INTRODUCTION TO MALAYSIAN
TATCHER SAING, LAVENNE HUNYANG, DOMIINIC
FAIZ, MUHAMMAD AFIQ AZIZI & MISBAH MUNIR
LU 1 & LU 2 PAGES 1 - 4
LU 3 & LU4 PAGES 5 - 8
LU 5 &
LU 6 PAGES 9 - 17
PAGES 18 - 25
LU 7 & LU 8
LU 9 & LU 10 PAGES 26 - 29
LU 11 & LU 12 PAGES 30 - 34
LU 13 PAGES 35 - 36
3 SOCIAL HISTORY CONCEPTS FOR
LU1 :HISTORY VS
LU2 :WHY WE
WHAT IS HISTORY
The word history is from the Greek
word 'historia', which means
information or inquiry designed to
elicit the truth. To simply put,
history is the study of the past and an
explanation of the present hat can
predie the future. History is not
always precise. History
is all about debating the interpretation
of the past depending on who is
telling the history will depend on the
version that you are getting and it can
History = Methodological Approach within the Social
The Past, 'Long Time Ago' (Expanse of time!)
Stories about 'the past' but retold in the
present; a long time ago stories brought back
to life again (i.e. STUDY of the past) (A human
History & Evidence - to write and
study history, requires evidence.
• Evidence = History
• No evidence = no history (does not mean it
never existed or never happened BUT we
cannot record or study it. So effectively, non-
Types of History: Dominant
Nationalist History: For nation-
building, often involving propaganda
that invents our own 'greatness' and
'uniqueness'; good vs bad
Reinforces stereotypes and
dominant political narratives
Writing about the past'
Writing but with
WHY WE NEED TO STUDY 4
according to Wang The importance of
Gungwu (1968) and perspective
Yong Mun Cheong • Evidence &
(2000) study history
helps us to know perspective give an
where we come from.
a desire to remember Perspective change by
and provides our actor's who win and
awareness of national lose, good and bad
identity History NOT neutral it
• Develop critical and happened on class,
analytical skills- race and gender
asking questions and
thinking • Have 2 role of history:
about/researching the - role A act like 'arbiter'
someone that have
Bias In History power to control some
• Some of history are situations like politics and
true and few of it are
distorted/FALSE - role B telling ordinary
• History is more in
favor of the winning stories about what
side inside and beyond
• Male more dominate national boundaries.
in every history
• Have an evidence and
the perspective are
History always related
with other situations
• Never happened in
one place but multiple
OF THE INDO-
Pre-history Messages 6
The past period of time before written records or
humandocumentation, includes the Neolithic Revolution,
Neanderthals andDenisovans, Stonehenge, the Ice Age and more.
•Malaysia's antiquity is still poorly understood, however recent finds
of bones and artefacts at the Niah Cave site in northern Sarawak
prove that the area was inhabited by Homo sapiens around 40,000
•The large cave complex contains relics that document not just a
fairly continuous sequence of human visits andoccupations, but
also the evolution of stone tools until around 1,300 years ago.
•Scientists have discovered evidence of Stone Age and early
Bronze Age civilizations in Peninsular Malaysia, and Neolithic
civilisation was presumably firmly entrenched by 2500 to 1500
BCE, according to archaeologists.
•According to early historical research, numerous waves of peoples
—ancestors of today's Malays—migrated into the region from
China and Tibet around the first millennium BE, displacing older
populations to the western Pacific or isolated mountain enclaves.
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MALAYSIA = EXISTING TERRITORY & STATES
(WITH SINGAPORE PRE-1965)
-HISTORY INTERPRETED AS “ANY EVENT, PERSON OR ARTIFACT THAT
PROVIDES EVIDENCE OF MALAY OR MALAYSIAN ACHIEVEMENT AND
-PRE-INDEPENDENCE HISTORY = INDIVIDUALS OR MOVEMENTS THAT
RESISTED BRITISH INTRUSION INTO MALAYA
COLONIAL STORY 7
"Control by one authority over a
dependent territory or people" is
how colonialism is characterised.
The notion of colonialism is
inextricably tied to that of
imperialism, which is the policy or
attitude of using power and
influence to exert control over
another nation or people.
Power, economics, politics, religion,
and culture are all investigated in
connection to colonial hegemony in
post-colonial theory (Western
colonisers controlling the
Despite the evident anti-colonial
intent of Heart of Darkness (Joseph
Conrad), the work portrays the
conquered people as the norm of
barbarism against which
Europeans are measured" (Tyson
Nationalism and Nation Building
-Nationalism is a political philosophy based on the belief that a person's patriotism and devotion to the nation-state
should take precedence above other individual or group interests.
- Nation-building is the process of developing or shaping a national identity via the use of governmental authority.
- The country's establishment strives to bring people together in this state so that it may be politically stable and
executed in the long run.
-Many citizens of Malaya began to get education in the 1920s and 1930s, either from the Middle East or locally.
- As a result, it looked that this educated elite was fighting in the cause of nationalism. They disseminated their
philosophy through publications and periodicals.
- There were also some who founded organisations such as the Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) and Kesatuan Melayu
Singapura (KMS) with the goal of pushing the invaders out and establishing their own government.
Archaeology / Prehistory = The word 8
“Archaeology” comes from Greek word
“Arkhaoid” which means “ancient”. Its
consist artifacts, architecture, biofacts or
ecofacts, sites and cultural landscapes.
• The discovery of a 1.83 million-year-old stone
hand-axe in Bukit Bunuh may provide a new
theory to replace the current one (the Out-of-
• could propose anew theory tosubstitute the
• "The finding of evidence (a stone hand-axe) at
Bukit Bunuh dated at more than 1.83 million
years might provide a new theory to replace the
current theory (the Out-of-Africa theory)"
Mokhtar Saidin (Mokhtar Saidin, 2012: 13).
Austronesian languages, originally Malayo-
Polynesian languages, are a set of languages
spoken across much of Indonesia, the
Philippines, Madagascar, and the Central
and South Pacific island groups, as well as
parts of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and
Taiwan. The Austronesian language family is
one of the world's largest in terms of
number of languages and geographic
- Austronesian is split into numerous basic
branches, all except one of which are found
solely in Taiwan, according to Robert Blust
(1999). The Formosan languages of Taiwan
are divided into nine first-order
Austronesian groupings. The Malayo-
Polynesian (also dubbed Extra-Formosan)
branch includes all Austronesian languages
spoken outside Taiwan (including the
offshore Yami language).
The Austronesian language is spoken
by the majority of the region's
"indigenous" inhabitants (same ethno-
linguistic group of mankind).
The majority of humanity's physical
stock is Mongoloid.
Reyes-centeno et al., 2015:
archaeological data suggests that the
Austrolo-Melanesian people were the
first to settle in Borneo (descendants
from out of Africa exodus).
LU 6: TRADE AND
101) EARLY KINGDOMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA/
·Built in 750-850 Anno Domini (AD).
·AD in Latin means ‘In the year of our
·Borobudur temple built under
Sailendra Dynasty (peak of Srivijayan
·Also called Mahayana Buddhist.
·Constructed AD 850. NEIGHBOR)
·By either Rakai Pikatan (king of 2ndMataram
Dynasty) or Balitung Maha Sumbu (during Sanjaya
·Also called Para Brahman.
·Episodes from Vishnu’s incarnation as Rama
encircle the main shrines at Prambanan that are
dedicated to Shiva and Brahma.
·Built in 12th century AD
·By Suryaverman 2 (Khmer empire)
·A temple comple dedicated to Vishnu
·One of the largest temples in Khmer
2) MALAY PENINSULA: FROM PRE- TO 11
·By the 4th century AD, coastal states in what is now Peninsular
Malaysia regularly conducted intra-and extra-regional trade (forest
goods and luxury items)
·Several kingdoms and entrepots appeared on the Malay Peninsula
and other parts of Southeast Asia.
·The majority of these were situated on the coast. For example,
Kuala Selinsing, Cherok Tok Kun, Bujang Valley, Santubong.
EXAMPLES PHOTO OF
3) THE “INDIANIZATION” OF
ONE OF EXAMPLE THAT WE CAN GET IS BASED ON CEREMONIAL.
CEREMONIAL SUCH AS MANDI SAFAR.
• The festival of Mandi Safar is known to have been celebrated by
the Malays in Peninsular Malaysia annually on the last Wednesday
of the Muslim month of Safar.
• This ceremonial bathing in the river or sea.
• The purpose is to clean oneself of spiritual impurity and to
protect oneself from misfortune.
• This festival is celebrated in many places, but especially
elaborate in Tanjong Keling, Melaka. (Keling is a synonym for
people of South Indian origin).
Mandi Safar: Parallels with Indian bathing festival
• Source: Paripadal- Indian poetic work, 4th-7th century AD
o Journey to the river on bullock carts
o Participants include maidens and young men
o Young girls chaperoned by grey-haired elderly women
o Young men and women look forward to meeting future life
o Merry-making, songs, dances
• Originated as a secular festivity to enable young men and
women to meet-to look for future life partners.
• Might have been the result of Malay-Tamil interaction in the
• Mandi Safar occurred after the adoption of Islam especially
during the time of the Melaka Sultanate to make the practice more
acceptable to the Islamic society.
PHOTO OF MANDI SAFAR
Colonialism and capitalism that occurred in the time
fallen of Malacca which is the rise of Portuguese power
in Southeast Asia. However, Portuguese economic and
political power in the region not complete and constantly
challenged by Aceh, Spanish, Dutch, Brunei, Sulu, Johor,
Kedah and the Bugis mini kingdoms. Aceh conducts
direct trade with the Red Sea and India which by passes
Malacca and other Portuguese ports in India. Portuguese
wealth and trade threatened by Acehnese trade. Aceh’s
control of trade also threatened trading networks of ex-
Malacca elite in Johor. In response to high demand for tin
and pepper, Aceh attacks Kedah, Perak and Pahang. In
1613, Aceh destroys Johor and Sultan Iskandar Muda
(Aceh) forces Johor prince into marriage alliance with his
daughter. Aceh enslaves thousands from Pahang and
Kedah to overcome labour shortage and develops high
Islamic civilization on back of conquests and slavery. All
very good for the Rulers and Aristocrats of Aceh but
horrible for the ordinary people of Aceh (and those
conquered) who did the dying and labouring as slaves.
2) RESURGENCE IN 16
BETWEEN EUROPE, INDIA,
CHINA, AND JAPAN
In 1580s to 1630s, there was a
resurgence in international trade
between Europe, India, China,
and Japan. In Europe,
Netherlands and British get
involved in global maritime trade
which is to circumvent Venice
and Genoa and to overthrow
Portuguese and Dutch control
over trade and resources. Next,
the Dutch East India Company
(VOC) and India Company
(Britain) was set up to venture
into the New World for “trade”.
Europe resurgence in
international trade when Malacca
falls to the Dutch in 1641.
Malacca was used as a tin
collecting centre by Dutch who
preferred to keep Batavia as the
key regional port..
3) CONSEQUENCE OF 17
There was a new power configuration
developed over 200 years. This new
power effectively meant the decline of
Malay control over entrepot trade
which now passed into the hands of
white ‘Capitalist’ traders. However,
there are lots of piracy in the region
that is Orang Laut in the peninsular/
Sumatra area and the Tausug in
Borneo/ Sulu. These pirates active in
specialised in both cargo loot and
human slave trade. Tausug/ Sulu
engaged in human slave trade in late
18th century. They sold to wealthy
Southeast Asians and Europeans. The
‘Sulu’ is the Malay word for pirate
LU 7: THE
MODERN SE ASIA,
CONTEXT 1 19
Europeans wanted to
trade and local chiefs
had access/control to
- Trading interests and
competition pressures led
EIC to develop idea of
‘spheres of influence’
concept in British
- 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty
- divided up SE Asia
between British sphere
and Dutch sphere.
CONTEXT 2 20
Local control over resources
fluid and ever changing; often
conflict and local Malays looked
to stronger powers for
assistance in local conflicts
(China, Siam, Europeans)
1826, EIC concludes an
agreement with Siam - Siam
agreed not to attack Perak or
Kedah acknowledged as
“territory subject” to Siam
while status of Kelantan-
EIC negotiated rights to
trade in Kelantan &
Terengganu since Singapore
business interests had
commercial links there.
CONTEXT 3 21
A FAST CHANGING WORLD FUELED BY THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – NEW MARKETS, NEW
RESOURCES, NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES.
SIAM AND NORTHERN
Siamese suzerainty(control) over the
Northern Malay States(NMS) is about 1782
- The importance of East India Company
(EIC) required them to recognize the
authority of Siam to North Malay
- But East India Company(EIC) is not
satisfied with the strength of Thai is
further south. At the same time, the Malay
rulers often warring with each other.
- 1822 - Rama III had ascended the throne
has power in expansionist policies.
- NMS especially Kelantan dan Perak look
to EIC to provide assistance against
- By 1825, Perak had already anticipated
that Selangor may be under Siamese
rulers. The threat to Selangor is becoming
more serious it will bring about the
possibility of tin mine port by the EIC
TREATY OF 1824 AND THE 22
PARTITION OF THE MALAY WORLD
- Trade competition between EIC and Dutch Hindi Company (VOC) has led to the
emergence of the EIC idea to introduction the concept of ‘Spheres of Influence’ in
- However, the Anglo-dutch treaty of 1824 divided Southest Asia between British
territory and Dutch territory.
- After the formaton of modern Malaysia and Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula were
reserved for interests of British, while the islands South of Singapore is also devoted
to the interests of Dutch.
- This agreement has replaced Melaka with Bengkulen(Sumatra). it has also
signalled to other European powers not interfere in this field of trade especially
- In 1826, EIC concludes an agreement with Siam not to attack Perak or Selangor.
- Malaysia and Indonesia were formed after the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824 v
Thailand and Malaya formed after 1826.The formation of agreement is accepted
without discussion with the local Malay rulers.
- In 1826, EIC-Siam Treaty leads to the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. The division
of sovereignty and land officially takes place.
- Applicability of Malay States Distribution North between Siam and Britain
- Modern Malaya dan Thailand established
- Political division has influenced everything, such as the exploitation, trade
control, community movement, academic studies, as well as impacting the identity
and nationalisme of society until today.
In 1826, Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca and Singapore formed into the Straits
Settlements.Every change obtainted is only through agreement and does not
- population, in human biology, the whole number of inhabitants
occupying an area (such as a country or the world) and
continually being modified by increases (births and immigrations)
and losses (deaths and emigrations).
- As with any biological population, the size of a human population is
limited by the supply of food, the effect of diseases, and other
1991: Official Foreign-Born Population: @ 1 million (43%
2005: Official Foreign-Born Population: @ 1.64
million (6.4% of total population)
REALITY: 2005: Immigrants & Illegals: @ 3 million
(Foreignborn @ 10-12% of total population)
- Immigration is the international movement
of people to a destination country of which
they are not natives or where they do not
possess citizenship in order to settle as
permanent residents or naturalized citizen.
• ‘Malays’ • ‘Chinese’ • ‘Indian’ • ‘Europeans’ •
Armenians • Baghdadis • Siamese • Burmese
• Bangladeshis • Vietnamese • Timorese •
Arabs • Japanese • Filipinos • Parsees • Sri
changes over time. It
is often manipulated
for official and
us what we are
today. For example
Malaysia a country
We need to
diversity of our
origins that is
needed to build and
give expression to
the diversity of
1. SENOI 27
Smallest category of the Orang Asli, The Senoi- largest Orang Asli group.
About 54 per cent of the Orang Asli population.
Their body characteristics are very similar
to people from Andaman Island, Aeta Island Traditionally more sedentary compared to the Negritos.
in the Philipphines, the Melanesian islands of
Fiji and the islands of Tasmania in Australia. Live mainly on both slopes of the Titiwangsa Range in Perak,
Kelantan and Pahang (Semai and Temiar people), in central
Less sedentary, more hunter-gathering.
Comprise the Kensiu people (northeast Pahang (Jah Hut and Chewong people), in south-central
Kedah), Kintak people (Kedah-Perak border), Pahang (Semoq Beri people) and in coastal Selangor (Mah
Jahai people (northeast Perak and West
Kelantan), Lanoh people (North-central Meri people).
Perak), Mendriq people (Southeast Kelantan)
and Batek people (Northeast Pahang and Same as Negrito (Northern Orang Asli groups)
South Kelantan) 2. THE NEGRITO (SEMANG)
Mon-Khmer or Austroasiatic family of
Suggests historical links with indigenous
people of Burma, Thailand and Indo-China
3. ABOROGINAL MALAY Second largest group, consisting about 43
percent of the total Orang Asli population.
Live in the most accessible areas, way of life is
generally similar to that of the rural Malay.
Live mainly in the southern half of the Peninsula;
in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan (Temuan people),
central Pahang and east Negeri Sembilan (Semelai
people), south Pahang and north Johor (Jakun
people), east Johor (Orang Kanaq) and west and
central coasts of Johor (Orang Kuala, Orang
Belong to Austronesian family of languages as
Malay except for the Semelai and Temoq dialects –
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OA AND 28
1. BEFORE WW2 - MUNSHI ABDULLAH IN 1838 CLASSIFIED JAKUN AS NOT
ONLY WORKING IN MALAY GOLD MINES, BUT THEY ALSO
BROUGHT RESIN, RATTAN AND AROMATIC WOOD TO
TRADE WITH THE MALAYS (ANDAYA AND ANDAYA, 1982:
- IN ADDITION TO FOREST PRODUCTS, SEA PEOPLE WHO
HAVE SWIMMING SKILLS CAN DO DIVING ACTIVITIES TO
GET SEAFOOD SUCH AS FRESH ROOTS (CORAL), TRIPANG
(SEA SNAILS) AS WELL AS INGREDIENTS FOR SOUPS AND
2. THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION
- FOR MANY YEARS THE JUNGLE PEOPLE WERE ALSO
BECOME THE TARGET OF THE COMMUNIST
PROPAGANDA FROM SOMEONE THAT THEY TRULY
TRUSTED AND KNOWN.
- MPAJA MEMBERS HAVE FOSTERED FRIENDSHIP
WITH THE ORANG ASLI AND THEY HAVE EVEN
PROTECTED THE COMMUNITY FROM BANDITS AND
THE JAPANESE ARMY.
3. THE EMERGENCY - After centuries of relative isolation, they experienced
considerable and often less contact with warring
factions of outsiders.
-Despite the bitter and unfortunate experience, the
services of soldiers during the emergency brought many
benefits to the forest community.
4. POST EMERGENCY
-1957: Federation of Malaya gained
-1960: Emergency was declared over
by the YDP Agong
-The Orang Asli continues to be one
of the most marginalized groups in
Malaysia to this day.
1. DISCUSSION 29
2.WOMEN ACTIVE IN LABOUR
STRIKES THROUGHOUT MALAYA
BEFORE AND AFTER THE WORLD
-Before the 20th century, women were seen as -In 1962-1965, Labour Party celebrated
a weak group and only able to do light International Women’s Day (IWD) on March 8-
activities such as housewives all the time so produced special booklets, passed resolutions
that women were not allowed to engage in demanding equal pay for women, demanded govt
various elite activities such as administration, recognise IWD; mainly Chinese women who were
military, and activities related to national industrial workers.
economic affairs. -In 1939, the struggle of the labor movement or
-The women's movement began to exist as a strike at the Klang Estate was to voice protests
result of the ongoing oppression of women against sexual harassment of women workers.
where various factors have pushed women to
rise up to fight for their rights.
-Early 20th Century Arab reform movements
also influenced local education (promoted
women’s education, legal reforms, rights of
women to work and end to veiling of women)
-Main purpose – not to undermine women’s
traditional role; not to encourage participation
in public life but to make women more efficient
3. DIVIDED INTO TWO STREAMS 4. AISHAH GHANI (FORMER UMNO
a. Mainstream (women in ruling political parties) -She became a member of the UMNO Supreme
-The National Council of Women's Organizations Council in 1963 and was active in fighting for the
Malaysia (NCWO) was established on 25 August rights and welfare of women, including in the fields
1963 to act as a coordinating and consultative of education, economy and politics.
body to improve the status of women and their -She is the first woman to represent Malaysia at
participation in national development. the United Nations General Assembly.
b. Non-Mainstream (left-wing, labour and
-The All Women’s Action Society (AWAM) was
established in 1985 with the aim of empowering
women’s rights and leading to changes in women’s
-The Women's Center for Change (WCC) was
established in 1985 which aims to end violence
against women and children as well as promote
gender equality through counseling, outreach and
BEGINNING OF THE OF THE
LEFT IN MALAYA.
·Based on the political scientist, - old people vs young people.
ideologies of political parties can be -The Malaya left start because of the
divided by the left or right axis. Isaiah movement (reform) which is
·The political term such as right or left has known as the old against the young.
began since French Revolution. -The young people start to challenge the
·Right wing beliefs talk or discuss about old with the Islamic affair issues which is,
tradition, equity, meritocracy, and it shows the young people also has their
promote or beliefs in economic freedom. own ideas and views regarding the
·Left wing is political activities or Islamic affairs issues.
organization that accept or support social -However, the role of the young people
equality and become the opposition to movement has been slow down and
the social hierarchy or social inequality. overshadowed by the Malay Association
·Left wing also the ideology that referred in 1920s due to Malay Association gain
to the communism, socialism, the civil more follower than the young people.
right movement, and anti-wars -Besides, the Malaya condition under the
movement which is this ideology will Malay Association began to raise and the
become the opposition to the social condition of the Malaya people become
hierarchy if there is the term that does more better.
not fulfil or followed by the social -After that situation, the Malaya start to
hierarchy. be divided into the left and right wing
which is the left side is the young people
also known as Kesatuan Melayu Muda
(KMM) while the right side is the Malay
JAPANESE ROLE ON THE 32
BEGINNING OF THE LEFT
-This was due to during the Japanese invasion 1942, KMM (Kesatuan Melayu
Muda) has help the Japanese to push the British out of Malaya.
-KMM try to get the independent form the Japanese, but Japanese did not have
any intention to give Malaya independent even though the KMM priority is the
-After knowing the Japanese did not have any intention to give independent to
Malaya, KMM start to support MCP movement and at the same time they also still
support the Japanese.
THE RISE AND STRUGGLE OF ANTI-
COLONIAL AFTER THE JAPANESE INVASION.
-This is because, the British has formed the Malayan Union to take over the Malaya
from Malaya people.
-The formed of the Malayan Union has create a big problem in the Malaya which is
contribute to the demonstrating of the Malaya people.
-This situation also contributing to the labour movement which is the Malaya
condition is not in good condition after the Japanese invasion.
-The worst conditions of the Malaya after war have contribute to the demonstrate
of the labour which is they want a better condition such as the economic and the
- Secret societies are the group or the organization, which is their
rituals and activities are hidden from the other people that non-
member for this group.
· Some secret societies deal with crime such as drug, black
market, human trafficking, smuggling, kidnapping, and financial
· But not all secret societies dealing with the crime but some
of them also do a social work.
· The secret society also can be formed by local people or
immigrant people such as Chinese people based on their
The member of secret societies.
· The member of every group of secret societies is
exclusive to certain people.
· They also have their own hierarchy such as, Ayahanda,
Don, Grand master, and Capo.
· The hierarchy are determined by their services and
loyalty to the group.
· The formed of the secret society also based on where
their ritual or activities are performed.
· Besides, if they want to become a member, they need to
do some ritual such as a blood oath to apply the membership.
KONGSI IN PERAK.
- Secret societies in Perak are Gee Hin and Hai San.
· Gee Hin and Hai San was the secret society that formed in Perak by
the Chinese people that wok at the gold mine in Perak.
· These two secret societies have created a conflict alongside the Malay
Prince which is they to eliminate their opponent and take over the mines.
· Gee Hin and Hai San also known as Chinese “Kongsi”.
· Word “kongsi” means clan hall or also known as brotherhood.
· The conflict between Gee Hin and Hai San only settled the sign a
agreement with British and with the Malay Prince.
KONGSI IN SARAWAK.
·The Kongsi in Sarawak started with the migration of the Hakka people from the
Sambas to the Sarawak.
·Hakka people also has formed Kongsi in Sambas which is the clash between
the kongsi has brought the San Tiao Quo to the Sarawak.
·After moving to the Sarawak, they have control gold mine in Bau which is that
makes them grow stronger and known as Twelve kongsi
·Also have a few different than kongsi in Perak.
They also predominantly Hakka Gold Miner that located at Kalimantan and
·They also form the basis of the miner and create their own political and social
·They also attack the Kuching after James Brooke try to control them which is
this condition has made James Brooke to counterattack and eliminate all the
Kongsi in Bau.
·This is the last era of the kongsi in Sarawak after the James Brooke eliminate
the kongsi in Bau even though the Gee Hin try to establish their branch in
Sarawak but no avail for him.
LU 13:HISTORY OF
1.UMSU (The University of
Malaya Students Union)
In UM, the students tried to became
more independent and wanted more
Therefore any control by authorities
(Suitability Certificate 1964) was
UMSU had its own newspaper –
Mahasiswa Negara -, own bus and
Student movement was involved in 1969 election but not
as electoral candidates
Instead, voiced out their thought from politics,
economics to social issues.
They released their own manifesto and had road tour
in 13 parliamentary seats (9 of the seats fall to
They urged people to vote for candidates who
supported their manifesto.
They denounced parties that used racial issues to
campaign vs democracy, social justice and policy issues
In order to control the students, the
government introduced the University And
University College Act, 1971.
This brought protests and
demonstrations by students.
Demonstrations led to clashes between
students and the police
Many student leaders were arrested