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Rethwick Nagarajan - 2019 Colonial Ebook Published Draft (2)

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Published by Rethwick Nagarajan, 2019-05-22 10:07:57

Rethwick Nagarajan - 2019 Colonial Ebook Published Draft (2)

Rethwick Nagarajan - 2019 Colonial Ebook Published Draft (2)

Our Journey

through 13 British


By : Rethwick Nagarajan

Table of Contents Click on the Names of the
slide below to get to the
1. My New World slide!!
2. My Colonial Village
3. The Smithy
4. Working With Wood
5. The Miller
6. My New House
7. The Cook Place
8. New & Fresh Food
9. Jobs of Mine
10. Elegant Women's Clothing
11. Formal Men’s Clothing
12. We are Forming
13. The American History
14. Glossary

My New World This is the 13 colonies our
Hi I’m Ryan, and I am going to teach you about the
thirteen colonies that had started a few years ago. We This is colonist try to fish so they
just came here two days ago, after a very very big war, could feed their family
my sister will teach you about that in the end. So now,
let’s get started! Continues On Next Page

Split Into Three

The thirteen colonies were owned and ruled by the
king of England, King George III. The colonies were
split three groups such as the New England colonies,
Middle colonies, and the southern colonies. The
colonies were split into groups for a reason, so now
let’s go learn why?

New England Colonies

So first let’s learn about other colonies that were part
of the New England colonies. New Hampshire,
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut were
the New England colonies. The New England colonist
grew crops, and fished to feed their family use for
trade. What was life like in the New England colonies?
Life in the New England colonies was good because
people fished to feed their family. They also fur
traded to make money. They also farmed to feed
their family.

My New World

Middle Colonies The Middle colonies grows a lot of wheat.
Sometimes bread is their main food.
So first let’s learn about other colonies that were part of the
Middle colonies. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and
Delaware were the middle colonies. Many colonist farmed
weed and other grains for traded with people all over the
colony. The Middle colonies were also called the “ BREAD
COLONY “. People in the Middle colonies also built factories
to produce iron, paper, and also textile or cloth What was
life like in the Middle Colonies? Life in the Middle colonies
was good because people grew crops and did farming to
feed their family. The also sold their grains, crops, and
other goods to make more money.

Southern Colonies

So first let’s learn about other colonies that were part of the This slave is working for his owner
Southern colonies. Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Georgia were the southern colonies.
The soil in the Southern colonies was good for farming, and
many colonist ran plantation. They grew crops like sugar
cane, rice, cotton, and tobacco. African slaves were brought
over in the early 1600s,,and plantation relied heavily on
them. In 1700s, African slaves were made up almost half of
the population in the Southern colonies. What was life like
in the Southern Colonies? Life in the Southern colonies
were good because it was used to earn money by growing
rice and cotton.

My Colonial Village Let’s go on a Scavenger Hunt

Good morrow, I´m Ryan and I will take you This is a town apothecary
around my village. We just arrived her, so we This is a town tavern
don't know a lot about this town so let's go find

Just Arrived

After we arrived in a colony we started to build a
town. As soon we arrived we also started to plant
seeds so we would have food to eat, and we also
started to build houses too.

Shops & Other

Ships brought the cloth, mail, animal, and colonist
over from Europe.As soon as more people arrived,
small colonies grew into busy towns.
Craftspeople opened stores. A craftspeople is a
skilled at making something with his or her hands.
My dad is a craftsperson. We made things such as
shoes, tools, silverware, wagon wheels, and
barrels. Our towns had post offices where we
could send mail and pick up newspaper. One of
the towns busiest shop is an apothecary. We get
medicine, tobacco, spices, and candy. The candy is
so good. Our towns has a tarven. A tarven is a
place where travelers stop to eat and rest for the
night. Now let's meet other important people in
our town. Now let's meet the blacksmith.

The Smithy A blacksmith using a vice to hold metal he is
shaping to make a tool!
The blacksmith has a hard job because he is a metal worker. He
had to build all the things that were made out of metal. There were This is a anvil and a blacksmith
only two blacksmiths in the colonies or sometimes one. heating iron

The Name Help the Blacksmith find his tools

A blacksmith's shop is called a smithy. A blacksmith works with
iron and black metal. The word “ blacksmith’” is made out of two
word, “black” and “smite”. To smite means to hit or pound
something. He uses a lot of tools to cut the iron, bend the iron , and
shape the iron. He made iron kettles, pots, pans and kitchen tools.
He gave one to my mother so we can cook too. He was very kind.

Important Tools

He made farming tools such as shovels, and hoes. He also made
ball peen hammers and nails used by the woodworkers. Inside his
shop there was a forge. The forge was used to heat iron, it looks
like a fireplace. The hole above the forge, lets the smoke go through
the chimney. One of the important tools that he used was an anvil.
The anvil is used for cutting and shaping iron. He also puts a bucket
of water nearby so he could cool off the heated iron quickly. He kept
tools near the forge so that he can use them if needed. He also
used a vice. The tool vice is used to hold a piece of metal in place so
the blacksmith can cut easily without dropping the metal. Near the
forge he kept an another tool called a bellow. A bellow is used to
pump air into the fire so it will burn longer. A lot of air can extinguish
the fire, but a little amount of air can be very helpful for the fire to
burn again and make it hotter. He pulled down a end of lever. The
bottom board of the bellow moved up, and air blew out of the
nozzle. It was fun being in the blacksmith's shop, he even let me use
a lot of his materials, I wish I become a Blacksmith one day. Ok,
Now let's go to the woodworker's shop.

Working With Wood

The woodworkers also had a hard jobs because they had to peel the barks
of the tree, cut the wood, and sometime they even had to make cabinets.

Their Work

So the Woodworker

mostly works with wood. So let's go met him. In the colonial days forests

and jungles grew all over North America or Also known as the 13

colonies.There were a lot of wood the build houses, furniture and many

other useful thing that are made out of wood. The woodworkers earned

money by building and creating thing for wood. This is a woodworkers shop, and some of
Other Kinds his tools

There are many kinds of woodworkers and here is one of their jobs, a

woodsman cut down trees and prepare the wood for other woodworkers.

The woodsman use peeling iron to peel of the tree's bark. A kind of

woodworkers is a shingle makers. Shingle Maker made shingle fo a roof. His

work bench is called a shaving horse because it's mostly used for shaving.

Housewright are also an important kind of woodworkers. It took a lot of

housewrights to build a house. A wainwright is a kind of woodworkers too!

But instead of cutting, shaving, they build carriage and wagons. Many

woodworkers used a lathe to carve a shape from wood. A lathe was an

item attached to a large spinning wheel. When a woodworkers turned the

wheel, the lathe spun around quickly. Another woodworkers would carve

and shape the wood while the other person is spinning the wheel. Now let's

go meet another woodworker called Coopers ! They only make barrels.

Cabinet Makers are also a kind of woodworkers. They make chairs, tables,

and cabinet. They also used draw knives, it used to shave wood. The

wheelwright are a cool kind of woodworkers. They made all kinds of wheels. This is a women trying to carve
He also repaired damaged wheel. I hope you learned a lot about something small in a small spinning
woodworkers. Woodworkers are very cool, now I think I want to become a wheel
woodworkers too! Now let's meet the town miller

The Miller

Good morrow, it's Ryan here, and I’m here at the town mill. This a water wheel in the gristmill
The miller said working at the mill is very hard because
there is very little jobs that look easy , but is very hard. These are planks cut by the miller and
other before we invented a mill
The Two Mills

The gristmill and the sawmill are two examples of mill that
performed difficult jobs for the settlers. Each of these mills
have a huge tool to accomplish one main job. The gristmill
ground grain into flour, the sawmill cut logs into planks. The
waterwheel of a mill turned as water flowed over it. The
gear inside mill transferred power of the water to the top of
the millstone which ground the grain as it turned.

Other Tools

Another tool that was used in the mill was a mill pick, it
was used to cut grooves, called furrows, into the millstone.
These grooves ripped and ground the grain. Grinding grain
by hand into enough flour to make a loaf of bread could
take a lot of time Cutting logs into planks was also a
difficult when it was done by hand. People saved time and
energy when they invented a mill, instead of muscle, to
accomplish these hard jobs. Before the sawmill was
invented, people used a machine that was used by two
people, to cut logs into planks. I hope you enjoy the tour
with me

My New House

Hi, I’m Ryan here, and I will take you through my house. I will take you to the

Different Houses

Colonist lived in different kind of house. House built on farms were usually small. The curved part of the house is a brand new
House built in a town was quite large. Our house was built in a farm. We got to saltbox
grow a lot of things, it was kind of fun.Many of the larger house had a
dependencies. Dependencies were small buildings behind houses, and some
time they are separate form the main house. Animals and food were kept in this
building. Many colonial homes have symmetrical. Symmetrical homes looked the
same on both sides of their centers. The biggest and fanciest homes was the
Governor’s Palace in Williamsburg, where the Governor of Virginia lived. We also
wanted our homes bigger, so we added extra rooms in the back of our homes.
The little house is called a saltbox.


We needed water to live, but we didn’t have running water inside of our homes, This is a very old smokehouse near our house
we hot water from our outside well. The well we have is inside a well house, a that we use now to keep the meat from going
little shed to protect the water so it wouldn’t get dirty or muddy. Cheese and butter bad
were made in the dairy. The dairy in our house was kept under a very big tree, so
the cheese and butter won’t melt. There were stones that kept the building coll
inside too. There is a special food we liked here, and it is cooked meat. We would
cook the meat in a smokehouse. A smoke house was built over a fire pit. Meat
was smoked over the fire to keep it from going bad. The chickens lived in coops.
Most coops had windows to let in sunshine. Many farmers near our house
believed hens laid more eggs when there was plenty of light. We had to have
vegetables to cook so we kept it in an underground cellar. A cellar was an
underground room that was used to store fruits and vegetables so they wouldn’t
be spoiled. Noe let’s go to my bedroom. It’s not big, just a cushion, and carved
wood by the woodworker. Ok, next let’s go to the kitchen.

The Cook Place This our kitchen, as I said, this this is the heart
of our house
Hi I’m Ryan here, hope you learned a lot about my house but there is one part of
the house I didn’t show you, and is very important to us. Here we go. This is this the bread oven that we had in our
house, it’s a little big.
Hard Work

We worked hard, and we looked forward to our meals. The was where we ate a
spent most of our time. It was the “heart” of our home. Some homes had only one
room, and the kitchen was a big part of it, like our home. In the center of the kitchen
was the fireplace. There were no stoves in our house, so everything had to be
cooked over an open fire. We did not allow the fire to go out because it would be
very hard to start a new one. Some earlier colonial family ate their meal from a
trencher, or bowls carved into tabletops. We used candles for light in the house.
The candle was put inside a lantern. The fireplace also provided light and heat in the
small room. In smaller colonial homes, the beds were in the same room as the

Just One Room

Children slept in the same room as parents. Another food we ate is bread, bread
was baked at the side of the fireplace on the bread oven. Bread was also toasted in
an toaster. A long handle was used to to lift the toaster in and out of the fire. We
grew vegetables in gardens behind our homes. Our homes also had chicken coops
and dairies. Fresh eggs milk and vegetables were also used for cooking meals. Our
house was a little large so we had separate kitchen.

Main Tools

There was another cool thing in the kitchen, is the dog wheel. A dog wheel is used
to roast meat over the fire. As the dog ran inside the wheel, the roast turned on the
meat. A clock jack was another way to roast meat over the fire. The clock jack was
wound up like a clock. The clock jack slowly turned over the flame so the meat
would cook evenly on all sides. A potato boiler was filled potatoes and put into the
a pot of boiling water. WHen the potatoes are cooked well , The boiler was lifted
out the pot. The water drained out through the holes of the boiler. Ok hope you
learned all about our kitchen and the materials we use in the kitchen, now let's go
though garden and see what my father grew and we ate!

New & Fresh Food


We ate new and fresh food. We mostly grew crops such as This is the apple cider we always drink
corn, pumpkin, and squash. While our mother’s cooks or instead of water
picks vegetable to cook, the our father hunted rabbits,
squirrels, and deer. Near the ocean, the me and my sister
fished and dug out clams and oyster out the sand. But we
were afraid to drink water took out from rivers and lakes. It
was not clean and people got ill after drinking the water.
Lots and lots of people died because of the water they
drank, we need water to live, so instead, we drank cider
made from apple, blueberries, cherries, and etc.

Cooking Food

Most of the food we cooked was in the main of the house. A This is our fireplace, the pot near the
pot hung down over the fire. Sometimes the pot had a fireplace is the pot we hung on the hook
pudding made of eggs and sugar that was very yummy. on top
Sometimes the pot had stew of meat and vegetables.
Everyone had to be careful about burning their long clothes
in the fire. In the fall and winter, we picked apples from the
apple trees near our house. We made apple pancakes on a
flat iron skillet that was also hung over the fire. Ok now
let’s learned about my jobs and my sisters jobs! YAY it going
to be very fun!

Jobs Of Mine

Hi there, it’s Ryan, I had my meal and it was so yummy. So now let’s go talk This a girl helping her
about my jobs and my sister’s jobs. It’s very hard. But also easy when you mother churn butter
learn it. Come on let’s go!!
This a apothecary, this is the
Colonial Girls shop I worked in, that man is
the craftsperson, he gave
Most colonial children including me had to work hard each day. My sister and me the job.
other girls helped their mothers at home. My sister was not send to school. She
was taught to cook and sew like other girls. Girls helped mothers prepare meals
for their family. The girls sometimes helped their mother by peeling potatoes to
go with chicken that her mother had already cooked, and also that so it would
taste good. Some girls help their mother by churning butter. To churn means to
pump a stick in the butter churn, up and down so until the cream inside turns into
small and solid chunks of butter. Churning butter was very hard. Girls also helped
their mother by keeping the house clean by sweeping the floor. The girls used a
broom to sweep the floor. A girls jobs is very hard.

Colonial Boys

Boys like me often worked in the field. Some boys become apprentice to the
tradespeople such as blacksmiths, woodworkers, millers, and coopers. The
children of the slave that were brought from Africa also worked in the fields like
boys. Some boys had no work because, they were born in a wealthy family, so
instead, they were sent to boarding schools. Most boys learned job skills to be
an apprentice. Some boys also learn to be an apothecary. They learned to grind
medicine using a mortar and pestle. There were very few toys that we play with.
We played simple games like, hoops or quoits. Both of theses items are
homemade. Ok, now there is another thing we didn’t learned about clothing that
women’s and men’s wore. Come with me I’ll teach you!!!

Elegant Women’s Clothing This a women wearing a very
costly wig.
Good Morrow, it’s Megan here, I’m Ryan’s mother. I’m going to teach
you about women’s clothing. Let get started. This is very costly dress that
had special buttons
Women wore beautiful and decorated gowns. The most fanciest
gowns can from Europe. A women has to put on a lots of layers of
clothing to get dressed, especially in the most fanciest gowns. Women
also wore feather, jewelry, and flowers in their hair so it would look
fancy. Some women wore wigs so their hair would look more large. Not
every every women in town wore plain owns cover with aprons so their
dress wouldn’t get dirty while working in the kitchen. Women also wore
neckerchief to cover their neck. Most women don't like to have
hairstyles, so the wore mobcaps. Mobcaps were everyday hats. Some
women like their hair styles and wanted to protect their from being
crazy so, they wore a calash. A calash is a large hood that protected
their hair styles. Girls also dressed like their mother but, only plain
gowns because the girl work with their mother like Emma, that’s
Ryan’s sister. Women and girls wore a shift under their dress. A shift is
a short sleeve dress. A shift was also worn at night when we sleep.
Women also wore stockings. A stockings is a long sock that cover up
our knees. Stays women’s body look fit. Stays were tightly laced at the
back. Petticoats were worn over shifts so it would look more in good
shape. Some women wore big hats and had fancy hairstyles. Women
also sprayed their hair gray. Pocket hoops made women’s skirts wider,
larger, and more fashionable. Nosegays were flowers worn at the neck.
A modesty piece is a part of the dress that covered the chest. Ok, I
hope you learned about women's colonial clothing, Next, Ryan’s father
will teach you about men’s clothing!

Formal Men’s Clothing This is a men’s waistcoat

Good Morrow, I’m Adam, Ryan’s father, and I’m going to teach you This is a
about men’s clothing. Ok, let’s get started. tricorne that

Mens wore clothing that was almost as fancy as women’s all men
clothing. Men wore suits with breeches. Breeches were short wore. The
pants that covered part of the knee. Men wore stockings on their wig is very
leg and shoes or boots on their feet. Stockings are long socks that special and
covered the knee fully and went under breeches. Under the suit
coats, men wore vest called waistcoats. Most men wore wigs and costly
hats. Some men wore tricorne hat that had three corners. Those
who did not like to wear the hat carry them in their hands. Around
the neck, men wore scarves or ties. Some ties were called a
solitaire. Solitaire are large ties. Men wore different kinds of
boots. One kind of boot is called jackboot. This boot is a normal
boot that men always wear. Another kind of boot is riding boot.
Riding boot protects a man’s knee when riding a horse. Fancy
men’s suits were made out of fabrics such as velvet and silk. Lace
cuffs hung down over a man’s wrists. Lace cuffs made the men’s
suits looks fancier near the hands. Boys wore clothes that were
like the clothes that their father wore. At home men took off their
wigs and hat and wore cloth hats. Glasses were called spectacles.
Men also carried a snuff box that held tobacco. Men also carried
pocket watch to often check the time. They also had handkerchief.
Ok, hope you learned a lot about men’s clothing. Next up, we have
Emma teaching you about a very important things that has
happened here!

We Are Forming

I’m Emma here, I’m Ryan’s older sister, my little brother send me here to teach The Seven Years War begun
you about the bad things the king did to all the colonist, before we arrived. Ryan
doesn’t know much about what the king did to us because we kept it a secret so, These are colonist are throwing
he wouldn’t be unhappy. boxes of tea in the ocean to boycott
the Tea Act.

Ok, here we go. The Seven Years War begun. We had to fight the French and the
Native American. The British Army or the Navy had to go through a lot of things
win the war. After the war ended Britain's Parliament, the government that
worked with the King of England, decided that the American people should pay a
large part of the money.The American people had no say in this matter, and they
were angry because of that and because the new taxes were very high.


He made us pay taxes by making acts, such as the Sugar Act in 1764, Quartering
Act and Stamp Act in 1765, and Townshend Act. The Sugar Act of 1764 placed
taxes on sugar, coffee, wine and other items imported to the colonies from
Britain. The Tea Act made all colonist very angry, The had to pay for tea. The Tea
Act also caused the Boston Tea Party. The Boston Tea Party caused all the
colonist to throw tea in the ocean The Quartering Act of 1765 placed a rule that
made the colonist very mad. The rule was, every British men could stay in any
colonist house and the colonist had to give the British men food. The Stamp Act
of 1765 made the colonist pay things such as paper newspaper playing cards and
etc. The Townshend Act of 1767 was imposed on glass, lead, paint, paper, and
tea. These taxes was imposed on us too. We repelled and boycotted the king’s
acts. But he kept coming on with more. So Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin,
John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman created the Declaration Of
Independence. We send it to the king, he got angry and he said fight for your
independence. Then the Revolutionary War began. We had to go through the
strongest army in the world to get freedom, so we did. The battle started in 1775
and ended in 1783. We won. We had to go through a lot to glance at thirteen
stripes and the thirteen circling stars.


Craftsperson A craftspeople is a skilled at making something with his or her
Apothecary hands.

A shop that sold medicine, tobacco spices, candy and etc.

Blacksmith A blacksmith works with iron and black metal. He uses a lot of tools to
cut the iron, bend the iron , and shape the iron.

The Smithy is where the blacksmith works and makes tools

Forge A forge is a kind of fireplace that the blacksmith uses to heat iron

Anvil An anvil is a tool that a blacksmith uses to cut and shape iron

Vice A vice is a tool that the blacksmith uses to hold iron in place

Bellow A bellow is used to pump air into the fire so it will burn longer.
Shaving Horse A woodworker is a craftsperson who works with wood, he build
houses and etc.

A Shaving Horse very important tool to a Shingle Maker because
its his workbench

Spinning Wheels A spinning wheels a large wheel attached with a lathe that is used to
carve wood

Coopers A Cooper is a woodworker that only makes barrels

Draw Knives A draw knife is used by all woodworkers and mainly used to cut
Water Wheel wood

Millstone A large wheel driven by flowing water and also a tool that helps to
Mill Pick make grain

Millstone is a stone used in the gristmill for grinding wheat and other

A mill pick is used to cut grooves called furrows.

Planks Plank are long pieces wood cut into small pieces and build thing
Dependencies such as cabinet, etc.

Dependencies are small building unconnected to the main house.

Symmetrical Symmetrical means shape that exactly similar and facing each other

Saltbox A saltbox is a place that is built if we need extra room in our home

Dairy A dairy is a place where we put butter and cheese so it wouldn’t


Smokehouse A smokehouse is a place where meat is smoked and cooked, it was
also used like a kitchen

Cellar A cellar is place where vegetable and fruits are stored are kept so,
Trencher they get spoiled
Dog Wheel
Clock Jack A trencher an item that almost looks like a bowl and is used to serve
Potato Boiler meal

Crops A dog wheel is an another item used to smoke or cook meat if there
Iron Skillet is no smokehouse.
A clock jack is also an item that is used to heat, smoke, and cook
Apprentice meat.
Boarding School
A potato boiler is an item specifically used to boil potatoes so they
don’t overheat.

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested
extensively for profit or subsistence.

An iron skillet is a pot that is hung over the fireplace to cook
vegetables and meat.

To churn means to pump a stick in the butter churn, up and down so
until the cream inside turns into small and solid chunks of butter

An apprentice is a person taught by craftspeople to do a job

The board school is where children learn.


Mobcaps Mobcaps are everyday hats
A calash is a large hood that protected their hair styles.
Pocket Hoops
Pocket hoops made women’s skirts wider, larger, and more
Nosegays fashionable.
Nosegays are flowers by the neck to look more good

Modesty piece A modesty piece is a part of the dress that covered the chest.
Stockings Breeches were short pants that covered part of the knee.

Waistcoats Stockings are long socks that covered the knee fully and went under
Waistcoats are smaller versions of vests

Solirates Solitaire are large ties

Bibliography - Books We Used for Research
Arnéz Lynda. My Life in the American Colonies. Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2016.
Fajardo, Anika. The Dish On Food and Farming In Colonial America. Capstone Press, 2017.

Fisher, Verna. Colonial Jobs. Nomad Press, 2010.
Isaacs, Sally Senzell. Life in a Colonial Town. Heinemann Library, 2001.

Kalman, Bobbie. A Child's Day. Crabtree Pub., 1994.
Kalman, Bobbie. A Visual Dictionary of a Colonial Community. Crabtree Pub. Co., 2008.

Kalman, Bobbie. Colonial Life. Crabtree Pub. Co., 1993.
Kalman, Bobbie. The General Store. Crabtree Pub., 1997.

Kalman, Bobbie. Visiting a Village. Crabtree, 1994.
Machajewski, Sarah. A Kid's Life in Colonial America. PowerKids Press, 2015.
Mara, Wil, and Farré Lluís. If You Were a Kid in the Thirteen Colonies. Children's Press, an Imprint of Scholastic Inc., 2017.
McGovern, Ann, and June Otani. --If You Lived in Colonial Times. Scholastic, 2005.

Rajczak, Kristen. Life in the American Colonies. Gareth Stevens, 2013.
Raum, Elizabeth. Scoop on Clothes, Homes, and Daily Life in Colonial America. Capstone Press, 2017.

Thomas, Mark. Clothes in Colonial America. Children's Press, 2002.
Thomas, Mark. Food in Colonial America. Children's Press, 2002.

Thomas, Mark. Fun and Games in Colonial America. Scholastic, 2002.
Thomas, Mark. School in Colonial America. Children's Press, 2002.
Thomas, Mark. Work in Colonial America. Scholastic, 2002.

Vonne, Mira. Gross Facts about the American Colonies. Capstone Press, 2017.

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