ããÀñ ‚ãŸÀã ãä¶ã œºãñÊããèÞãñ Ìã¾ã Ôãì½ããÀñ Ôãã¦ã ÌãÓããÄÞãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. Ôãã¦ã̾ãã
ÌãÓããùããÔãî¶ã ¼ããÌããè £ã½ãþãì®ã¦ããèÊã ¾ãã ªãñ¶ã ¹ãƽãìŒã Êã¤Ìã¾¾ããâÞããè ‡ãŠÌãã‚ããè¦ã Ôãì ÌÖãÌããè Öãè ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ½ã¶ããñÀ½ã ØããñÓ› ‚ããÖñ! ¾ãã ªãñ¶ã
½ãã¶ãÌããè À¦¶ããâÞãñ ¦ãñÌÖã¹ããÔãî¶ãÞã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ½ãñ‡ãŠãâÌãÀ ¹ãŠãÀ ¹ãÆñ½ã ‚ãÔãñ. ¾ãã ªãñ¶ã ºããäÖ¥ã¼ããÌãâ¡ãâÞããè ¾ã½ããä´¦ããè¾ãñÊãã ¼ãã‚ãîºããè•ã Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ!
ÔãìâªÀ, Ôã¦ãñ•ã ãä¶ã ½ã¶ããñÖãÀ‡ãŠ œºãñÊããè Öã¦ãã¦ã Ôããñ¶¾ããÞããè ªãè¹ããÌãÊããè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ¦ãÁ¥ã Àã•ã‡ã슽ããÀãÊãã ‚ããñÌããßãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ!

ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1842 ÔããÊããè œºãñÊããèÞãã ¢ããâÍããèÞãñ ½ãÖãÀã•ã ØãâØãã£ãÀÀãÌã ºããºããÔããÖñºã ¾ããâÞ¾ããÍããè ãäÌãÌããÖ Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦ããè ¢ããâÍããèÞããè
½ãÖãÀã¥ããè Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè ºã¶ãÊããè! ½ãÖãÀã¥ããè Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè Ûãã ¢ããâÍããè‡ãŠ¡ñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¼ãƦããÀãÔãÖ Êããñ‡ãŠãä¹ãƾã Öãñ¦ã ÞããÊãʾãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã
ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1851 ÔããÊããè ºãã•ããèÀãÌãÔããÖñºã ½ãñÊãñ. ºãã•ããèÀãÌãÔããÖñºããâÞ¾ãã ½ãð¦¾ãìºã−Êã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ãÑãîÖãè ØãßãÌã¾ããÔã ¶ã‡ãŠãñ ‚ããÖñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã
1818 ÔããÊããè ÔÌã¦ã:Þãñ À㕾ã Øã½ããÌãʾãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ Ûãã ‡ãìŠÊãªãè¹ã‡ãŠã¶ãñ ãä‚ã¦ãÀãâÞããè À㕾ãñ ºãì¡ãäÌ㥾ããÔãÖãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÔ㠽㪦㠇ãñŠÊãñÊããè
Öãñ¦ããè. ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ã㟠ÊãàããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ãã¦ãî¶ã ¾ããâ¶ããè ºãÀãèÞã À‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ã ãäÍãÊã‡ãñŠ¦ã ¹ãã¡Êããè Öãñ¦ããè. ‚ã¹ãŠØãããä¥ãÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã Êã¤ã‚ããè¦ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ¹ãõÍããÞããè ‚ã¦¾ãâ¦ã ¦ãî› ¹ã¡Êããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã Ûãã ãäÍãÊã‡ãñŠ¦ãî¶ã ¹ããâÞã Êãàã Á¹ã¾ãñ ºãã•ããèÀãÌãã¶ãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÔã £ãã¡î¶ã ãäªÊãñ. ¹ãì¤ñ
ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¹ãâ•ããºãÞ¾ãã ÍããèŒã ÀãÓ›ÈãÍããè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè Êã¤ã‚ããè Ôãì ¢ããÊããè ãä¶ã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã ÌãÔãã֦㠇ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞãñ ½ãâ¡ß ÍããèŒã

1 ¹ããÀÔã¶ããèÔã ‡ãðŠ¦ã `¢ããÍããèÞ¾ãã Àã¥ããèÞãñ ÞããäÀ¨ã` ¹ãð. 28-29.

ãä½ãÔãÊããâ¶ãã ãä½ãßî¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâãäÌãÁ® •ãâØããè ‚ãìŸãÌã¥ããè Öãñ¥ããÀ ‚ãÔãã ÀâØã ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã ºãã•ããè¶ãñ ¦¾ããÞãã ºãñÀâØã ‡ãŠÁ¶ã
›ã‡ãŠÊãã. ¦¾ãã¶ãñ -ãäÍãÌãã•ããèÞ¾ãã Ûãã ¹ãñÍã̾ãã¶ãñ -‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãªÀÞãã ŒãÞãà ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Ö•ããÀ ¹ãã¾ãªß ãä¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Ö•ããÀ ÔÌããÀ
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ½ãª¦ããèÔã £ãã¡î¶ã ãäªÊãñ.Ûãã ºãã•ããèÀãÌãã¹ããÍããè ÔÌã¦ã:Þãã Íããä¶ãÌããÀÌãã¡ã ÀãŒã¥¾ããÔã Ôãõ¶¾ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ¹ã¥ã ÍããèŒããâÞãã Ìãã¡ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ¦ã㺾ãã¦ã ªñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ½ãã¨ã ½ãìºãÊã‡ãŠ Ôãõ¶¾ã ãäÍãÊÊã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ! Öã¾ã Àñ ÀãÓ›Èã! ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâ¶ããè ãäÍãŒããâÞãñ À㕾ã ܾããÌãñ ãä¶ã
ãäÍãŒããâ¶ããè ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞãñ À㕾ã ܾããÌãñ -‡ãŠÍããÔããŸãè, ¦ãÀ ªãñÜããâÞãñÖãè œã¦ããèÌãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ¶ããÞã¦ãã ¾ããÌãñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã! ‚ãÔãÊãã Öã
ºãã•ããèÀãÌã ½ãñÊãã ¾ããºã−Êã ½ãð¦¾ãÞì ãñ ‚ãã¼ããÀÞã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ºãã•ããèÀãÌãã¶ãñ ½ãÀ¥ããÞãñ ¹ãîÌããêÞã ½ãð¦¾ãì¹ã¨ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ã Ñãã½è ãâ¦ã
¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâ‡ãŠ¡ñ ¹ãñÍãÌãã‚ããèÞãñ ÔãÌãà ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ Ìã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÌããÀÔãªãÀãèÞãñ ÔãÌãà և㋇㊠Ôããñ¹ããäÌãÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ºãã•ããèÀãÌã ½ãñʾããÞããè
ºãã¦ã½ããè ‚ãõ‡ãŠ¦ããÞã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞãã ‚ã㟠Êãàã Á¹ã¾ãñ ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÌãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞãã և㋇㊠¶ããÖãè ‚ãÔãñ
•ããÖãèÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñ. Öã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãã ãä¶ã‡ãŠãÊã ‚ãõ‡ã㠶ãã¶ããâ¶ãã ‡ãŠã¾ã Ìãã›Êãñ ‚ãÔãñÊã! ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ת¾ãã¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñʾãã
‡ãŠãÊãÌãã‡ãŠãÊãÌããèÞãñ ©ããñ¡ñÔãñ ¹ãÆãä¦ããäºãâºã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ÔÌã¦ã:Þ¾ãã ªñŒãÀñŒããèŒããÊããè ãäÊãÖãäÌãÊãñʾãã ŒããäÊ㦾ãã¦ã ¹ãÆãä¦ããäºãâãäºã¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¦ãñ
ãäÌãÞããÀ¦ãã¦ã: ``‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã Ûãã ãäÌ㌾ãã¦ã Àã•ãÌãâÍããÍããè ¦ãì½ãÞãñ Öñ ‡ãŠ³î Ìã¦ãö㠂ãØãªãè ‚ã¶¾ã㾾㠂ããÖñ. ‚ãã½ãÞãñ ãäÌãÔ¦ãð¦ã À㕾ã ãä¶ã
À㕾ãÍããÔã¶ã Öãè •ãñÌÖã ¦ãì½ÖãâÔã Ñãã½è ãâ¦ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ãä½ãßãÊããè ¦ãñÌÖã ¦ããè ‚ãÍãã ‡ãŠÀãÀãÌãÀ ãä½ãßãÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã ‡ãŠãè, ¦ãì½Öãè ¦¾ããâÞããè
ãä‡ã⊽ã¦ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ã㟠Êãàã Á¹ã¾ãñ ªÀÔããÊã ²ããÌãñ¦ã. Öñ ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ã •ãÀ Ôãªãñã䪦ã ã䛇㊥ããÀñ ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ãÔããŸãè ãäªÊãñÊãñ À㕾ã
Ôãªãñã䪦㠦ãì½ãÞ¾ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠÔãñ ÀããäÖÊã? ¦¾ãã ‡ãŠÀãÀã¦ããèÊã ¹ããäÖÊããè Íã¦ãà ¦ãñÌã¤ãè ½ããñ¡Êããè •ããÌããè ãä¶ã ªìÔãÀãè ¦ãñÌã¤ãè ‡ãŠã¾ã½ã ÀÖãÌããè Öñ
‚ãÔãâºã® ‚ããÖñ.``2 ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ª§ã‡ãŠ ¹ãì¨ã ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊãã և㋇㊠¶ããÍããºããè¦ã Öãñ¦ããñ ‚ãÔãñ •ãñ ÔããâØ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããè ¦¾ããºã−Êã

Ô¹ãÓ› ãä¶ã ½ãì−ñÔãîª ãä¶ãÌãñª¶ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã: ``Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌãÔããÖñºããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ãã¦ãî¶ã
‡ãŠã›‡ãŠÔãÀãè¶ãñ ÀãÖî¶ã ‡ãŠãÖãè À‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ã ãäÍãÊÊã‡ãŠ ›ã‡ãŠÊããè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãã¦ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ã ÞããÊãî ŸñÌ㥾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÔãñ •ãÀ
‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ ½Ö¥ã¥ãñ ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ Ûãã ‡ãŠãñã䛉㊽ããÔã ÔãÌãà ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ã ¦ãã¡ñ Ôãã¹ã¡¥ãñ ½ãìãäÓ‡ãŠÊã ‚ããÖñ. Öñ ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ã •ãñ ãäªÊãñ ØãñÊãñ ¦ãñ
¦ãÖãÞããè Íã¦ãà ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãäªÊãñ ØãñÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ãã Íã¦ããê¦ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããâ¶ããè ¦¾ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÞãã ŒãÞãà ‡ãŠÔãã ‡ãŠÀãÌãã ¾ããÞãã ŸÀãÌã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ
‡ãŠãè ‡ãŠã¾ã? ãäªÊãñʾãã À㕾ããÞãñ ‚ãÌõ ã•ããè Öñ ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ã ãä½ãßãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ããÞãã ŒãÞãà ‡ãŠÔãã ÌÖãÌãã Öñ ÔããâØ㥾ããÞãã ¾ãã •ãØãã¦ã
‡ãŠãñ¥ããÔãÖãè ¾ãã䦇ãâŠãäÞã¦ã Ôãì®ã և㋇㊠¶ããÖãè. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããâ¶ããè Ûãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ÔããÀãèÞããè ÔããÀãè À‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ã
•ãÀãè ãäÍãÊÊã‡ãŠ ›ã‡ãŠÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ããè ¦ãÀãè ¦ãÔãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¦ãñ ¹ãî¥ãà ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÔã ½ããè ‚ãÔãñ ãäÌãÞããÀ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã
¶ããñ‡ãŠÀãâÞ¾ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÞãã ãäÌããä¶ã¾ããñØã ‡ãŠÔãã Öãñ¦ããñ ¾ããÞããè ¦ãÀãè Þããõ‡ãŠÍããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã ãä¦ãÊãã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ãªãÀ
ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ŒãÞãà ‡ãŠÀ¦ããñ, ‡ãŠã¾ã ãäÍãÊÊã‡ãŠ ŸñÌã¦ããñ Öñ ÔÌã¦ã:Þãñ ¶ããñ‡ãŠÀãÔã ¦ãÀãè ¹ãìÔã¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã ¶ããñ‡ãŠÀãâ¶ãã •ããñ ¹ãÆͶã
Öãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ãäÌ㌾ãã¦ã Àã•ãÌãâÍããâÞ¾ãã ‚ããä£ã¹ã¦ããèÊãã ãäÌãÞããÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ!`` Öã ŒããäÊã¦ãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ãäÌãÍÌããÔãî
Ìã‡ãŠãèÊã ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãÊì Êãã Œãã¶ã Öñ ãäÌãÊãã¾ã¦ãñÔã ØãñÊãñ.

Ûãã 57 Þ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ã¦ã •ããè ½ãÖ§ÌããÞããè ¹ãã¨ãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ¦¾ãã¦ã ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ã ¾ããÞãñ ¶ããÌã ÔãâÔ½ãÀ¥ããè¾ã ‚ããÖñ.
‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ã Öñ ¹ãÆ©ã½ã¦ã: ¹ãŠãÀ ØãÀãèºã ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÖãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ‚ãì¸ã¦ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ºãì®ãèÞ¾ãã ºãßãÌãÀ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã
¦ãñ ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠãä¶ãÓŸ Ìã‡ãŠãèÊã ¢ããÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.3 Öñ ¹ãÆ©ã½ã¦ã: ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããÞãñ ÜãÀãè ãäŒãª½ã¦ãØããÀãèÞãñ ¶ããñ‡ãŠÀãèÌãÀ ‚ãÔã¦ã. ¦¾ã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã

ØãÀãèºããèÞ¾ãã •ããØãñÌãÀ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÖãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ½ãÖ§Ìãã‡ãŠãâàãã ¶ã Ôããñ¡¦ãã ¦ãñ©ãñ ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã ãä¶ã ¹ãÆòŠÞã ¼ããÓããâÞãã ÞããâØãÊããÞã ¹ããäÀÞã¾ã
‡ãŠÂ¶ã Üãñ¦ãÊãã. ¾ãã ªãñ¶ã ¼ããÓãã ºãžããÞã ¾ãñ‚ãî ÊããØãʾããÌãÀ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Íããßñ¦ã ºãã‡ãŠãèÞãã ãäÌã²ãã¼¾ããÔã ‡ãñŠÊãã ãä¶ã
©ããñ¡ñÞã ãäªÌãÔããâ¦ã ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè Íããßñ¦ã ãäÍãàã‡ãŠãÞããè •ããØãã ãä½ãßãäÌãÊããè. ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ºãìã䮽ã§ãñÞãã Êããõãä‡ãŠ‡ãŠ ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞãñ
‡ãŠã¶ããâÌãÀ •ãã¦ããÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¦¾ããÔã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ªÀºããÀãè ŸñÌãî¶ã Üãñ¦ãÊãñ. ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ½ãÔãÊã¦ããè¦ã ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ããâÞãñ ¹ãŠãÀ
Ìã•ã¶ã ‚ãÔãñ. ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1854 ½ã£¾ãñ ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ã Öñ ãä‚ãâØÊã⡽㣾ãñ ‚ããÊãñ. ¦¾ããâÞãã ÞãñÖÀã ‚ãì½ãªã ãä¶ã ½ããñև㊠‚ãÔãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè

2 ‘Nanasahib’s claim against the East India Company.’ Ûãã¦ã Öã ‚ãÔÔãÊã ŒããäÊã¦ãã ãäªÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ.
3 Thomson’s Cawnpore.

Ìãã¥ããè ¹ãŠãÀ ãä½ãŸáŸãÔã ‚ãÔãñ. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè Àãè¦ããèãäÀÌãã•ããâÞããè ¹ãî¥ãà ½ãããäÖ¦ããè ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ Êã⡶ã½ã£ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¦ã ¦ãñ ¹ãŠãÀÞã ãä¹ãƾã Öãñ‚ãî
ÊããØãÊãñ. ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¦¾ãã ½ããñև㊠ãä¶ã ãä½ãŸáŸãÔã Ìãã¥ããèÊãã, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØããÌãÀãèÊã ¦ãñ•ããÊãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ããõÌããæ¾ã ‚ãìªãÀ¦ãñÊãã ¹ããÖî¶ã
ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ããâØÊã ¾ãìÌã¦ããéÞ¾ãã, ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ã Öñ Øãß¿ãã¦ãÊãñ ¦ãã‚ããè¦ã ºã¶ãÊãñ. Êã⡶ã½ã£ããèÊã ÔããÌãÕããä¶ã‡ãŠ ºããØããâ¦ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
ºãÆããä‚㛶ã ÌãÀãèÊã Ôã½ãì³ãä‡ãŠ¶ããžããÌãÀ Ûãã À¦¶ãŒããäÞã¦ã ¹ããñÓããŒããÞ¾ãã `ãäÖâªãè Àã•ããÔã` ¹ãÖ㥾ããÔããŸãè ‚ããâØÊã ¶ãÀ¶ããÀãéÞããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã Øãªãê
‚ã졦㠂ãÔãñ! ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ããâØÊã¾ãìÌã¦ããè ¦ãÀ ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ããÌãÀ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã Êã캣㠢ããÊãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã ‡ãŠãè, ¦ãñ ¹ãÀ¦ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã
‚ããʾããÌãÀÖãè ¦¾ããâÔ㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ØããõÀÌããÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ¹ãÆñ½ããÞ¾ãã ¼ããÓãñ¦ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ãä¹ãƦããè¹ã¨ãñ ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ÖùÌãñÊããù‡ãŠÞ¾ãã Ôãõ¶¾ãã¶ãñ ¹ãì¤ñ ºãÆÚããÌã¦ãÃ
Üãñ¦ãÊãñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ã¦ããèÊã ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ¦ã Ôã¼â ãããäÌã¦ã ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâÞããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã `ãä¹ãƾã‡ãŠÀ ‚ã¢ããè½ãŒãã¶ããÔã` £ãã¡ÊãñÊããè ¹ã¨ãñ ¹ãÖãÌã¾ããÔã
Ôãã¹ã¡Êããè, ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÔÌã¦ã: ©ããù½Ôã¶ãÞã ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ! ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ã‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãÀãè ‚ããâØÊã ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâÞããè ½ã¶ãñ ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÓãÃÊããè ØãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ¦ãÀãè
‚ããèÔ› ãä‚ãâã䡾ãã ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ ½ã¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÌãÀ ¶ã ºãÔã¦ãã ãä¦ã¶ãñ ºãÀñÞã ãäªÌãÔã Üããñ›ãßîÌãî¶ã, ‚ãŒãñÀ ‚ãŒãñÀ ¦¾ããâÔã Ôãã¹ãŠ •ãºããºã ãäªÊãã
‡ãŠãè, ``ØãÌÖ¶ãÃÀ •ã¶ãÀÊã¶ãñ ãäªÊãñÊãã ãä¶ã‡ãŠãÊã ‚ãã½ÖãâÔã ÔãÌãÃÔÌããè ¹ãÔãâ¦ã ‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããÞ¾ãã ª§ã‡ãŠãÞãã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÌãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞãã և㋇㊠‚ãìÀÊãñÊãã ¶ããÖãè.`` ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ½ã쌾㠇ãŠã½ããºã−Êã ãä¶ãÀãÍãã ¢ããʾããÌãÀ ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊãã
Œãã¶ã Öñ ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãäÖªìÔ©ãã¶ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¾ãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¹ãÆŠã¶ÔãÞ¾ãã ½ããØããöãñ ãä¶ãÜããÊãñ. ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã Ô㣾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆÌããÔãã¦ãÞã
Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ Öñ ¹ããÖî.

Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ¹ãñÍãÌãñ ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãã¾ãìÓ¾ããÞããè ÔããäÌãÔ¦ãÀ ½ãããäÖ¦ããè ¹ãÆãäÔã® Öãñ¥¾ããÞããè ÔãìÔãâ£ããè ½ãÖãÀãÓ›ÈãÞãñ
ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÞ¾ãã ¶ããäÍãºãã¦ã ‚ãÔãñÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ããè Ôãâ£ããè ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã ¦ãñÌÖã ¾ãñÌããñ, ¹ã¥ã Ô㣾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããºã−Êã •ããè ‡ãŠãÖãè ½ãããäÖ¦ããè ãä½ãßñÊã ¦ããè
-•ãÀãè ¦ããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Íã¨ãî‡ãŠ¡î¶ãÞã ‚ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ããè -Ôãâ‡ãŠãäÊã¦ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ŸñÌã¥ãñ ÌããÌãØãñ Öãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞ¾ãã ºããÊãÌã¾ããÞããè
©ããñ¡ãè¹ãŠãÀ Ö‡ãŠãèØã¦ã ÌãÀ ãäªÊãñÊããèÞã ‚ããÖñ. ºãÆÚããÌã¦ãà Öñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÊãÖã¶ãÔãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãõ›ºãã•ã ‚ãÔãñ ÍãÖÀ Öãñ¦ãñ. ÍãÖÀãÊãã Œãñ›î¶ãÞã
Ñããè¼ããØããèÀ©ããèÞãñ ¹ãã¨ã ÌãÖã¦ãñ. ¦ãñ©ãñ ÔãìâªÀ Üãã›, ¶ãã¶ãã ÀÞã¶ãñÞããè ªñÌããÊã¾ãñ ãä¶ã ¶ãã¶ãã ¼ãîÓã¥ããâ¶ããè ½ãâã䡦㠂ãÔãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀã ¶ãÀ¶ããÀãèÔã½ãîÖ
¾ããâÞ¾ãã Íããñ¼ãñ¶ãñ ¦ãñ ºãÆÚããÌã¦ãà ÍãÖÀ ãä¶ã ¦ãñ ¼ããØããèÀ©ããèÞãñ ¹ãã¨ã ¹ãŠãÀÞã ŒãìÊãî¶ã ØãñÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãñ. Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞãã Ìãã¡ã Öã ¹ãŠãÀÞã ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãÃ
‚ãÔãî¶ã ‚ãì§ã½ã ‚ã§ì ã½ã Ôãã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ÔãìÍããñãä¼ã¦ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ÀâØããâÞ¾ã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ½ããõʾãÌãã¶ã Ôã¦ãÀ╾ããâ¶ããè ãä¶ã
ØãããäÊãÞ¾ããâ¶ããè ¦¾ãã Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ããèÊã ãäªÌãã¥ãŒãã¶ãñ ½ãâã䡦㠢ããÊãÊñ ãñ ‚ãÔã¦ã. ¾ãìÀãñãä¹ã¾ã¶ã ‡ãŠãÀããäØãÀãèÞãñ ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ÀâØããâÞãñ ‡ãŠãÞãñÞãñ
Ôãã½ãã¶ã, ½ãñ¥ãºã§¾ããâÞããè ÔãâìªÀ ¢ãã¡ñ, ½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊãñ ‚ããÀÔãñ, ÖãäÔ¦ãªâ¦ããÞããè Ôããñ¶¾ããÌãÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè À¦¶ã•ãã䡦㠶ãàããèÞããè ‡ãŠã½ãñ,
©ããñ¡‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ½Ö›Êãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã Àã•ã½ãÖãÊãã¦ã ÒØØããñÞãÀ Öãñ¥ããÀãè ÔãÌãà ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞããè ‡ãŠ½ã¶ããè¾ã¦ãã Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞ¾ãã ¦¾ãã
ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ãäªÌãã¥ãŒã㶾ããâ¦ã ãäªÔãî¶ã ¾ãñ‚ããè.4 Üããñ¡¿ããâÞãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãìâ›ãÞãñ ÔãÀâ•ãã½ã Öñ ÔãÌãà Á¹¾ããÞãñ ‚ãÔã¦ã. Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâ¶ãã Üããñ¡¿ããâÞãã

¹ãŠãÀÞã Íããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãÔãî¶ã ‚ãì§ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¦¾ããâÞãã ‚ãÍÌããäÌã²ãñãäÌãÓã¾ããè ¹ãŠãÀ ÊããõãäÊã‡ãŠ Öãñ¦ãã. ¦¾ããâÞããè ¹ããØãã Öãè ‚ãì§ã½ã ãä¶ã ¦ãÊÊãŒã
Üããñ¡¿ããâÞããè Ôãªãñã䪦㠼ãÀÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔãñ. ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã •ãã¦ããèÞããè ÖÀ¥ãñ, ãäÍã‡ãŠãÀãè ‡ã슨ãñ, ÔããâºãÀñ, ‚ãìâ› ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ÔãÌãÃ
¹ãƇãŠãÀÞããè •ã¶ããÌãÀñ ºããßØ㥾ããÞããè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¹ãŠãÀ ‚ããÌã¡ Öãñ¦ããè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ÌãÔ¦ãìâ¹ãñàãã Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞãñ ÍãÔ¨ããØããÀ ¹ãŠãÀÞã ‚ãì§ã½ã
Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ŸñÌãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ããâ¦ã ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞããè ÍãÔ¨ãñ, ¦ããèà¥ã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè, ‚ãØãªãè ̾ãã ºãâªì‡ãŠã ãä¶ã ÔãÌãà ¦ãÅÖñÞ¾ãã ¦ããñ¹ãŠã Ûãã
½ãìºãÊã‡ãŠ Öãñ¦¾ãã. Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞãã ÔÌã¼ããÌã ¹ããäÖʾãã¹ããÔãî¶ãÞã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ãã¶ããè ‚ãÔãñ. ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ½ããñŸá¾ãã Àã•ãÌãâÍããÞãñ ‚ãâØã¼ãî¦ã ‚ããÖãñ¦ã ãä¶ã
¦¾ãã ©ããñÀ ãä¶ã ¹ãÆãä©ã¦ã ÌãâÍããÊãã Íããñ¼ãñÊã ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ •ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãʾããÔãÞã ‚ãã¾ãìӾ㠟ñÌããÌãñ, ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ ‚ããä•ãºãã¦ã ¶ãã½ãÍãñÓã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã
•ãã¥ãñ ¹ã¦‡ãŠÀñÊã, Öã ¦¾ããâÞãã ãä¶ã£ããÃÀ ‚ãÔãñ. ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ããä¼ã•ãã¦ã¦ÌããÞãã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‡ãìŠÊããÞ¾ãã ©ããñÀÌããèÞãã, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÌãÀ ãä¶ããäªÃÓ›
‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ŒããäÊ㦾ãã¦ã, ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ÌããÀâÌããÀ ‚ããä¼ã½ãã¶ã¹ãìÀÔÔãÀ ‚ãìÊÊãñŒã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÔ¦ãð¦ã Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞãñ
‚ããä£ã¹ã¦ããè ‚ãÔãî¶ã ‚ãã•ã ‚ãã¹ãʾããÔã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÔããŸãè ªìÔãžããÞ¾ãã ªãÀãè ‚ã•ãà ‡ãŠÀãÌãñ ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã ¾ããÞãã ¦¾ããâ¶ã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã Œãñª Öãñ‚ããè.
`Ôãâ¼ãããäÌã¦ãÔ¾ã Þãã‡ãŠãèãä¦ãýãÃÀ¥ããªãä¦ããäÀÞ¾ã¦ãñ` ¾ãã ÌãÞã¶ãã¶ãì¹㠂ã‡ãŠãè¦ããê¹ãñàãã ½ãÀ¥ããÔã •ãÌãß ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀñ ¦ãñ Ôãâ¼ãããäÌã¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ããâÞãã
ÔÌã¼ããÌã Àã•ããÔããÀŒãã ‚ãìªãÀ ãä¶ã ÍãîÀãÔããÀŒãã ½ãã¶ã£ã¶ã Öãñ¦ãã. ‡ãñŠÌÖã ‡ãñŠÌÖã ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã Ôãõ¶¾ãã¦ããèÊã ¾ãìÀãñãä¹ã¾ã¶ã ‚ãâ½ãÊãªãÀãâ¶ãã

4 ‘Thomson’s Cawnpore.’ ©ããù½Ôã¶ã Öã ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞãñ ‡ãŠ§ãÊããè¦ãî¶ã ºãÞããÌãÊãñÊãñ •ãñ ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ªãñ¶ãÞã ãä‚ãÔã½ã Öãñ¦ãñ, ¦¾ããâ¦ããèÊã

‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã Ûãã ÌãÀãèÊã ¹ãìÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÔã ãä‡ãâŠãäÞã¦ã ½ãÖ§Ìã ‚ããÖñ.

¦ãñ ½ãñ•ãÌã㶾ãã ªñ¦ã, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ¹ãÀ¦ã¼ãñ›ãèÞããè ãäÌã¶ãâ¦ããè ½ãã¨ã ¦ãñ ‡ãŠ£ããèÖãè ÔÌããè‡ãŠãÀãè¦ã ¶ãÔã¦ã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¦¾ããÞâ ¾ãã
¾ããñؾã¦ãñ¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦ããñ¹ãŠãâÞããè ÔãÊãã½ããè ªñ¥¾ããÔã ‡ã⊹ã¶ããè ‡ãŠºãîÊã ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè. 5 ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆãâ¦ãã¦ããèÊã Êãã‡ñ ãŠãâÔã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ã½ã¦ãñ¶ãñ

ÌããØãÌããè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ. ¦¾ããâÞãã ÔÌã¼ããÌã Øãâ¼ããèÀ ãä¶ã ÀÖã¥ããè ¹ãŠãÀ Ôãã£ããè ‚ãÔãñ. ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞ¾ãã ªì̾ãÃÔã¶ããÞãã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ÊãÌãÊãñÍãÖãè
œâª ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã.6 ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¹ãìÓ‡ãŠß Ìãñßã ãä¶ãÀãèàãî¶ã ¹ãããäÖÊãñÊãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ØãðÖÔ©ã ãäÊããäÖ¦ãã¦ã :

``½ããè •¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ¦¾ããâÞãñ Ìã¾ã Ôãì½ããÀñ 28 ÌãÓããÄÞãñ ‚ãÔããÌãñ; ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ãñ ÞããßãèÍããèÞ¾ãã •ãÌãß¹ããÔã
ãäªÔã¦ã. ¦¾ããâÞãñ ÍãÀãèÀ Ô©ãîÊã ‚ãÔãñ. ÞãñÖžããÞããè ŸñÌã¥ã Ìãã›ãñßãè, ¡ãñßñ ‚ãìØãÆ, ¹ãã¥ããèªãÀ ãä¶ã ÞãâÞãÊã, ‚ãâØã‡ãŠãŸãè Ôãã£ããÀ¥ã, Ô¹ãùãä¶ãÍã
Êããñ‡ãŠãâãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ØããñÀãè ãä¶ã ¼ããÓã¥ã ‚ãñ‡ã⊪Àãè¦ã ‚ãã¶ãâªãè ãä¶ã ãä‡ãâŠãäÞã¦ã ãäÌã¶ããñªãè ‚ãÔãñ, ‚ãÔãñ7 ªÀºããÀã¦ã ¦ãñ ãä‡ãŠ¶ãŒããºããè ¹ããñÓããŒã ÜããÊãî¶ã

ºãÔã¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã.`` ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØããÌãÀãèÊã •ãÌããÖãèÀ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÌãÀãèÊ㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ½ãîʾãÌãã¶ã ½ãì‡ã슛 ¹ããÖî¶ã ¾ãìÀãñãä¹ã¾ã¶ã ãäÔ¨ã¾ãã
‚ãØãªãè ÊããñÊãì¹ã Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ›ÈñÌÖñãäÊã¾ã¶ã ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ. ‚ãÍãã ¾ãã ¼ã̾ã¦ãñÊãã Íããñ¼ãñÊã ‚ãÔãñÞã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ Ìã¦ãöãÖãè ‚ãìªãÀ ãä¶ã ª¾ãã³Ã ‚ãÔãñ.
ÔÌã¦ã:Þãñ ¹ãÆ•ãñÌãÀ ¦ãñ ‡ãðŠ¹ãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ¾ãã¦ã ¦ãÀ ‡ãŠãÖãèÞã ¶ãÌãÊã ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÍããè ºãñãä‚ã½ãã¶ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã •¾ããâ¶ããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãÃÔÌããÞãã
¶ããÍã ‡ãñŠÊãã ¦¾ãã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÌãÀÖãè ¦ãñ Ôãªãñã䪦㠇ãðŠ¹ãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¦ãÁ¥ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè •ããñ¡¹¾ããâ¶ãã ÖÌãã¹ããÊã›
‡ãŠÀãÌããèÍããè Ìãã›Êããè ‡ãŠãè, ½ãÖãÀã•ããâÞããè ºãØããè ¦¾ããâÞãñ‡ãŠ¡ñ £ãã¡Êããè •ããÌã¾ããÞããèÞã. ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãÆÔãâØããè ½ãÖãÀã•ããâÞ¾ãã ÜãÀãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè
‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ãä¶ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ØãðÖÔ©ã Öñ ‚ãã¹ãʾã㠽㡽ããâÔãÖ ¹ããÞãããäÀÊãñ •ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ãì§ã½ã ‚ãì§ã½ã ÍããÊããè, ½ãîʾãÌãã¶ã ½ããñ¦ããè, ¶ãã½ããâãä‡ãŠ¦ã
À¦¶ãñ ÌãØãõÀñ ÌãÔ¦ãîâÞ¾ãã ¼ãñ›ãè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã.8 ̾ããä‡ã‹¦ããäÌãÓã¾ã‡ãŠ ´ñÓã Öã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãìªãÀ ‚ã㦽¾ããÊãã ãäÌã›ãßÌããè¦ã ¶ãÔãñ Öñ

¾ããÌã¶ã ÞããâØãÊãñÞã ãäÔã® Öãñ¦ãñ. ÀãӛȾãì®ã¦ã •¾ããâÞ¾ãã ªñÖãÞãñ ¦ãÀÌããÀãè¶ãñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÞãñ ¦¾ããÞã ¹ãÆãä¦ãԹ㣾ããöãã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ
¹ãÆÔãâØããè ‚ãì¹ã‡ãðŠ¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öãè ÌããèÀ¦ãñÞããè ‚ãìÞÞã ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã̾ããâ¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããâ¦ãî¶ã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ããè ªîØØããñÞãÀ Öãñ¦ã
‚ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. À•ã¹ãî¦ã ÌããèÀãâ¶ããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ã㠇㊛᛿ãã Íã¨ãîâ¶ããÖãè ¾ã쮹ãÆÔãâØããâÞãñ ãäÌãÀãä֦㠂ãÍããÞã ‚ããõªã¾ããöãñ ÌããØãÌããè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ. Ñããè½ãâ¦ã
¶ãã¶ãã Ûãã ‚ããõªã¾ããöãñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÞ¾ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãî¥ãà ¹ãÆãè¦ããèÔã ¹ãã¨ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ Öñ £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ŸñÌ㥾ããÔããÀŒãñ ‚ããÖñ.9 Ñããè½ãâ¦ã

¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ¹ããÖì¥ãÞããÀ ãä½ãߦã Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ½ã¡½ããâÞ¾ãã ¦ãñ Øãß¿ãã¦ããèÊã ¦ãã‚ããè¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.
¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¦ãÀÌããÀ ‚ãì¹ãÔã¦ããÞã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÌãÀ ªì:Í㺪ãâÞãã ãä¶ã ÖÊã‡ãŠ›
ãäÍã̾ããâÞãã ½ããÀã ÔãìÂ! ‚ãÍãã ¾ãã ‡ãðŠ¦ãܶã `ÞããñÀãâÞ¾ãã ‚ãìÊ㛿ãã ºããòºããâ¶ããèÞã` ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ¼ãÀÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ!
Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã Öñ ãäÌã²ããÞããÀÔãâ¹ã¸ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ããâ¶ãã •ãØãã¦ããèÊã Àã•ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ããÞããè ‚ããä¦ãÍã¾ã ‚ããÌã¡ ‚ãÔãñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè
ºãÖì¦ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãƽãìŒã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ¹ã¨ãñ Üãñ¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ. ªÀÀãñ•ã ªõãä¶ã‡ãŠ ¹ã¨ãñ ¾ãñ¦ããÞã ½ãÖãÀã•ã ¦ããè ÔãÌãà ÌããÞãÌãî¶ã Üãñ¦ã. Ûãã ‡ãŠã½ããÔããŸãè ãä½ã.
›ãù¡ Ûãã ¶ããÌããÞãã ãä‚ããäØÊãâÍã ½ã¶ãìӾ㠶ãñ½ãÊãñÊãã ‚ãÔãñ. Öñ ¹ãÆãñ¹ãñŠÔãÀÖãè ¹ãì¤ñ ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ã㠇㊧ãÊããè¦ã ‡ãŠã¹ãÊãñ ØãñÊãñ. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã
ãä‚ãâØÊã⡽ã£ããèÊã ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã Àã•ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ããÞããè ¶ãã¶ãã ¹ãŠãÀ ºããÀãè‡ãŠ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÞãÞããà ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ‚ã¾ãã£ñ ¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÔãâºãâ£ããè

5 Thomson’s Cawnpore, page 48.
6 Sir John Kaye says, “A quiet, unostentations young man, not at all addicted to any

extravagent habits.”

7 The History of Indian Mutiny by Charles Ball Vol. I, page 305.
8 Trevelyan’s Cawnpore p.p. 68-69.
9 “Nothing could exceed the cordiality which he constantly displayed in his intercourse

with our countrymen. The persons. in authority placed an implicit confidence in his
friendliness and good faith and ensigns emphatically pronounced him a capital fellow.”
--Trevelyan’s Cawnpore.

¦¾ããâ¶ããè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãâÍã ØãðÖÔ©ããÍããè Ìã㪠‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ.10 Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ½ãÖãÀã•ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ¹ãñÍãÌãñ ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ̾ããä‡ã‹¦ããäÌãÓã¾ã‡ãŠ ÞããäÀ¨ããÞããè
ÌãÀ ãäªÊãñÊããè ½ãããäÖ¦ããè Öãè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÞã Íã¨ãâîÞãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔãã¦ãî¶ã Í㺪Íã: Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ØããñÓ› £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã £ãÀÊããè
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ¦ããè Öãè ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ãã ½ãããäÖ¦ããè¦ã •ãÀ ÔãªØãì¥ããÞãñ Ìã¥ãö㠂ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¦ãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ã‹¾ãã¶ãñÞã Ô㦾㠂ãÔãÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÔããÀŒãñ ªãèÜãôñÓããè Íã¨ãì ¶ãã¶ããâÔããÀŒ¾ã㠇㊛᛿ãã ¹ãÆãä¦ãԹ㣾ããÃÞãñ ÔãªØãì¥ã ¶ãããä‚ãÊãã•ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ãÞã ãä‡ãâŠãäÞ㶽ãã¨ã ªñ¥ããÀ. ‚ãÍãã
ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã ÌãÀãèÊã Ìã¥ãöã ÌããÞãî¶ã Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞ¾ãã ºã−Êã ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããªÀ ªã›î¶ã ¾ãñ¦ããñ. •¾ãã ÌãâÍããÊãã ºããßã•ããè ãäÌãÍÌã¶ãã©ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ‚ãìªØã½ã
¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ãã À¥ããäÌ㌾ãã¦ã ¼ã› ÌãâÍãã¦ããèÊã Ûãã ÍãñÌã›Þ¾ãã ¹ãñÍã̾ããÞããè ¦ããè ØããõÀ ãä¶ã ¼ã̾㠽ãîãä¦ãà -½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÌãÀ À¦¶ã•ãã䡦ã
½ãì‡ã슛 ÊãŒããŒã¦ã ‚ããÖñ, ‡ãŠãâãä¦ãÌãã¶ã ªñÖãÌãÀ ãä‡ãŠ¶ãŒããºããè ¹ããñÍããŒã Áߦ㠂ããÖñ, Ôã¦ãñ•ã ãä¶ã Þã¹ãÊã ¶ãñ¨ããâ¶ãã ½ãã¶ã¼ãâØãã¶ãñ ‚ã즹ã¸ã
¢ããÊãñʾãã Ôãâ¦ãã¹ããÞããè ÊããÊããè Þã¤ÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, ‡ãŠ½ãÀñÊãã ¦ããè¶ã Êãàã Á¹ã¾ããâÞããè ¦ãÀÌããÀ Ê㛇ãŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞãã Ôãî¡ ãä¶ã
ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞãã Ôãî¡ ‡ãŠ£ããè Üãñ‚ããè¶ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦ÌãñÓããÞ¾ãã •ÌããÊãã •¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØãã¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ¹ãã¥ããèªãÀ ¦ãÀÌããÀãè •¾ããÞ¾ãã ½¾ãã¶ãã¦ãî¶ã ºããÖñÀ
‚ãì¡ãè Üãñ‚ãî ¹ãÖã¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã ¦¾ãã ÍãñÌã›Þ¾ãã ¹ãñÍã̾ããÊãã ¹ãÆ¥ãã½ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠ ¶ã½ãÆ Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØã¦ãñ.

ÍãñÌã›ãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ÍãñÌã›Þãñ ‚ãì§ãÀ ‚ããÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, ``¦ãì½ãÞãã ºãã•ããèÀãÌããÞ¾ãã ¹ãñ¶Íã¶ããÌãÀ ‡ãŠããä¡ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ¶ããÖãè.
ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ ¦ãì½ãÞãã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÇ㊡ãèÊã ¹ãƪñÍããÌãÀ ‚ãÔã¥ããÀã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã ÔãâÔ©ãããä¶ã‡ãŠ¦ÌããÞãã և㋇ãŠÖãè ‚ãã¦ãã ¦ãì½ÖãÔã ãä½ãߥããÀ
¶ããÖãè!`` ‚ãÔãã ÍãñÌã›Þãã •ãºããºã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¶ãã¶ããâÔã ‚ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ! ãä¶ã ‚ãã½Öãè ‡ãŠÀ¦ããñ Öã ¶¾ãã¾ã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñÖãè ÔããâØ㥾ãã¦ã
‚ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ! ¶¾ãã¾ã? ‚ãã¦ãã Öã ¶¾ãã¾ã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾ã ‚ããÖñ ÛããâÞãñ ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãè ‚ãì§ãÀ ªñ¥¾ããÞããè ¦ãÔãªãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ
Üãñ¥¾ããÔã ¶ã‡ãŠãñ ‚ããÖñ. ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ½ãõªã¶ããÌãÀ ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã Ûãã ¹ãÆͶããÞãã ¾ã©ãã©ãà ãä¶ã‡ãŠãÊã ÊããÌ㥾ããÞããè •ãâØããè ¦ã¾ããÀãè ÔãìÂ
¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞ¾ãã ת¾ããÔã ªŒì ããäÌã¥ãñ Öã ¶¾ãã¾ã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè, ‚㶾ãã¾ã ‚ããÖñ ¾ããÞããè ãä¦ã©ãñÞã ‚ãã¦ãã ¹ãî¥ãà ÞãÞããà ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã
¾ãñ‚ããèÊã. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè ‚ãì¡ãÊãñÊããè ¡ãñ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¹ãÊãñʾãã ½ãã¶ãã, ¦¾ããâÞããè ãäÞãÀÊãñÊããè ÍãÀãèÀñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ÌããÖ¥ããÀñ À‡ã‹¦ããÞãñ
ÊããÊã¼ã¡‡ãŠ ¹ãã› Öñ ¾ãã ¹ãÆͶããÞããè ¾ã©ãã¾ããñؾã ÞãÞããà ‡ãŠÀ¦ããèÊã ãä¶ã ¾ãã ÞãÞãóÊãã Íããâ¦ã¹ã¥ãñ ‚ãõ‡ãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ãäÌããäÖÀãèÞãñ
‡ãŠãŸãÌãÀ ºãÔã¥ããÀãè ãäØã£ãã¡ñ `Öã ¶¾ãã¾ã ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾ã` ¾ãã ¹ãÆͶããÞãñ ãä¶ããäÍÞã¦ã ‚ãì§ãÀ ªñ¦ããèÊã!

¶ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ÜãÀãè ‚ãÔãʾãã ›ãñÊãñ•ãâØã Ôã½ããÀâ¼ããÞ¾ãã ¦ã¾ããÀãèÞããè Øãªãê ‚ãì¡ãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ¦¾ããâÞããè `œºãñÊããè` ºããäÖ¥ãÖãè
ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ÔÌãÔ©ã ºãÔãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¶ããÖãè. ãä¦ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãì¤ñ `¶¾ãã¾ã ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¶¾ãã¾ã` ÖãÞã ¹ãÆͶ㠾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ. ãä‚ã.Ôã.
1853 ÔããÊããè ãä¦ãÞãã ¼ãƦããÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã‚ãñ‡ãŠãè ¹ãÀÊããñ‡ãŠãè ØãñÊãã. ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ Üãñ¦ãÊãñÊãã ãä¦ãÞãã ãä¹ãƾ㠹ãì¨ã ªã½ããñªÀ ¾ããÊãã ÌããÀÔãªãÀãèÞãñ
և㋇㊠¶ã ª¦ñ ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀã¶ãñ ¢ããâÍããè ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãÍãã ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã ‡ãŠãØãªãñ¹ã¨ããè ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¶ãñ
ŒããÊãÔãã Öãñ¥ããÀñ ¦ãñ ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ¦¾ãã ¢ããÍããèÞ¾ãã ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ããÌãÀ ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞããè ºããâ‡ãŠã À㕾㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã ¶ãÔãî¶ã ãä¦ã©ãñ ¶ãã¶ããâÞããè `œºãñÊããè`
ºããä֥㠽ãÖãÀã¥ããè Êãà½ããèºãã‚ããè À㕾㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! ¦ããè ‚ãÍãã `ŒããÊãÔãã‡ãŠÀ¥ããÊãã` ©ããñ¡ãèÞ㠪㪠ªñ¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ! ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè Öãè
‡ãìŠãä›Êã ãä¶ã ½ããâØã¹ã¥ããÞããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ããè ¹ããÖ¦ããÞã Ôãâ¦ãã¹ããÞãã,è ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ããÞããè ãä¶ã ½ãã¶ã¼ãâØããÞããè ‚ã¼ãÆñ Øã¡Øã¡ã› ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊããè. ¦¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã ¦ããè
¢ããÍããèÞããè Þã¹ãÊã㠇㊡ã¡Êããè ‡ãŠãè, `½ãñÀãè ¢ããâÍããè ½ãõ ¶ãÖãè ªîâØããè!!11

`½ãñÀãè ¢ããâÍããè ½ãõ ªîâØããè ¶ãÖãè!` •¾ããÞããè œã¦ããè ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦¾ãã¶â ããè ¦ããè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ãÖãÌããè!

10 History of the Indian mutiny by Charles Ball Vol. I.
11 Dalhousie’s Administration, Vol. II.

¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã Þããõ©ãñ

‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãã

ÞããñÀãÊãã Ôããñ¡î¶ã ÔãⶾããÍããÊãã ¹ãŠãÍããè ªñ¥ããÀñ ¶¾ãã¾ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ªìªÌ÷ ãã¶ãñ ¾ãã •ãØãã¦ã ¶ãñÖ½ããè Ôãì ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì
¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ãÖãè Àã•ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ãã¦ããèÊã Üã¡ã½ããñ¡ãè¦ã ¦ãÀ Öñ ¹ãƇãŠãÀ Àã•ãÀãñÔã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ãã¦ã. •ãìÊãî½ã ãä¶ã ‚㶾ãã¾ã Ûãã ¼ããÌãÌããÞã‡ãŠ
‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ããÊãã ªìØãÆãÃÛã ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦ããñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã Öãñ¥ããžãã ¨ããÔããÞãã Ôãî¡ ‡ãŠã¤¥¾ããÔããŸãè ÞãÌã¦ããßî¶ã ºããÖñÀ
¹ã¡Êãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¦¾ãã •ãìÊãî½ããÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ‚㶾ãã¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ãìßãÍããè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ‚ããÖñ Öñ ºãÜã¦ã ºãÔã¦ã ¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀ ¦ããò¡ãÍããè •ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦¾ãã
ØããäÀºããÌãÀÞã ÔãÌãà ½ããÀã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØã¦ããñ. ¾ãã ‚ãì¦ããÌãßñ¹ã¥ãã¶ãñ ‚㶾ãã¾ããÞãñ ¦ããò¡ Öãñ¥ããžããÞ¾ãã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããÞãã •ãÀãè ÌãÞã¹ãã ãä¶ãÜã¦ããñ ¦ãÀãè
¦¾ã㠂㶾ãã¾ããÞãã •ããñ ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ‚ã㦽ãã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ¦ããñ ½ãã¨ã ãäÌãÔã¶㠕ãã‚ãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ããñ. Ûãã ÜããÊã½ãñÊããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ãäÌãÍãñÓãÍããè ¶ãì‡ãŠÔãã¶ããè ¶ã
Öãñ¦ããè ¦ãÀ ãä¦ã•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ÖÊÊããè Öãñ¥ããÀñ ªìÊãÃàã à㽾㠢ããÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ŒãÀãñŒãÀ ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¾ãã ÜããÊã½ãñÊããèÞãñ ¹ããäÀ¥ãã½ã ¹ãŠãÀ
¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ÞããñÀãâ¶ãã ½ããÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãì¼ããÀÊãñÊãñ ¹ãŠãÔã ÔãⶾããÍããÊãã ½ããÀ¥¾ãã¦ã Œã¹ãî¶ã •ãã¦ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ¹ãì¶Öã ÞããñÀ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ
ÔãìÀãäàã¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÔããÌã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÌããÌã ÊããØãʾãã¶ãñ ÞããñÀãèÞãã ‚ãì¹ã³Ìã ¹ããäÖʾããÖî¶ãÖãè •ããÔ¦ãÞã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØã¦ããñ. ¾ãã ¹ãŠãÍããèÌãÀ
ÔãⶾããÍããÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè •ãÀãè ‚ãñŒããªã ÞããñÀÞã ãäªÊãã ØãñÊãã ¦ãÀãèÖãè ¦¾ãã ÞããñÀãèÞãã ÔãÌãà ÀãØã ¦¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ›¿ãã ÞããñÀãÌãÀÞã ‡ãŠã¤Êãã Øãñʾãã¶ãñ
ºãã‡ãŠãèÞãñ ÞããñÀ ãä¶ã¼ãþã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ `¹ãì¶ãÍÞã ÖãäÀ:æ` ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÔã ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ‚ãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ãã¦ã. ãäÌãÓããÀãè ¢ãã¡ãÞãã ŒãÀã ¶ãã¾ã¶ãã› ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
¹ãŠãâ²ãã ãä¶ã ¹ãã¶ãñ Œãì¡ãè¦ã ºãÔãʾãã¶ãñ Öãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè, ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ¹ãŠã²ããâ¶ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ¹ãã¶ããâ¶ãã ÌããÀâÌããÀ ¹ãì¤ñ £ãã¡¥ããÀãè ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ¹ããñÓã¥ã
‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀãè ¦¾ãã ¢ãã¡ãÞããè ½ãìßñ Íããñ£ãî¶ã ‡ãŠã¤î¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãã ¶ãã¾ã¶ãã› ‡ãñŠÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ.

¡ÊãÖãõÔããè Öñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã `¹ããäÀãäÔ©ã¦ããèÞãñ` ¹ããäÀ¥ãã½ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ¦ããè ¹ããäÀãäÔ©ã¦ããè •ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠇ãŠã¾ã½ã ‚ããÖñ ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠂ãñ‡ãŠ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè
ØãñÊãã ¦ãÀãè ªÖã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ ¦ã§Ìã ãÌä ãÔã¶㠕ãã‚ãî¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã‡ãŠãÀ •ãã¥ãî¶ã ºãì•ã¶î ã ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè
Êããñ‡ãŠ ¼ããñßÔã› ‚ã—ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãÀãä‡ãŠªãê¦ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã ÔãÌãà •ãìÊãî½ããâÞãñ Œãã¹ãÀ ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ›¿ããÞ¾ãã ¡ãñ‡ã‹¾ããÌãÀ
ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã •ããñÀã¶ãñ ¹ãŠãñ¡¦ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãè •ã¥ãî ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦¾ãã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããÞãã ¦ããñÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ããñ ½ã쌾㠇㊦ããà Öãñ¦ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öã Ôã½ã•ã ÔãÌãÃÔÌããè
¼ãÆã½ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ. Ûãã Ôã½ã•ããÞãã ‚ãÔãã ¹ããäÀ¥ãã½ã Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè Ôããñ¡î¶ã ½ã쌾㠂ããã䪇ãŠãÀ¥ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ Êãàã ãäªÊãñ •ãã¦ã
¶ããÖãè. •ãÀ ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Þ¾ãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞããè Ôãâ½ã¦ããè ¶ãÔã¦ããè ¦ãÀ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞããè ‡ãŠã¾ã œã¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãè ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãã‚ãîÊã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡Þãñ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ
›ã‡ãŠãÌãñ! ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããÔã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Þãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞããè Ôãâ½ã¦ããè ãä½ãßãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãã¶ãÖãè ÖÊã¥ãñ
‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÌãÀ •ãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¹ã› ªãñÓã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã½ããØãñ ª¡î¶ã Öãè ‚ã£ã½ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥ããžãã
Ÿ‡ãŠãâÌãÀ ªÔã¹ã› ªãñÓã ‚ããÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ¹ãâÀ¦ãì ãä‚ãâØÊã⡽ã£ãÊãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãä¦ã©ãÊãñ ½ããÀ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè Öãñ¦ã. Ûãã ½ããÀ
Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Þ¾ãã •ã¶ã¦ãñ¹ãì¤ñ ÞãßÞãß ‡ãŠã¹ããÌãñ ÊããØã¦ãñ. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞããè ½ã•ããê ‚ãì¦ãÀÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ã¼ãÀÖãè Ûãã
‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ŸñÌã¦ãã ¾ãñ¦ã ¶ããÖãè¦ã. ‚ãÍãã ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã Öñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ¦ãÀãè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¹ããè ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããâÔã Ôãâ½ã¦ããè
‡ãŠã ªñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã, ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããÞããè Öãè ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ÔãÌãà ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ¹ãÔãâ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ãÞã Öãñ¾ã. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã Öñ
ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Þãñ ÔãÌãà ÀãÓ›È ¾ã㠂㶾ãã¾ããâÞãñ ãä¶ã •ãìÊãî½ããâÞãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ŸÀ¦ã ‚ããÖñ. Ôãã½ãÆ㕾ããÞ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ããÞããè Þ㛇㊠ÊããØãî¶ã Öñ ÔãÌãà ÀãÓ›È
‰ãîŠÀ, ãä¶ãÜãðå㠺ã¶ãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ÔãÌãà ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ Öñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããéÞãñ ½ããñÖãñß ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ¦¾ãã¦ããèÊã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ½ããÍããèÌãÀÞã ÔãÌãà ÀãØã
‡ãŠã¤¥¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¹ãŠã¾ãªã ‚ããÖñ? •ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ãã ½ããñÖãñßãÞããÞã Ôãâºãâ£ã ‚ããÖñ ¦ããñ¹ã¾ã¦Ä ã Ûãã ½ããÍãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãìŠÊããâ¦ããèÊã ½ã£ã
¶ãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãõÌã•ããè ¦ããèà¥ã ãä¶ã ãäÌãÓããÀãè ¶ããâؾãã ½ããÀãè¦ã ÀãÖ¥ããÀÞã! ¦ãñ ½ããñÖãñß ¦ãÀ ‚ãìÀãÍããè ŸñÌããÌã¾ããÞãñ ãä¶ã ½ãØã ¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ã ½ã£ã
¶ãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¾ãñ¥ããžãã ½ããÍãã ¶ããâؾãã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ããÀ¦ãã¦ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ̾ããä‡ã‹¦ããäÌãÓã¾ã‡ãŠ ½ããÍããâ¶ãã ãäÍã̾ããÍãã¹ã ªñ¦ã ºãÔããÌã¾ããÞãñ! Öãè
½ãîŒãùã¥ããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ãä¶ã Öãè ªìª÷ÌããÞããè ‚ãâ£ã¦ãã Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ¹ãì¤ãžããâÞ¾ãã ÒÓ›ãèÊãã Ô¹ãÍãà ‡ãŠÂ Íã‡ãŠÊããè ¶ããÖãè. ¦¾ãã¦ãÞã ¦¾ãã
‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ½ã쌾ã ÀÖԾ㠂ããÖñ. ¦¾ããâÞãñ Ôã㣾㠂ã½ãì‡ãŠ ‡ãŠã¾ãªã À− ‡ãŠÀãÌãã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦ã½ãì‡ãŠ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ¹ãÀ¦ã ¶¾ããÌãã Öñ ¶ãÔãî¶ã ¦ããñ
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¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä¶ã Ûãã ½ããñÖãñßã¦ããèÊã ÔãØãß¿ããÞã ½ããÍããâÞãã ‚ãì−ñÍã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖâªãè ¹ãìŠÊããâÞãã ½ã£ã ¶ãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã‚ãõÌã•ããè ãäÌãÓããÀãè
¶ããâؾãã ½ããÀ¥¾ããÞãã ‚ããÖñ Öñ ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã Ô㦾㠦¾ãã £ãî¦ãà ãä¶ã ½ãã¶ã¶ããè¾ã ¹ãìÁÓããâÞ¾ãã £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãÍãã ¾ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãã Ôãâºãâ£ã
‚ããä•ãºãã¦ã ¦ããñ¡Ê¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¹ãÀÌãÍã¦ãñÞ¾ãã ¹ãŠãâ²ãã Œã졦㠶㠺ãÔã¦ãã ¦¾ãã ÖãÊããÖÊã½ã¾ã ‡ãŠã›ñÀãè ¢ãã¡ãÔã Ôã½ãîß ‚ãìÊã©ãî¶ã

¹ãã¡Ê¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã. ©ããñ¡‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã ãä½ãßãäÌãʾãããäÍãÌãã¾ã Ûãã ªì£ãÃÀ ÀãñØããÌãÀ ªìÔãÀñ Àã½ãºãã¥ã ‚ããñÓã£ã ¶ããÖãè ãä¶ã ¦ããè
ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞããè ‚ããõÓã£ããè ÔãâØãÆã½ã¼ãî½ããèãäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ¨ã ãä½ãߦ㠶ããÖãè. Öãè ‚ã¦¾ãâ¦ã ãäªÌ¾ã Ô㦾ãñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãìŠÍããØãÆ ºãì®ãèÊãã ‡ãŠß¦ããÞã
‚ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ã¼ãÀÖãè ¶ã ©ããâºã¦ãã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¹ãÆã¥ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Öã¦ããÌãÀ ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ¦ãÀÌããÀ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Íã¨ãîâÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ ŸñÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè
À¥ããâØã¥ããâ¦ã ‚ãì¡ãè Üãñ¦ãÊããè!

Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ¹ãããäÌ㨾ã ãä¶ã ©ããñÀÌããè ÛããÞã Ô㦾ã—ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ¦ãª©ãà Öãñ¥ããžãã ¹ãÆã¥ãªã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ. •¾ããâ¶ãã
¡ÊãÖãõÔããè ÖãÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ããñ ÔãÌãà •ãìÊãì½ããÞãã ½ã쌾㠕ãºããºãªãÀ Ìã㛦ããñ, ¦¾ããâ¶ãã Ûãã ¾ãì®ãÞããè ŒãÀãè ½ãÖ¦ããè ‡ãŠß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖã.è ‚ãÍãã
‚ãÔã½ãâ•ãÔã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ããâ¶ãã •ãÀ Ô㦾ã—ãã¶ããÞããè Þãã¡ ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ãäÌãÍãñÓã¦ã: ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠇ãŠãñ¥ããè ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãñ Öñ ºãÜããÌãñ
ãä¶ã ¦ãñ ‡ãŠã ŒããÊãÔãã ¢ããÊãñ Öñ Ôã½ã•ãî¶ã ܾããÌãñ. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ Öñ ãäÌãÔ¦ãð¦ã ãä¶ã Ôãâ¹ã¸ã À㕾㠡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞãñ ‚ãã£ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ Íã¦ã‡ãŠ¼ãÀ ŒããÊãÔãã
Öãñ¦ãÞã Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¶ãÌããºãã¶ãñ ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâÍããè Ôãâºãâ£ã ŸñÌãÊãã ¦ãñÌÖã¹ããÔãî¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã À㕾ãã¦ããèÊã ‚ãñ‡ãñŠ‡ãŠ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ‡ãŠ¡ñ
¾ãñ¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ãä‚ã.Ôã. 1801 ÔããÊããè Ìããä•ãÀãÞãñ ‚ãìÀãÌãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¦ãÖ ºãßã¶ãñ ºãÔããäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãã. ¦¾ãã¦ã ¦ãÀ Öãè
‚ã¹ãÖãÀãÞããè ãä‚ãޜ㠂ãØãªãè ãä¶ãÊãÕ•ã¹ã¥ãñ ¹ãƪãäÍãæ㠢ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ¶ãºããºã Ìã•ããèÀ ¦¾ãã Ìãñßãè ‚ãã£ããèÞã ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞ¾ãã `½ãª¦ãØããÀ
Ôãõ¶¾ãã`ÔããŸãè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ªÀÔããÊã 76 Êãàã Á¹ã¾ãñ ªñ¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞ¾ãã Ûãã Êãì›ãè¶ãñ ¶ãÌããºããÞãã Œããä•ã¶ãã ‚ãØãªãè ÖÊããŒããèÔã ‚ããÊãã
Öãñ¦ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ‚ãÍããè ãä¶ã‡ãŠ¡ãèÞããè ½ããØã¥ããè ‡ãñŠÊããè ‡ãŠãè, ¶ãÌããºãã¶ãñ ÔÌã¦ã:•ãÌãß ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ÔÌãªñÍããè Ôãõ¶¾ã ‡ãŠã¤î¶ã ›ã‡ãã
¦¾ããÞ¾ãã •ããØããè ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ Ôãõ¶¾ã ŸñÌãÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. Ûãã Ôãõ¶¾ããÞãã ŒãÞãà ãä¶ã ÌãÀãèÊã ÔãâÀàã‡ãŠ Ôãõ¶¾ããÞãã ŒãÞãà ªñ¥¾ããÞããè ¦ãã‡ãŠª
¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã Œããä•ã¶¾ãã¦ã ¶ããÖãè Öãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ¹ãî¥ãà ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã Öãñ¦ããè.ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ãÀ Öãè ½ãããäÖ¦ããè Öãñ¦ããè ½Ö¥ãî¶ãÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè Öãè
½ããØã¥ããè ‡ãñŠÊããè. ‚ãŒãñÀ ¶ãºããºãã¹ããÍããè Œããä•ã¶ãã ¶ãÔãÊãã ¦ãÀãè ¹ãƪñÍã Öãñ¦ãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ‚ã¦¾ã¦â ã Ôã¹ì ããè‡ãŠ ¼ããØã ãäºãÆãä›Íããâ¶ãã
¶ãºããºãã¶ãñ ¦ããñ¡î¶ã ãäªÊãã ãä¶ã ¶ã‡ãŠãñ ¶ã‡ãŠãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ãã ¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã ºããñ‡ãŠãâ¡ãè Öñ ÔãâÀàã‡ãŠ Ôãõ¶¾ã ºã¶ãÊãñ! ¾ãã 1801 ÔããÊãÞ¾ãã ¦ãÖã¦ããèÊã
ãä¦ãÔãÀñ ‡ãŠÊã½ã ‚ãÍãã ‚ã©ããê Öãñ¦ãñ ‡ãŠãè, ``¶ãºããºããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆãâ¦ããÞããè ̾ãÌãÔ©ãã ¹ãÆ•ãñÔã ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ‚ãÍããè ŸñÌããÌããè ãä¶ã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ
‡ãŠã½ãã¦ã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâÞããè ÔãÊÊãã½ãÔãÊã¦ã ܾããÌããè.`` ‚ãã¦ãã Öãè ¹ãÆ•ãñÔã ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ̾ãÌãÔ©ãã ¦ããè ‡ãŠÍããè
ŸñÌããÌã¾ããÞããè? •ãÀ ‚ãñŒããªãè Ôãì£ããÀ¥ãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ¶ãºããºããâ¶ããè ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ãÊãñ ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¾ãã ãä‚ãÞœñºã−Êã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØããÌãÀ
‡ã⊹ã¶ããè ØãìÀØãì ÊããØãñ.1 ¦ãÀãè ãä¦ãÞãã ‚ããØãÆÖ ‚ãÔãã Öãñ¦ãã ‡ãŠãè, ¹ãÆ•ãñÔã ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ¹ã®¦ããè ÔãÂì ‡ãŠÀãÌããè! ¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã Œããä•ã¶¾ããÌãÀ

‚ãñ‡ãŠÔãÖã Öã¦ã ½ãã¶㠦¾ããÊãã ãäÀ¦ãã ‡ãñŠÊãã ¦ããñÞã ¶ãÌããè¶ã ½ããØã¥ããè ÌÖãÌããè, ãä¶ã ‚ãÔãʾãã Êãì›ãèÞããè Íããâ¦ã¦ãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¶ãºããºããÊãã
‡ãŠÀ ºãÔããäÌã¥ãñ ¼ããØã ¹ã¡Êãñ ‡ãŠãè, ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãã ‚ããØãÆÖ ÌÖãÌãã ‡ãŠãè, ¹ãÆ•ãñÔã ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ‚ãÍããè ¹ã®¦ããè Ôãì ‡ãŠÀãÌããè! ¶ãºããºããÊãã ÔÌã¦ã:Þãñ
À㕾ã Ôãì£ããÀ¥ãñ ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ‡ã‹ÌããäÞã¦ã Êããñ‡ãŠÔã½ãîÖ ºãâ¡ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã À㕾ã¹ã®¦ããè Ôãì£ããÀ¦ããèÊã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããÞãã
ºãâªãñºãԦ㠇ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ºãñ¾ããñ¶ãñ›ã Ìã `ÔãâÀàã‡ãŠ` Ôãõ¶¾ããÞ¾ãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ Ê㛇㊦㠟ñÌãî¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã Öî ‡ãŠãè Þãî
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ¹ãìŠÀÔã¦ã ŸñÌããÌã¾ããÞããè ¶ããÖãè.2 ¦ãÀãè ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãã ‚ããØãÆÖ ½ãã¨ã ÔãìÂÞã ‡ãŠãè ¹ãÆ•ãñÔã ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ‚ãÍããè ¹ã®¦ããè ÔãìÂ

‡ãŠÀãÌããè! ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠãè‡ãŠ¡ñ ¶ãºããºããâ¶ãã ãä¶ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã À㕾ã¹ã®¦ããè ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ¹ãî¥ãà ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãã

1 Dalhousie’s Administration page 348-49.
2 Sir John Kaye says, “In truth, it was a vicious system, one that can hardly be too

severely condemned. By it he established a double government of the worst kind. The
political and military government was in the hands of the company, The internal
administration of the Oudh territories still rested in the hands of the Nabab Vazirs. In
other words, hedged in and protected by the British battalions, a bad race of Eastern
Princes. were suffered to do or not to do what they liked.”
(page 82 Vol. I.)

ªìÔãÀãè‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ã⊹ã¶ããè ½Ö¥ãñ ‡ãŠãè, À㕾ã¹ã®¦ããè ÔãìŒã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ‡ãñŠÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ! ‚ãñŒããªã •ãìÊã½ããè ¹ããÊã‡ãŠ ÊãÖã¶ã ½ãìÊããÔã ‚ãñ‡ãŠãè‡ãŠ¡ñ
•ããñÀã¶ãñ ½ããÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ãä¶ã ªìÔãÀãè‡ãŠ¡ñ ½Ö¥ã¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ `Øã¹ã! ŒãºãÀªãÀ À¡ÍããèÊã ¦ãÀ!` ¼ãñª ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠãÞã ‡ãŠãè, ¦ããñ ¹ããÊã‡ãŠ Öñ
½ãîŒãùã¥ããÞãñ ‡ãðŠ¦¾ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã¶ãã ãä¶ãªã¶ã ¦ãñ ÔãªÖñ¦ãî¶ãñ ¦ãÀãè ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‡ã⊹ã¶ããè¶ãñ ¶ãºããºããÌãÀ •ããñ Öã ¦ããò¡ ºããâ£ãî¶ã ºãì‡ã‹‡ã‹¾ããâÞãã
½ããÀ ÞããÊããäÌãÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦ããñ ‡ãñŠÌãß ¦¾ããÞãã Øãßã ªãºãî¶ã ¹ãÆã¥ã Üãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãèÞã Öãñ¦ãã. Öã ¹ãÆã¥ãÜãã¦ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠã Êããõ‡ãŠÀ ãä¶ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠã
ÔãìÊã¼ã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè Ö•ããÀãñ Œã›¹ã›ãè ãä¶ã Ö•ããÀãñ Ê㛹ã›ãè ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã. ¦¾ãã ÔãÌãà ªñ¥¾ããÔã
Ô©ãÊããÌã‡ãŠãÍã ¶ããÖãè. ¦ãÀãè ‚ãìªãÖÀ¥ãã©ãà ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ¶ããèÞã ‡ãŠãÌãã ãäªÊ¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ÀÖãÌã¦ã ¶ããÖãè. ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãÌãã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ 1837
ÔããÊããè Êããù¡Ã ‚ããù‡ã‹Êãâ¡ ¾ããâ¶ããè ¶ãºããºããÍããè ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ¦ãÖ ‡ãŠãÖãè ÌãÓããĶãâ¦ãÀ ‚ããä•ãºãã¦ã ¶ãã‡ãŠºãîÊã •ãã¥ãñ Öã Öãñ¾ã! Öã ¦ãÖ
¢ããʾããºãÀãñºãÀÞã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ãäÌãÔãÀÊãñ ‚ãÔãñ ¶ããÖãè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã 1847 ÔããÊããè Êããù¡Ã Öããä¡ÄØ㛶ã¶ãñ ¦ãÖ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ‡ãŠ¶ãÃÊã
ÔÊããè½ã¶ã¶ãñ 1851 ÔããÊããè Öã ¦ãÖ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. 1853 ÔããÊããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ÞããÊãî ¦ãÖãâÞ¾ãã ¾ããªãè¦ãÖãè ¦ããñ 1837
Þãã ¦ãÖ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã!3 ¹ãâÀ¦ãì 1853 ÔããÊããè •ããñ ¦ãÖ ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Êãã ‚ããŸÌã¦ã Öãñ¦ãã ¦ããñ ¦ãÖ ¦¾ããÞã ÔããÊããè ŒãÀãè ŒãÀãè Ìãñß

¾ãñ¦ããÞã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ãäÌãÔã¶ã ØãñÊãñ! 1837 Þ¾ãã Ûãã ¦ãÖã¶ãñ ¦ãñ ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÔãñ
¹ããÖ¦ããÞã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Ü㛇ãñŠ¹ãîÌããê ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ãä¶ã ÞããÊãî ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã ¦ãÖãÞâ ¾ãã ¾ããªãè¦ã ãäÊãÖî¶ã £ãã¡ÊãñÊãã ¦ãÖ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ
Ôãã¹ãŠ ¶ãã‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ! ¦ããñ ¦ãÖ ¢ããÊããÞã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã £ã¡£ã¡ãè¦ã ãäÌã£ãã¶ã Ÿãñ‡ã㠪ñ¥¾ããÔã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãÔã ÍãÀ½ã
‡ãŠÍããè Ìãã›Êããè ¶ããÖãè ¾ããÞãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã •¾ãã¶ãñ ©ããñ¡ã ¦ãÀãè ÌããÞãÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ããÊãã ãäÌãÍãñÓãÔãñ ‚ããÍÞã¾ãÃ
Ìãã›ãÌã¾ããÔã ¶ã‡ãŠãñ ‚ããÖñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãÔã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠹ãããäÖ•ãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦ãñ À㕾ã Üãñ¥¾ããÔã 1837 ÔããÊãã¹ãñàãã
1801 ÔããÊãÞããÞã ¦ãÖ •ããԦ㠂ãì¹ã¾ããñØããè Öãñ¦ãã!

Ûãã ÔãÌãà Ê㛹ã›ãè ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãã£ããèÞã ¢ããÊãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã Öñ ½ãã¨ã Êãàãã¦ã £ãÀÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ, ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ
‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ã¹ãîÌãà ¹ãã¦ã‡ãŠ ‡ãñŠÊãñ ¶ããÖãè Öñ Ô¹ãÓ› Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãñÊã. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãã ½ãìÊãîŒã ÔãÌããĶããÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ
Öãñ¦ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ããñ ܾããÌãã ‡ãŠÔãã ÛããÞãã ãä¶ã‡ãŠãÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ããñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞ¾ãã ÖÔ¦ãñ ¢ããÊãã. ¹ãâ•ããºã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ºãÆÚãªñÍãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¦¾ããÌãÀ
ÔÌããÀãè ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦ããñ ãä•ãâ‡ãŠ¦ãã ¾ãñ‚ããè¶ãã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¦¾ãã¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠ ãäºãÆãä›ÍããâÞ¾ã㠇㊣ããèÖãè ‚ãìÊã› ØãñÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ‚ãã¹ãʾãã¹ããÍããè
Ô¶ãñÖ¼ããÌãã¶ãñ ¶ãºããºã ÌããØãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔãã ‚ããÀãñ¹ã ‡ãŠÀãÌãã ¦ãÀ ¦ãñÖãè ‚ãØãªãèÞã ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ
‡ãŠŸãè¥ã ¹ãÆÔãâØããè ¶ãºããºããâ¶ããè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâ¶ã㠽㪦㠇ãñŠÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. •¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍããâÞ¾ãã ãäŒãÍãã¦ã ¹ãõÔãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¶ãºããºããâ¶ããè
¦¾ããâÔã ¹ãõÔãñ ãäªÊãñ. •ãñÌÖã ½ããñŸ½ããñŸá¾ãã Êã¤ã¾ãã¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã Œãã¾ãÊãã ãä½ãßñ¶ãã ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¦¾ããâÔã £ã㶾ããÞãã ¹ãìÀÌãŸã ‡ãñŠÊãã
¶ããØã¹ãîÀ¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãä¦ã©ãñ ÌããÀÔã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè ¶ããÖãè ‚ãÍããèÖãè ¦ã‰ãŠãÀ ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã Àã•ãÌãã¡ã ‚ããõÀÔã Ôãâ¦ã¦ããè¶ãñ Øã•ãºã•ãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã; ãä‡ãâŠÌãã
¢ããÍããè¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ª§ã‡ãŠ ¹ãì¨ããÞããèÖãè ¼ãã¶ãØã¡ ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ÖÊÊããèÞãã Àã•ãã Öã ½ãð¦ã Àã•ããÞãã ‚ããõÀÔã ¹ãì¨ã ‚ãÔãî¶ã À㕾ããÌãÀ ÔãìãäÔ©ã¦ã
¢ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ Ûãã ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºãã¶ãñ Ûãã ÌãÀãèÊã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããâ¦ããèÊã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããÖãè ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ
ÔãÌãà ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã •ãÀãè ¶ãºããºãã¶ãñ ›ãßÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦¾ãã ½ãîŒããÄÞãñ Öã¦ãî¶ã ‚ãŒãñÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ •ãâØããè ¹ãƽã㪠Üã¡ÊããÞã! ¦ããñ ¹ãƽã㪠Öã ‡ãŠãè
¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã À㕾ãã¦ããèÊã ¹ãƪñÍã ‚ããä¦ãÍã¾ã Ôãì¹ããè‡ãŠ, ÔãìâªÀ ãä¶ã Ôãâ¹ã¸ã ‚ãÔãã Öãñ¦ãã! Öã ¦¾ããÞãã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ã㠇㊣ããèÞã
£¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ÔãìâªÀ ¹ãƪñÍããÞãñ Ìã¥ãö㠪ñ¦ãã¶ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ºÊ¾ãî ºãì‡ãŠã¦ããèÊã Áàã ¼ããÓãñÊããÖãè ‡ãŠãäÌã¦ãñÞãñ ¹ãã¢ãÀ
¹ã슛¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ``Ûãã ÔãìâªÀ ¹ãÆãâ¦ãã¦ã ãä•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ÌããèÔã ¦ãÀ ‡ãŠãñŸñ ‡ãŠãñŸñ ªÖã ¹ã슛ãâÌãÀ ¹ã㥾ããÞãñ ½ãìºãÊã‡ãŠ ÔããŸñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ÔãÌãÃ
¹ãƪñÍã ãäÖÀ̾ããØããÀ Íãñ¦ããâ¶ããè ¹ãìŠÊãÊãñÊãã, ‚ããâºãÀã‚ããèÞ¾ãã œã¾ãñ¶ãñ Íããè¦ãÊã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ãä¶ã ºããâºãîâÞããè ‚ãìâÞã ‚ãìâÞã ºã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãñŠ Ÿã‚ããè
Ÿã‚ããè ‚ãõ›ºãã•ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¡ãñÊãÌããè¦ã ‚ãÔã¥ããÀã, ãäÞãâÞãñÞããè ªã› œã¾ãã, ¶ãããäÀâØããèÞãã ÔãìØãâ£ã, ‚ãâ•ããèÀ ÌãðàããâÞããè ãäÌããäÞã¨ã¦ãã ãä¶ã
¹ãìÓ¹ã¹ãÀãØããâÞãã ¹ããäÀ½ãÊã Öãè ÔãÌãà Ûãã ãä¶ãÔãØãÃÔãìªâÀ ¹ãƪñÍããÊãã ‚ãÌã¥ãöããè¾ã Íããñ¼ãã ªñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã!`` ‚ãÔãÊãã Öã ¹ãƪñÍã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ã㺾ãã¦ã
ŸñÌ㥾ããÞãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ããºã−Êã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºããÔã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÌã¶㠂ãìÞãÊãì¶ã ¹ãñŠ‡ã㠪ñ¥¾ããÞãã ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè¶ãñ
1856 ÔããÊããè Öì‡ãã Ôããñ¡Êãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã Öì‡ã슽ããÊãã ¾ãÞÞã¾ããÌã¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ ÔããÛã ãä¶ã ‚ã¶ãì½ã¦ã ãä½ãßî¶ã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã

3 Dalhousie’s Administration Vol. II. page 367.

¢ã›‡ã‹¾ããÔãÀÍããè ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊããè! ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦ãÀ ¶ãºããºã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã À㕾ããÞããè Ôãì£ããÀ¥ãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ! ‚ãÖãÖã,
¾ãñÍãî ãäÐãÔ¦ãã¶ãñ ªñŒããèÊã Ûãã ‚ããõªã¾ããÃÊãã ¹ããÖî¶ã ½ãã¶ã ŒããÊããè ÜããÊããÌããè! ¶ãºããºããÞ¾ãã À㕾ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¹ã› ªããäÀ³¿ã Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãñ Þããõ¹ã›
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À㕾㠂ãñ‡ãŠ ãäªÌãÔã ¦ãÀãè ÀÖã¥ãñ ¾ããñؾã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ‚ãã•ã Þããè¶ã ½ã£¾ãñ ‚ã¹ãîŠÞãñ ̾ãÔã¶ã ‚ããÖñ, ‚ã¹ãŠØãããä¥ãÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã •ãìÊãî½ã ‚ããÖñ,
¹ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠÍããÊãã ¦ã좾ãã ¹ãã¾ãã•ãÌãß ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã ÀãäÍã¾ãã¦ã ‚ãâªã£ãìâªãèÞãã ‡ãŠßÔã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ¢ããÀÊãã ¦ãî
‚ã̾ãÌãÔ©ãñÞ¾ãã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããºã−Êã ¹ãªÞ¾ãì¦ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦ãñ À㕾ã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Êãã •ããñ¡î Íã‡ãŠÍããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ã좾ãã Íãñ•ããžããâÞãñ Ôãã½ãã¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
ÔÌã¦ã:Þ¾ãã ÜãÀã¦ã ‚ã̾ãÌããäÔ©ã¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ÜãÀã¦ã ãäÍã¶ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ãìÔã‡ã‹¾ãã ºããâ£ãî¶ã ¦ãñ ÜãÀ ¦ã㺾ãã¦ã
Üãñ¥¾ããÞãã `և㋇ãŠ` ¦ããñ ¦ãìÊãã ‡ãŠÔãã ãä½ãßãÊãã? ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¡ÊãÖãõÔããèÞããè ‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠãèªÃ ªñ¥ããÀã ‚ããÀ¶ããñÊ¡ ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ``¶ãºããºãã¶ãñ ÛãããäÍãÌãã¾ã
ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè¦ãÀãè ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! ¹ããäÖÊããè ØããñÓ› Öãè ‡ãŠãè ¦ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªãÔãªãÔããé¶ãã ÍããÊãî ºãàããèÔã ªñ¦ã; ªìÔãÀãè ØããñÓ› ½Ö¥ã•ãñ 11 ½ãñ
Àãñ•ããè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ªã‡ãŠã½ã Ôããñ¡¥¾ããÞãã •ãÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊãã. ¹ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠã¾ã, ¹ã¥ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäªÌãÔã Ôã‡ãŠãßãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ããõÓã£ã Üãñ¦ãÊãñ ãä¶ã ÍããÖãè
ºãñØã½ã ãä¶ã ¦ãã•ã ºãñØã½ã Ûããâ¶ãã ¼ããñ•ã¶ããÞãã ‚ããØãÆÖ ‡ãñŠÊãã!! ‚ãã¦ãã ¾ããÖî¶ã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ã¹ãÀã£ã ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ãã! ¦ãÀãè¹ã¥ã ÍããºããÔã Ûãã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè ‡ãŠãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã, ¶ãºããºã Ôã‡ãŠãßãè ‚ããõÓã£ã Üãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÖãè ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠã¶ãã¡ãñßã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦¾ãã¶â ãã À㕾ããÌã¶㠇ãŠã¤Êãñ
¶ããÖãè! ¹ã¥ã ‚ãŒãñÀ ÔãÌãà ãä‚ãÊãã•ã ©ã‡ãŠÊãñ, ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäªÌãÔã ¶ãºããºããÞãñ Ôã½ããñÀ ‡ãŠãÖãè Üããñ¡¿ããâÌãÀ Üããñ¡ñ Ôããñ¡Êãñ ØãñÊãñ! ‚ã©ããĦã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãâÔã ¦¾ãã Üããñ¡¿ããâÞ¾ãã ¾ãã ¹ãããä¦ãÌãƦ¾ã¼ãâØããÞããè ¹ãŠãÀÞã ‡ãŠãèÌã ‚ããÊããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¶ãºããºããâ¶ãã Ûãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ¹ãÆÔãâØããè Ö•ãÀ
ÀãÖ¥¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ã¹ãÀã£ããºã−Êã À㕾ããÌã¶㠪îÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñ!`` ‚ãÔãʾãã àãìÊÊã‡ãŠ ØããñÓ›ãè ªñ‚ãî¶ã ¶ãºããºããâÞ¾ãã À㕾ã̾ãÌãÔ©ãã-‚ãàã½ã¦ãñÞãã
¡ãâØããñÀã ãä¹ã›Ìãî ¹ãÖã¥ããžãã ½ãîŒãà ãä¶ã ½ã¦ÔãÀãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã-ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâ¶ããè Öñ ¹ãƇãŠãÀ ¹ãÖ㥾ããÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¹ã¾ãĦ㠾ãñ¥¾ããÞããè
¦ãÔãªãè ‡ãŠÍããÔã Üãñ¦ãÊããè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã •ãã¥ãñ! ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡ã¦ãÞã ‡ãŠãñŸñÖãè Àñ¶ããùÊ¡Þãñ ØãÆâ©ã Ôãã¹ã¡Êãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¦ãñ •ãÀãè Êã••ãñ¶ãñ ¦¾ããâ¶ãã
‡ãŠãñ¥ããè ãäªÊãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãÀãè ãä‚ãâØÊãâ¡Þ¾ãã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ãî¶ãÖãè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¹ãìÓ‡ãŠß ½ãããäÖ¦ããè Øããñßã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã ‚ããÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ããè. Üããñ¡¿ããâÞ¾ãã
¹ãããä¦ãÌãƦ¾ã¼ãâØãã¹ãñàãã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ãÖ§ÌããÞãñ ¼ãâØã ‡ãŠÀãäÌã¥ããžããâÞããè ãä•ãâªØããè ãä¶ã À㕾ãñ ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã Üãñ¥¾ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ÔÌã¦ã:Þ¾ãã ÜãÀÞããè Öãè
¼ããñ‡ãñŠ ºãì•ããäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÌãñßñÞãã •ããԦ㠂ãì¹ã¾ãì‡ã‹¦ã ̾ã¾ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã ‚ããÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã!

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¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã ¹ããÞãÌãñ

¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã - !!

‚ãã¦ãã ãä‚ããäÞœ¦ã ÀãӛȇãŠã¾ããÃÞããè ãä¦ã©ããè •ãÌãß ¾ãñ¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãÍãã Ôã½ã¾ããè ãä‚ãÓ› ãäÔãä®ÔããŸãè ‡ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ããâÞããè
‡ãðŠ¹ãã Ôãâ¹ã㪶㠇ãñŠÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. Ûãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããÞããè ‡ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ãã, Ôãî¡ Öãè ‚ããÖñ. ãäÖÊãã ¹ãÆÔã¸ã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä¶ã ãä¦ãÊãã
‚ãã¹ãʾã㠽㪦ããèÔã ¾ãñ¥ãñ ¼ããØã ¹ãã¡Ê¾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã 1757 ÔããÊããè Ôãâ‡ãŠÊ¹ã Ôããñ¡Êãñʾãã À¥ã‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞããè ãäÔããä® ÞããâØãÊããè ÌÖãÌã¾ããÞããè
¶ããÖãè. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ãÔã ¹ãƪã蹦㠇ãŠÀã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ã ã‚ä ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ãäªÌ¾ã ÖÌã¶ãñ ²ãã ‡ãŠãè, ½ã쌾㠇ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ãã Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã¾ãì‡ã‹¦ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ã‡Æ ㊛
¢ããÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. ãä‚ãâ³ãä•ã¦ããÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ¾ã—ãã¦ãî¶ã •ãÔãã, ‚ããä•ãâ‡ã‹¾ã À©ã ãä¶ãÜãñ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã ÖÌã¶ããâÞãã £ã¡ã‡ãŠã ‚ãì¡ãÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦ãÔããÞã Ûãã
¾ã—ãã¦ãî¶ã ½ãîãä¦ãýãâ¦ã Ôãî¡ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔãÖÔ¨ã ãä•ãÌÖã ãä¶ã ÔãÖԨ㠪âÓ›Èãâãä¶ãÍããè ‚ããäÌã¼ãîæã Öãñ‚ããè¹ã¾ãĦã Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ã¦ã ÖÌã¶ãñ ªñ¥¾ããÞãã Ôã¹ãã›ã
ÞããÊãÌãã. ãä‚ãâ³ãä•ã¦ããÞ¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã Ìãã¶ãÀÊããñ‡ãŠ ¦¾ãã ¾ã—ããÞãã ¼ãâØã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔ㠣㡹㡦ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ÔãìªõÌãã¶ãñ Ûãã ÀãӛȾã—ããÔ㠽㪦ã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè Êããñ‡ãŠ £ã¡¹ã¡¦ã ‚ããÖ¦ñ ã. ½ãØã ‚ãìÍããèÀ ‡ãŠã? ‡ãŠãñ¹ãÖì¦ããÍã¶ã £ã¡ã¡ÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã Ôãã¦ã ãä•ãÌÖã
ÊãÌãÊãÌã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãìâÞã ‚ãì¡¿ãã Üãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ½ãØã ‚ãìÍããèÀ ‡ãŠã? ÞãÊãã, ÖãäÌãªãöããÊãã ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãŠÀã!

Ûãã ¹ãâ•ããºãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã¹ãÆãäÔã® ‡ãŠãñãäÖ¶ãìÀãÖî¶ã, Ûãã ¦ãñ•ããÞ¾ãã ãäØããäÀÌãÀãÖî¶ã ãä¶ã Ûãã Àã•ããäÞã¶ÖãâÞ¾ãã Àã•ããÖî¶ã
¹ããäÖʾãã ÖãäÌãªãöããÞãã ½ãã¶ã ãä½ãßãäÌ㥾ããÔã ªìÔãÀñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ¾ããñؾ㠂ãÔã¥ããÀ! ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÞãÊã ¾ãñ, ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè, ¦¾ãã ‡ãŠãñãäÖ¶ãìÀãÔã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
Œãžãã ½ããÊã‡ãŠã¹ããÔãî¶ã ãäÖÔã‡ãŠãÌãî¶ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ÞãÊã ¾ãñ, ¹ãâ•ããºãÞ¾ãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãã Œãî¶ã ¢ããÊãã Öñ ¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããÞ¾ãã ‡ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ãÊñ ãã
‡ãŠßãäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè Öã ‚ãضããè ¼ã¡‡ãŠ¦ã ‚ããÖñ. Öã ‡ãŠãñãäÖ¶ãîÀÖãè ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

Ûãã ºãÆÚãªñÍããÊãã ªìÔãžãã ÖÌã¶ããÞãã ½ãã¶ã ãä½ãߥãñ ¾ããñؾ㠂ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÞãÊã ¾ãñ, Öñ ¡ÊãÖãõÔããè, ¦¾ãã ºãÆÚãªñÍããÔã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
Œãžãã ½ããÊã‡ãŠã¹ããÔãî¶ã ãäÖÔã‡ãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ÞãÊã ¾ãñ! ‚ããäض㠼㡇㊦㠂ããÖñ ¦ãÀ ãä‚ãÓ›ãäÔã®ãèÔããŸãè Ûãã ºãÆÚãªñÍããÊãã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

Ôãã¦ããÀÞããè ãäÍãÌãã•ããèÞããè Øããªãè ‡ã슟ñ ‚ããÖñ? ãä¦ãÞãã ½ãã¶ã ãä¦ãÔãžãã ÖÌã¶ããÞãã ‚ããÖñ. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãä¦ãÞ¾ããÌãÀÞ¾ãã Àã•ããâ¶ãã
Ô½ãÍãã¶ãã¦ã ºãÔããÌã¾ããÔã ÔããâØãî¶ã ¦ããè Øããªãè, ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããñ, •ãã ãä¶ã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀ ‚ãã¥ãã! Öã ‚ããäض㠼㡇㊦㠂ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞ¾ãã
Ìã¦ããè¶ãñ Öãè Ôãã¦ããÀÞããè Øããªãè ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

Ûãã Þããõ©¾ãã ÖÌã¶ããÊãã ¶ãìÔã¦ããè ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞããè Øããªãè ¹ãìÀñ ‡ãŠÍããè ¹ã¡¥ããÀ! ¦ãª©ãà ¦¾ãã ØããªãèºãÀãñºãÀ ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞãñ ÔããÀñ Ìãã¡ñ,
Ö§ããè, Üããñ¡ñ, Àã•ãñ, À㥾ãã, À㥾ããâÞãñ ªããäØã¶ãñ, ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã, ‚ããÀãñß¿ãã •ãñ •ãñ ãä½ãßñÊã ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ‚ãã¥ãã ¶ãã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀ! Öã ‚ããäض㠼㡇㊦ã
‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞãñ ¶ããØã¹ãîÀ ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

‚ãã¦ãã ½ãã¨ã Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ •ãã••Ìãʾã ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊãñ ŒãÀñ. ‚ãÍãã ÌãñßñÊãã ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãÞã •ãã••Ìãʾ㠂ãÔãã ÖÌããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ããÖñ.
¹ã¥ã ‚ãÔãã ãäÌãÔ¦ãÌããÖî¶ãÖãè •ããÊããè½ã ÖãäÌã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃ-ãäÍãÌãã¾ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ‡ã슟ñ Ôãã¹ã¡¥ããÀ! ‚ããäض㠹ãÆ•ÌããäÊã¦ã ¢ããÊãã ‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã
ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÞãã ½ãì‡ã슛 ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããÞããè ¶¾ãã¾ãªñÌã¦ãã Ôãî¡ Öãè ¹ãÆÔã¸ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè Öã ¶ãÌãã ÖãäÌã, ‚ãÔãã ãä¶ãÌã¡ã ‡ãŠãè ¾ãâÌã! Öã ½ãã¶ã ãä¦ãÞããÞã! Ûãã
ãäÌããä¦ãÖãñ¨ããÞ¾ãã •ÌããÊãã ‚ãã‡ãŠãÍããÔã ãä¼ã¡ã̾ãã ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà Öãè ¢ããÍããèÞããè ãäºã•ãÊããè ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

¹ãÖã, ¹ãÖã Ûãã ãäªÌ¾ã Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ã¦ãî¶ã ÔãÌãà ¹ãã¹ããè ªì¾ããó£ã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØããÊãã ‡ã⊹㠼ãÀãäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè Ôãì¡ãÞãñ ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠ ÌãÀ ãäªÔãî
ÊããØãÊãñ! ‚ãÍãã ÌãñßñÊãã ¦¾ãã ‚ãããäÌã¼ãÃî¦ã Öãñ‚ãî ¹ãÖã¥ããžãã ªñÌã¦ãñÊãã ¹ãî¥ãà Ôãâ¦ãìÓ› ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ÖÌã¶ããâÞãã ½ããÀã ‚ãì¡ãäÌãÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ.
½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÞãÊãã Öñ ‚ã‡ãŠãÛÞãñ ¶ãºããºã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

¦ãâ•ããÌãÀÞããè Øããªãè ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!
‚ãâØãîÊãÞãñ Àã•ããÔã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!
ãäÔããä‡ã‹‡ãŠ½ãÞ¾ãã ¼ããØããÔã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!
ÔãâºãÊã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÔã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!
ŒãõÀ¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ‚ããä½ãÀãâ¶ãã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãÔãã `Á¹ã¾ãñ ãä¶ã ŒãìªãÃ` ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ØãßãÊãã ¾ããÞããè ¦ãÀ Øã¥ã¦ããèÞã ¶ããÖãè.¾ããÔ¦ãÌã ‚ãÔãÊããè ÖãäÌãªãöãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ½ããñ•ããè¦ã
ºãÔã¦ããñ! ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ¹ãìÓ› ãä¶ã ‚ãØãªãè ãä¶ãÀ¹ãÀã£ã ‚ãÔãã ºãßãè ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºãããäÍãÌãã¾ã Ôãã¹ã¡¥ãñ ªìãä½ãÃß ‚ããÖñ, ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã
¶ãºããºããâ¶ãã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

‚ãÖãÖã, Ûãã ‚ããäضã‡ãŠÊÊããñßã¦ãî¶ã ÌãÀ ãä¶ãÜã¥ããžãã ªñÌã¦ãñÞããè Öãè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ‚ãìØãƦãã! Ûãã Ôãì¡ãÞ¾ãã Ûãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ªã¤ãâŒããÊããè
ÔãÌãà •ãØã¦ã ªñŒããèÊã ãäÞãÀ¡Êãñ •ãã‚ããèÊã! ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ãã ªã¤ãâÞããè £ããÀ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ¦ããèà¥ã ¢ããʾããÌããÞãî¶ã ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ©ããâºã¦ãã ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØããè ¶ããÖãè.
½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ããâ¶ãã ‡ãìŠÊã¹ãñ Ÿãñ‡ãã ãä¶ã ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ½ã¾ãìÀãÔã¶ããÌãÀ ºãÔã¥ããžãã ‚ã‡ãŠºãÀãÞ¾ãã ÌãâÍã•ããÊãã ¹ãŠÀ¹ãŠÀ ‚ããñ¤ãè¦ã
‚ãã¥ãî¶ã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆãâ¦ãã¦ã ½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊãñ ¦ããÊãì‡ãŠªãÀ 1 ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ããÖñ¦ã? ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà •ããä½ã¶ããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ÔãÌãà և㋇ãŠ

‡ãŠã¤î¶ã ›ã‡ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Àã¶ã›ãè ¹ãÍãîâ¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¹ããŸÊããØã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ‚ãã¥ãã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ! ¦ãÔãñÞã ½ãìâºã‚ããè ãä‚ãÊã㌾ãã¦ã ã‚ä ã¶ãã½ã
‡ãŠãä½ãÍã¶ã½ãã¹ãʦã Ö•ããÀãñ և㋇㊪ãÀãâÞãñ և㋇㊠¢ãìØãã¶㠪ñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ããÖãè ‚ãã¥ãã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ! Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ £ã¡ã¡î¶ã ÀããäÖÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ.
‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà •ããä½ã¶ãªãÀ, •ãÖããäØãÀªãÀ, ¦ããÊãì‡ãŠªãÀ, Ìã¦ã¶ãªãÀ, ÌãØãõÀñ ÔãÌãà ªãÀãâ¶ãã ¶ããªãÀ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¤‡ãŠÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ã!

Àã•ãñ, ½ãÖãÀã•ãñ, ºããªÍããÖ, ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã, ¶ãºããºã, Ìã•ããèÀ, ‚ãÔãÊãñ ‚ãÔãÊãñ Ûãã Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ã¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãñ Öñ ‚ãì§ã½ã ÖãäÌã ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã
ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããÞ¾ãã ‡ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ãñÊãã ¹ãÆÔã¸ã ‡ãŠÀãñ¦ã! ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãîÌãÕããâÞ¾ãã ¡ãñß¿ããâ¦ãî¶ã ‚ãã½ãÞããè ¹ãÆÔ¦ãì¦ãÞããè Öãè ªìªÃÍãã ãä¶ã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè
¹ããÖî¶ã ØãߥããÀñ ‚ãÑãì ¦¾ãã ªñÌã¦ãñÊãã ÔãìÔ¶ãã¦ã ‡ãŠÀãñ¦ã! Ôãã¦ããÀÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãñ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ñ ¹ããÖî¶ã Ôãâ¦ãã¹ã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ãäÍãÌãã•ããè ¦¾ãã ªñÌã¦ãñÊãã
Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ªñÌããñ! ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ããèÊã ºãñØã½ããâÞ¾ãã ÖãÊã ãä¶ã ¶ããØã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ½ãÖãÊãã¦ã ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ½ãñÊãñʾãã ‚ã¸ã¹ãî¥ããúãã‚ããèÞãã
‚ã㦽ãã ¦¾ãã ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã Ôãì¡ãÊãã Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ªñÌããñ! Öñ Ôãî¡ã, •ãØãã¦ããèÊã ¶¾ã㾾㠦ãÀÌããÀãèÞãñ £ããÀñÌãÀ ¦ãî Þ㤦ããñÔã ¦ãñÌÖã ¦ãî
ªñÌããâ¶ããÖãè Ìãâ²ã ãä¶ã ¨ãÉÓããé¶ããÖãè Ô¦ã즾ã Öãñ¦ããñÔã. Ôã••ã¶ãÀàã‡ãŠ Ôãî¡ã! ¦ãì¢ãã £ãã‡ãŠ •ãÀ ¶ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ‚㶾ãã¾ããÞãã ‡ãŠãäÊã, Ûãã •ãØããÌãÀ
ãä¶ãÀâ‡ãìŠÍã¦Ìãã¶ãñ ¶ããÞãî ÊããØãñÊã Öñ Ôãî¡ã, ¦ã좾ãã ‚ãìØãƧÌãã¶ãñÞã ‡ãâŠãä¹ã¦ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ãã¹¾ããâ¶ãã ¹ã쥾ãÌãã¶ã ÌÖãÌãñ ÊããØã¦ãñ, ¦ãîÞã ÀãÌã¥ããÞãã Àã½ã
Öãñ¦ããÔã, ¦ãîÞã ªì¾ããó£ã¶ããÞãã ¼ããè½ã Öãñ¦ããÔã ãä¶ã ¦ãÞî ã ãäÖÀ¥¾ã‡ãŠÍ¾ã¹ãîÞãã ¶ãÀãäÔãâÖ Öãñ¦ããÔã! ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÌãñßñÔãÖãè ¦ãìÊãã ¹ãÆÔã¸ã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä•ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ÖãäÌãªãö㠢ããÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ, ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ¾ãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ Öãñ½ã‡ãì⊡ã¦ã ¢ããÊãÊñ ãñ ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà •ãØãã¦ã ‚㶾ãã¾ã ãä¶ã
‚ãâªã£ãì⪠ºã⪠‡ãŠÀãÌããè, ¹ãÀÌãÍã¦ãã ãä¶ã ¹ãÀªãÔã¦ãã ŸãÀ ÌÖãÌããè ãä¶ã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãñÞãã ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞãã •ã¾ã•ã¾ã‡ãŠãÀ ÌÖãÌãã, ‚ãÍããè

1 ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÊãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦ãñ©ããèÊ㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ‡ãìŠÊããè¶ã Ìã•ã¶ãªãÀ ãä¶ã ¹ãƽãìŒã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞããè •ããè ªìªÃÍãã ‚ãì¡ãäÌãÊããè

ãä¦ãÞããè Ö‡ãŠãèØã¦ã ‡ãñŠÌãß ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ããÖñ! ÌãâÍã¹ãÀâ¹ãÀã ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã •ããä½ã¶ããè ãä¶ã Ìã¦ã¶ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã àã¥ãã¦ã ¶ããÖãèÍããè Öãñ¦ã! Ûãã ªìª÷Ìããè
¦ããÊãì‡ãŠãªãÀãºã−Êã ‡ãñŠ ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ-

“The charges against him were many and great for he had diverse ordeals to
pass through and he seldom survived them all... When the claims of a great Talukdar
could not be altogether ignored, it was declared that he was a rogue or a fool... They
gave him a bad name and straightway they went out to ruin him! ...It was at once a cruel
wrong and a grave error to sweep it away as though it were an encumbrance and an
usurpation”.

¶ãºããºããâ¶ãã ÊããÌã¦ã㠶㠾ãñ¥ããÀãè ‚ãÍããè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÞããè Öãè `̾ãÌãÔ©ãã ÊããÌ㥾ããºã−Êã Ûãã ãä¶ã ã‚ä ã¦ãÀ ÔãÌãÃ
•ããä½ã¶ãªãÀãâ¶ããè ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÔã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ‡ãŠÔãã ºãñª½ã Þããñ¹ã ãäªÊãã Öñ ¹ãì¤ñ ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊãÞã! ãä‚ã¶ãã½ã ‡ãŠãä½ãÍã¶ã •ãñ ¶ãñ½ãÊãñ ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¦ãÀ
‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã ‡ãŠÖÀ ‚ãì¡ãäÌãÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã •ãÔãñ ½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊãñ Àã•ãñ ¶ã‡ãŠãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãÔãñÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¡ãñ‚ããè•ã¡ •ããä½ã¶ãªãÀÖãè ¶ã‡ãŠãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.
•¾ãã •ããä½ã¶ããè ãä¶ã •ãÖããäØãÀãè ¦ãÀÌããÀãèÞãñ Ôã¶ãªñ¶ãñ ãä½ãßãäÌãÊãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã ¦¾ãã ‡ãŠãØãªãè Ôã¶ãªã ¶ãÌÖ¦¾ãã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÔãÖã ŒããÊãÔãã
Öãñ¦ã ÞããÊãʾãã! •ãÌãß •ãÌãß ¹ãÔ¦ããèÔã Ö•ããÀ Ìã¦ã¶ãñ ãä¶ã ›ãñÊãñ•ãâØã •ãÖããäØãÀãè Þããõ‡ãŠÍããè¦ã ‡ãŠã¤Ê¾ãã Øãñʾãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã
¹ããâÞã ÌãÓããĦ㠦ããè¶ã ¹ãâÞã½ããâÍã Øã›á› ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãŠÊ¾ãã Øãñʾãã!

¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞããè ãä‚ãޜ㠂ãÔãʾããÔã ¦ãî ¾ãã ¾ã—ãã¦ãî¶ã ½ãîãä¦ãýãâ¦ã ¹ãƇ㊛ Öãñ! ÌããÖÌãã! `½ãð¦¾ãì: ÔãÌãÃÖÀÍÞããÖ½ãá` ‚ãÍããè Øã•ãöãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öã
½ãîãä¦ãýãâ¦ã ÀãÓ›Èàããñ½ã ÌãÀ ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ! ¾ãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ½ãî¦ããêÊãã Íã¦ãÍã: ¹ãÆ¥ãã½ã ‚ãÔããñ¦ã! •¾ããÞ¾ãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ªâÓ›ÈãâŒããÊããè ‚ã춽ã§ã Àã•ãñ
ãäÞãÀ¡Êãñ •ãã¦ããÖñ¦ã, •¾ããâÞ¾ãã Öã¦ãã¦ããèÊã Üã¥ãã¶ãñ, ãä¶ãÀ¹ãÀã£ããè ªñÍããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãã¾ãã¦ããèÊã ªãÔ¾ããÞ¾ãã ºãñ¡¿ãã ¦ã㡇㊶㠦ã웦㠂ããÖñ¦ã,
•¾ããÞ¾ãã ¶ãñ¨ããâ¦ãî¶ã Ôã웥ããžãã •ÌããÊãã •ãìÊã½ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ£ããÀ‡ãŠãñŸ¡¿ããâ¶ãã •ããßî¶ã ¼ãԽ㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. •¾ããÞ¾ãã ÊãÌãÊãÌã ‡ãŠÀ¥ããžãã
¦ã¹¦ã ãä•ãÌÖã ÔãÖÔ¨ãÍã: ªì:ÍããÔã¶ããÞâ ããè À‡ã‹¦ãñ Üã›ãÜã› ¹ããè¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã ¦¾ãã Ûãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ, ‚ãØì ãÆ ãä¶ã ¼ã¾ãã¶ã‡ãŠ ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã Ôãî¡ãÊãã Íã¦ãÍã:
¹ãÆ¥ãã½ã ‚ãÔããñ¦ã!

Ìã‡ã‹¨ãããä¥ã ¦ãñ ¦ÌãÀ½ãã¥ãã ãäÌãÍãã䶦ã
ªâÓ›Èã‡ãŠÀãÊãããä¶ã ¼ã¾ãã¶ã‡ãŠããä¶ãý
‡ãñŠãäÞããä´Êãضãã ªÍãã¶ã¶¦ãÀñÓãì ÔãâÒ;㶦ãñ Þãîãä¥ãæãõÁ§ã½ããÝáØãõ:ýý
`Öñ ãäÖ⪼ãî½ããè ‚ãŒãñÀ Ûãã ½ãÖã¾ã—ããâ¦ãî¶ã ¦ãì¢ãã `Ôãî¡` ½ãîãä¦ãýãâ¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¹ãÆãªì¼ãÃÌã¶ã ¦ãÀ ¹ããÌãÊãã ŒãÀã - ¹ã¥ã ¦ããñ Íããâ¦ã
Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ãî¥ãà ‚ãâ¦ã£ããö㠇ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãñŠÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¹ããÌãñÊã Öñ ¦ãìÊãã Ÿã‚ãî‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠã¾ã?

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¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã ÔãÖãÌãñ

‚ããØããè¦ã ¦ãñÊã !

•ãØãã¦ã ‚ãÔãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ãã Ô㮽ãà ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè, •¾ãã¦ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ã ãä¶ã ªãԾ㠾ããâÞãã ãä£ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ¶ããÖãè? ¾ããÔããŸãè ãä•ã©ãñ
¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀ ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ãä¦ã©ãñ ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾㠇㊣ããèÖãè ‚ãÔãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ã ¶ããÖãè ãä¶ã ãä•ã©ãñ ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾㠂ãÔã¦ãñ ãä¦ã©ãñ ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞãñ ‚ããä£ãÓŸã¶ã ‡ãŠ£ããèÖãè
‚ãÔãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ã ¶ããÖãè. ãä•ã©ãñ ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãÞãñ ‚ããä£ãÓŸã¶ã ¶ããÖãè ãä¦ã©ãñ £ã½ãà ¶ããÖãè. ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞãñ ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾㠽֥ã•ãñ
£ã½ããÃÞãã ‚ãìÞœñª ãä¶ã ¹ãÀ½ãñÍÌãÀãè ãä‚ãÞœñÞãã ¼ãâØã Öãñ¾ã.

½ã¶ãìӾ㠕ãã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãì¸ã¦ããèÔããŸãè ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ÔãÌãà £ã½ãà Öñ ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãÌã¶ã¦ããèÔããŸãè ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã
¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÊãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ã¼ãÀ ¦ãÀãè ã•ä ãÌãâ¦ã ŸñÌ㥾ããÞããè ‚ãã—ãã ªñ¦ããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ãÖãè Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ã ÔãÌãà ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ãã¹â ãñàãã
½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞããè ‚ã¦¾ãâ¦ã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ãÌã¶ã¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀñ ‚ãÔãʾãã½ãìßñ ¾ãã ‚ã£ã½ã ÀãàãÔããÞãã ‡ã⊟œñª ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè £ã½ãã×ãã ¹ãƽãìŒã¦Ìãã¶ãñ
ãäªÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔãÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. •ãñ ãä‚ã¦ãÀãâ¶ãã ¹ãÀ¦ãâ¨ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã¦ã ãä¶ã •ãñ ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ãã¦ã ÀãÖ¦ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ªãñÜãñÖãè ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÊãã ¶ãÀ‡ãŠã‡ãŠ¡ñ
Êããñ›ãè¦ã ¶ãñ¦ãã¦ã. ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÊãã ÔÌãØããÇ㊡ñ ¶ãñ¥ããÀñ Ô㮽ãà Ûãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÞãã ‚ãìÞœñª ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
‚ã¶ãì¾ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ‡ã⊟ÀÌãã¶ãñ ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã ªñ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. Öã ¦¾ããâÞãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã ‚ã½ã㶾㠇ãŠÀ¥ããÀñ ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠ £ã½ãóãñÖãèÞã Öã¦ñ ã. Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã
¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ãã¦ã ¤‡ãŠÊã¥ããÀñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã Àãñ•ã ÞãÞãý㣾ãñ •ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ãñ £ã½ãóãñÖãèÞã Öãñ¦ã. ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÞ¾ãã ¶ãÀ‡ãŠã¦ã ‡ã슕ã¦ã ¹ã¡¥ããÀñ
ãäÖâªãè Êããñ‡ãŠ Àãñ•ã ‚ãâØããÊãã ÀãŒã Þããñßãè¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñ ¦ãÀãè £ã½ãóãñÖãèÞã Öãñ¦ã. •ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞ¾ãã ªãÔ¾ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ãäÌãÍãñÓã¦ã:
‚ã¶ãõÔããäØãÇ㊠‚ãÍãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ªãÔ¾ãã¦ã ÀãÖ¦ãã¦ã ¦ãñ ÔãÌãà ãäÖªâ ì £ã½ãüãÆÓ› Öãñ¦ã ãä¶ã ¦ãñ ÔãÌãà ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ãÖãè £ã½ãüãÆÓ› Öãñ¦ã. ½ãØã ¦ãñ Àãñ•ã
Ö•ããÀ Ìãñßã Ôã⣾ãã ‡ãŠÀãñ¦ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Ö•ããÀÌãñßã ãä¶ã½ãã•ã ¹ã¤ãñ¦ã. Öñ Êãàãã¦ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ãÞã ÑããèÔã½ã©ãà Àã½ãªãÔããâ¶ããè ÔÌãÀ㕾ã¹ãÆãã书ã Öñ
£ã½ããÃÞãñ ½ã쌾㠇㊦ãÃ̾㠂ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ÔããâãäØã¦ãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. •ãñ À㕾㠂ãã¹ãʾãã Ôãâ½ã¦ããèãäÍãÌãã¾ã ‡ãñŠÌãß ºãÊãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾããÌãÀ ÞããÊããäÌãÊãñÊãñ
‚ãÔã¦ãñ ‚ãÔãñ ¹ãÀÀ㕾㠹ãñŠ‡ã㠪ñ¥ãñ, ªãÔ¾ããÞãã ÍãðâŒãÊãã ¦ããñ¡î¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥ãñ ãä¶ã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ã•ãã¦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãì¸ã¦ããèÞãñ ¹ãÆ©ã½ã Ôãã£ã¶ã ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ
ÔÌãÀ㕾ã ãä½ãßãäÌã¥ãñ - ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã ã½ä ãßãäÌã¥ãñ Öñ £ã½ããÃÞãñ ‚㦾ã¦â ã ¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾㠂ããÖñ ‚ãÔãã ¹ãÆã¥ã¶ãã©ã ¹ãƼãîâÞãã œ¨ãÔããÊããÊãã ¢ããÊãñÊãã
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Ôã½ã©ããÃâÞãã ãäÍãÌãÀã•ããÊãã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã ªãñ¶ã Íã¦ã‡ãŠã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ã쥾ã¼ãî½ããè¦ããèÊã ¹ãìÁÓããâÞãñ ‡ãŠã¶ãã¦ã —ãã¦ã ãä¶ã
‚ã—ãã¦ã Á¹ãã¶ãñ ãä‚ã.Ôã. ‚ãŸÀãÍãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊããè ¹ãì¶Öã Øãì¥ãØãì¥ãî ÊããØãÊãã!

ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ã쥾ã¼ãî½ããèÞãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ÔãÌãà £ã½ãà ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ¹ãã¾ããŒããÊããè ¦ãì¡ãäÌãÊãñÊãñÞã Öãñ¦ãñ.
¹ãÀâ¦ãì £ã½ããÃÞãã Öã ¦ãããä§Ìã‡ãŠ ‚ãì¹ã½ãªÃ ¹ãìÀã ¶ã Ìãã›î¶ãÞã ‡ãŠãè ‡ãŠã¾ã, ¦¾ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ããÃÞãã ̾ããÌãÖããäÀ‡ãŠ ‚ãì¹ã½ãªÃ
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ¹ãã¾ããÌãÀ ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãããä¹ãÆŠ‡ãñŠ¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ã½ãñãäÀ‡ãñŠ¦ã ¦ã−ñÍããè¾ããâ¶ãã ãäÐãÍÞã¶ã £ã½ããÃÞããè ªãèàãã
ªñ¥¾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠã½ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñʾãã ¾ãÍãã¶ãñ Íãñ¹ãŠãÀÊãñʾãã ¹ããÍÞã㧾ããâ¶ãã ¦¾ãã ‚ãããä¹ãÆŠ‡ãñŠ¹ãƽãã¥ãñÞã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ãÖãè ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ãäÐãÔ¦ããè
ºã¶ãÌãî¶ã ›ã‡ãîŠ ‚ãÍããè ¹ãŠãÀ ‚ããÍãã Öãñ¦ããè. Ìãñª¹ãÆãÞããè¶ã ãäÖâªì£ã½ããÃÞããè ãä¶ã ãäÐãÍÞãããä¶ã›ãèÞãñ ¹ããŸãèÌãÀ ¶ããÞã¦ã ‚ããÊãñʾãã ãä‚ãÔÊãã½ããÞããè
¹ããßñ½ãìßñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ŒããñÊãÌãÀ ØãñÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã ÛããÞãñ ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¾ãã䦇ãâŠãäÞã¦ãÖãè —ãã¶ã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ. ¦ã§Ìã—ãã¶ãã¦ã, ¼ããä‡ã‹¦ã¹ãÆñ½ãã¦ã ãä¶ã
ãä¶ã¦ããè¶ãõ¹ã쥾ãã¦ã ÔãÌãà •ãØããÞãã ‚ãã²ãØãì ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãã ‚ãã¾ããã½ãà ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦã ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ºããÀÍããÔã ãä¶ã ºããÀã̾ããÔã ¹ããÖã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãã
‚ããÖñ. Öñ ¾ãã ‚ãʹã£ããé¶ãã ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠßãÌã¾ããÞãñ ‚ããÖñ! ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ãäÐãÔ¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ‚ãã•ã •ãÀãè ÊãÌãÊãñÍãÖãè ‚ããÍãã ‚ãìÀÊãñÊããè
¶ããÖãè ¦ãÀãè Ôã§ããÌã¶ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ããâÞããè ¾ãã ¾ãÍã: ¹ãÆ㹦ããèºã−Êã ¹ãî¥ãà Œãã¨ããè Öãñ¦ããè. ‚ããõÀâØã•ãñºããÔããÀŒ¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãìÜã¡ ´ñÓããÖî¶ã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã
¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ãÔãã Øãßñ‡ãŠã¹ãî ´ñÓã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÊãã ¶ã‡ãŠß¦ã ãäÐãÔ¦ã½ã¾ã ºã¶ãÌãî¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥¾ããÞãã ¦¾ããâÞãã Ò¤ ‚ãì−ñÍã Öãñ¦ãã.
ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ, ¦ãÀ ¦ãª©ãÇ㊠¦¾ããâÞãñ Àã•ãÀãñÔã ¹ãƾ㦶ãÖãè ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¹ãããäÍÞã½ã㦾ã ãäÍãàã¥ã ¹ã®¦ããè ÔãìÂ
‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀã ½ãñ‡ãŠãùÊãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Œãã•ãØããè ¹ã¨ãã¦ã ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ‚ãã¹ãÊããè Öãè ãäÍãàã¥ã¹ã®¦ããè ‚ãÍããèÞã ÀããäÖÊããè ¦ãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ¦ããèÔã

ÌãÓããĦ㠺ãâØããÊãÞãã ºãâØããÊã ãäÐãÔ¦ã½ã¾ã ºã¶ãî¶ã •ãã‚ããèÊã!1 Ûãã ãä››ÌããèÞããè ‚ãÍããè ‚ããÍãã ãä¶ã ‚ãÍããè Œãã¨ããè Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãè ½ã㢾ãã ÞããñÞããè¶ãñ ½ããè

Öã ‚ãØãã£ã •ãÊã£ããè Öã Öã ½Ö¥ã¦ãã ‚ã›Ìãî¶ã ›ã‡ãŠãè¶ã! ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ãäÐãÔ¦ã½ã¾ã ºã¶ãÌãî¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããÞãñ
‡ãŠãÖãè¦ãÀãè ºãñ¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñÞã ‚ãÔã¦ã. Ûãã £ã½ãùãÆÌã¦ã¶Ã ããÔã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‚ãìÜã¡ ‚ãìÜã¡ ½ãª¦ã ‡ãŠÀãÌããè ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Ö•ããÀãñ
ãä½ãÍã¶ãžããâÞããè Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñÊããè ãäÌã¶ãÌã¥ããè ½ã㶾㠇ãŠÂ¶ã ¦ããè¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã ãä‚ãÔÊãã½ããè £ã½ããÃÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ ‚ãìÜã¡ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¦ãÀÌããÀ
ÞããÊããäÌ㥾ããÔãÖãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ‡ãŠ½ããè ‡ãñŠÊãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›ÈãÔã £ã½ãùãÆÌã¦ãöãã¹ãñàãã ̾ãã¹ããÀ¹ãÆÌã¦ãöããÞããè ãä¶ã ãäÐãÔ¦ãã¹ãñàãã
³Ì¾ããÞããè ¼ã‡ã‹¦ããè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ Ûãã ‚ãìÜã¡ ½ããñãäÖ½ãã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã £ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÌãÀãèÊã À㕾㠺ãì¡ãäÌ㥾ããÔã ¦ã¾ããÀ
Öãñ¥¾ããÞããè œã¦ããè Öãñ‚ããè¶ãã. ãä‚ãޜ㠶ãÌÖ¦ããè ‚ãÔãñ ¶ããÖãè, ¦ãÀ œã¦ããè Öãñ‚ããè¶ãã. ¦ãÀãèÖãè ½ããñŸ½ããñŸá¾ãã ¶ããÌããŒããÊããè ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ Öñ¦ãì ª¡Ìãî¶ã
Ôã¦ããèÞãã ‡ãŠã¾ãªã, ãäÌã£ãÌãã ãäÌãÌããÖãÞãã ‡ãŠã¾ãªã, ª§ã‡ãŠ ¹ãì¨ãããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãÞããè ¹ãã¾ã½ãÊÊããè ÌãØãõÀñ ¹ãÆÔãâØããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã £ã½ãÃÔã½ã•ãì¦ããè¦ã
ºãßã¶ãñ ¹ãñŠÀ¹ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã Ôãâ¹ãƪã¾ã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè Ôãì ‡ãŠñ ÊãñÊããÞã Öãñ¦ãã. ãä½ãÍã¶ãžããâÞ¾ãã Íããßãâ¦ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ¹ãõÍããÞããè ½ãª¦ã ‚ã̾ããÖ¦ã
ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè.½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊãñ ‚ããÞãÃãäºãÍã¹ã ¾ããâÞãñ ¹ãØããÀ ½ããñŸ½ããñŸá¾ãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâ¶ããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä¹ãßî¶ã ‡ãŠã¤ÊãÊñ ¾ãã
¹ãõÍãã¦ãî¶ã Ôãì ‚ãÔã¦ã. Ûãã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Öã¦ããŒããÊãÞ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ÔÌã¦ã:Þ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ããÃÊãã Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãäÐãÔ¦ããè
Öãñ¥¾ããÞãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØããÌãñ, ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ‡ãŠãØ㪹ã¨ããâ¦ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞãã ‚ãìÊÊãñŒã ‘Heathen’ Ûãã Í㺪ã¶ãñ
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ããÌãã! ‚ãã‡ãŠãÍãã¦ããèÊã ºãã¹ããÞãñ Íãì¼ãÌã¦ãýãã¶ã ‚ãõ‡ãŠãäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‡ãŠã½ãØããÀãÞãã ºãÖì¦ãñ‡ãŠ Ìãñß ŒãÞãà Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ.

Ôãõ¶¾ãã½ã£¾ãñ ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã Êããñ‡ãŠ •ãñ ãäÍãÀ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã ¦¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ‡ãñŠÌãß ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãÞãñ •ããñÀãÌãÀ ãäÖâªãè £ã½ããÃÞããè
¹ãã¾ã½ãÊÊããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãèÞã ãäÍãÀ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. Íããâ¦ã¦ãñ½ã£¾ãñ Ôãõ¶¾ãã¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞããÞã ‚ãì²ããñØã Àã֦㠶ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã
ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÔã ¾ãñÍãîÞãñ Ìã¦ãýãã¶ã ÔããâØ㥾ããÔã Ôã¹ãã›î¶ã ‚ãÌã£ããè ãä½ãߦ㠂ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Œã㦾ãã¦ã ãä•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ
ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¾ãã ãä½ãÍã¶ãÀãè ‡ãŠ¶ãÃÊããâÞãã ãä¶ã Ôãñ¶ãã¹ã¦ããéÞãã ÔãìßÔãìßã› ¢ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. •¾ãã Àã½ãÞãâ³ãÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ¶ãã½ããñÞÞãÀ¥ããºãÀãñºãÀ
¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÖâªìÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ããÔã ¼ã‡ã‹¦ããèÞãñ ¹ãã¢ãÀ ¹ã슛î ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. •¾ãã ½ãÖâ½ãªãÞãñ ¶ããÌããºãÀãñºãÀ ÔãÌãà ãä‚ãÔÊãã½ããè¾ããâÞãñ Àâ£ãÆãÀâ£Àã¦ãî¶ã
¹ãÆñ½ã ªã›î¶ã ¾ãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ãã Àã½ãÞãâ³ãÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ½ãÖâ½ãªãÞ¾ãã ¶ããÌããÔã Ûãã ¹ãã³ãè ‡ãŠ¶ãÃÊããâ¶ããè ‚ãÍÊããèÊã ãäÍã̾ããâÞããè ÊããŒããñÊããè ÌãÖãÌããè!
‚ã쟦ãã ºãÔã¦ãã ãäÖâªãè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãÞãñ •ããñÀãÌãÀ Ø㹹㠺ãÔãÌãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾã ÌãñªãâÞããè ãä¶ã ‡ãìŠÀã¥ããÞããè ¾ã©ãñÞœ ãä¶ãâªã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Ôã½ãàã Ôãì Öãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ. ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãÌããè ÀãàãÔããâÞãã Öã ‚ãì²ããñØã ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ‚ã̾ããÖ¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ãä¶ã Ûãã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ããâ½ã£¾ãñ ¦¾ããâ¶ãã
ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ØãÌãà Ìã㛦㠂ãÔãñ ÛããâÞãñ Ô¹ãÓ› ÔÌã¹㠣¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ¾ããÌã¾ããÔã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ̾ããä‡ã‹¦ããäÌãÓã¾ã‡ãŠ ‚ãªì ãÖÀ¥ã ªñ¥ãñ ãä‚ãÓ› ‚ããÖñ. ÔãÌãà £ã½ããÃÞãã
•ã¶ã‡ãŠ ‚ãã¾ããã½ãà ãä¶ã ãäÐãÍÞãããä¶ã›ãèÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ ÔãìÀãè ŸñÌããè¦ã ¹ãì¤ñ ‚ããÊãñÊãã ½ãÖâ½ãªãè¾ã £ã½ãà ¾ãã £ã½ãô¾ããâ¶ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã
‚ã¶ãì¾ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ã웹ãì╾ãã Íãì¼ãÌã¦ãýãã¶ãã¶ãñ ¹ãŠÔãÌãî ¹ããÖ¥ããžãã Ûãã ¹ãã³ãè Ôãñ¶ãã¹ã¦ããé¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ºãâØããÊã ¹ãã¾ãªßãÞ¾ãã
Àñãä•ã½ãò›ÌãÀãèÊã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‡ãŠ½ããâ¡À ¡ãõÊãã¦ã ÔããâØã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ``½ããè ‚ãã•ã ÌããèÔã ÌãÓãó¹ã¾ãĦã Öñ Íãì¼ãÌã¦ã½Ã ãã¶ããÞãñ ‡ãŠã½ã ‚ã̾ããÖ¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã
‚ããÖñ. ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¹ãŠÀ Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ‚ã㦽¾ããâÞãã Ôãõ¦ãã¶ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ºãÞããÌã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾ãÞã Öãñ¾ã!`` ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãõÍããÌãÀ
¹ããñÔãÊãñʾãã Ûãã ¹ãã³ãèÌããèÀãâ¶ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Öã¦ãã¦ã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Öì‡ã슽ããÞãñ ºãã¡ ãä¶ã ªìÔãžãã Öã¦ãã¦ã ºãã¾ãºãÊããÞãñ ºãã¡ Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãñ¦ã−ñÍããè¾ã
ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ºãã›ãäÌ㥾ããÞãã Àã•ãÀãñÔã ¹ãƾ㦶㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ¹ã¾Æ 㦶ããÔã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀ ¾ãÍã
ãä½ãߥ¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè •ããñ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ãäÐãÔ¦ããè Öãñ‚ããèÊã ¦¾ããÞããè ºã¤¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ‚ãìÜã¡ ÌãÞã¶ãñ ªñ¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ! ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ‚ãã¹ãÊãã £ã½ãÃ
Ôããñ¡ãè¦ã ‚ãÔãʾããÔã ÖÌããÊãªãÀ Öãñ‚ããè ãä¶ã ÖÌããÊãªãÀ Ôãì¼ãñªãÀ ½ãñ•ãÀ Öãñ‚ããè! ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Œãã¦ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ
ãäÐãÍÞãããä¶ã›ãèÞãñ ºãß•ããñÀãèÞãñ ãä½ãÍã¶ãÞã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ºãÔãÊãñ! ãåÖªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãõÍãã¶ãñ ¹ããñÔãÊãñÊãñ Öã¦ã ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãõÍãã¶ãñ ãäÌã‡ãŠ¦ã
Üãñ¦ãÊãñʾãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè £ã½ããÃÞ¾ãã ½ãã¶ãñÌãÀ ŸñÌ㥾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñʾãã ¹ããÖî¶ã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ¾ãã Öñ¦ãîºã−Êã
ÔãâÍã¾ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãã. ¦¾ãã¦ã ªÀÀãñ•ã ¶ã̾ãã ¹ãìÀã̾ããâÞããè ¼ãÀ ¹ã¡î¶ã ÖÊã‡ãñŠ ÖÊã‡ãñŠ ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ãäÐãÔ¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè

1 “Our English schools are flourishing wonderfully. In a single town of Hoogly 1400

boys are learning English. The effect of this education is prodigious... It is my firm belief
that if our plan of education is followed up there would not be a single idolator in
Bengal 30 years hence!” --Macaulay’s letter to his mother, October 12, 1836.

£ããñÀ¥ã ÔãÌãèããâÔã Ô¹ãÓ› ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊãñ. ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Ôã¶ãã¦ã¶ã ‚ãã¾ããã½ããÃÞãã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾã ãä‚ãÔÊãã½ã £ã½ããÃÞãã Øãßã ‡ãñŠÔãã¶ãñ
‡ãŠã¹ãÊãã •ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¹ããÖ¦ããÞã ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ã ÞãÌã¦ããßî ÊããØãÊãñ. £ã½ãÃÀàã¥ãã©ãà ¹ãÆã¥ãÖãè ªñ‚ãî ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Íã¹ã©ãã Üãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãñ
ãä¶ã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãÔãÛã •ãìÊã½ãã¶ãñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØããÞããè ÊããÖãè ÊããÖãè Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊããè!

‚ãÍãã ¾ã㠼㡇㊦ã ÞããÊãÊãñʾãã ‚ããØããè¦ã ¦ãñÊã ‚ããñ¦ã¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀã¦ã ¶ãÌããè¶ã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Ìãã¹ãÀ¥¾ããÞãã
Öì‡ãã Ôãì›Êãã. ¶ãÌããè¶ã ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞ¾ãã ºãâªì‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ¶ãÌããè¶ã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Ìãã¹ãÀ¥¾ããÞããè ‚ããÌã;ã‡ãŠ¦ãã ¹ã¡Ê¾ãã¶ãñ Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã
‡ãŠãÀŒãã¶ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ‡ãŠã¤¥¾ããÞãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ŸÀãÌã ‡ãñŠÊãã. Öã ŸÀãÌã •ãÀãè 1857 Þ¾ãã ‚ããÀâ¼ããè ‚ãâ½ãÊãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãã
¦ãÀãè ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆÌãñÍã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¹ãîÌããêÞã ¢ããÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã £ã½ãÃÔã½ã•ãì¦ããé¶ãã
‡ãŠÔ¹ã›ã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ½ãã¶ã¥ããžãã ãä¹ãŠÀâØããè ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ãä‚ãâØÊã⡽㣾ãñ Øãã‚ããèÞããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊããè Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ 1853 ÔããÊããèÞã
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ããäÌãÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ‚ãÔãñ ‚ãã¦ãã ãäÔã® ¢ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ! ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀ, ÀâØãî¶ã ãä¶ã ¹ãŠãñ›Ã ãäÌãʾã½ã ¾ãñ©ããèÊã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè ¹ãŠãõ•ãñÊãã
¦¾ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã ‡ãŠÍããÞããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ Öñ ãäºãÊã‡ãìŠÊã ‡ãŠßî ¶ã ªñ¦ãã ãäÖâªì - ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâ¶ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè 1853 ÔããÊããèÞã
ºãã›ãäÌãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! Ûãã ªØãñŒããñÀ¹ã¥ããÞãñ ‡ãŠ¹ã› 1857 ÔããÊããè ‚ãìÜ㡇ãŠãèÔã ¾ãñ‚ããè¹ã¾ãĦ㠇ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã Ìãã›ñÊã ¦ããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌ㥾ããÞããè
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè •ãã¥ãî¶ã ºãì•ãî¶ã ̾ãÌãÔ©ãã ‡ãñŠÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. Öãè ØããñÓ› ‚ã•ã½ããÔãã¶ãñÞã ãäÔã® ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ¶ãÔãî¶ã 1853 Þ¾ãã ãä¡ÔãòºãÀ½ã£¾ãñ
‡ãŠ¶ãÃÊã ›‡ãŠÀ¶ãñ £ãã¡Êãñʾãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ãäÀ¹ããñ›ãæã Ûãã ØããñÓ›ãèÞãã Ô¹ãÓ› ‚ãìÊÊãñŒã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ.2 Œãì− ‡ãŠ½ããâ¡À -ãä‚ã¶ãÞããè¹ãŠÊããÖãè Öãè

ØããñÓ› ½ããÖãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! ‚ãÔãñ ‚ãÔã¦ããÖãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ¦ããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ããÃÊãã ¼ãÆÓ›
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ‚ã£ã½ã ‡ãðŠ¦¾ã Ôã¦ã¦ã ÔãÂì ŸñÌãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ¾ãã ªØãñºãã•ã¹ã¥ããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã Ôã¶ã 1853 ÔããÊããè
ãåÖªãè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ½ãìßãèÞã ¶ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Àã•ãÀãñÔã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãä¶ã ãä¶ã:Íãâ‡ãŠ¹ã¥ãã¶ãñ Ìãã¹ãÀÊããè. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ
‡ãŠ¹ã›¹ãÆÞãìÀ ºãñ¦ã ãäÔã®ãèÔã •ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ¹ããÖî¶ã ¦ããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã ‡ãŠãÀŒãã¶ãã Œãì− ¡½ã¡½ã ¾ãñ©ãñ ‡ãŠã¤¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãã. Ûãã
‡ãŠãÀŒã㶾ãã¦ã ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ¥ããžãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã ¹ãîÌããêÞããèÞã ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ãÔã.ñ ¹ã¥ã ‚ãÔãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã
Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ºãã›ãäÌ㥾ããÞãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãã ‚ãì−ñÍã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã Öñ ½ãã¨ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããèÖãè ãäÌãÔãÀ¦ãã ‡ãŠã½ãã ¶ã¾ãñ! ‚ãì−ñÍã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã! ‚ãÔãÊãã ‚ãì−ñÍã
¶ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÞã ‚ãã½ãÞãã ªñÍã £ãìßãèÔã ãä½ãßãÊãã! ‚ãÔãÊãã ‚ãì−ñÍã ¶ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÞã ‚ãã½ãÞãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã ÞãÀÞãÀ ãäÞãÀÊãñ ØãñÊãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãÔãÊãã ‚ãì−ñÍã
¶ãÔã¦ãã¶ããÞã ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã £ã½ããÃÞãã ‚ãìÞœñª Öãñ¦ã ‚ããÊãã! ‡ãŠ½ããâ¡À ãä‚ã¶ã-Þããè¹ãŠÊããÖãè Öãè ÞãÀºããèÞããè ØããñÓ› ½ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔãî¶ã ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã
½Ö¥ãî¶ã ãäÖâªìÞ¾ãã ¦ããò¡ã¦ã Øãã‚ããèÞãñ ½ããâÔã ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâÞãñ ¦ããò¡ã¦ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãâÞãñ ½ããÔã ‡ãŠãòºãÊãñ? Ûãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ̾ãÌãÖãÀã¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè Ìãñß㠣㡣ã¡ãè¦ã Œããñ›ãè ãäÌã£ãã¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã Öñ ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ À‡ã‹¦ããÞãã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäºãâªì ‡ãŠ¤î ÊããØã¦ããñ!
‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããÊãã Øãã‚ããèÞããè ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌã¦ãã¦ã Ûãã ‡ã⊡ãèÌãÀ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãâ£ã¹ãÀâ¹ãÀñ¶ãñ ãäÌãÍÌããÔã ŸñÌãÊãã ‚ãÔãñ ½Ö¥ã¥ããžãã
ãä¶ãÊãÕ•ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ¡½ã¡½ã ¾ãñ©ãñ ‡ãŠãÀŒã㶾ãã¦ã ½ã‡ã‹¦ãñªãÀãè¶ãñ ÞãÀºããè ¹ãìÀÌããè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ, ¦¾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠÀãÀ¹ã¨ã ‚ãÌã;㠹ãÖãÌãñ3 ¦¾ãã¦ã
‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããÔããŸãè Øãã‚ããèÞããè ÞãÀºããè ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ãÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãè ¶ããÖãè ¾ããÞãñ Ô¹ãÓ› ‚ãì§ãÀ ãä½ãßñÊã!4 ªãñ¶ã ‚ã㥾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ããö¡

‚ãÍãã ªÀã¶ãñ ãäÖâªì Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ‚ãã‚ããèÞãñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã Øãã‚ããèÞããè ÞãÀºããè ¹ãìÀãäÌãÊããè •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ÞãÀºããè¦ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞ¾ãã
ÞãÀºããèÞãã ‚ãâÍã ãä½ãÔãßãäÌãÊãã •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ãã ÖñÖãè ãäºãÊã‡ãîŠÊã ‚ãÔãâ¼ãÌã¶ããè¾ã ¶ããÖãè. ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞãã ØãÌãØãÌãã Öãñ¦ããÞã 1857 Þ¾ãã
•ãã¶ãñÌããÀãè 29 Êãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÔãÀ‡ã‹¾ãìÊãÀ £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ãã¦ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè Öì‡ã㠽֥ã¦ããñ : ``¶ãñãä›ÌÖ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÔããŸãè ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã
‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã •ããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌããÌã¾ããÞããè ‚ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ããè¦ã ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ÍãñßãèÞããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ºããñ‡ãŠ¡ãÞããèÞã ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌããÌããè. ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã Øãã‚ããèÞããè
ÞãÀºããè ãäºãÊã‡ãìŠÊã ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ãî ¶ã¾ãñ.`` ¾ãã Üãã‚ããèÜãã‚ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠã¤Êãñʾãã ÔãÀ‡ã‹¾ãìÊãÀãÌã¶ã ÖñÞã ãäÔã® Öãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè, Øãã‚ããèÞããè

2 Kaye Vol. II. page 30 Kaye Vol. I. page 381.
3 “There is no question that some beaf fat was used in the composition of the tallow.

Kaye Vol. I. page 381.

4 “There is no question that some beaf fat was used in the composition of the tallow.

Kaye Vol. I. page 381.

ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ÞãÀºããè ¶ã ÊããØãî ªñ¥¾ããÞãã ¾ãã¹ãîÌããê ãäÍãÀÔ¦ãã ¶ãÌÖ¦ãã! ¡½ã¡½ã ãä¶ã ãä½ãÀ•ã ¾ãñ©ãñ Öñ ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞãñ ‡ãŠãÀŒãã¶ãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.
¦¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ¡½ã¡½ãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠãÀŒã㶾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠã½ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ½ãñÖñ¦ãÀã¶ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ºãÆãÚã¥ãã¹ããÍããè ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã Êããñ›¿ãã¦ããèÊã ¹ãã¥ããè
½ãããäØã¦ãÊãñ. ¦ãÔãñ ‡ãñŠÊ¾ããÔã Êããñ›ã ãäÌã›ãßñÊã ‚ãÔãñ ¦¾ãã ºãÆãÚã¥ãã¶ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ããÞã ¦ããñ ½ãñÖñ¦ãÀ ‚ãì§ãÀÊãã : ``‚ãã¦ãã ÔãÌãèãÞã ãäÌã›ãß
½ãã•ã¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ! •¾ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã ¦ãì½Öãè ªã¦ããâ¶ããè ¦ããñ¡¥ããÀ ¦ããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Øãã‚ããèÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞ¾ãã ÞãÀºããè¶ãñ ½ã¤ãäÌãÊããè •ãã¦ã
‚ããÖñ¦ã`` Öñ ‚ãõ‡ãŠ¦ããÞã ¦ããñ ºãÆãÚã¥ã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãã‚ãî¶ã Öñ Ìãð§ã ‡ãŠ©ã¶ã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãã. ¡½ã¡½ã ¾ãñ©ãñ ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ÔãÌãÃ
ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããèÊããñ‡ãŠ ÔããâÍã‡ãŠ ¢ããÊãñ. ºããÀãè‡ãŠ ¦ã¹ããÔã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâ¶ãã Øãã‚ããèÞããè ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãñ Öñ Ô㦾ã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¶ã•ãÀñÔã Ô¹ãÓ› ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊãñ! Öãè ¡½ã¡½ã ¾ãñ©ããèÊã ºãã¦ã½ããè Ìã¥ã̾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ãä‚ã¦ãÔ¦ã¦ã: ¹ãÔãÀÊãã.è ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããÊãã
‚ãã¹ãʾãã Öã¦ããÔã Øãã‚ããèÞããè ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ÞãÀºããè Êã¹ã›ÊãñÊããè ãäªÔãî ÊããØãÊããè ãä¶ã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Ÿã¥¾ãã½ã£¾ãñ ãäÐãÔ¦ããè Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã
¾ã㠇㊹ã›ã¶ãñ •¾ããÊãã ¦¾ããÊãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã £ã½ããÃÞãã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ããäÔ¦ã¦ÌããÞãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ããÞããÖãè ¼ãÀÌãâÔãã Ìãã›ñ¶ããÔãã ¢ããÊãã. Öñ
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ÊããÌ㥾ããÔããÀŒããè ¶ããèÞã ãä¶ã Œããñ›ãè ãäÌã£ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãã Ôã¹ãã›ã ÞããÊããäÌãÊãã. ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÔã Øãã‚ããèÞããè ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞããè ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊããè
Öãñ¦ããè Öñ •ãñÌÖã ¶ãã‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ¢ããÊãñ ¦ãñÌÖã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè Ôãñ‰ãñŠ›Àãè ºãÞãà Ûãã¶ãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
•ããÖãèÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñ ‡ãŠãè ½ããèÀ¦ã ãä¶ã ¡½ã¡½ã ¾ãñ©ãñ Öãñ¥ããÀãè ¶ãÌããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ‚ãã½Öãè ‚ã•ãî¶ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠽ãìßãèÞã Ìãã›ÊãñÊããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã! Öñ ¦¾ããâÞãñ ãäÌã£ãã¶ã
Ôãã¹ãŠ Œããñ›ñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãâºããÊãã, ãäÔã¾ããÊã‡ãŠãñ› ãä¶ã ¶ãÌããè¶ã ºãâªì‡ãŠãâÞãñ ãäÍãàã¥ããÔããŸãè ‚ãìÜã¡Êãñʾãã ½ããñŸ½ããñŸá¾ãã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ÌãØããæãî¶ã Öãè
ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊããè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ 1856 ÔããÊãã¹ããÔãî¶ã £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã Öãñ¦ããè. ‚ãâºããʾããÞ¾ãã ¡ñ¹ããñ½ã£¾ãñ 22500 ‚ãããä¥ã
ãäÔã¾ããÊã‡ãŠãñ›Êãã 14000 ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ 23 ‚ããù‡ã‹›ãñºãÀ 1856 ¾ãã ãäªÌãÍããèÞã ÀÌãã¶ãã ¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ããÖãè ‡ãŠ¶ãÃÊã ºãÞãà •ãã¶ãñÌããÀãè
1857 ½ã£¾ãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ‡ãŠãÀŒã㶾ãã¦ãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÖãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãîÔã Ìã㛥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè! ãä•ã©ãñ ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀãè ÌãØãÃ
Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¦ã©ãñ Öãè ¶ãÌããè¶ã ºãâªî‡ãŠ ‡ãŠÍããè Ìãã¹ãÀãÌã¾ããÞããè Öñ ãäÍã‡ãŠãäÌã¦ãã¶ãã Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ãÊãñÊããè ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè Öñ ‚ãÔãâ¼ãÌã¶ããè¾ãÞã
Öãñ¦ãñ. ãäÍãÌãã¾ã ½ããØãñ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÞã ‚ããÖñ ‡ãŠãè, 1853 ÔããÊããè ÖãèÞã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ãäÖâªãè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ãäºãÊã‡ãìŠÊã ½ãããäÖ¦ããè ¶ã ªñ¦ãã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã Ìãã¹ãÀãäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ØãìÀŒãã ¹ãÊ㛥ããè¦ã ¦ãÀ Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Àã•ãÀãñÔã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ Ìã㛥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãÊñ ããè Öãñ¦ããè!
¦ãÀãè ºãÞãà ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ‡ãŠÔãÊãñʾãã ¼ãã½ã›¿ããÔããÀŒãã ãä¶ã£ã¡¿ãã œã¦ããè¶ãñ ½Ö¥ã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌãÊãñÊãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠÖãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãîÔã Ìã㛥¾ãã¦ã
‚ããÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ!5

¼ããñßÔãÀ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã Ìãã›ñÊã ¦ãñ Êã¹ã¡â ãÌã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¹ãŠÔãÌãî ¹ããÖ¥ããžãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãã Öã ¹ãƾ㦶㠹ãŠÔã¦ããÞã ½ãØã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÔã ÔÌã¦ã:Þã Ìãã›ñÊã ¦ããñ ãäÞã‡ãŠ› ¹ãªã©ãà ÊããÌããÌãã ‚ãÍããè ¹ãÀÌãã¶ãØããè ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊããè. ¾ãã
¹ãÀÌãã¶ãØããèÞãã ¹ããäÀ¥ãã½ã •ãÔãã ÌÖãÌã¾ããÞãã ¦ãÔããÞã ¢ããÊãã. •¾ãã‚ã©ããê ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ÞãÀºããè ÊããÌ㥾ããÞãã ֛ᛠãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀ
Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãäªÊãã ¦¾ãã ‚ã©ããê ¾ãã ªãÀã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãÊããè Ôã½ã•ãî¦ã ‡ãŠã¤î¶ã ‚ãã¹ã¥ããÔã ªìÔãÀãè‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¹ãŠÔããäÌ㥾ããÞãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞãã ºãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãÊãã
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ãÔãñ ¦¾ããÔã ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãè Ìãã›î ÊããØãÊãñ. ÞãÀºããèÞãñ ‚ãõÌã•ããè ‚ãã¹ã¥ããÔã Ìãã›ñÊã ¦ããñ ãäÞã‡ãŠ› ¹ãªã©ãà ÊããÌ㥾ããÔã ÔããâãäØã¦ãÊãñ ŒãÀñ;
¹ãÀâ¦ãì •¾ãã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ ÞãÀºããè¦ã ¶ã‡ãŠß¦ã Øãã‚ããèÞãñ ãä¶ã ¡ì‡ãŠÀãÞãñ ½ããÔã Üãã¦ãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ Ûãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÌãÀ ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã
‡ãŠãØãªãÊããÖãè ãäÞã‡ãŠ›¹ã¥ãã ‚ãã¥ã¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãÔããÞã ‚ãñŒããªã £ã½ãúããÛã ¹ãªã©ãà ÊããÌ㥾ããÔ㠇㊽ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè ‡ãŠÍããÌã¶ã?
¦ãñÌÖã Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñÞã ‡ãŠãÖãè ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã ܾããÌã¾ããÞããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔãã Ò¤ ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦ããñ ÔãÌãèããâ¶ããè ¹ããÀ ¹ãã¡Êãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ.

¹ãÀâ¦ãì Öñ •ãÀãè ŸÀÊãñ ¦ãÀãè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ŸÀ¥¾ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè ½ã쌾ã Ôãâ‡ãŠ› ›ß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãŠãÀ¦ãÀ Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ãä¶ãÜãî¶ã
•ãã¦ããèÊã; ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãõÌã•ããè ‚ãì²ãã ªìÔãÀñ ‚ãñŒããªñ Ôãâ‡ãŠ› ‚ãñ‚ããèÊã ¦ãñÌÖã Öãè ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ ¶ã Üãñ¥¾ãã¶ãñ ‡ãŠãÖãè £ã½ããÃÌãÀãèÊã ŒãÀñ ŒãÀñ
Ôãâ‡ãŠ› ›ß¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. ¹ãÀªãÔ¾ããÞ¾ãã ¶ãÀ‡ãŠã¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñʾããâÞãã £ã½ãà ¹ããäÌã¨ã ‡ãŠÔãã ‚ãÔãî Íã‡ãŠ¥ããÀ! Øãã‚ããèÞããè ÞãÀºããèÞã ‡ãŠã¾ã, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì

5 “At the twelfth hour, Colonel Birch came forward to assure the sepoys that not a

single cartridge served out to them had been greased. The declaration was a lie on the
very face of it. The sepoys were not to be deceived and, as says a bold and truthful
writer, The Government only stooped to the meaness of prevarication.” -Pamphlet by a
Hindu of Bengal, 1857.

ªñÍã½ãã¦ãñÞããè ÞãÀºããè ‡ãŠã¹ãî¶ã ‡ãŠã¤¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ŒãìÍããÊã ‡ãŠã¶ãã¡ãñßã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ºãÔã¥ããžããâÞãã £ã½ãà ãä•ãÌãâ¦ã ‡ãŠÔãã ÀãÖî
Íã‡ãñŠÊã! Ô㮽ãà ÔÌãØããæ㠂ãÔã¦ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ãã¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠ ¶ãÀ‡ãŠã¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã £ã½ãà •ãÀ ÖÌãã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããâ¶ããè
Ûãã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÞ¾ãã Üãã¥ããèÊãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Íã¨ãîâÞ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ãã¶ãñ ¹ããÀ £ãì‚ãî¶ã Ôãã¹ãŠ ‡ãñŠÊãñ ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ!

½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãã¦ãã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔãñ Ìãã¹ãÀãÌããè ÊããØããñ¦ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ¶ã ÊããØããñ¦ã, ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã, £ã½ãÃÀàã¥ã ‚ãÌã;㠂ãÔãñÊã, £ã½ããóãä−Ó› •ãñ
½ãã¶ãÌããè ¹ãÆØã½ã¶ã ¦ãñ Ôãã£ã¥¾ããÞãã •ãÀ ¦ãì¢ãã Öñ¦ãì ‚ãÔãñÊã, ¦ãìÊãã •ãÀ ÔãÌãà ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ããâÞããè Êãã•ã Ìã㛦㠂ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ Ûãã ¹ãÀªãÔ¾ããÞãã
¼ãâØã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ! £ã½ããÃÔããŸãè ½ãÀ, ½ãÀãñ¶ããè ‚ãÌãܾããâÔããè ½ããÀ ‚ãããä¥ã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ½ãããäÀ¦ãã ÔÌãÀ㕾㠹ãÀ¦ã Üãñ! Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ÔããÊã
‚ãì•ãã¡ÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãìŸ, ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã, ‚ãìŸ ãä¶ã ÔÌãÀ㕾㠹ãÀ¦ã Üãñ!

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¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ã Ôãã¦ãÌãñ

Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãã

½ããØããèÊã ¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã Ìã¥ãö㠇ãñŠÊ¾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè Ôãã½ãØãÆãè ãä‚ã¦ãÔ¦ã¦ã: ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ¹ã¡¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã
¦¾ãã Ôãã½ãØãÆãèÞããè ¾ã©ãã¾ããñؾã Ü㛶ãã ‡ãŠÍããè ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÞããè ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞããè ãä‚ã½ããÀ¦ã ‡ãŠÍããè ‚ãì¼ããÀãÌã¾ããÞããè ¾ããÞãã ¶ã‡ãŠãÍãã
ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÇ㊡ñ ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ¦ã Öãñ¦ãã.

½ããØããèÊã ¹ãƇãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊãã Œãã¶ããâ¶ãã ¾ãìÀãñ¹ãÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆÌããÔãã¦ã Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãäªÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ãã ¹ãÆÌããÔãã¦ã •ã㥾ãã¹ãîÌããê
Êã⡶ã½ã£¾ãñ ¦¾ããÞã ÌãñßñÔã Ôãã¦ããžããÞãñ ØããÅÖã¥ãñ Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè ¶ããÌããÞãñ •ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÖìÍããÀ ãä¶ã ‡ãŠ¦ãó ØãðÖÔ©ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ, ¦¾ããâÞããè
Øã㟠‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã ¾ããâ¶ããè Üãñ¦ãÊããè. Ôãã¦ããžããÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãñ ¹ãÆñ¦ã •ããߥ¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ããÊãñÊãñ ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè ãä¶ã ¹ãÍñ ã̾ããâÞ¾ãã ØããªãèÞãñ
¹ãÆñ¦ã •ããߥ¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã ¾ããâÞãñ ¦¾ãã ªãñ¶Öãè ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã¹ãÆãäÔã® Øãã²ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÆñ¦ãÔãâÔ‡ãŠãÀÔã½ã¾ããè ‡ãŠã¾ã ºãñ¦ã
¢ããÊãñ, ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªñÍããÞãã ÔãÌãöããÍã ‡ãŠÀ¥ããžãã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâÞãã Ôã½ããÞããÀ Üãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ãã Íã¹ã©ãã Üãñ¦ãʾãã ãä¶ã
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¹ãÀ¦ã •ãã‚ãî¶ã Ôãã¦ããžããÔã ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè¶ãñ ãä¶ã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ãã¶ãñ ÔÌãªñÍãÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãã©ãà ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ¾ãì®ãÞããè
ÀÞã¶ãã ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÔããŸãè ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠã¾ã ŒãÊãºã¦ãñ ‡ãñŠÊããè Öñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔã •ãÀãè ‡ãŠ£ããèÖãè Í㺪Íã: ÔããâØã¦ãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè, ¦ãÀãè ‚ãŸÀãÍãñ
Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ¾ãì® ¢ããÊãñ Öãè ØããñÓ› ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ŒãÀãè ‚ããÖñ, ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãèÞã ¦¾ãã ¾ãì®ãÞãñ ºãñ¦ã Êã⡶ã½ã£¾ãñ ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããé¶ããè ãä¶ã ‚ã¢ããè½ã
‚ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ãã¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ Öãè ØããñÓ›Öãè ŒãÀãè ‚ããÖñ.

Êã⡶ã Ôããñ¡Ê¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè Ôãã¦ããžããÊãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ¹ãÀ¦ã ØãñÊãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãì§ãÀñ‡ãŠ¡ñ ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã •¾ãã ãä‚ã½ããÀ¦ããèÞãã
¶ã‡ãŠãÍãã ¦ã¾ããÀ Öãñ¦ã Öãñ¦ãã, ¦¾ãã ãä‚ã½ããÀ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ÔãããäÖ¦¾ããÞããè ¦ã¾ããÀãè ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã Öñ ¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¶ã ¾ãñ¦ãã ¾ãìÀãñ¹ã½ã£¾ãñ ¹ãÆÌããÔã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ. ¦¾ããÞã ÌãñßñÔã ãä‰ãŠãä½ã¾ãã ºãñ›ã¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè ÀãäÍã¾ããÍããè ¢ãìâ•ã Ôãì Öãñ¦ããè ãä¶ã
ÀãäÍã¾ã¶ã ‚ãÔÌãÊããÞ¾ãã ¦ããÌã¡ãè¦ã ãäºãÆãä›Íã ãäÔãâÖÖãè Øãã¾ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒããâ¶ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¶ããÌãÀ Öãè ºãã¦ã½ããè ¾ãñ¦ããÞã
¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ã Üããñߦ㠂ãÔãÊãñʾãã ½ãÖ¦‡ãŠã¾ããÃÔã ¹ãìÓ›ãè ãä½ãßãÊããè ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔÌãªñÍããÞ¾ãã œã¦ããèÌãÀ ¶ããÞã¥ããžãã ¾ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã
ãåÔãÖãÔã ÀãäÍã¾ã¶ããâ¶ããè ãä‡ãŠ¦ã¹ã¦ã •ãŒã½ããè ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ããÞãñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ¹ãâ•ãñ ‡ãŠã¹ãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä¶ã ºãã‡ãŠãèÞãñ ‡ãŠã¹ã¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
ãä¹ãƾã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÞ¾ãã Öãñ¥ããžãã ¹ãƾ㦶ããâÔã ÀãäÍã¾ããÞããè ãä‡ãŠ¦ã¹ã¦ã ÔãÖã¶ãì¼ãî¦ããè ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ÔãÖ‡ãŠããäÀ¦ãã ãä½ãßãäÌã¥ãñ Íã‡ã‹¾ã ‚ããÖñ ¾ããÞãã
¹ãƦ¾ãàã ŒãìÊããÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã Öñ ãä‰ãŠãä½ã¾ãã ºãñ›ã‡ãŠ¡ñ •ã㥾ããÔã ãäÔã® ¢ããÊãñ.

¾ãìÀãñ¹ã½ã£¾ãñ ¹ãÆÌããÔã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã Öñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¹ãÀ¦ã ‚ããʾããÌãÀ ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÞ¾ãã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ã ãä¶ãÀãßñÞã
Ìãã¦ããÌãÀ¥ã Œãñßî ÊããØãÊãñ. ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ ãäÌã•ã¾ãã¶ãâªã¦ã ¡ìÊã¥ããÀã •ããäÀ¹ã›‡ãŠã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ãã Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ã £ãîß Œãã¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãã
Öãñ¦ãã. ãä•ãÞ¾ãã ‚ããÌãã•ããºãÀãñºãÀ ÊããŒããñ ½ãÀãŸãè Ôã½ãÍãñÀãè Íã¨ãîÌãÀ À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã ¦ãì›î¶ã ¹ã¡¦ã ¦ããè ¹ãñÍã̾ããâÞããè ªìâªì¼ããè ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ãã
Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ã ÌããèÀÀÔããÞ¾ãã ‚ãõÌã•ããè ‡ãŠÁ¥ãÀÔããÞãñ £Ìã¶ããè ‡ãŠã¤ãè¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ãä¶ã ãä•ãÞ¾ãã ½ãì³¥ããÌãÀ ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ãäÔãâÖãÔã¶ããÞããè
Üã¡ã½ããñ¡ ‚ãÌãÊãâºãî¶ã ‚ãÔãñ ¦ããè ªñÍã̾ãã¹ããè Àã•ã½ãì³ã ‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ãã Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔÌã¦ã:Þ¾ããÞã Ìãõ£ã̾ããÌãÀ ãäÍã‡ã‹‡ãŠã ½ããÀãè¦ã
¹ã¡ÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã ¾ãìÀãñ¹ãã¦ãî¶ã ¹ãÀ¦ã ¾ãñ¦ããÞã ¦¾ããÔãÌãà ÌãÔ¦ãìâ¶ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ãä½ãßãʾããÔããÀŒãñ ãäªÔãî
ÊããØãÊãñ. £ãîß Œãã¦ã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãñ •ããäÀ¹ã›‡ãñŠ ¹ãì¶Öã Þã½ã‡ãŠ ½ãã ÊããØãÊãñ, ãä¶ã Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞ¾ãã ¦¾ãã `¦ã•ñ ãÔÌããè, Þã¹ãÊã ãä¶ã ‚ãìØãÆ
`¶ãñ¨ããâ¶ãã ‚ãÔãÛã ½ãã¶ã¼ãâØãã¦ãî¶ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãñʾãã Ôãì¡ã¶ãñ ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠÞã ‚ãìØãƦãã ãä¶ã `¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã!` ¾ãã ¼ãØãÌã¦ãá Þãñ¦ã¶ãñ¶ãñ
‚ããä£ã‡ãŠÞã ¦ãñ•ãÔÌããè¦ãã ¾ãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊããè. `¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã!` ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞããè Öãñßãè ¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, ¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã!
ÔÌãªñÍãã¦ã, Ûãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä¹ãŠÀâØããè ÞããñÀãâÞãã ÔãìßÔãìßã› ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ, ¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã! ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞããè
¹ãã¾ã½ãÊÊããè Öãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ, ãä¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞããè ¹ãã¾ã½ãÊÊããè Öãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ, ¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã! ÔÌãªñÍãÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã Öñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÔãÖãè
‚ãã•ã¹ã¾ãĦ㠾ãì®ãÌããÞãî¶ã ãä½ãßãÊãñÊãñ ¶ããÖãè. œ¨ã¹ã¦ããé¶ãã •¾ããÔããŸãè ¦ãã¶ãã•ããèÞãã ºãßãè ²ããÌãã ÊããØãÊãã ¦ããñ Öã ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞãã ãäÔãâÖØã¡
¾ãì®ãÌããÞãî¶ã ‡ãŠ£ããè ãä½ãߥããÀ ¶ããÖãè. £ã½ãÃÀàã¥ããÔããŸãè •ããñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ôãâ¹ã㪶㠇ãŠÀãè¦ã ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ ½ãÖãÀãӛȣã½ããæãÊãã ‚ãÔÔãÊã
½ãÀãŸã ¶ãÌÖñ ãä¶ã •ããñ ½ãÖãÀãÓ›È £ã½ããæãÊãã ‚ãÔÔãÊã ½ãÀãŸã ‚ããÖñ ¦ããñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Ôãâ¹ã㪥¾ããÞãã •ããñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã ½ããØãà ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ãã
Ôã½ãÀ½ããØããÇ㊡ñ ‚ãì¡ãè Üãñ¥¾ããÔ㠇㊣ããèÖãè ½ããÜããÀ Üãñ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè. ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã! Ñãã蜨ã¹ã¦ããé¶ããè ‚ããÀâãä¼ãÊãñʾãã

ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ã—ããÞ¾ãã Öãñ¦ãð¦ÌããÞãñ ‡ã⊇㊥㠺ããâ£ã¥¾ããÔã •ããñ Öã¦ã ¹ãì¤ñ ÔãÀÔããÌã¦ããñ ¦ããñ Ôãªãñã䪦㠣㶾ã¦ã½ã Öãñ¾ã! ``Ö¦ããñ Ìãã ¹ãÆã¹¾ããäÔã
ÔÌãØãÃ, ãä•ã¦Ìãã Ìãã ¼ããñà¾ãÔãñ ½ãÖãè½ã,ý ¦ãÔ½ãã¦ãá ¾ãì®ã¾ã ¾ã앾ãÔÌã!!``

‚ãÍããè ªõãäÌã‡ãŠ Þãñ¦ã¶ãã Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞãñ ¶ãñ¨ããÔã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ‚ãìØãƦãã ãä¶ã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠ ¦ãñ•ããäÔÌã¦ãã ªñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊããè.
ÑããèãäÍãÌãÀã•ããÊãã •ãñ ‡ãŠ¦ãÃ̾㠇ãŠÀãÌãñ ÊããØãÊãñ ¦ãñÞã ½ãÖ¦‡ãŠã¾ãà ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Ìã㛿ããÊãã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã •ã¾ã ¾ãñÌããñ
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ã¹ã•ã¾ã ¾ãñÌããñ, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ½ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¦ãÀ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãã `¶ãî¦ã¶ã` ãäÍãÌãÀã•ã ¦ãÀãè ŸÀñ¶ã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãä¶ãªã¶ã ¹ããäÖʾãã ¹ãñÍã̾ããÔã Íãã¼ñ ãñÊã
‚ãÔãã `ÍãñÌã›Þãã` ¹ãñÍãÌãã ¦ãÀãè ŸÀñ¶ã ‚ãÔãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ããÞãã Ò¤ ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ¢ããÊãã.

‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªñÍããâÞãñ ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã À㕾ããÞãñ `ãä¶ãªã¶ã` ŸÀÌãî ‚ãÔãã ÌããèÀãñãäÞã¦ã ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ŸÀãäÌãʾãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ã¶ä ãÍÞã¾ããÞããè
ãäÔã®ãè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ÔãÌãà Êãàã Ìãñ£ãî¶ã ØãñÊãñ. ÔÌãÀ㕾㠹ãÆ㹦ããèÔããŸãè •ãñ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¾ãì® ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÞãñ ¦¾ããÊãã ¾ãÍã
¾ãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ªãñ¶ã ØããñÓ›ãè ‚ãØãªãè ‚ãÌã;ã Öãñ¦¾ãã. ¹ããäÖÊããè ØããñÓ› ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠãâ½ã£¾ãñ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞããè •ãâØããè ãä¶ã
‚ããä¶ãÌãã¾ãà ãä‚ãޜ㠂ã즹ã¸ã Öãñ¥ãñ ãä¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ãä‚ãÞœñÞ¾ãã ãäÔã®ãèÔããŸãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÔã½ã¾ããÌãÞœñªò‡ãŠÂ¶ã ÔãÌãà ªñÍãã¶ãñ ‚ãìŸãÌã¥ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ.
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ããÔã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãØãã½ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãØãã½ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ, Öãè ªãñ¶ÖãèÖãè ‡ãŠã½ãñ
¹ãÀ‡ã‹¾ããâÞ¾ãã Öã¦ããÌãÀ ¦ãìÀãè ªñ‚ãî¶ãÞã ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÔã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ Öãñ¦ããè ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã •¾ãã •¾ãã ¹ãÀ¦ãâ¨ã ªñÍããÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔãâØãÆã½ã
‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÞãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã, ¦¾ãã ¦¾ãã ªñÍããâÔã ¦¾ãã ÔãâØãÆã½ããÞããè Øã칦㠦ã¾ããÀãèÞã ‡ãŠÀãÌããè ÊããØã¦ãñ. ¹ãÀ‡ãŠãè Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã Öã¦ãã¦ã ÔãÌãà Ôã§ãã
‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÁ® ‡ãŠÀãÌã¾ããÞãñ ¹ãƾ㦶㠹ãŠãÀ Øã칦ã¦ãñ¶ãñÞã ‡ãŠÀãÌãñ ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. ¶ããÖãè¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ¹ãƾ㦶ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ã즹ã¸ã‡ãŠãÊããèÞã
¦¾ããÌãÀ ‚ã½ããñÜã Íã‡ã‹¦ããèÞãã ½ããÀã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ºãÊãÌãã¶ã Íã¨ãì ¦¾ããâÞãã ÔãÖ•ã ÞãìÀã¡ã ‡ãŠÂ Íã‡ãŠ¦ããñ. Öñ ‚ãõãä¦ãÖããäÔã‡ãŠ Ô㦾㠕ãã¥ãî¶ã Ñããè½ãâ¦ã
¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ãä¶ã ‚ã¢ããè½ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã ¾ãã ªãñÜãã ½ãÖ¶ããè¾ã ãäÌã¼ãî¦ããé¶ããè Ôãì½ããÀñ 1856 Þ¾ãã ‚ããÀâ¼ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãñ
½ã¶ã:¹ãÆÌã¦ãö㠂ãããä¥ã ÍãÀãèÀ¹ãÆÌã¦ãö㠇ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¾ãì®ÔãâÜ㛶ãã Ôãì ‡ãñŠÊããè!

ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã •ãñÌã¤ñ Àã•ãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãñÌ㤿ããâ¶ãã •ãÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâãäÌãÁ® ‚ã쟥¾ããÞããè ãä‚ãޜ㠂ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊããè ¦ãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã àã¥ãã¦ã
‚ãã¹ãÊãã ªñÍã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ã㺾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã Öãè ØããñÓ› ¶ãã¶ããâÞ¾ã㠇㊣ããèÞã £¾ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. Ûãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè ¡ãñ‚ããè•ã¡
Àã•ããâ¹ããÔãî¶ã ¹ãì¤ñ½ããØãñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè À㕾ããÔã £ããñ‡ãŠã ¾ãñ‚ããèÊã ‚ãÔãñ •ãã¥ãî¶ãÞã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ããâ½ããØãî¶ã ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ã ŒããÊãÔãã
‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñ ‚ããÖñ Öãè ÌãÔ¦ãìãäÔ©ã¦ããè ÔãÌãà Àã•ãñÀ•ãÌãã¡¿ããâ¹ãì¤ñ ½ããâ¡î¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ½ã¶ãñ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãØãã½ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¶ãã¶ããâ¶ããè ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ
ªÀºããÀã¦ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ªî¦ã £ãã¡¥¾ããÔã ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãñŠÊãã. ‡ãŠãñÊÖã¹ãîÀ, ªãäàã¥ãñ‡ãŠ¡ãèÊã ÔãÌãà ¹ã›Ìã£ãöããè ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ãñ, ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñ¦ããèÊã •ãããä½ã¶ãªãÀ
ãä¶ã ãäªÊÊããè¹ããÔãî¶ã ½ÖõÔãîÀ¹ã¾ãĦ㠂ãÔãÊãñʾãã ÔãÌãà Àã•ã£ã㶾ãã ÌãØãõÀñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ªî¦ã ãä¶ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞããè ¹ã¨ãñ ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããÔã
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ã©ãà ‚ãìŸãäÌ㥾ããÞããè Þãñ¦ã¶ãã ªñ¦ã ãäÖ⡦ã Öãñ¦ããè. ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ½ãÊããŒããÊããè ÔÌãÀ㕾ããÞããè ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞããè ‡ãŠÍããè
£ãìßÜãã¥ã Öãñ¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, •ããè ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ãñ ‚ãã•ã Ö¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã ¦ããè ªñŒããèÊã ‚ãì²ãã ‡ãŠÍããè ¶ãã½ãÍãñÓã Öãñ¥ããÀãè ‚ããÖñ¦ã,
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÍÌããÔãÜãã¦ã‡ãŠãè ªãÔ¾ãã½ãìßñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãÆã¥ããä¹ãƾã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ‡ãŠÍããè £ãìߣãã¥ã ‚ãì¡ãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ, Öñ Ô¹ãÓ› ãä¶ã
½ãããä½ãÇ㊠Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ •ã¶ã¦ãñÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ã ¼ãÀÌãî¶ã ªñ¦ã ½ããõÊãÌããè, ¹ãâã䡦ã ãä¶ã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ÔãⶾããÔããè ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ Øã칦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÔãâÞããÀ
‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ. ªãÔ¾ããÞããè ãä¶ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããâÞããè Þããè¡ ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦ãñ ªãԾ㠶ãã½ãÍãñÓã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ Öñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ÔãìÊã¼ã ‚ããÖñ,
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãìÀã¦ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ¦ãÀÌããÀÞã ‡ãŠÍããè ¼ããñÔã‡ãŠÊããè •ãã¦ã ‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÔÌãªñÍããÔããŸãè
‚ã쟥¾ããÞãñ ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãã¥ã¦ããÞã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã àã¥ãã¦ã ¦¾ããÔã ‚ãã¹ãÊãã ÔÌãªñÍã ã¹ä ãŠÀâؾããÞãñ ¦ã㺾ãã¦ãî¶ã ½ãì‡ã‹¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ‡ãŠÔãñ Ôããñ¹ãñ ‚ããÖ,ñ Öñ
Àã•ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã Àâ‡ãŠã¹ã¾ãĦ㠹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÖâªãè ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ããÔã ¦¾ãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ÔãⶾããÍããâ¶ããè Ôã½ã•ããÌãî¶ã ÔããâØããÌãñ. ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ÔãÌãà ªñÍãºãâ£ãì ‚ãñ‡ãŠ
Öãñ‚ãî ¦ãÀ ½ããÀ ØããñžããâÞãã £ãìÌÌãã ‚ãì¡Ìãî¶ã ªñ‚ãî¶ã ÔÌãªñÍã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã àã¥ãã£ããæã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã ‡ãŠÂ Öã ‚ã㦽ããäÌãÍÌããÔã ¹ãƦ¾ã‡ñ ㊠ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããÞâ ãñ ãä¶ã
¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¶ããØããäÀ‡ãŠãâÞãñ ½ã¶ãã¦ã ¾ãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ÔãⶾããÍããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠÔãã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã Öñ ¦¾ãã ÌãñßÞ¾ãã ÔÌãªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ããâÞãñ ‚ãìªáØããÀãâ¦ã
¹ãªãñ¹ãªãè ÒÓ›ãèÔ㠹㡦ãñ. ‡ãŠãÊããè ¶ãªãèÞ¾ãã Êã¤ã‚ããè¦ã ¹ãã¡ãÌã ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ¹ãÆͶ㠇ãñŠÊãã ‡ãŠãè, ``‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ãäÌãÁ® ‚ã쟥¾ããÞããè
¦ãì½ãÞããè œã¦ããè ‡ãŠÍããè ¢ããÊããè?`` ¦¾ãã ‚ãì½ãÛ ¹ãÆͶããÊãã ¦¾ãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãì§ãÀ ãäªÊãñ, ``ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ããè ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¢ããÊãã ¦ãÀ ØããñÀã
Þ㛥ããèÊãã ¹ãìÀ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè!``

ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¶ãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ‚ããÀâ¼ããè ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞããè ¹ã¨ãñ ¹ãŠãñ¡¥¾ããÔã ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ¦¾ãã ¹ã¨ããâ¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ã¨ã
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã Ôãã½ã©¾ããÃÔãâºãâ£ããè ½Ö¥ã¦ãñ ‡ãŠãè, ``¹ãÀ‡ã‹¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ã¥ãÞã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ãìÀãÌãÀ Þã¤Ìãî¶ã Üãñ¦ã ‚ããÖãñ¦ã! •ãÀ

‚ãã¹ã¥ã ‚ãìŸî ¦ãÀ ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâÞ¾ãã ½ããÀ Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ¦ãÀÌããÀãèÞ¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ¢ã›‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ØããÀª ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãîŠ! ‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã
¹ãñÍããÌãÀ¹ã¾ãĦã Ôãã¹ãŠ ½ãõªã¶ã Öõ!``

Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºããâÞ¾ãã ÔÌãªÔ¦ãìÀÞ¾ãã ¹ã¨ããâ¶ããè ãä¶ã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÖî¶ã £ãã¡Êãñʾãã ÔãⶾããÍããâ¶ããè ‚ãÔãʾãã ‚ãìªã§ã
‚ã㦽ããä¶ãÓŸñÞããè ºããè•ãñ ãäÖâªãè ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã ¹ãñ¶ã ãäªÊããè. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ÖÊÊããè ‚ãì¹ãÊ㺣㠂ãÔãÊãñʾãã ½ãããäÖ¦ããèÌã¶㠂ãÔãñ ãäªÔã¦ãñ ‡ãŠãè, ¾ãã
ºããè•ããâ¶ãã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã Öãñ‚ããè¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠕ããñ½ãªãÀ ‚ãâ‡ãìŠÀ ¹ã슛Êãñ ¶ãÌÖ¦ãñ.1

1856 ÔããÊããè ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã Öãñ¦ããÞã ¹ãÀªãÔ¾ããÞãã ãä¦ã›‡ãŠãÀã ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¦ã ‚ã‡ãŠÔ½ãã¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ã즹ã¸ã
¢ããÊãã. ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãñ À½¾ã ãä¶ã ¹ã쥾ãªÍãöã Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ªãèÜãà ÒÓ›ãÊè ãã ¾ãã¹ãîÌããêÞã Üã¡Êãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ¹ãÀªãÔ¾ããÞ¾ãã Üãã¥ããèÞãã ªìØãÄ£ã
Êããâºã ‚ãâ¦ãÀãÌã¶ãÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¦ãã¡Êãã Öãñ¦ãã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì •ã¡ºãì®ãèÞ¾ãã Ôãã½ã㶾㠕ã¶ãÔã½ãîÖãÊãã ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ¹ãìÀã̾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ¦ãñ ØãÆ֥㠇ãŠÀ¦ãã
‚ããÊãñ ¶ããÖãè. Ûãã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÊãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ããÞã ½ãã¨ã •ããñ ¦ããñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ããäÔ¦ã¦ÌããÞãã ãä£ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãã
ãä¶ã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãè¦ã ãäŒãÞã¹ã¦ã ¹ã¡¥¾ãã¹ãñàãã ½ãÀ¥ã ºãÀñ ‚ãÍããè Øã•ãöãã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãèÊãã ¹ãã¥ããè Þã¤Ìãî ÊããØãÊãã. ¾ããÞã
Ôãì½ããÀãÔã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã¹ãÆãäÔã® Àã•ã£ãã¶ããèÊããÖãè ¶ãÌããè¶ã Þãñ¦ã¶ãã ãä½ãßãʾããÔããÀŒããè Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ã
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãÞããè ŒãÊãºã¦ãñ Ôãì ¢ããÊããè. ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ¹ããªÍããÖãÞããè ¹ããªÍããÖãè Üãñ‚ãî¶ãÞã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ©ããâºãÊãñ ¶ããÖãè¦ã, ¦ãÀ ¦¾ããÞããè
`ºããªÍãÖã` Öãè Íããã亪‡ãŠ ¹ãªÌããè ªŒñ ããèÊã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ¹ãÍÞãã¦ã ÞããÊãî ¶ã¾ãñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ŸÀãäÌãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã ãÌä ã¹ã¸ããÌãÔ©ãñ¦ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ
¹ãîÌãÃÌãõ¼ãÌã ãä½ãßãäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠªã ÍãñÌã›Þãã ¹ãƾ㦶㠇ãŠÂ¶ã ¹ãÖãÌãã ãä¶ã ½ãÀã¾ãÞãñÞã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ºããªÍãÖãÊãã Íããñ¼ãñÊã ‚ãÔãñ
ºããªÍããÖãè ½ãÀ¥ã ¦ãÀãè ¾ããÌãñ ‚ãÔãã ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã¦ã Üãã› •ã½ãî ÊããØãÊãã. ¾ãã ‡ãŠã½ãã¦ã ¹ãƽãìŒã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããè Ôã§ããâÞãñ ÔããÛã
ãä½ãßãÌãñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ½ããè Ôãì¶ããè ¹ãâ©ã Ôããñ¡î¶ã ªñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ ¶ãºããºã ãä¶ã ãä‚ãÀã¥ãÞãñ ÍããÖ ¾ããâÞ¾ãã ãäÍã¾ãã ¹ãâ©ããÞãã ÔÌããè‡ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠÀ¦ããñ ‚ãÔãñÖãè
ºãÖãªîÀÍãÖã¶ãñ •ããÖãèÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñ. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞããè ãä‚ãÀã¥ãÍããè Êã¤ã‚ããè Ôãì ¢ããÊããè. ¦ãñÌÖã ãåÖªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ãÖãè ¦¾ããÞã Ôãì½ããÀãÔã
‚ãìŸãÌã¥ããè Öãñ¥ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾããÔã ¹ãŠãÀ ãä‚ãÓ› ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¹ããÖî¶ã ãä‚ãÀã¥ãÞãñ ÍãÖã¶ãñ 1856 ÔããÊããè ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ ¹ããªÍãÖãÔ㠽㪦ã
ªñ¦ããñ ‚ãÔãñ ãäÊãÖî¶ã ¹ããŸãäÌãÊãñ. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ 1857 Þãñ ‚ããÀâ¼ããè ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ½ããäÍãªãèÌã¶㠾ããÞã ‚ã©ããê ÔããÌãÕããä¶ã‡ãŠ
•ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãñ ¹ãŠ¡‡ãîŠ ÊããØãÊãñ! ``ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããÞãñ ¦ã㺾ã¦ãî¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ½ãì‡ã‹¦ã¦ãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä‚ãÀã¥ããè Ôãõ¶¾ã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ.
¦ãñÌÖã Ìãð® ãä¶ã ¦ãÁ¥ã, ÊãÖã¶ã ãä¶ã ©ããñÀ, ÔãìãäÍããäàã¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ããäÍããäàã¦ã, À¾ã¦ã ãä¶ã ÊãÓ‡ãŠÀ ‚ãÍãã ÔãÌãà •ã¥ããâÞããè ¾ãã ‡ãŠããä¹ãŠÀ Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã
¦ã㺾ãã¦ãî¶ã ½ãì‡ã‹¦ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè Ôã½ãÀãâØã¥ãã¦ã ‚ãì¡ãè ܾããÌããè!!``2

¾ãã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ããÞãñ ‚ãì¦ããÀñ ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªãè Ìã¦ãýãã¶ã-¹ã¨ããâ¦ãî¶ã ¹ãÆãäÔã® ¢ããÊãñ. ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¦ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞããè Êãã› ‚ãìÔãßî
ÊããØãÊããè. ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ ºããªÍãÖãÞãñ ãäÞ㛥ããèÔã ½ãì‡ãì⊪ÊããÊã ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã: ``Àã•ã½ãâãäªÀãÞãñ ´ãÀãÍããè ºãÔãî¶ã ½ããòØãÊã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãããä¥ã
Ìãã¡¿ããâ¦ããèÊã ½ãâ¡ßãè ‚ãìÜã¡ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¾ãì®ãÞããè ÞãÞããà ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè Êããñ‡ãŠ ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ºãâ¡ãÌãã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ

1 ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ¹ãÆãâ¦ããâ¦ã £ãã¡Êãñʾãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ªî¦ããâ¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ •ã¥ã ½ÖõÔãîÀÊãã ¹ã‡ãŠ¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã •ãºãã¶ããè¦ããèÊã

ŒããÊããèÊã ¼ããØã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ãÖ§ÌããÞãã ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦ããñ Í㺪Íã: ªñ¦ã ‚ããÖñ : ``Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããâ¶ããè ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÊãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞãñ ¹ãîÌããê
Ôãì½ããÀñ ªãñ¶ã¦ããè¶ã ½ããäÖ¶ãñ ¹ã¨ãñÓã¥ã Ôãì ŸñÌãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¹ãÆ©ã½ã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãì§ãÀñ ‚ããÊããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã. ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÊããÖãè ‚ããÍãã ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè.
‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã À㕾ããÊãã ŒããÊãÔãã ‡ãñŠÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¶ãã¶ããâ¶ããè ¹ã¨ããâÞãã •ããÔ¦ãÞã ½ããÀã ‡ãñŠÊãã ãä¶ã ¦ãñÌÖã ½ãã¨ã ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ÔããÌã‡ãŠãÀãâ¶ãã
¶ãã¶ããâÞããè ½ã¦ãñ ØãÆãÛã Ìãã›î ÊããØãÊããè. ¹ãìÀ¼ã¾¾ãã ‚ãÍãã ¹ãÀªñÍããè Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞãã ¹ãì¤ãÀãè Àã•ãã ½ãã¶ããäÔãâØã ÖãÖãè ãä½ãßãÊãã. ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè
Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãã¹ãʾãã¦ã `¦ã•ããäÌã•ãã` ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÊãã ‚ããÀâ¼ã ‡ãñŠÊãã. ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ÔããÌã‡ãŠãÀã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ã㠽㪦ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊããè.
‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãã ŒããÊãÔãã Öãñ‚ããè¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã ãäºãÊã‡ãîŠÊã ‚ãì§ãÀñ ‚ããÊããè ¶ããÖãè¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ãñ À㕾㠌ããÊãÔãã Öãñ¦ããÞã Íãñ‡ãŠ¡ãñ Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè £ãã蛹ã¥ãã¶ãñ
¹ãì¤ñ ¾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ¶ãã¶ããâÔã ÌãÞã¶ã¹ã¨ãñ £ãã¡Êããè. ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¦ã•ããäÌã•ãã ‚ãã£ããèÞã Ôãì ¢ããÊãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã.¹ãì¤ñ ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞãã ¹ãÆÔãâØã ØãìªÀÊãã
ãä¶ã ½ãØã ¦¾ãã ‚ãÔãâ¦ããñÓãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦ãÀ ¶ãã¶ããâÌãÀ ¹ã¨ããâÞãã ¹ãã‚ãîÔã ¹ã¡î ÊããØãÊãã! •ã½½ãîÞ¾ãã ØãìÊããºããäÔãâØãã¶ãñ `½ããè Ôãõ¶¾ã ãä¶ã Œããä•ã¶ãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã
ãäÔã® ‚ããÖñ` ‚ãÔãñ ¹ã¨ã £ãã¡Êãñ ãä¶ã ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ÔããÌãÀ‡ãŠãÀ¹ã¾ãĦ㠹ãõÍããÞ¾ãã À‡ãŠ½ããÖãè ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¹ããŸÌãî¶ã ãäªÊ¾ãã.
2 Kaye Vol. II. page 30

¾ãñ¦ããèÊã ‚ãããä¥ã ½ãØã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâÞãñ •ããñŒã¡ ¢ãìØãã¶㠪ñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ À㕾㠹ãì¶Öã ¹ãÆÔ©ãããä¹ã¦ã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‚ãÍããè ãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã㦽ã‡ãŠ ºããñÊã¥ããè
ÞããÊã¦ã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ À㕾㠢ããʾããÌãÀ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªñÍãã¦ããèÊã ÔãÌãà Ôã§ãã ãä¶ã ÔãÌãà ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀ ‚ãã¹ãʾããÞã Öã¦ããè ÀãÖ¦ããèÊã ‚ãÍãã ‚ããÍãñ¶ãñ
ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãì¦Ôãì‡ãŠ Öãñ¦ã.`` ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠ•ããØãð¦ããèÊãã ‚ãì§ãñ•ã¶ã ªñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ÍããÖ•ãã²ããâ¶ããè ãä¶ã Àã•ãÌãâÍãã¦ããèÊã ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ¹ãìÁÓããâ¶ããè
ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãßñ ‚ãì¹ãã¾ã ¾ããñãä•ãÊãñ Ìã ãäªÊÊããè½ã£¾ãñ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã •ÌããÊãã ÔãÌãà ãäªÍããâ¶ãã ¹ãñ›¦ã ÞããÊãʾãã.

‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ãäªÌãã¥ã-ãä‚ã-‚ãã½ã½ã£¾ãñ ãä¶ã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÞ¾ãã Àã•ã½ãâãäªÀã½ã£¾ãñ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãÞããè Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãã
ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. Ûãã ªãñ¶ã Àã•ãÌãã¡¿ããâ¦ãî¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãÍã‡ã‹¦ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠãä¨ã¦ã ãä¶ã ÔãâÜãã䛦㠇ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè •ãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ¹ãƾ㦶ã
ÞããÊãÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦ãñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã Øã칦ã Àã¦è ããè¶ãñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‡ãŠãè, ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÔããÀŒ¾ãã £ãî¦ãà Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããÖãè Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ÔããÊããè ¦ããñ¹ãŠãâÞãñ
Øã¡Øã¡ã› Öãñ‚ããè¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠦¾ããÞããè ÊãÌãÊãñÍãÖãè ªãª ¶ãÌÖ¦ããè! Ö•ããÀãñ Á¹ã¾ããâÞãñ ¦ã¶ãŒãñ ãä¶ã Ö§ããèÞ¾ãã ¶ãñ½ã¥ãì‡ãŠã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ªñ‚ãî¶ã Öãè
Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ãä•ãÖ㪠‚ãì¹ãªñãäÍ㥾ããÔããŸãè ½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊãñ ½ããõÊãÌããè £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ. ¦¾ããâ¶ããè Œãñ¡ñØããÌãã¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ÍãÖÀãâ¦ãî¶ã Ûãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã
£ã½ãþãì®ãÞãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã Øã칦ãÔã¼ããâ¦ãî¶ã ªñ¦ã ãäÖâ¡ãÌãñ. ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ã㠟㥾ããâ¦ãî¶ã Àã¨ããè ¾ããâÞããè ̾ã㌾ãã¶ãñ ÞããÊãî ‚ãÔã¦ã. ÊãŒã¶ããõÊãã ¦ãÀ
½ããäÍãªãè½ããäÍãªãé¦ãî¶ã ½ããõÊãÌããé¶ããè ãä•ãÖ㪠Ôãì ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãìÜ㡠̾ã㌾ãã¶ãñ ªñ¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ! ¹ã㛥ãã ãä¶ã Öõ³ãºã㪠¾ãñ©ãñ
Àã¨ããèÀã¨ããé¦ãî¶ã Ôã¼ãã ¼ãÀ¦ã ãä¶ã ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ½ããõÊãÌããé‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ÔãÌãà ª•ããÄÞ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÔã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãÞãñ ãä¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ãþãì®ãÞãñ ãäÍãàã¥ã
ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããè. •¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã ¶ããÌãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ªñÍããÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ¼ãîãäÓã¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ãä¶ã •¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ããÌã¶ã
ÞããäÀ¨ããÞãñ ‡ãŠ©ã¶ã ¹ãì¤ñ ¾ã©ãã¹ãÆÔãâØããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ ‚ããÖñ ¦¾ãã ªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ã ãä¶ã £ã½ãüã‡ã‹¦ã ½ããõÊãÌããè ‚ãÖ½ãªÍããÖ ¾ããâ¶ããè ÊãŒã¶ããõÊãã
ãäÖâªì ãä¶ã ½ãìÔãÊã½ãã¶ããâ¶ãã ãä¹ãŠÀâؾããâãäÌãÁ® ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ‚ãìŸãÌã¥ããè ‡ãŠÀã ‚ãÔãã ‚ãìÜã¡ ‚ãì¹ãªÍñ ã ãäªÊ¾ããÌã¶㠦¾ããâÔã ¹ãŠãÍããèÞããè ãäÍãàãã
ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊããè Öãñ¦ããè!

Ûãã ½ããõÊãÌããè¹ãƽãã¥ãñÞã Íãñ‡ãŠ¡ãñ ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã‡ãŠ ¹ãŠãä‡ãŠÀãâÞããè ãä¶ã ÔãⶾããÍããâÞããè ÌãƦãñ ¹ã¦‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¹ãÆãâ¦ããñ¹ãÆãâ¦ããè Øã칦ã ÔãâÞããÀ ‡ãŠÂ
ÊããØãÊãñ. ãä¼ãàãñÞ¾ãã ãä¶ããä½ã§ãã¶ãñ ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ÜãÀãè •ãã¥ãñ ÔãìÊã¼ã ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ Íã¨ãîÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ããèÖãè Íãâ‡ãŠã ‚ã쪼ãÌãî ¶ã ªñ¦ãã ¾ãã
ÔÌãªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ã ¹ãŠãä‡ãŠÀãâ¶ããè ãä¶ã ÔãⶾããÍããâ¶ããè ªãÀãñªãÀ ãäÖâ¡î¶ã ¹ãÆÔ¦ãì¦ã ªãÔ¾ããÞãã ãä¦ã›‡ãŠãÀã ãä¶ã ¼ããÌããè ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞãã ‚ããä¼ãÊããÓã
Êããñ‡ãŠÔã½ãîÖã¦ã ¹ãƪã蹦㠇ãŠÀãÌãã. ãäÌãÍãñÓã¦ã: Ôãõ¶¾ãã½ã£¾ãñ ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞãã ¹ãŠãÀ ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØã ‚ãÔãñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ãè½ããØãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ããâ 䡦ã
ãä¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ½ãìÊÊãã £ãããä½ãÇ㊠‡ãðŠ¦¾ããÔããŸãè ŸñÌã¥ãñ •ãÂÀ ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦¾ãã •ããØãñÌãÀ ÖñÞã Êããñ‡ãŠ •ãã‚ãî¶ã ºãÔã¦ã. ãäÍãÌãã¾ã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞãñ
½ã¶ããÌãÀ ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã £ã½ãÃØãìÂÞãã ¹ãŠãÀ ªãºã ãä¶ã Ìã•ã¶ã ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ãÞã ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞ¾ãã ¹ããäÌã¨ã £ã½ããÃÞããè ªãèàãã ªñ¥ãñ
‚ãÌã;ã Öãñ¦ãñ. ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãããäÍãÌãã¾ã £ã½ãÃÀàã¥ã ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¾ã Öñ ½ã½ãà ‚ããñߌãî¶ã Ö•ããÀãñ £ã½ãÃØãì Ûãã Àã•ã‡ãŠã¾è ã ãä•ãÖãªãèÞãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¹ãì¤ñ ‚ããÊãñ Öñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãñ ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÔã Ôãªãñã䪦㠂ããä¼ã½ãã¶ããԹ㪠‚ããÖñ. ½ããèÀ¦ã ¾ãñ©ãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãñãä¹ãÆÊãÞãñ
Ôãì½ããÀãÔã ‚ãÔããÞã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ã ¹ãŠ‡ãŠãèÀ ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã œãÌã¥ããè•ãÌãß ¾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãì¦ãÀÊãã. ¦¾ããÞ¾ããºãÀãñºãÀ Ö§ããè, Üããñ¡ñ ãä¶ã
ãä‚ã¦ãÀ ÔãÀâ•ãã½ãÖãè Öãñ¦ãã. ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ãä•ãÖãªãèÞããè ªãèàãã ªñ¥¾ãã¦ã ¦ããñ ½ãض㠂ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã Ûãã ¹ãŠãä‡ãŠÀãºã−Êã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‚ããä£ãÀãžããâ¶ãã ÔãâÍã¾ã Ìãã›î ÊããØãÊãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè ¦¾ããÔã ¦ãñ©ãî¶ã ãä¶ãÜãî¶ã •ã㥾ããÞãã Öì‡ãã ãäªÊãã. Öã Öì‡ãã Ôã웦ããÞã ¦ããñ
¹ãŠ‡ãŠãèÀ ¦ãñ©ãî¶ã ãä¶ãÜããÊãã ¹ãÀâ¦ãì •ãÌãßÞ¾ããÞã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ØããÌãã¦ã ãäÍã¶㠹ãì¶Öã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Øã칦ã ÀÞã¶ãñÔã ¹ãÆãÀâ¼ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã ¢ããÊãã!3‚ãÔãñ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè

‚ãñ‡ãŠ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¼ã‡ã‹¦ã Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Öã¦ããÌãÀ ãäÍãÀ Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã ‚ãÌãã¤Ì¾ã ÀÞã¶ãñÞãñ Øã칦㠇ãŠã¾ãà ‚ãÔãʾãã ãäÍã¦ãã¹ãŠãè¶ãñ ¹ããÀ ¹ãã¡ãè¦ã
‚ãÔã¦ããèÊã! ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ãñ ``Öãñ¦ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã, ‡ã슟ãèÊã, ÖñÖãè ¶ãìÀÊããè Öã Öã! •ã¶ããâ¦ãñ Ô½ãðãä¦ã!!``

½ããäÍãªãé¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ªñÌãßãâ¦ãî¶ã ãä¼ãàãñÞãñ ãä¶ããä½ã§ãã¶ãñ ÜãÀãâªãÀãâ¦ãî¶ãÖãè ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÞãñ¦ã¶ãã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè •ãÔãñ ½ããõÊãÌããè ãä¶ã
¹ãâã䡦ã, ¹ãŠ‡ãŠãèÀ ãä¶ã ÔãⶾããÔããè £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ ¦ãÔãñÞã Ûãã ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã Ô©ãã¶ããÖî¶ã •ããԦ㠽ãÖ§ÌããÞ¾ãã ã䟇ãŠã¥ããèÖãè
‚ãì¹ãªñÍã‡ãŠãâÞããè ãä¶ã ãäÍãàã‡ãŠãâÞããè ¹ããŸÌã¥ããè ¢ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè.ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ¹ãÆãâ¦ããâÞãñ Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¨ã Ôãã¹ã¡¥¾ããÞããè ½ã쌾ã
Ô©ãã¶ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ½ããñŸ½ããñŸãÊããè àãñ¨ãñ Öãñ¦ã. Öãè àãñ¨ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ÔãÌãà ªñÍããâ¦ããèÊã Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞããè ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã Ôãâ½ãñÊã¶ãñÞã Öãñ¦ã. ½ããäÍãªãè¦ã Ô©ãããä¶ã‡ãŠ
Êããñ‡ãŠÞã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ããè©ããÃÔã ÔãÌãà ª•ããÃÞãñ Êããñ‡ãŠ ¾ãñ¥ããÀñ ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¾ãã ¦ããè©ããÄÞãñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããèÖãè Àã•ã‡ãŠãè¾ã ½ãÖâ¦ã ¶ãñ½ã¥¾ããÔã ‚ããÊãñ.

3 The Meerut Narrative of Mr. Williams.

ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ØãâØãñÞ¾ãã ¹ã쥾ãÔ¶ãã¶ããÔããŸãè ‚ããÊãñʾãã Ö•ããÀãñ ºããâ£ãÌããâ¶ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã¦ã Œãñߦ㠂ãÔãÊãñʾãã Ûãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ã¦ã
Ôãã½ããèÊã Öãñ¥¾ããÞãã Øã칦㠂ãì¹ãªñÍã ª¦ñ ã ªñ¦ã ¹ãâã䡦ã Êããñ‡ãŠ ¦ããè©ããó¦ããè©ããê ãäÖâ¡î ÊããØãÊãñ.4

‚ã¹ãŠã› •ã¶ãÔã½ãîÖãâÞãñ ½ã¶ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã ãä‚ãޜ㠂ã즇㊛¦ãñ¶ãñ ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ãä¶ã ãä¦ãÞãã ‚ãà㾾㠟Ôãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã
ת¾ããÌãÀ ‚ãì½ã›Ìãî¶ã ŸñÌ㥾ããÔã ‡ãŠãäÌã¦ãñÔããÀŒãñ ªìÔãÀñ ‚ãì§ã½ã Ôãã£ã¶ã ¶ããÖãè. ½ãããä½ãÇ㊠Í㺪ãâ¦ã ãä¶ã ½ããñև㊠¹ã®¦ããè¶ãñ ¹ã²ãã½ã£¾ãñ
Øãìâãä¹ãŠÊãñÊãñ Ô㦾㠕ã¶ã¦ãñÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ãã¦ã ¹ãŠãÀ ¦ÌãÀñ¶ãñ Á•ãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ãñ. ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ããâÞãñ ½ããÖ㦽¾ã ¾ããÔããŸãèÞã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ãã¶ãÊãñ •ãã¦ãñ.
ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ãñ ÀãÓ›ÈãÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ããÞããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÌãã‡ã‹¾ã¦ãã ‡ãŠÂ Íã‡ãŠ¦ãã¦ã.•ãñÌÖã •ãñÌÖã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ‚ã즇㊛ ¼ããÌã¶ãñ¶ãñ ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ‚ã㦽ãã
¦ãß½ãßî ÊããØã¦ããñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ããÞãñ ãä¶ãÜã¥ããÀñ •ãñ ÔãÖ•ã ºããñÊã ¦ããèÞã `ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ãñ` Öãñ¦ã. ¹ãÆŠã¶ÔãÞ¾ãã ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ‚ã㦽¾ããÞãñ ºããñÊã ½Ö¥ã•ãñÞã
`Êãã ½ããÔãóãäÊãÔã` Öãñ¾ã. Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ÔããÊããè ÔÌã£ã½ãÃÀàã¥ããÞ¾ãã, ÔÌãÀ㕾ã-Ôãâ¹ã㪶ããÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾㠹ãÆ㹦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãìªã§ã ¼ããÌã¶ãñ¶ãñ
¼ãÀ¦ã¼ãî½ããèÞãã ‚ã㦽ãã ¦ãß½ãßî ÊããØã¦ããÞã ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ãŒì ããÌãã›ñ ‚ãÔãñ ‚ãñŒããªñ ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ã ãä¶ãÜããÊãñ ¶ãÔã¦ãñ ¦ãÀÞã ‚ããÍÞã¾ãà ‚ãÔã¦ãñ!
ãäªÊÊããèÞãñ ºããªÍãÖãÞãñ Œãã•ãØããè ØãÌã¾ãã¶ãñ ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‡ã⊟ã¦ãî¶ã ãä¶ã¶ããã䪦ã Öãñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ `ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ã` ÔÌã¦ã: ºãÔããäÌãÊãñÊãñ
Öãñ¦ãñ.5 ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãîÌãÕããâÞãñ ¹ãÀã‰ãŠ½ã Ìã¥ãö㠇ãŠÂ¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ãã¦ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã Ô㣾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãÌã¶ã¦ããèÞãñ ‡ãŠÁ¥ãÀÔã㦽ã‡ãŠ

ãäÞã¨ã ÀñŒãã›ÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. •ãñ Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäªÌãÔã ãäÖªâ ìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã Ûãã ›ãñ‡ãŠã¹ããÔãî¶ã ¦ããñ ¦¾ãã ›ãñ‡ãŠã¹ã¾ã¦Ä ã ãäÌã•ã¾ãÍããÊããè Ìãõ¼ãÌãã¶ãñ
‚ããä¼ããäÓã‡ã‹¦ã ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ããÞã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ‚ãã•ã •ãØã¦ãã¦ã `ØãìÊãã½ã` ½Ö¥ãÌãî¶ã Üãñ¥¾ããÞããè ¹ããßãè ¾ããÌããè, ¦¾ããâÞãã £ã½ãà ¹ããñÀ‡ãŠã ÌÖãÌãã
ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞããè ‚ããä¼ããäÓã‡ã‹¦ã ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãñŠ ¹ãÀ‡ã‹¾ããâÞ¾ãã Êãã©ããâŒããÊããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÔãÖã ¦ãì¡ãäÌãÊããè •ããÌããè ¾ãã `ãäÌã¹ã¾ãÃÔ¦ã ãä¶ã Êã••ããÔ¹ãª` ãäÔ©ã¦ããèºã−Êã
¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ãã¦ã ¼ããÀ¦ã¼ãî ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãã¦ãã Öã ãä¦ãÞãã ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã ‚ãã¹ã¥ããÔã ‚ãõ‡ãŠãÌã¾ããÔã Ôãã¹ã¡ñÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ‚ãã¦ãã
Öñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ Øãã¥ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾããÔã ¹ãì¶Öã ‚ãõ‡ãîŠ ‚ãñ‚ããèÊã ‡ãŠã¾ã? Ûãã ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ããÞãã ‚ãñŒããªã ½ãÔãìªã •ãÀ ‡ãŠãñ¥ããè Íããñ£ãî¶ã ‡ãŠã¤ãèÊã ¦ãÀ
¦¾ããÞãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÌãÀ ‚ãà㾾㠂ãì¹ã‡ãŠãÀ Öãñ¦ããèÊã! ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ÔããâØã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãè, ‚ãã¹ãÊããè £ãÀ¦ããè½ãã¦ãã
Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊããè ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè ‚ãããä¥ã ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ½ãõªã¶ããÌãÀ ‚ãì¡ãè Üãñ¦ãã¶ãã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ‡ãŠã¶ãã¦ã ¦ããñÞã ‚ãã‰ãŠãñÍã, ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ
ãä‡ã⊇ãŠãß¿ãã ½ããÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ãã.!!

ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãà ÀÞã¶ãñÞããè Ôãã£ã¶ãñ Öãè ãäÌãÔ¦ããè¥ãÃÞã ‚ãÔããÌããè ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. ªìºãßãè ¢ããÊãñÊããè ½ãã¾ã¼ãî, ½ãªãñ¶½ã¦ã •ãìÊãì½ããÞãñ Öã¦ãî¶ã
Ôããñ¡ãäÌ㥾ããÔããÀŒãñ ‚ãÌãÜã¡ ‡ãðŠ¦¾ã Üã¡Ìãî¶ã ‚ãã¥ã¥¾ããÔã ¹ããäÖÊããè ½ãÖ§ÌããÞããè ãä¶ã ½ãîÊã¼ãî¦ã ‚ãÍããè ØããñÓ› ½Ö›Êããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ÔãÌãà Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞãñ
½ã¶ã:¹ãÆÌã¦ãöã Öãñ¾ã. ÌãÔ¦ãìãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Üã¡Ìãî¶ã ‚ãã¥ããÌã¾ããÞããè ‚ãÔãñÊã ¦ãÀ ¹ãÆ©ã½ã ½ã¶ã:ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã ¦ããè ¹ã¥î ãùã¥ãñ ãäÌã•ã¾ããè ¢ããÊããè
¹ãããäÖ•ãñ. Öãè ½ã¶ã:‰ãŠãâ¦ããè Üã¡Ìãî¶ã ‚ãã¥ã¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ãã ½ã¶ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãñ •ãñ ÀÔ¦ãñ •ãã¦ãã¦ã, ¦¾ãã ÔãÌãà ÀÔ¦¾ããâÌãÀ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ¶ãã‡ãŠãè
Ô©ãããä¹ãÊããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ¦ã. ½ãã¶ãÌããè ½ã¶ã Öñ ÔããÖãä•ã‡ãŠ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñÞã ‚ãì¦ÔãÌããä¹ãƾ㠂ãÔãʾãã½ãìßñ Ôãã½ã㶾㠕ã¶ãÔã½ãìÖãÊãã ÌãÍã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã
Üãñ¥¾ããÔã ¾ãã ‚ãì¦ÔãÌãããäÍãÌãã¾ã ªìÔãÀñ Àã•ã½ããØãà ‚ãã¤ß¦ã ¶ããÖãè¦ã. ¾ãã ‚ãì¦ÔãÌããâÞ¾ãã ÔããŒãÀñ¦ã Üããñßî¶ã ¦ãããä§Ìã‡ãŠ ‚ããõÓã£ããÞããè Øããñßãè
ãäªÊããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ Ôã½ãã•ããÞãñ ºããÊã½ã¶ã ¦ããè ‚ããÌã¡ãè¶ãñ ãäØãߦãñ; ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¹ããÔãî¶ã ÀãñØãÖãè Ôã㣾ã Öãñ‚ãî Íã‡ãŠ¦ãã¦ã. ‚ãÍã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ½ãããä½ãÇãŠ
ãäÌãÞããÀãâÞãñ ¦¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ãÉ㊽ãã¦ã ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã ãäÞã§ãã‡ãŠÓãÇ㊠‚ãì¦ÔãÌããâ¦ãî¶ã Ôãã½ã㶾㠕ã¶ããâÔã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãâÞãñ
ãäÍãàã¥ã ªñ¥¾ããÞããè ̾ãÌãÔ©ãã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè. ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãßñ ãäÞã¨ããâÞãñ Œãñß ¦ã¾ããÀ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÞããè ãä¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞããè ‡ãŠÍããè

4 Trevelyan’s Cawnpore.
5 “A mandate had of late gone forth from the palace of Delhi enjoining the

Mahomedans at all their solemn gatherings to recite a song of Iamentation indicated by
the royal musician him self which describes in touching strains the humiliation of their
race and the degradation of their ancient faith once triumphant from the Northern
snows to the Southern states but now trodden under the foot of the infidel and the

alien.” --Trevelyan’s Cawnpore. ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ½ã¦ãñ Ìãð§ããèÞãñ תáØã¦ã ‡ãŠß¥¾ããÔã ÔãÌãÃÔÌããè ‚ãÔã½ã©ãà ‚ãÔã¥ããžãã ¾ãã
ØãÆâ©ã‡ãŠãÀãÔã ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ãäÊããäÖ¥ãñ ¼ããØã ¹ã¡ãÌãñ Öñ ¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›ÈØããè¦ããÞ¾ãã Ôããöª¾ããÃÞãñÞã ²ããñ¦ã‡ãŠ ‚ããÖñ.

‚ãÌãÖñÊã¶ãã ¢ããÊãÊñ ããè ‚ããÖñ ¾ããÞãñ ÖìºãñÖìºã ¶ã㛇㊠¦¾ãã ãäÞã¨ããâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ªãŒããäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‚ããè ãä¶ã Ûãã ÔãÌãà ‚ã¹ã½ãã¶ããâÞãã,
ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞãã ãä¶ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÞãã Ôãî¡Öãè ‡ãŠÔãã ‚ãìØãÌããÌã¾ããÞãã ¾ããÞããè ‚ãì−ãè¹ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ‚ããä¶ãÌãã¾ãà Þãñ¦ã¶ãã ªñ¥ããÀãè ÞããäÀ¨ãñ ¦¾ãã ¦ããÀñÞ¾ãã
ºããÖìʾããâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ‡ãŠÀãäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããè¦ã, ÞããÌã¡ãèÌãÀ, ¹ããÀãÌãÀ, £ã½ãÃÍããßñ¦ã ãä¶ã ÞãÌÖ㛿ããÌãÀ ÌããèÀÀÔããñ¦¹ã㪇㊠ÊããÌ㥾ãã ‚ãããä¥ã
¹ããñÌãã¡ñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ªãŒãÌãî¶ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ãÌãÔãã¶ã Þã¤ãäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ‚ããè. ‚ãì§ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ãä¹ãƾ㠂ãÔãÊãñÊãñ ãä¶ã •ãñ
‚ãõ‡ãŠÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã ‚ã㟠ãäªÌãÔããâ¦ã ‡ã슟ñ¦ãÀãè Êã¤ã‚ããè ¢ããÊããèÞã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ãÍããè ¤ Ôã½ã•ãî¦ã ‚ããÖñ ¦ãñ ‚ãÊãã-‚ãì ªÊãÞ¾ãã ½ãªìýã‡ãŠãèÞãñ
Øãã¥ãñ Øãã¦ãã Øãã¦ãã Ñããñ¦¾ããâÞãñ ºããÖî Ô¹ãìŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ. ¹ãîÌãÕããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãÀã‰ãŠ½ãã¶ãñ ¦¾ããâÞãñ À‡ã‹¦ã ‡ãŠ¤î ÊããØãÊãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¢ã›‡ãŠ¶ã ãÌä ãÓã¾ã
ãä¹ãŠÀÌãî¶ã ¹ãÆÔ¦ãì¦ã ªãÔ¾ããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ½ãîãä¦ãýãâ¦ã ‚ãì¼ããè ‡ãñŠÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã •ããñ ÖÀÖÀ ½ãÖãªñÌããÞããè Üã¶ãØã•ãöãã ‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀ ¶ããÖãè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠã
¶ãã½ãªÃ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã ‚ããÖñ!

ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ½ãÖ¦‡ãŠã¾ããĶãã ¦¾ãã ÀãÓ›Èã¦ããèÊã ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã ¹ãìÁÓããâÞãñÞã ‚ã¶ãì½ã¦ã ‚ãÔãî¶ã ¼ããØã¦ã ¶ããÖãè. ¦ãÀ ¦¾ãã ¹ãìÁÓããâ¶ã㠕㶽ã
ªñ¥ããžãã ‡ãìŠÔã̾ããâ¦ãî¶ãÖãè Öãè ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããÞããè ºããè•ãñ Á•ããÌã¾ããÔã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã. ãäÖâªãè ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâÞ¾ãã Íããõ¾ããÃÞãñ ÔããÛã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã
‚ãÔã¦ãñ Öñ ÍããèŒããâÞãã ãä¶ã À•ã¹ãì¦ããâÞãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔã ‚ããä¼ã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ÔããâØã¦ããñ ‚ããÖñ. ‚ãÍãã ¾ãã ãäÖâªãè ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâÞãñ ½ã¶ã:Ôãã½ã©¾ãà Ôãâ¹ã㪶ã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè Ûãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ãÉ㊽ãã¦ã Ìãõªî Êããñ‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã ºãã¾ããâ¶ãã £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.6 ¾ãã Ìãõªî ºãã¾ããâÍããè ÜãÀØãì¦ããè

‚ããõÓã£ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ãä‡ãŠÀ‡ãŠãñß ¼ããäÌãӾ㠇㊩ã¶ããÔããŸãè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ããèÊã Ôãã½ã㶾ã ÌãØããÄÞ¾ãã ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâÞãñ Ôãªãñã䪦㠪ߥã-Ìãߥ㠂ãÔã¦ãñ.
¦ãñÌÖã ãäÖâªãè ãäÔ¨ã¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ½ãã¾ã¼ãî½ããèÞãã Öã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ã ÀãñØã •¾ãã¶ãñ ºãÀã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‚ãÔãñ ‚ããñŒãª ªñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ¦ãñ ‚ããñŒãª
ãäªÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ãã ØãìÊãã½ããäØãÀãèÞãñ ¼ãî¦ã ‚ãã‚ããèÊãã ‡ãñŠÌÖã Ôããñ¡ãèÊã Ìã Öãè ¼ãî¦ãºãã£ãã ÔãÀ¦ããÞã ãä¦ãÊãã ÔãìâªÀ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãºããÊã‡ãŠ ‡ãñŠÌÖã Öãñ‚ããèÊã
Öñ ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ã ÔããâØ㥾ããÊãã ¾ãã Ìãõªî ºãã¾ããâãäÍãÌãã¾ã ªìÔãÀã ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞãã £ã¶Ìãâ¦ãÀãè Ôã½ã©ãà Öãñ¦ãã! ¾ãã Ìãõªî ºãã¾ããâ¶ããè Ô¨ããè Ôã½ãã•ãã¦ã,
½ããõÊãÌããé¶ããè ãä¶ã ¹ãâã䡦ããâ¶ããè ¹ãìÂÓã Ôã½ãã•ãã¦ã •¾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ •ããØãð¦ããè ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ãäªÊããè ¦¾ããÞã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ØããÌããñØããÌã ãä¹ãŠÀ¦ã •ãã¥ããžãã
¦ã½ããÔããäØãÀãâÞ¾ãã ¶ããÞããâ¶ããèÖãè ¾ãã ÀãÓ›Èàããñ¼ããâ¦ã ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã ¼ãÀ ¹ã¡ÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. ¾ãã ¦ã½ããÔããäØãÀãâÞ¾ãã ‡ã⊹ãî¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ã‚ãã¹ãʾãã
¦ã½ããÍããâ¦ãî¶ã ¹ããÀ¦ã⨾ããÞãã ãä¦ã›‡ãŠãÀã •ã¶ãÔã½ãîÖãâ¦ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ‡ãŠÀãÌãã. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÔãÌãà ¦ãÅÖñÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ÔãÌãà ª•ããÃÞ¾ãã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¦ãî¶ã
ãä‚ããäØÊãâÍããâÞãã ‚ãâ½ãÊã ¢ãìØãã¶㠪ñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ¦¾ãã Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ¹ãƾ㦶ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.

¾ãã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞããè ½ã쌾㠇ãòŠ³ñ ‚ãã¦ãã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ ¹ãÔãÀÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ãã.è 7 ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞããè •¾ãã Ìãã¡¿ãã¦ã ¹ãÆ©ã½ã

¹ãÆã¥ã¹ãÆãä¦ãÓŸã ¢ããÊããè ¦¾ãã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã ¦ãÀ ãä¦ãÞããè Ôã‡ãŠÔã ãä¶ã •ããñÀªãÀ Ìã㤠ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè Öã¦ñ ããèÞã; ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ñããè. ¶ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ãä¶ã ‚ã¢ããè½ã
‚ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ¹ã¨ããâ¶ããè ãä¶ã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍã‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ‚ãã¦ãã Ö•ããÀãñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè ¦¾ãã ÀÞã¶ãñÞ¾ãã ÍããŒãã ‚ãìÜã¡ñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããÃÔã •ãÔãã
Ñããè½ãâ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãã Ìãã¡ã ¾ãã ‚ããØãã½ããè ½ãâØãÊã ‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞ¾ãã ¦ã¾ããÀãè¶ãñ Øã•ãºã•ãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã ¦ãÔããÞã ãäªÊÊããèÞãã Ìãã¡ãÖãè ¦¾ããÞã ¦ã¾ããÀãè¶ãñ
Øã•ãºã•ãÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ÊãŒã¶ããõÊãã ãä¶ã ‚ããØãžããÊãã ¦¾ãã ½ãÖã¶ãì¼ããÌã ªñÍã¼ã‡ã‹¦ãã¶ãñ - ½ããõÊãÌããè ‚ãֽ㪠ÍããÖ Ûããâ¶ããè Ûãã
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãÞ¾ãã ãä•ãÖãªãèÞãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ ‡ãñ⊳ ãä¶ã½ããå㠇ãñŠÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ã㛥ãã ÍãÖÀãè ãä•ãÖãªãèÞããè ºããè•ãñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãŠãè ŒããñÊã Á¦ãÊããè ØãñÊããè
‡ãŠãè, ¦ãñ ÔãÌãà ÍãÖÀ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ ¹ãàããÞãñ ¼ã¾ãã¶ã‡ãŠ ¼ãì¾ããÀ ºã¶ãÊãñ. ½ããõÊãÌããè, ¹ãâã䡦ã, •ããä½ã¶ãªãÀ, Íãñ¦ã‡ãŠÀãè,
̾ãã¹ããÀãè, Ìã‡ãŠãèÊã, ãäÌã²ãã©ããê ‚ãÍãã ÔãÌãà •ãã¦ããè ãä¶ã ÔãÌãà ¹ãâ©ã ÔÌã£ã½ããéãà ãä¶ã ÔÌãªñÍãã©ãà ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ¹ãÆã¥ãªã¶ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÞããè ªãèàãã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã
Ôã••ã ¢ããÊãÊñ ãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÀÞã¶ãñÞãã ¹ãì¤ã‡ãŠãÀ Üãñ¥ããÀãâ¦ããèÊ㠂㦾ãâ¦ã ¹ãƽãìŒã ¹ãì¤ãÀãè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãìÔ¦ã‡ãŠ ãäÌã‡ãŠ¥ããÀã Öãñ¦ãã!
‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ããÊãã ¦ãÀ Œãì− ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞãñ ½ãã•ããè ¶ãºããºã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãñ ½ã쌾ã Ìã•ããèÀ ‚ãÊÊããè ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãèŒãã¶ã Öñ ¾ãñ‚ãî¶ã ÀããäÖÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¾ãã
½ã쌾ã Ìã•ããèÀã¶ãñ Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ Ü㛶ãñ¦ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠã ¶ãñ›, Þãã¦ãì¾ãà ãä¶ã £ãã¡Ôã ªãŒããäÌãÊãñ ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ¹ãŠãÀÞã ©ããñ¡¿ããâ¶ããè ªãŒããäÌãÊãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãñÊã!

6 Trevelyan.
7 ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÌãÔ¦ãð¦ã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÞãñ ÍãñÌã›ãè ½ãùÊãñÔã¶ã ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ: “Of this conspiracy the Moulavi was

undoubtedly a leader. It had its ramifications all over India -certainly at Agra where the
Moulavi stayed some time and almost certainly at Delhi, at Meerut, at Patna, at Calcutta
where the ex-king of Oudh and a large following were residing”.

‡ãŠÊã‡ãŠ§¾ããÞ¾ãã ºãã•ãîÊãã ½ã쌾㠇ãŠã½ã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ºãÀã‡ãŠ¹ãîÀ, ¡½ã¡½ã ÌãØãõÀñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè ‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÊãã ‚ã¶ãì‡ãîŠÊã
‡ãŠÂ¶ã Üãñ¥¾ããÞãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦ãñ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ¶ãã•ãî‡ãŠ ‡ãŠã½ã ‚ãÊÊããè ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãèŒãã¶ã ¾ããâ¶ããè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ãäÍã¦ãã¹ãŠãè¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊã
‚ãì•ãã¡Êãñ ¦ããñÞã ÔãÌãà ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ÀãÓ›‡ãŠã¾ããÃÊãã ãä½ãߥ¾ããÔããŸãè ÌãñÊã¼ãâ¡ãÀ ‚ãìÞãÊãî¶ã, Ñããè ØãâØãã•ããéÞãñ ¹ãã¥ããè Öã¦ããè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ãä¶ã
‡ãìŠÀã¥ããÞããè ‡ãŠÔã½ã ªñ‚ãî¶ã ÌãÞã¶ãºã® ¢ããÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãñÞ¾ãã ¶ãºããºãã¶ãñÖãè ¦¾ããâ¶ãã ‚ãìªãÀ Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ÌããØãÌããÌã¾ããÞãñ ‡ãŠºãîÊã ‡ãñŠÊãñÊãñ
Öãñ¦ãñ! ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà Ÿã¥¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã Àã¨ããèÞ¾ãã Øã칦ã Ôã¼ãã ¼ãÀ¦ã ãä¶ã ¦ãñ©ãñ Öñ Íã¹ã©ããäÌã£ããè Öãñ¦ããÞã ªìÔãÀñ ãäªÌãÍããè ¦¾ãã ¦¾ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›Þãñ
Ôãì¼ãñªãÀ ¶ãºããºãã‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãã‚ãî¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ã©ãà ãä½ãߥ¾ããÞããè ¦¾ããÔã ÌãÞã¶ãñ ªñ¦ã. Ûãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã •ãì›ãèÞããè ½ã쌾ã Ô©ãã¶ãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ
½ããèÀ¦ã ãä¶ã ºãÀã‡ãŠ¹ãîÀ Öãè Öãñ¦ã. ‚ãì§ãÀñ‡ãŠ¡ñ •ãÍããè ÔãâÜã›ãè¦ã ãä¶ã ¹ã®¦ãÍããèÀ ÀÞã¶ãã Öãñ¦ããè ¦ãÍããèÞã ªãäàã¥ãñ‡ãŠ¡ñ ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããºã−Êã
Ôãã¦ããžããÔã ÀâØããñ ºãã¹ãî•ããè ¢ã›¦ãÞã Öãñ¦ãñ. ¹ã›Ìã£ãöããè ÔãâÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä¶ã ‡ãŠãñÊÖã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ªÀºããÀã¦ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞ¾ãã ÀÞã¶ãñÞããè •ããßãè
ãäÌã¥ãÊããè •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ããè. ¹ãŠãÀ ‡ãŠã¾ã, ¹ã¥ã ©ãñ› ½ã³ãÔã¹ã¾ãĦã Ûãã ÀãӛȾã—ããÞ¾ãã •Ìããßã •ãã‚ãî¶ã £ã¡‡ãŠÊ¾ãã Öãñ¦¾ãã. Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ
•ãã¶ãñÌããÀãè¦ã ŒããÊããèÊã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãã ½ã³ãÔãñÔ㠹㊡‡ãŠÊãã: ``Öñ ªñÍãºãâ£ãîâ¶ããè ãä¶ã £ã½ãÃãä¶ãÓŸãâ¶ããñ, ‚ãìŸã! ‡ãŠã¹ãŠãèÀ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã ªñÍãã¦ãî¶ã ãä¹ã›ãßî¶ã ÊããÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè ÔãÌãÕã¥ã ‚ãìŸã! ¾ãã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ããè ¶¾ãã¾ããÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ¦ã§Ìããâ¶ãã ¦ãì¡ãäÌãÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ããâ¶ããè
‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ÔÌãÀ㕾ã Êãìºãã¡î¶ã ¶ãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ Ìã ÔÌãªñÍããÊãã £ãìßãèÔã ãä½ãßãäÌ㥾ããÞãã ¦¾ããâÞãã ‡ãðŠ¦ãã¶ä ãÍÞã¾ã ¢ããÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ! ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã Ûãã
¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ¾ãã¦ã¶ããâ¦ãî¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ½ãì‡ã‹¦ã¦ãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ‚ãã¦ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã ãä‚ãÊãã•ã ‚ãìÀÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãããä¥ã ¦ããñ ãä‚ãÊãã•ã
½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¦ãì½ãìÊã ¾ãì®ÔãâØãÆã½ã ÖãÞã Öãñ¾ã! ‚ãÍãã ¾ãì®ã¦ã •ãñ À¥ããâØã¥ãã¦ã ¹ã¦ã¶ã ¹ããÌã¦ããèÊã ¦ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ªñÍããÞãñ ÍãÖãèª Öãñ¦ããèÊã! •ãñ
ÔÌãªñÍããÔããŸãè ‚ãããä¥ã ÔÌã£ã½ããÃÔããŸãè Ê㤦ããèÊã ãä¶ã ½ãÀ¦ããèÊã ¦¾ãã Ìããè¾ãÃÌãã¶ã ÍãÖãèªãâÔããŸãè ÔÌãØããÃÞããè ‡ãŠÌãã¡ñ ‚ãìÜ㡦㠂ããÖñ¦ã. •ãñ
¼¾ãã¡ ãä¶ã ªñÍã³ãñÖãè ‚ã£ã½ã Ûãã ÀãӛȇãŠã¾ããùããÔãî¶ã ¹ãÀãÌãð§ã Öãñ¦ããèÊã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ããÔããŸãè ¶ãÀ‡ãŠãÞããè ¹ãñÌãñ ¼ãÀÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã! ªñÍãºãâ£ãìÖãñ,
¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã ¦ãì½Öãè ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞãñ ¹ã¦‡ãŠÀ¥ããÀ?8

‚ãÍãã ãäÔ©ã¦ããè¦ã Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊã ‚ãì•ãã¡Êãñ ãä¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ãä•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ Ôããâ‡ãñŠãä¦ã‡ãŠ ½ãÖ¦‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞãã ½ãìÖî¦ãà ‚ããÊããÀñ
‚ããÊãã ‚ãÍãã ‚ãÍãã ÔãîÞã¶ãã •ãã‚ãî ÊããØãʾãã. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããÞãñ ‡ãŠãÀÔ©ãã¶ã ‚ãìÜ㡇ãŠãèÔã ‚ããÊãñ! ½ãØã ‡ãŠã¾ã! •ããñ ¦ããñ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè
ãäªÌãÔãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ºãâªì‡ãŠãèÊãã ÜããÔãî¶ã ¹ãìÔãî¶ã ÔÌãÞœ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Àã¨ã ¹ã¡¦ããÞã ¦¾ãã ¦¾ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›Þ¾ãã Ôãì¼ãñªãÀ ½ãñ•ãÀãâÞãñ ºãâØãʾããÌãÀ
¼ãÀ¥ããžãã Øã칦ã Ôã¼ãñÊãã •ãã‚ãî¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ãì®ãÞããè Íã¹ã©ã ‡ãŠ£ããè Üãñ‚ããè¶ã ¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãì¦Ôãì‡ãŠ Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãã. ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã
ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›½ã£¾ãñ ‚ãÍããè Íã¹ã©ãºãâ£ã¦ãã ¢ããÊããè ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›Ôã ¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀãâÔã ‚ãã¥ãã¼ãã‡ãŠã ª¥ñ ¾ããÔããŸãè ½ãñ•ãÌãã¶ããèÞãñ
ºãñ¦ã ŸÀÌããè¦ã. ¾ãã ½ãñ•ãÌãã¶ããèÞãñ ÌãñßñÔã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ½ãñ‡ãŠãâÞãñ ºãñ¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ½ãñ‡ãŠãâÔã ‡ãŠßãäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã ãä¶ã ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¦ãñ ºãñ¦ã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ‚ãÊÊããè
¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãèŒãã¶ã ¾ããâ¶ãã ‡ãŠßãäÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã. ‡ãŠãÖãè Àñãä•ã½ãò›½ã£¾ãñ Öãè ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãÜ㛶ãã ÞããÊãÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ãã Þãì‡ãŠãè¶ãñ ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ãäÌãÍÌããÔãÜãã¦ãã¶ãñ ¦ããè
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¶ããÌãÀ •ãã‚ãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ-ªãñ¶ãªã ¦¾ããâ¶ããè Àñãä•ã½ãò›Êãã ãä¶ã:ÍãԨ㠇ãŠÂ¶ã ªîÀ ‡ãñŠÊãñ. ¹ãŠãÀÞã ‚ãì§ã½ã! Öñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããè
Êããñ‡ãŠ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ãÞããè ãä•ãÖ㪠‚ãì¹ãªñãäÍ㥾ããÔããŸãè ØããÌããñØããÌã £ãã¡ÊãñÊãñ ÔÌã¾ãâÔãñÌã‡ãŠÞã Öãñ¦ã! ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà Ÿã¥¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã
ÌãÞã¶ããäÞãŸá¾ãã £ãã¡¥¾ãã¦ã ¾ãã̾ãã ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ããèÊã ¼ããÌãã©ãà Ôããâ‡ãñŠãä¦ã‡ãŠ ¼ããÓãñ¦ã ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊãã ‚ãÔããÌãã. Ûãã ãäÞãŸá¾ãã ¹ããñÔ›ã¦ãî¶ã Þããñ¶ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ã ¹ãŠãñ¡ãè¦ã ‚ãÔããÌãñ. ¦¾ãã¹ãõ‡ãŠãè Ôãã¦ã̾ãã ‚ã¾ããñ£¾ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›¶ãñ ‚ãŸáŸñÞããßãèÔãã̾ãã Àñãä•ã½ãò›Êãã £ãã¡ÊãÊñ ããè ÌãÞã¶ããäÞãŸáŸãè ‚ãÍããè
Öãñ¦ããè : ``Àñãä•ã½ãò›½ã£ããèÊã ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ¼ãã‚ããéÞãñ ½ã¦ã ‚ãã½ÖãâÔã ½ã㶾㠂ããÖ.ñ ‡ãŠã¡¦ãìÔããâÞãñ ºããºã¦ããè¦ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãÞñ ã Ìã¦ãö㠇ãŠÂ ãä¶ã
Ìãñß ¾ãñ¦ããÞã ¦ãì›î¶ã ¹ã¡î``.9 ºãÀã‡ãŠ¹ãîÀÖî¶ã ãäÔã¾ããÊã‡ãŠãñ›ÔããÀŒ¾ãã ªîÀÞ¾ãã ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè ØãñÊãñÊããè ¹ã¨ãñ ¹ã‡ãŠ¡¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã.

¦¾ãã¦ã ºãÀã‡ãŠ¹ãîÀÞãñ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ãäÔã¾ããÊã‡ãŠãñ›Þ¾ãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¶ãã ãäÊããäÖ¦ãã¦ã: ``¼ãã‚ããè‚ããñ, Øããä¶ã½ãããäÌãÁ®Üã ‚ãìŸã!``
ÀãäÍã¾ã¶ã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããè½ã£¾ãñ ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¾ãì®ã¦ã ¹ããñÊããèÔã Êããñ‡ãŠ •ã¶ã¦ãñÍããè ‚ã¦¾ãâ¦ã ÔãÖã¶ãì¼ãî¦ããè¶ãñ ÌããØã¦ã

Öãñ¦ãñ. ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãã¾ãâ¨ããÞãñ ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ Þã‰ãŠ ‚ãã¦ãã ¦ããèÌãÆ ÌãñØãã¶ãñ ãä¹ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã Ìãñßãè ãä¶ãÀãä¶ãÀãß¿ãã Þã‰ãŠãâÞ¾ãã
Øã¦ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠãÞã Êã¾ããè¦ã ãä¹ãŠÂ ÊããØã¦ããèÊã ‚ãÔãã ¹ãƾ㦶㠂ãÌã;ã Öãñ¦ãã. ¾ããÞã ‚ãì−ñÍãã¶ãñ ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¹ãàããÞãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ªî¦ã Öã¦ãã¦ã À‡ã‹¦ã

8 Charles Ball’s Mutiny Vol. I, page 40.
9 Red Pamphlet Part I.

‡ãŠ½ãÊã¹ãìÓ¹ã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ºãâØããÊã½ã£ããèÊã Ôãõãä¶ã‡ãŠãâÞ¾ãã œãÌã¥ããè¦ã ¹ãÆÌãñÍã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã Üãñ¦ãã ¢ããÊãã. ¦¾ãã¶ãñ ¦ãñ ¹ãîŠÊã ¹ããäÖʾãã ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ãèÞ¾ãã ½ãŒì ¾ã
ãåÖªãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžãã•ãÌãß ãäªÊãñ. ãäÖâªãè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžãã¶ãñ ¦ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ŒããÊãÞ¾ãã ½ãã¥ãÔãã•ãÌãß ãäªÊãñ, ‚ãããä¥ã ‚ãÍãã ãäÀ¦ããè¶ãñ ¦ãñ ‡ãŠ½ãÊã
¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããÞ¾ãã Öã¦ãã¦ãî¶ã •ãã¦ã •ãã¦ã ÍãñÌã›Þ¾ãã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ãã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¹ã¶ì Öã, ‚ããÊãñʾãã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãªî¦ããÞ¾ãã Öã¦ããè ¹ãÀ¦ã ‚ããÊãñ. ºãÔÔã!
ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ¹ãìÓ‡ãŠß Öãñ¦ãñ. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ‚ãñ‡ãŠã Í㺪ãÞããèÖãè ÞããÖîÊã ¶ã ÊããØã¦ãã Öã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ãªì¦ã ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ºãã¥ãã¹ãƽãã¥ãñ ¹ãì¤ñ •ãã‚ããè ãä¶ã
½ããØããý㣾ãñ ªìÔãÀãè ‚ãñŒããªãè ¦ãì‡ãŠ¡ãè ¼ãñ›¦ããÞã ¦ãñ©ããèÊã ãäÖâªãè ¹ãƽãìŒããÞ¾ãã Öã¦ããè ¦ãñ À‡ã‹¦ã‡ãŠ½ãÊã ª¦ñ ã ‚ãÔãñ. ¾ãã ‡ãðŠ¦ããè¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÌãß
‡ãŠã̾ã¹ãî¥ãà Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ÀããäÖÊãñÊããè Öãè ÔãâÜ㛶ãã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠãÞã À‡ã‹¦ã½ã¾ã ãäÌãÞããÀã¶ãñ ¼ããÀÊããè •ãã‚ããè. Öñ À‡ã‹¦ã‡ãŠ½ãÊã ½Ö¥ã•ãñ
‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞããè ‚ãâãä¦ã½ã Àã•ã½ãì³ãÞã •ã¥ãî Öãñ¦ããè! ¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ã‡ãŠ½ãÊããÊãã Ô¹ãÍãà ‡ãŠÀ¦ããÞã ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ãã½ã£¾ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦¾ãã ¼ããÌã¶ããâÞãñ ©ãõ½ãã¶ã
‚ãìÔãßî¶ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñÊã ¾ããÞããè ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ããÞã ‡ãŠÀÌã¦ã ¶ããÖãè. ŒãÀãñŒãÀ •ããè ÌããèÀÌãð§ããè ‚ãñŒãã²ãã ½ãÖã¶ã Ìã‡ã‹¦¾ããÊããÖãè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ã½ããñÜã
Ìã‡ã‹¦ãð¦Ìãã¶ãñ Ñããñ¦¾ããâ½ã£¾ãñ •ããØãð¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¦ãã ¾ãñ¥ãñ ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã Öãñ¦ãñ ¦¾ãã ÌããèÀ Ìãð§ããèÞãã ÔãâÞããÀ ¾ãã Êã¤ã‚ãî Ôãõãä¶ã‡ãŠãâ½ã£¾ãñ ¦¾ãã ãä¶ãÌããÇãŠ
‡ãŠ½ãÊã¹ãìÓ¹ãã¶ãñ ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ÊããÊã¼ã¡‡ãŠ ÀâØããÞ¾ãã ÌãããäØÌãÊããÔãã¶ãñ ‡ãñŠÊãã.

‡ãŠ½ãÊã ¹ãìÓ¹ã! ÍãìãäÞã, ¾ãÍã ãä¶ã ¹ãƇãŠãÍã ¾ããâÞãñ ‡ãŠãäÌã•ã¶ããâ¶ããè ½ãã¶ãÊãñÊãñ ‡ãŠã̾ã½ã¾ã ¹ãƦããè‡ãŠ! ‚ãããä¥ã ¦¾ããÞãã Ìã¥ãÃ?
À‡ã‹¦ããñ••ÌãÊã! ¾ãã ¹ãìÓ¹ããÞ¾ãã ¶ãìÔ㦾ãã Ô¹ãÍããöãñÖãè ת¾ã¹ãìÓ¹ã ãäÌã‡ãŠãäÔã¦ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãìŸãÌãñ ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ¦ãñ ½ãðªìÞãñ¦ã¶ã! Íãñ‡ãŠ¡ãñ ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã
•ãñÌÖã Öñ ‡ãŠ½ãÊã ¹ãìӹ㠾ãã Öã¦ããâ½ã£ãî¶ã ¦¾ãã Öã¦ããâ½ã£¾ãñ ¹ãÀÔ¹ãÀãâ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã Öã¦ããßÊãñ ØãñÊãñ ‚ãÔãñÊã, ¦ãñÌÖã ¦¾ãã ¹ãìÓ¹ããÞ¾ãã ½ãî‡ãŠ
Ìãã‡ã‹ÔãâªñÍãã¦ã Ôãì®ã ¹ãŠãÀ ½ããñŸã Øãî¤ã©ãà ãä¶ã ‚ãìªã§ã £ãñ¾ããÞããè Ô¹ãîŠãä¦ãà ÔãîãäÞã¦ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊããè ‚ãÔãÊããè ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ Öñ ŒããäÞã¦ã! ¾ãã
À‡ã‹¦ã‡ãŠ½ãÊãã¶ãñ ÔãÌããÄÞããè ‚ãâ¦ã:‡ãŠÀ¥ãñ ŒãÀãñŒãÀ ‚ãñ‡ãŠ¨ã Ôãã£ãÊããè. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ºãâØããÊã½ã£¾ãñ ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè ãä¶ã Íãñ¦ã‡ãŠÀãè ªãñÜãñÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã ØããñÓ›
ºããñÊã¦ãã¶ãã ‚ãã¤ßî¶ã ¾ãñ¦ã ‡ãŠãè `Ôãºã ‡ã슜 ÊããÊã ÖãñØãã Öõ!` ‚ãããä¥ã ¦ãñ ºããñÊã¦ãã¶ãã ¦¾ãã Ìãñßãè ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ¡ãñß¿ããâÞããè ‚ãÍããè ‡ãŠãÖãè ÖãÊãÞããÊã
Öãñ‚ããè ‡ãŠãè, ¾ãã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ºããñÊ㥾ãã¦ã ¹ãŠãÀ ŒããñÊã ‚ã©ãà ‚ãÔãÊãã ¹ãããäÖ•ãñ ¾ããÞããè ¹ãÆãäÞã¦ããè ¦ã¦‡ãŠãß ¾ãñ‚ããè. `Ôãºã ‡ã슜 ÊããÊã ÖãñØãã Öõ!`
ÔãØãßãè‡ãŠ¡ñ ‚ãã¦ãã ÊããÊã ÌÖãÌã¾ããÞãñ ‚ããÖñ!10

¾ãã À‡ã‹¦ã‡ãŠ½ãÊãã¶ãñ ãä¶ã ¦¾ãã ½ããØããèÊã ÔãîãäÞã¦ã ‡ãñŠÊãñʾãã ¼ããÌã¶ãñ¶ãñ ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ̾ã‡ã‹¦ããèÞ¾ãã ת¾ãã¦ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÞã £Ìã¶ããè ‚ãì½ã›ãäÌãÊãã
Öãñ¦ãã.

ãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâãäÍã¹ãã¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã •ãã¥ããÀãè ¹ã¨ãñÖãè ‚ãÍããÞã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦¾ãã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞ¾ãã ¹ãì¤ãžããâÞããè ¹ã¨ãñ
‚㦾ãâ¦ã ½ãÖ§ÌããÞããè ‚ãÔãʾãã¶ãñ ¦ããè ¹ãŠãÀÞã ÔããÌã£ããäØãÀãè¶ãñ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ã. ºãÖì¦ãñ‡ãŠ ºãñ¦ã ãä¶ã ÀÞã¶ãã ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ½ã¶ãìÓ¾ãñ £ãã¡î¶ãÞã
ŸÀãäÌãʾãã •ãã¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¹ã¨ãñ ›ã‡ãŠãÌã¾ããÞããèÞã ¢ããʾããÔã ¦ããè ‚ã¦¾ãâ¦ã ½ããñÜã½ã ¼ããÓãñ¦ã ãäÊããÖä ÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ã. ãä‚ã¦ã‡ãñŠÞã ¶ãÌÖñ ¦ãÀ Öãè
½ããñÜã½ã ¹ã¨ãñ ¹ã슛Êããè •ãã‚ãî¶ã ‡ã‹ÌããäÞã¦ã ¹ãŠÔãØã¦ã Öãñ‚ããèÊã ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà £ãî¦ãà ¹ãì¤ãÀãè Êããñ‡ãŠ ‚ãã¹ãÊãã ÔãÌãà ¹ã¨ã ̾ãÌãÖãÀ Ôããâ‡ãñŠãä¦ã‡ãŠ ¼ããÓãñ¦ã
‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ã. ‡ãŠãÖãè ãä›âºããâÞããè ãä¶ã ‚ãã‡ãŠ¡¿ããâÞããè ãäÊã¹ããè ºãÔãÌãî¶ã ãä¦ãÞãã ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñ¦ã ‚ãì¹ã¾ããñØã ‡ãñŠÊãã •ãã‚ããè.11

¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¾ãã Ôãâ‡ãñŠ¦ããäÞã¶Öãâ¶ããè ãä¶ã ¾ãã Øã칦㠹ã¨ããâ¶ããèÖãè •ããñ ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ‚ãìªáºããñ£ã ãäªÊãã ØãñÊãã ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ ‚ãìªáºããñ£ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã
¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãÌãã¥ããè¶ãñ ãäªÊãã. ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãñ Öãè ½ã¶ããÞ¾ãã ‚ããØãã½ããè ‡ãŠãÊãã¦ã ¹ã¡¥ããžãã ‚ãì¡¿ãã Öãñ¦ã. ½ã¶ããÞ¾ãã ãäªÌ¾ã¦ÌããÌãÀ ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ããÞãñ
ãäªÌ¾ã¦Ìã ‚ãÌãÊãâºãî¶ã ‚ãÔã¦ãñ. Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊããè ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãñ ½ã¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÞ¾ãã ¹ãƇãŠãÍãã¶ãñ ãäªÌ¾ã ¢ããÊãñ ½Ö¥ãî¶ã Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊãÞããè
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞããè ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãñÖãè ãäªÌ¾ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊããè! ¾ãã ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãã¦ã ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ½ãÖ§ÌããÞãñ ãä¶ã Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ãä‚ããä¦ãÖãÔããÌãÀ, ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã
ãä‡ãŠ¦¾ãñ‡ãŠ ¹ãã¶ããâÌãÀ ãäÍã‡ã‹‡ãŠã ¹ã¡ÊãñÊãã ‚ããÖñ ‚ãÔãñ ¼ããäÌãӾ㠽֛Êãñ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ¦ãñ Öñ Öãñ¾ã ‡ãŠãè, ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ À㕾㠺ãÀãñºãÀ Íãâ¼ãÀ ÌãÓããĶããè
Êã¾ããÔã •ãã¥ããÀ! ¹ÊããÔããèÞ¾ãã Êã¤ã‚ããèÊãã Ôã§ããÌã¶ã ÔããÊããè Íãâ¼ãÀ ÌãÓãó Öãñ¦ã Öãñ¦ããè. ‚ãñ¦ãª©ãà ¦¾ãã ÔããÊãÞ¾ãã •ãã¶ãñÌããÀãè¹ããÔãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ
ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã ‚ããÍãã ãä¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÌãÊãàã¥ã Þãñ¦ã¶ãã ÔãÌãà ªñÍããÞãñ Àâ£ãÆãÀâ£ãÆã¦ãî¶ã ÔãâÞããÀ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ããè! ¾ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠã ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãã¶ãñ ÀãÓ›Èã½ã£¾ãñ
‚ãÍããèÞã Þãñ¦ã¶ãã Öã Öã ½Ö¥ã¦ãã ‚ãìÔãßÌãî¶ã ãäªÊããè. •ããñ ¦ããñ ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞãñ À㕾㠺ãì¡¥ããÀ ¾ãã ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ã‡ãŠãÊããÞãã Ìã¦ãýãã¶ã ‡ãŠãÊã
‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè Ôã••ã Öãñ‚ãî ÊããØãÊãã.

10 ›ÈñÌÖñãäÊã¾ã¶ã ‡ãðŠ¦ã `‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀ`.
11 Sepoy Revolt by Innes, page 55.

Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ÔããÊããè ‡ã⊹ã¶ããèÞãñ À㕾㠺ãì¡¥ããÀ Ûãã ¼ããäÌãÓ¾ãã¶ãñ ÀãÓ›ÈãäÌã¼ãî¦ããèÊãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¹ãÆ㹦ããèÔããŸãè ‚ãã£ããèÞã ¦ã¾ããÀ
‡ãŠÂ¶ã ŸñÌãÊãñ ¦ãñ ‚ãÍããÔããŸãè ‡ãŠãè, À¥ãªñÌã¦ãñ‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãªã¶ã ãä½ãߦããÞã ‡ãŠãñ¥ãÞ¾ããÖãè ¹ãƇãŠãÀÞãã ‚ãã‡ãŠãäÔ½ã‡ãŠ Üããñ›ãßã ‚ãì¡î ¶ã¾ãñ.
ãäÍã¹ãã‚ããè, Ôãñ¶ãã¹ã¦ããè, ¹ããñÊããèÔã, ¹ãã›ãèÊã, ‡ãìŠÊã‡ãŠ¥ããê, •ããä½ã¶ãªãÀ Ûããâ¶ããè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÞ¾ãã ‚ãâ½ãÊããŒããÊããè ¦ãñ •¾ãã •¾ãã •ããØãñÌãÀ Öãñ¦ãñ
¦¾ããÞã ¦¾ãã •ããØãñÌãÀ ÀãÖî¶ã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã À㕾ããÞããè ÔãñÌãã ãäºãÊã‡ãîŠÊã Üããñ›ãßã ‚ãì¡î ¶ã ªñ¦ãã ‡ãŠÀãÌããè ‚ãÔãã ºãñ¦ã ŸÀÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. Øã칦ã
ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞ¾ãã ¹ãì¤ãžããâ¶ããè ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ‡ãŠãõÍãʾãã¶ãñ ÔãÌãà ÀãÓ›È ºããâ£ãî¶ã ›ã‡ãŠÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ Öñ Êãàã¹ãîÌãÇ㊠¹ãããäÖÊãñ ‚ãÔã¦ã㠂㦾ãâ¦ã £ã¶¾ã¦ãã Ìãã›î
ÊããØã¦ãñ.

Êããñ‡ãŠàããñ¼ããÊãã àã캣ã¦ãã ªñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè Àãñ•ã Àã¨ããè ÊãŒã¶ããõÊãã ‚ãì§ãñ•ã‡ãŠ ãä¶ã ‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãñ ÊããÌ㥾ãã¦ã ¾ãñ¦ã.
¾ãã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½¾ãã¦ã ÔãÌãà ¼ãã‚ããé¶ããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ‚ãìŸî¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãñ À㕾㠹ãÀ¦ã ܾããÌãñ ‚ãÔãã ‚ãì¹ãªñÍ㠂㦾ãâ¦ã •ããÊããè½ã ¼ããÓãñ¦ã
‡ãñŠÊãñÊãã ‚ãÔãñ. Ôã‡ãŠãß ¢ããÊããè ‡ãŠãè ÍãÖÀãÞ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ÞãÌÖ㛿ããâÌãÀ ÛããÞã ‚ã©ããê ¶ãÌããè¶ã •ãããäÖÀ¶ãã½ãñ ãä¶ã ÖÔ¦ã¹ã¨ã‡ãñŠ ¹ãŠ¡‡ãŠÊãñÊããè
‚ãÔã¦ã! Öãè ØããñÓ› ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¶ããâÌãÀ ‚ãã£ããè¹ããÔãî¶ã ‚ãÔã¦ããÖãè ¦¾ããÔã Öãè ¹ã¨ã‡ãñŠ ÌããÞããè¦ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã ÊãñŒã‡ãŠãâ¶ãã
ãäÍã̾ãã ÖÔã¡ãè¦ã ‡ã스¦ã ºãÔã¥ãñ ¼ããØã ¹ã¡ñ. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¹ããñÊããèÔã Êããñ‡ãŠ Ô¹ãÓ› ÔããâØã¦ã ‡ãŠãè, Öãè ¹ã¨ã‡ãñŠ ãäÊããäÖ¦ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã, ÊããÌã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã,
ãäÞã‡ãŠ›ãäÌã¦ããñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ã, Öñ Íããñ£ãî¶ã ‡ãŠã¤¥ãñ ‚ãÍã‡ã‹¾ã ‚ããÖñ. ©ããñ¡¿ããÞã ãäªÌãÔããâ¦ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ‡ãŠßî¶ã ‚ããÊãñ ‡ãŠãè, Öñ ¹ããñÊããèÔã Êããñ‡ãŠÞã
‰ãŠãâãä¦ã¹ãàããÞãñ ¹ãì¤ãÀãè Öãñ¦ãñ.12 ¹ãÀªãÔ¾ããÞ¾ãã ÔãâÀàã¥ãã¹ãñàãã ÔÌã¦ãâ¨ã¦ãñÞ¾ãã Ààã¥ããÔããŸãè ¢ã›¥ããÀñ ¹ããñÊããèÔã ÀãäÍã¾ããÞ¾ãã
À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¦ãÞã ‚ãã¤ß¦ãã¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ¶ãÔãî¶ã ¦ãñ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããè¦ãÖãè ‚ãã¤ß¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã! ‚ãì§ãÀ ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã •ãÍããè Öãè
Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãã ‡ãŠãÍõ ãʾãã¶ãñ ¢ããÊãñÊããè Öãñ¦ããè ¦ãÍããè •ãÀ ‡ãŠã ¦ããè ªãäàã¥ãñ¦ãÖãè ¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔã¦ããè ¦ãÀ ãä‡ãŠ¦ããè ºãÖãÀ Öãñ¦ããè!

‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãä•ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ½ã¶ã:¹ãÌÆ ã¦ãöããÞããè Êãã› ‚ãìÔãßî¶ã ãäªÊ¾ãã¶ãâ¦ãÀ ½ãØã Ñããè. ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã Öñ ÔãÌãà ‡ãòŠ³Ôãî¨ããâ¶ããÖãè
Ôãî¨ãºã® ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ãä¶ã ½ã쌾㠽ã쌾ã Øã칦㠽ãâ¡ßãâÞããè ‚ãñ‡ãŠÌãã‡ã‹¾ã¦ãã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ºãÆÚããÌã¦ãà Ôããñ¡î¶ã ãä¶ãÜããÊãñ.
Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãñãä¹ãÆÊã½ã£¾ãñ Ñããè½ãâ¦ããâÞããè ÔÌããÀãè ºãÀãñºãÀ ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ºãâ£ãì ºããºããÔããÖñºã ‚ãããä¥ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ½ãâ¨ããè ‚ã¢ããè½ã ‚ãìÊÊããŒãã¶ã Ûããâ¶ãã
Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ãäªÊÊããè‡ãŠ¡ñ ØãñÊããè. ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã Ìãã¦ããÌãÀ¥ãã¦ã ¦¾ãã ÌãñßñÔã ¶ãã¶ããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠã¾ã ½ãâ¨ã ‚ãìÞÞããÀÊãñ ãä¶ã ãäªÊÊããèÞ¾ãã ãäªÌãã¥ã-‚ããè-
‚ãã½ã½ã£¾ãñ ºããªÍãÖãÍããè ¶ãã¶ããâÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ã Œãã•ãØããè ØããñÓ›ãè ¢ããʾãã ¾ããÞããè ¾ã㪠¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã ¦¾ãã Ìãã¦ããÌãÀ¥ãã¹ããÍããè ãä¶ã
ãäªÌãã¥ãŒã㶾ãã¹ããÍããèÞã ‚ãÔãñÊã! ãä‚ãâãäØÊãÍã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¹ãõ‡ãŠãè ½ããñÊãÄ¡ ¶ããÌããÞãã ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãÀãè ‚ããØãžããÔã •ã••ããÞãñ •ããØãñÌãÀ Öãñ¦ãã. ¦ããñ ÛããÞã
ÌãñßñÔã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ¼ãñ›ãèÔã ØãñÊãã ‚ãÔã¦ãã ¦¾ããÔã ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ ÖÔ¦ãñ ‚ãì§ã½ã ÔÌããØã¦ã ãä½ãßãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦¾ãã¾ããñØãã¶ãñ ¹ãì¤ãèÊã ¦ããè¶ã ½ããäÖ¶¾ãã¦ã
ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâÔããŸãè ‡ãŠãñ¥ã¦ãñ ÔÌããØã¦ã ¶ãã¶ãã ¦ã¾ããÀ ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ ¾ããÞããè ¦¾ããÊãã ªãªÖãè ÊããØãÊããè ¶ããÖãè. ãäªÊÊããèÞããè ÔãÌãà ¦ã¾ããÀãè ¹ããÖî¶ã ãä¶ã
¦ãñ©ããèÊã ÔãÌãà ‡ãðŠ¦¾ãñ ¦ã¹ããÔãî¶ã ¶ãã¶ãã ÊãŒã¶ããõÊãã •ãã¦ãã¦ã. Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã Øã칦ã ÔãâÜ㛶ãñÞ¾ãã ½ã쌾㠇ãòŠ³ã¦ã ÊãŒã¶ããõ Öñ ‚㦾ãâ¦ã ¹ãƽãìŒã
‡ãòŠ³ Öãñ¦ãñ. ¦ãã. 18 ‚ãñãä¹ãÆÊãÊãã ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ÊãŒã¶ããõ‡ãŠ¡ñ ÌãßÊãñ. ¦¾ããÞã ãäªÌãÍããè Ôã‡ãŠãßãè ÊãŒã¶ããõÞãã Þããè¹ãŠ ‡ãŠãä½ãÍã¶ãÀ ÔãÀ Öñ¶Àãè
ÊããùÀñ¶Ôã ÛããÞ¾ãã ºãØããè½ããØãñ £ããÌã¦ã •ãã‚ãî¶ã Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ããè ¦¾ããÔã ãäÞãŒãÊããÞãñ Øããñßñ ½ããÀÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! ‚ãããä¥ã ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¾ããÖî¶ã •ããÔ¦ã
½ãÖ§ÌããÞãñ Øããñßñ ‡ãŠÔãñ ¹ãñŠ‡ãŠãÌãñ Öñ ªãŒããäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè Ñããè. ¶ãã¶ããâÞããè ÔÌããÀãè ãä¦ã©ãñ ‚ããÊããè! ½ãØã ‡ãŠã¾ã ¦¾ãã ÊãŒã¶ããõ ÍãÖÀãÞ¾ãã
‚ãì¦ÔããÖãÊãã ãä¶ã ‚ãÌãÔãã¶ããÊãã ¹ããÀãÌããÀ ¶ããÖãèÔãã ¢ããÊãã. ÊãŒã¶ããõÞ¾ãã ¹ãƽãìŒã ÀÔ¦¾ããâ¦ãî¶ã ¶ãã¶ããâÞããè •ãâØããè ãä½ãÀÌã¥ãî‡ãŠ ãä¶ãÜããÊããè. ÔãÌãÃ
‰ãŠãâãä¦ã‡ãŠãÀ‡ãŠ Êããñ‡ãŠãâ¶ãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¾ãã ¼ããÌããè ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¾ããñ®á¾ããÔã ¹ããÖî¶ã ‚ããä¶ãÌãã¾ãà Þãõ¦ã¶¾ã ‚ã즹ã¸ã ¢ããÊãñ. ¶ãã¶ãã ‚ãã¹ã¥ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ãÞã
ÔãÀ Öñ¶Àãè ÊããùÀñ¶Ôã‡ãŠ¡ñ ØãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ ãä¶ã ÊãŒã¶ããõ ÍãÖÀ ¹ããÖ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ‚ãã¹ã¥ã ‚ããÊãñÊããñ ‚ããÖãñ¦ã ‚ãÔãñ ¦¾ããÔã ÔããâØ㥾ãã¦ã ‚ããÊãñ. Öãè
ÊãŒã¶ããõ ÍãÖÀãÞããè ¹ãÖã¥ããè ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã ¾ããÞããè ¦¾ãã Ìãñ¡¿ããÊãã ‡ãŠã¾ã ‡ãŠÊ¹ã¶ãã ¾ãñ¥ããÀ! ¶ãã¶ãã ¾ããÞã ½ããäÖ¶¾ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãʹããè ÍãÖÀãÞããèÖãè
¹ããÖ¥ããè ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔããŸãè ØãñÊãñ. ¹ãì¤ãèÊã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔãâØãÆã½ãã¦ã •¾ããâ¶ããè ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ã¦ãìÊã ªñÍãããä¼ã½ãã¶ãã¶ãñ ãä¶ã À¥ã‡ãŠãõÍãʾãã¶ãñ ÔãÌãà •ãØããÔã

12 Red Pamphlet, Part II

Þããä‡ãŠ¦ã ‡ãñŠÊãñ ¦¾ãã •ãØãªãèÍã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ‡ãìŠÌããÀãäÔãâØããÍããèÖãè ¶ãã¶ããâÞãñ Àã•ã‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ.13 ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡Þ¾ãã ÔãÌãà ÞãßÌãßãéÞãã
¶ã‡ãŠãÍããÖãè ¾ããÞã Ôãì½ããÀãÔã ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãè ÀñŒãã›ÊãñÊãã Öãñ¦ãã. ‚ãÍãã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ãäªÊÊããè, ÊãŒã¶ããõ, ‡ãŠãʹããè, •ãØãªãèÍã¹ãîÀ ÌãØãõÀñ ã䟇ãŠã¥ããè
‚ãÔãÊãñʾãã ½ã쌾㠹ãì¤ãžããâÞ¾ãã ¹ãƦ¾ãàã ØããŸãè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããâÞ¾ãã Ôã½â ã¦ããè¶ãñ ¹ãì¤ãèÊã ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãã ¶ã‡ã‹‡ãŠãè ¶ã‡ãŠãÍãã ÀñŒãã›î¶ã Ñããè.
¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ‚ãñãä¹ãÆÊãÞãñ ÍãñÌã›ãÔã ºãÆÚããÌã¦ããê ¹ãÀ¦ã ‚ããÊãñ.

½ã쌾㠹ãì¤ãžããâÞ¾ãã ØããŸãè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ÌããÝáãä¶ãÍÞã¾ã ‡ãŠÀ¥¾ãã¦ã Ñããè. ¶ãã¶ããÔããÖñºã ãä‚ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ãäÖ⡦㠂ãÔã¦ãã¶ãã ãä¦ã‡ãŠ¡ñ ÔãÌãÃ
ªñÍããÔã ¼ããÌããè ½ãâØãÊã ‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞããè Ôãì¹ããÀãè ªñ¥¾ããÔããŸãè À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ ªî¦ã ãä‚ã¦ãÔ¦ã¦ã: £ããÌã¦ã ÞããÊãÊãñÊãñ Öãñ¦ãñ! À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ Öñ ªî¦ã
ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¾ããÞã Ìãñßãè ¹ãÆ©ã½ã¦ã: ‚ããÊãñ ‚ãÔãñ ½ãìßãèÞã ¶ããÖãè. ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãã¦ã ¹ããäÌã¨ã À㕾ã‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞãñ ½ãâØãÊã ‡ãŠã¾ãà •ãñÌÖã •ãñÌÖã
ãä¶ãÜããÊãñ ¦ãñÌÖã ¦ãñÌÖã Öñ ªî¦ã ‚ãã¹ãÊãñ ÔãâªñÍã‡ãŠãÞãñ ‡ãŠã½ã ‡ãŠÀãè¦ã ‚ããÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ºãñÊããñÀÞ¾ãã ºãâ¡ãÞãñ ‚ãã£ããèÖãè ¦¾ãã ºãã•ãîÔã
‚ãÍããÞã Þã¹ã㦾ãã £ãã¡Êãñʾãã Öãñ¦¾ãã. Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞ¾ãã ‚ããÀâ¼ããÊãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠª½ã ÔãÌãà ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã¼ãÀ Öñ Øã칦㠹ãâŒããÞãñ ªñÌãªî¦ã ¼ããÌããè ½ãâØãÊã
‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞããè Ìãã¦ããà ªñ¦ã ªñ¦ã ¼ãƽã¥ã ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãÊãñ. ¦ãñ ‚ããÊãñ ‡ãŠãñŸî¶ã ãä¶ã •ãã¦ã Öãñ¦ãñ ‡ãŠãñ¥ãã‡ãŠ¡ñ ¾ããÞãã ‡ãŠãñ¥ããÔãÖãè ¹ã§ãã ÊããØãñ¶ãã. ¦ãñ
ªñÌãªî¦ã ¹ãŠ‡ã‹¦ã •¾ããÊãã Ôã½ã•ãñ ¦¾ããÊããÞã ½ã쌾ã ÔãâªñÍã ªñ¦ã Ìã •¾ããÊãã ‡ãŠãÖãè Ôã½ã•ã¦ã ¶ãÔãñ ¦¾ããÞ¾ããÍããè ¦ãÀ ‚ã¦ããñ¶ãã¦ã ºããñÊãî ÊããØã¦ã.
Ûãã ãäÌããäÞã¨ã Þã¹ãã¦ããé¶ãã ‡ãŠãÖãè Ìãñ¡Øãß ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ‚ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããâ¶ããè ¹ã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¹ã‡ãŠ¡î¶ã ¦¾ããâÞãã ÞãìÀã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦¾ãã ÞãìžããÞãã ÞãìÀã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦ããñ
‚ãã¹ãʾããÍããè ‡ãŠãÖãè ¦ãÀãè ºããñÊãñÊã ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¹ãƾ㦶㠇ãŠÀãÌãã ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãñŒãã²ãã Þãñ›‡ãŠãèÔããÀŒãñ Þã¹ãã¦ããè¶ãñ ãä¦ãÊãã ºããñÊã ½Ö›Êãñ ‡ãŠãè,
‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¦ããò¡ã¦ãÊããè •ããè¼ãÞã ¶ããÖãèÍããè ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãŠãÌããè! ãä¦ãÊãã Ìãã›ñÊã ¦¾ããÞ¾ããÍããèÞã ¦ããè ºããñÊãñ! ØãÌÖãÞ¾ãã ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ºãã•ãÀãèÞ¾ãã
ãä¹ãŸãÞããè ¦ããè Þã¹ãã¦ããè ºã¶ããäÌãÊãñÊããè ‚ãÔãñ. ãä¦ãÞ¾ããÌãÀ •ãÀãè ‡ãŠãÖãè ‚ãñ‡ãŠ ãäÊããäÖÊãñÊãñ ¶ãÔãñ ¦ãÀãè ¦ããè Öã¦ããè ¹ã¡¦ããÞã ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã Ô¹ãÍããúãÀãñºãÀ
¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠãÞ¾ãã ‚ãâØãã¦ã ‰ãŠããä¦ãÞãñ¦ã¶ãã ÔãâÞããÀ ‡ãŠÂ ÊããØãñ. ¹ãƦ¾ãñ‡ãŠ ØããÌããÞ¾ãã ½ã쌾㠂ããä£ã‡ãŠãžããÞãñ Öã¦ããè ¦¾ãã Þã¹ã㦾ã㠹㡦ã. ¦ããñ
¦¾ããÞãñ ãä‡ãâŠãäÞ㶽ãã¨ã ¼ãàã¥ã ‡ãŠÀãè ãä¶ã ºãã‡ãŠãèÞ¾ããâ¶ãã ¦¾ããâÞãã ¹ãÆÔã㪠Ìãã›î¶ã ªñ‚ããè. ¶ãâ¦ãÀ ¶ãÌããè¶ã ãä¦ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ããÞã Þã¹ã㦾ãã ¦ã¾ããÀ ‡ãŠÂ¶ã
¦¾ããâ¶ãã ¦ãñ ØããÌã‡ãŠÀãè Íãñ•ããÀÞ¾ãã ØããÌãã‡ãŠ¡ñ £ãã¡î¶ã ªñ¦ã!

•ãã, Öñ ‰ãŠãâ¦ããèÞ¾ãã ªñÌãªî¦ãã, ¦ãÔããÞã ¹ãì¤ñ •ãã! ‚ãã¹ãÊããè ãä¹ãƾã½ãã¦ãã ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ããÔããŸãè ãä•ãÖ㪠‡ãŠÀ¥¾ããÔã ¦ã¾ããÀ
¢ããÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ Öãè Íãì¼ãÌãã¦ããà ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã Êãñ‡ãŠÀãâ¶ãã ‡ãŠßãäÌ㥾ããÔããŸãè ªÍã ãäªÍããâ¶ãã £ããÌã¦ã •ãã! ``¦ãì½ãÞ¾ãã ‚ãã‚ããèÌãÀ Ôãâ‡ãŠ› ‚ããÖñ ¦ãñÌÖã
ãä¦ãÞ¾ãã ºãÞããÌããÔããŸãè £ããÌãã Öãñ £ããÌãã`` ‚ãÍããè ‡ãŠ‡ãÊÍã ãä‡ã⊇ãŠãßãè ¹ãŠãñ¡ãè¦ã ½ã£¾ãã¶Ö Àã¨ããÖè ãè ¶ã ©ããâºã¦ãã ‚ãñ‡ãŠÔããÀŒãã £ããÌã¦ã •ãã!
Ø㡇ãŠãñ›ãâÞããè ´ãÀñ ºã⪠‚ããÖñ¦ã ¦ã©ãããä¹ã ¦ããè ‚ãìÜã¡¥¾ããÞããè Ìãã› ¶ã ¹ããÖ¦ãã ãä¦ã©ãñ ‚ãã‡ãŠãÍã½ããØããöãñ ‚ã졦㠕ãã!

ªÅ¾ãã ŒããñÊã ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ‡ãŠ¡ñ ¦ãì›ÊãñÊãñ ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ¶ã²ãã ‚ã¹ãŠã› ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ‚ãÀ¥¾ãñ ãäÖâԨ㠂ããÖñ¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãñ‡ãŠ
àã¥ã¼ãÀÖãè ¶ã ‡ãŠÞãÀ¦ãã Öã ¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ÀãÓ›ÈÔãâªñÍã Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¦ãî ¦ããèÀãÔããÀŒãã ¹ãì¤ñ •ãã! ¦ã좾ãã ÌãñØããÌãÀ ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ¾ãã ½ãã¦ãñÞãñ ‚ãã¾ãìÓ¾ã
ãä‡ãâŠÌãã ½ãÀ¥ã ‚ãÌãÊãâºãî¶ã ‚ããÖñ; ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ¹ãâŒããâ¶ããè ‡ãŠã¹ãÌãñÊã ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãñŠ ‚ãâ¦ãÀ ‡ãŠã¹ããè¦ã ÔãÌãà Ìãã¦ããÌãÀ¥ãã¦ã ¼ãÀãžãã ½ããÀãè¦ã •ãã!
Íã¨ãîâ¶ããè ¦ã좾ãã ‚ãñŒã㪪ìÔãžãã ªñÖãÞãã ÞãìÀã¡ã ‡ãñŠÊãã ¦ãÀ Öñ ½ãã¾ããÌããè ªñÌãªî¦ãã, ‚ãã½ãÞ¾ãã ÀãÓ›ÈãÞ¾ãã ¾ãã ãä¶ãÌããÃ¥ã¹ãÆÔãâØããè ¦ãî Ö•ããÀãñ
ãä¶ã ÊããŒããñ ªñÖ £ããÀ¥ã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ¦¾ãã¦ããèÊã ‚ãñ‡ãñŠ‡ãŠã ªñÖã¦ã ÊããŒããñ ãä•ãÌÖã ÜããÊãî¶ã ¹ãì¤ñ •ãã! ¹ã¦¶ããèÊãã ãä¶ã ¹ã¦ããèÊãã, ½ãã¦ãñÊãã ãä¶ã
ºããßãÊãã, ºããäÖ¥ããèÊãã ãä¶ã ¼ããÌããÊãã ÔãÌããĶãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔã½ãÀãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ãÃãäÔã®ãèÔããŸãè ÔãÖ‡ã슛âìºã ¾ãñ¥¾ããÞããè ãäÌã¶ãâ¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ. ½ãÀãŸá¾ããâÞãñ
¼ããÊãñ, À•ã¹ãî¦ããâÞ¾ãã ¦ãÀÌããÀãè, ãäÍãŒããâÞ¾ã㠇㊛¿ããÀãè, ãä‚ãÔÊãã½ãÞãñ Þãã⪠¾ãã ÔãÌããĶãã ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔã½ãÀãÞ¾ãã ‡ãŠã¾ãÃãäÔã®ãèÔããŸãè
ÔãÖ‡ã슛ìâºã ¾ãñ¥¾ããÞããè ãäÌã¶ãâ¦ããè ‡ãŠÀ! ‡ãŠã¶ã¹ãîÀÞ¾ãã ªñÌã¦ããâ¶ãã ºããñÊããÌã. ‡ãŠ¥ãó, ¼ãñÀãè, ªìâªì¼ããè, £Ìã•ã, ¹ã¦ãã‡ãŠã, À¥ãØããè¦ãñ, Øã•ãöãã,
Øã¡Øã¡ã› ÌãØãõÀñ ÔãÌãà ‚ã㦹ãñÓ›ãâ¶ãã Ûãã ÔãâØãÀ‡ãŠã¾ããÃÞ¾ãã ãä‚ãÓ› ãäÔã®ãèÔããŸãè Üãñ‚ãî¶ã ¾ãñ! ‡ãìŠÊãªñÌã¦ãã, ØãÆã½ãªñÌã¦ãã ãä¶ã ÀãӛȪñÌã¦ãã
‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ãã¹ãʾãã ‚ã¶ãìÞãÀãâÔãÖ ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ãÔã½ãÀãÞ¾ãã ½ãâØãÊãÔã½ããÀâ¼ããÔããŸãè Ôã••ã Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ‚ãì¦Ôãì‡ãŠÊãñʾãã ‚ããÖñ¦ã, ¦¾ãã ÔãÌããĶãã
ÔããâØã `‚ããä¦ã Ôã½ã¾ããñ Ìã¦ãæãñ, ÔããÌã£ãã¶ã!`

13 Red Pamphlet, Part II

ÔããÌã£ãã¶ã! ãä½ã¨ãÖãñ ÔããÌã£ãã¶ã ãä¶ã ‚ãã¹ãʾããÞã ¡ãõÊãã¦ã Ûãã ãäÖÀ̾ããØããÀ ¹ãÌãæããÌãÀ Íããâ¦ã Àãè¦ããè¶ãñ ¹ãÖì¡Êãñʾãã Íã¨ãîâ¶ããñ,
‚ãã¦ãã ÔããÌã£ãã¶ã! Öã ¹ãÌãæã Ìã¶ã ãä•ã¦ã‡ãŠã ãäÖÀÌããØããÀ ãäªÔã¦ããñ ‚ããÖñ ãä¦ã¦ã‡ãŠãÞã ¦ããñ ‚ãã¦ãî¶ãÖãè ‚ãÔãñÊã ‚ãÍãã ¹ãî¥ãà ãäÌãÍÌããÔãã¶ãñ!14
¦ãì½Öãè ¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÊãã Êãã©ãñ¶ãñ ¦ãì¡Ìããè¦ã ‚ããÖã ‡ãŠã¾ã? ¦ãì¡Ìãã, ŒãìÍããÊã ¦ãÔãñÞã ¦ãì¡Ìãã! ÊãÌã‡ãŠÀÞã ¦ãì½ÖãâÊãã ‡ãŠããäÊãªãÔããÞ¾ãã
`Íã½ã¹ãÆ£ãã¶ãñÓãì ¦ã¹ããñ£ã¶ãñÓãì Øãî¤â ãäÖ ªãÖ㦽ã‡ãŠ½ãÔ¦ããè ¦ãñ•ã:` Ûãã ÌãÞã¶ããÞããè Ô㦾ã¦ãã ¹ã›ñÊã! Öñ •ãØãã, Öã ‚ãã½ãÞãã ¦ã¹ããñ£ã¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ã
Íã½ã¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã ‚ããÖñ ŒãÀã; ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ½Ö¥ãî¶ã ¦ãî ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ¾ãã Íã½ã¹ãÆ£ãã¶ã¦ÌããÞãã ¹ãŠã•ããèÊã ¹ãŠã¾ãªã Üãñ‚ãî ¶ã‡ãŠãñÔã. ‡ãŠãÀ¥ã ¾ãã ¦ã¹ããñãä¶ã£ããèÞãñ
‚ãâØãã¦ã ¹ãƪãև㊠‚ãÍãã ¹ãÆÞãâ¡ Íããä‡ã‹¦ãÖãè ØãÌãã¶ãñ ÌãÔã¦ã ‚ããÖñ¦ã! Íãâ‡ãŠÀãÞ¾ãã ¦ãð¦ããè¾ã ¶ãñ¨ããÞããè ‡ãŠ©ãã ¦ãî ‡ãŠ£ããè ‚ãõ‡ãŠÊããè ‚ããÖñÔã? ¦ããè
¶ãñ¨ã ‚ãìÜã¡Êãã ¶ããÖãè ¦ããñ¹ã¾ãĦ㠹ãŠãÀ Íããâ¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ããñ, ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ¦ããñ ‚ãìÜ㡦ããÞã ÔãÌãà •ãØããÞããè ÀãŒã ‡ãŠÂ¶ã ›ã‡ãŠ¥ããžãã •ÌããÊãã ¦¾ãã¦ãî¶ãÞã
Ôãì›î ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. ¦ãî ‡ãŠ£ããè •ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããèÊãã ¹ãããäÖÊãñ ‚ããÖñÔã! ¦ããñ •ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããè ÌãÁ¶ã ãäÖÀÌããØããÀ ‚ãÔã¦ããñ ¹ãÀâ¦ãì ‚ãñ‡ãŠªã ‡ãŠã ¦ããñ
‚ãã¹ãÊãã •ãºã¡ã ‚ãìÜã¡î ÊããØãÊãã ‡ãŠãè, ¦¾ãã¦ããèÊ㠇㊤¥ããžãã ‚ããäضãÀÔããâ¶ããè ªÍã ãäªÍãã ¼ãã•ãî ÊããØã¦ãã¦ã. ¹ãÀâ¦ãì Ûãã Ôãã½ã㶾ã
•ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããèÖî¶ãÖãè •ãã••Ìãʾã¦ãÀ ‚ãÔãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞãã ãä•ãÌãâ¦ã •ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããè ‚ãã¦ã㠇㊤î ÊããØãÊãã ‚ããÖñ! ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ‚ãìªÀã¦ããèÊã
¼ã¾ãâ‡ãŠÀ ‚ããäضãÀÔããÞ¾ãã Êãã›ã ‚ãìÔãßî ÊããØãʾãã ‚ããÖñ¦ã. ¦¾ããÞããè ªãÖ㦽ã‡ãŠ ³Ìããä½ãÑã¥ãñ ÞããÊãÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ¦ã ãä¶ã ¦¾ããÌãÀ
ÔÌãã¦ã⨾ã¹ãÆñ½ããÞããè ã䟥ãØããè ¹ã¡ÊãñÊããè ‚ããÖñ. ¦¾ããÞ¾ãã ½ãÔ¦ã‡ãŠãÌãÀ ¶ããÞã¥ããžããâ¶ããñ, ‚ãñ‡ãŠ àã¥ã ‚ãã¥ãŒããè -‡ãŠãè ãäªØØã•ããâÞããè ‡ãŠã¶ãŸßãè
ºãÔãñÊã ‚ãÔã㠇㊡‡ãŠ¡ã› Öãñ‚ãî¶ã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã •ÌããÊãã½ãìŒããèÞãã Ôãî¡ ½Ö¥ã•ãñ ‡ãŠã¾ã Öñ ½ãªãâ£ã •ãìÊãì½ããÊãã ‡ãŠßî ÊããØãñÊã!

-----------------------------

¼ããØã ¹ããäÖÊãã Ôã½ã㹦ã

14 ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããâ¶ãã ãäÖâªìÔ©ãã¶ãÞ¾ãã ½ã¶ããñÌãð§ããè ãä‚ã¦ã‡ã‹¾ãã ½ããÖãè¦ã ‚ãÔã¦ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãè Ôã§ããÌã¶ãÞãñ ¹ãñŠºãÆìÌããÀãè¦ãÖãè ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè ¹ã¨ãñ ãä¶ã ãä‚ãâØãÆ•ããè
ÔãÀ‡ãŠãÀãè ãäÀ¹ããñ›Ã ½Ö¥ã¦ãã¦ã ‡ãŠãè,

“The whole country is profoundly tranquil!” vide Charles Ball.


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