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Published by Alpha Omicron Pi, 2015-09-17 12:39:47

1913 November - To Dragma

Vol. IX, No. 1

To D R A G M A

VOL. IX NOVEMBER, 1913 No. 1

To DRAGMA is published at 450-454 Ahnaip Street, Menasha, Wis., by George
Banra, official printer to the fraternity. Entered at the Postoffice at Menasha,
Wis., as second-class matter, April 13, 1909, under the act of March 3, 1897.

To DRAGMA is published on the twenty-fifth of November, February, May
and September.

Subscription price, One Dollar per year payable in advance; Single copies
twenty-five cents.

Virginia Judy Esterly, Editor-in-Chief. Isabelle Henderson, Business


No sound is heard; 'tis quiet ere the dawn;
My Soul with awe the grandeur fills.
A shaft of light breaks sudden o'er the lawn
And Nature's wondrous message through me thrills,.

A beetle moves among the stones and leaves
The busiest worker early starts her day.
A gentle wind is humming through the trees,
A sleepy bird begins a sleepy lay.

The misty dusk still lingers in the glen;
The quiet, woody world there, still sleeps on,
Until the sun climbs o'er the hill and then
Awakes it with the message, "Rise, 'tis dawn!"

D E L I E B A N C R O F T , '14.

I I Chapter of A 0 T.

(Copied from The Newcomb Arcade.)




(from Dean Gildersleeve's official report.)

A revision of our system of student organizations, which lias for
some time seemed desirable, was precipitated this year by an active
discussion of the faults and merits of fraternities. This agitation
was partly caused by certain evils in the rules and conduct of the
Barnard fraternity chapters, but was also due in large measure to
a wide movement, apparent in many sections of the country, of
which our Barnard discussion was merely a part. Organized at
a time when individual development and culture was perhaps the
dominating purpose of academic training, the fraternities appear to
many people today repugnant to the new ideas of social democracy
&nd social service. I f they are to survive and attain their highest
usefulness, these organizations must apparently be modified in some
respects, to harmonize more closely and clearly with the ideals of
the present.

Our first fraternity chapter was founded in 1891, the second year
of the college's existence. Its organization was permitted by the
administration at that time with the idea that it would help the stu-
dents to develop pleasurable and beneficial social life, which the cir-
cumstances of the college, especially its non-residential character,
might make difficult of attainment. We now have in Barnard eight
chapters of national fraternities and twenty other student organiza-
tions, besides the Undergraduate Association, the four class organi-
zations, and the Phi Beta Kappa chapter. There are also boards
of editors of the three student publications and committees in charge
of various plays and festivals. The activities of all these organiza-
tions have of course given rise to numerous problems and difficulties,
which have been dealt with very wisely, on the whole, by our stu-
dents under their system of self-government. The tendency has
been, in general, for the Faculty to interfere in such matters as lit-
tle as possible.

Rather more than one-third of our graduates belong to fraterni-
ties. Though many of our ablest and most popular students have
not joined these organizations, membership in them has probably-
been, on the whole, more highly valued than any other college as-
sociation. Three or four of the Barnard chapters have had small
apartments in the vicinity of the college, but, except in two instances,
undergraduate members have rarely resided in them. The social
purposes of the chapters have been carried out by meetings, teas,


occasional receptions or plays for the college, dances, "spreads" and
country house parties during vacations.

From time to time there has been agitation against fraternities.
This became especially acute last autumn, when there was an ex-
ceptionally active discussion among our students concerning the ad-
vantages and disadvantages of this form of social organization. The
ouestion was taken up by Student Council, which was unable, how-
ever, to reach any decisive vote. A plan of investigation was there-
fore agreed upon by this body and by the Faculty Committee on
Student Organizations. In order to hear testimony and collect all
possible evidence on the subject, an investigating committee was or-
ganized, consisting of the six members of the Faculty Committee on
Student Organizations, four alumna?—of whom two were fraternity
members and two not,—and four undergraduates—of whom two
were fraternity members and two were not. This general commit-
tee held fifteen meetings. I t invited testimony from the members of
Student Council, from representatives of the fraternity chapters,
and from the officers of the College. I t also gave a hearing to all
undergraduates and alumna? who expressed a desire to appear be-
fore it.

At its last meeting, on May 14, this Investigation Committee
adopted a report embodying its conclusions and recommendations.
I t decided that the evils of fraternities, as they are at present organ-
ized and conducted in Barnard College, on the whole outweigh the
advantages; that these organizations often cause snobbishness by
overemphasizing lines of social cleavage, especially race lines; that
they frequently erect artificial barriers against natural intercourse;
that they cause pain to some people who are left out; that "rushing"
and "pledge day" often produce confusion, distractions and bad man-
ners ; and that the element of secrecy is especially harmful, in that
it inspires suspicion in outsiders and gives the organizations a mor-
bid importance in the eyes of young students. During the course
of the investigation evidence was presented, moreover, which, though
incomplete, tended to show that the scholarship of members of fra-
ternity chapters during the past year has been somewhat inferior to
that of non-fraternity students.

On the other hand, the committee concluded that the fraternities
attain some rather important social ends. They aid their members
to form congenial, intimate friendships with other Barnard students
and to enjoy regular opportunities for wholesome social enjoyment
centering in Barnard. They cut across the class lines, make pos-
sible friendships between older and younger students, alumnae and


undergraduates, and often enable the older women to advise and help
the younger ones. In many cases they tend to produce alumna? more
enthusiastic and interested in the college than is the average non-fra-
ternity graduate. Through their various chapters throughout the
country they give to their members some broadening knowledge of
other women's colleges, and aid them to form pleasant associations
in many large cities and universities.

Having come to these conclusions regarding the chief evils and
advantages attributed to fraternities, the Investigating Committee
made several recommendations. I t suggested that all student or-
ganizations in Barnard should be chartered by Student Council and
the Faculty Committee on Student Organizations for limited terms.
Considerable freedom should be allowed in the organization of new
clubs, and rigor should be used in suppressing any which seemed
harmful or useless. Under this system, the Investigating Committee
recommended that the fraternity chapters now in Barnard, provided
they should make public their purposes, their organizations, and the
obligations assumed on joining, should be chartered for limited terms,
under the rules applying to all other clubs, and should be permit-
ted to retain their affiliation with their national organizations, i f this
should be possible under their national constitutions.

A minority report was also drawn up by some members of the
Investigation Committee. This, like the majority report, advocated
the establishment of a "charter system" and rather free experimen-
tation with new forms of student organizations; but it differed from
the majority report in recommending that, instead of having the op-
portunity of continuing in existence under the new system, i f they
made public the essential facts concerning their organization, all
fraternity chapters should be forbidden, for a term of three years,
to elect new members. A t the end of this period practically all of
their present members will have been graduated.

The Faculty Committee on Student Organizations, sitting alone,
considered the majority report and the minority report of the I n -
vestigation Committee, and finally adopted the latter for recommen-
dation to the Faculty. A t its meeting on May 26, after prolonged
discussion, the Faculty, in accordance with this report, adopted the
following resolutions:

Resolved, That, for a term of three years, commencing October I , 1913, no
society of a social character at Barnard College of which the organization, the
emblems, and the rites are in any way secret and which has national affiliations
shall be allowed to elect new members.

Resolved, That, subject to the foregoing recommendation, students be en-
couraged to experiment with new forms of s6cial organization under the super-


vision of the Faculty of Barnard, directly or through Student Council.
Resolved, That all student organizations of whatever description be chartered

for a limited term by Student Council, subject to the supervision of the
Faculty Committee on Student Organizations.

Resolved, That a joint meeting of the Faculty Committee on Student Or-
ganizations and of Student Council be held early in the fall to consider the
operation of the second and third sections above.

I t is obvious that some important constructive work must now be
undertaken. There rests upon the Faculty the responsibility of
aiding the students to form new and, i f possible, more helpful social
organizations, whose advantages may be enjoyed by all who need
and desire them. Our period of experimentation without regular
fraternity chapters should be made as f r u i t f u l as possible.

We must realize that, whatever forms of student organizations we
develop, we shall have to face certain difficulties and problems.
The experience of other institutions indicates that, whether we have
chapters of national secret societies, local secret societies, local non-
secret societies, departmental clubs, eating clubs or senior societies,
we shall always suffer from occasional disagreeable complications.
In spite of these troubles, however, most college administrators recog-
nize today the great educational value of student organizations and
student activities, when properly conducted and supervised. Besides
giving pleasure, they help to train executive ability and the power
of leadership, and to develop the character and spirit.

Any system of student organizations should be constructed so as
to give to as many individuals as possible opportunities in certain
important lines. Nearly all students should have experience in man-
aging organizations and conducting meetings. They should have
a chance to practice some beneficial activity, such as athletics, acting
or debating. They should be enabled to make as numerous and var-
ied a set of acquaintances as possible—an end which we at Barnard,
with our extraordinary varied and cosmopolitan community, can
achieve most happily and successfully. Finally—and this is very
important for their future personal happiness and also for the de-
velopment of their affection and loyalty to the college—they should
have a chance to form some congenial, intimate and lasting friend-

In order to attain these good ends Barnard, as a college which
is mainly non-residential, probably needs a rather large number of
well-developed organizations. Because most of us do not live to-
gether, we need more social machinery to bring us together than
would be required at a college where the students live in constant
and intimate intercourse, morning, noon and night. We need sev-
eral large general organizations, athletic, dramatic and literary, to


cover these important fields of activity. We also need, to achieve
the ends I have enumerated, a large number of smaller organizations,
some of them representing special intellectual interests, some merely
mutual improvement and social intercourse.

Many of our existing organizations serve very successfully one or
more of the purposes we should have in mind. They will no doubt
be retained under the new charter system and improved. Our fra-
ternity chapters have occasionally been highly successful in some re-
spects, such as promoting helpful and stimulating friendships and
developing lasting loyalty to the college; but they have failed be-
cause of their frequent narrowness and selfishness, the unpleasant
excitements incident to election to membership, the rather narrow
range of students who enjoyed their social advantages, and espe-
cially the fact that their secrets, though very trivial in themselves,
prevented their being dealt with frankly and openly, like any other
organizations, inspired morbid excitement and animosity in some of
the students, and in some instructors feelings of suspicion and an-
tagonism which made helpful co-operation between these organiza-
tions and the Faculty extremely difficult.

Our problem now is to preserve, so far as we can, the good fea-
tures of our social organizations and make them available for all
who desire them, while eliminating harmful characteristics. We
must so adjust the situation as to give to our undergraduates oppor-
tunities for healthy, beneficial social intercourse, and to conserve
the continuity of interest and loyalty of our alumna.', so important
to the future welfare of the college. With this problem we must
grapple next autumn.





Dean Gildersleeve in her statement yesterday said that the element of se-
crecy was the point to which most objection was found, and the Investigation
Committee was in favor of encouraging the students to try new forms of social
organizations. Of the work of the Investigation Committee, she said:

"At its last meeting, on May 14, this Investigation Committee adopted a re-
port embodying its conclusions and recommendations. It decided that the evils
of fraternities as they are organized and conducted at present in Barnard Col-
lege, on the whole, outweigh the advantages, and that the element of secrecy
is especially harmful. It recommended that a 'character system' should be es-
tablished under which all student organizations must be chartered for limited
terms by student Council and the Faculty Committee. I t recommended also that,
provided the fraternity chapters now in Barnard should make public their pur-
poses, their organizations, the obligations assumed on joining, and their mem-
bership lists, they should be chartered by Student Council and the Faculty


Committee on Student Organizations for limited terms, under the rules applying
to all other organizations, and should be permitted to retain their affiliations
with their National organizations if this should be possible under their National

"A minority report was also drawn up by some members of the general
Investigation Committee. This differed from the majority report especially in
recommending that, instead of having the opportunity of being chartered under
the new system, if they made public the essential facts concerning their organiza-
tion all fraternity chapters should be forbidden, for a term of three years, to
elect new members."

The main fight in the committee was over the first section of the resolutions
finally adopted by the Faculty, which many of the students believe means the
end of the secret societies at Barnard. On this resolution the Faculty has taken
a firm stand and at the joint meeting called for next fall the Faculty will do
all in its power, it was said yesterday, to promote new forms of social organiza-

When the notice was posted, there was all manner of confusion. It took but
a few minutes for many to get together and denounce the measure.

That the decree of the Faculty will be obeyed is, however, almost a surety.
The officers of the various, societies have telegraphed to their National organiza-
tions, but as yet no replies have been received dictating any course of action. It
is certain that if the decree handed down after months of investigation, is
not obeyed the offenders will be expelled.

The present agitation was begun last fall when Miss Freda Kirchwey, a
daughter of Prof. George W. Kirchwey, formerly Dean of the Columbia Law-
School, wrote articles for the Barnard Bulletin, the weekly paper, and the
Barnard Bear, the monthly literary magazine, denouncing the attitude of the
sororities toward the life of the college, and urging that they be abolished. The
Faculty, through its Committee on Student Organizations, which is headed by
Dean Gildersleeve, began an investigation of the whole sorority question.

Dean Gildersleeve is a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma, one of those
to fall under the ban, and it is understood that she was in favor of con-
tinuing the societies under certain restrictions. Prof. Brewster, however, who
was acting Dean of the college for several years following the resignation of
Dean Laura Drake Gill, was actively opposed to the continuation of the sor-
orities, and he, it is said by the students, pushed the matter through to the end
and obtained the concurrence of his fellow-members of the committee.

Barnard is the second woman's college to abolish the sororities, Mount Holy-
oke being the first. Several years ago Miss Mary E . Woolley, President of
Mount Holyoke, decreed the abolishment of all secret societies there on the
ground that they were out of harmony with the democratic spirit of the college.

From the Netv York Times, Sunday June S, 1913.
But these societies include in their membership most of the students who are
socially, intellectually, and athletically prominent, and their threatened dissolu-
tion is a matter of grave concern to the whole student body. The Greek-letter
societies represented at Barnard, in the order of the founding of their chapters,
are: Kappa Kappa Gamma, Alpha Omicron Pi, Kappa Alpha Theta, Alpha Phi,
Gamma Phi Beta, Delta Delta Delta, Pi Beta Phi, Chi Omega Epsilon, in 1906.
Dean Gildersleeve, as has been said, is a loyal member of Kappa Kappa Gamma,
and several other fraternities have Faculty members, notably Kappa Alpha
Theta, to which Prof. Pauline Hamilton Dederer belongs.


while most do not. What further need of proof that this evil, where
it exists, is not inherent in the fraternity system? I f many are guilt-
less all might easily be.

The cure, where needed, is in the fraternities themselves. But
the cure is also in the student body. My lords and governing boards,
if a chapter in your college continues to be snobbish and intolerant
and yet continues to attract membership from your student body,
seek further for the seat of your disease. You will not cure it by
abolishing the chapter. Purge of snobbishness your college itself and
the wicked chapter will become clean or die for lack of members.

It must also be remembered, in fairness to the fraternities, that here
as in all other phases of life, it seems to be a common human weak-
ness to ascribe to causes outside of ourselves failures in which such
causes have no part. I t must be remembered that girls who have
not been asked to fraternities simply because others have been more
admired by the chapter or more in harmony with its intent are known
to explain their position by making a false accusation of snobbishness
against the fraternities.

Just here, I will make a charge myself, a charge that is not gen-
erally made by our critics though it is quite true. For this is no
brief for the defense, but an honest self-searching.

While most chapters of all fraternities are innocent of snobbish-
ness, few i f any are guiltless of deciding against candidates for the
foolish personal reasons of individual members. That this is equally
true of any club or selective group we know. But it should not be
true of fraternities that pretend to stand for something high and
idealistic. This is as bad as snobbishness, this little bickering " I
don't like her," blacklisting for a selfish, self-righteous or trivial
reason. This is one evil in which the women's societies are much
more guilty than the men's. I t ought to cure itself, for it invariably
brings its own punishment and leaves the chapter mourning in the
end a valuable sister lost. Obviously it is a thing that can easily
be cured and does not need our death as the remedy. But obviously
too, it must be cured i f the fraternities are to deserve to endure.

Any girl, in life, in a club, and especially in a fraternity, who sits
in judgment on another for trivial differences in taste or any small
reason and decides offhand that she cannot love her, takes a ridiculous
attitude of self-glorification and uncharitableness. She exposes her
chapter and her fraternity to just reproach. We are not in fraternity
to decide whom we can like; one of the things we are here for is to
love the friends of our friends. I f a candidate is dear to a sister
that fact should make us desire her i f we can. I f it does not the
fault may be in us, not in her.


Of course, I do not mean for a moment that we should accept
for membership any girl just because one of our number desires us
to do so. This fitness for the whole and judging for the greater pur-
pose and not for personal feeling is one of our important character
builders. Of course, we should judge, without criticism, whether the
candidate will be congenial to all, will uphold and understand our
particular ideals, will grow harmoniously for the good of all, will en-
joy and improve us. But judge dispassionately, never with prejudice
except in favor of a sister's friend, never unkindly or superficially
and adversely only with regret and on calm sufficient ground.

II.—Another charge is made: that the fraternities cause heart-
burnings to those who are not asked.

This is often true and it has always been a grief to members
of fraternities.

How to cure it? By abolishing fraternities? Nonsense! Do so,
and you will have cliques and clubs and circles and cir-
cles-within-circles just the same, all with accompanying heartburn-
ings. Why, when we were little girls, very little ones, at school we
formed these little bands without knowing it. And then, now, and
always those who desire to win their way into any closely bound group,
whatever it is called, can do so only by winning its members. This, not
because the members of such group think themselves above others, but
just because they fit each other's hearts and intentions and any one
else who does so will naturally "find" them. I t is puerile to try to
regulate a universal fact by abolishing the fraternities.

I have proved this point by making some careful inquiries and in-
vestigations among the graduates of colleges in which there are no
fraternities. I n every case I have been told of "eating clubs," "literary
clubs", "secret circles" and simply unnamed cliques and groups of
pals among which,—such bodies having no central traditions or stand-
ing to uphold and no central disciplinary board,—I have found these
evils far greater than they are where fraternities exist.

One distinguished woman was deploring to me the bitterness and
foolishness of the "crushes" that had marred the life at one of
our greatest colleges for women when she was a student there a few
years ago,—a condition which later investigation shows still to exist.
"Crushes?" I asked. "Yes,—foolish love affairs between girls,
usually unrequited,—jealousies,—sending candies and flowers,—tears,
— i t is too silly for words." "Why," I said, "we had nothing of the
sort at Barnard." "Ah, no," she replied. "You have the frater-
nities there.—a normal outlet for young girls' naturally intense

Another interesting result of this investigation has been that among


the non-fraternity members of the colleges in which there are frater-
nities, we find direct testimony of the same grouping and the same

However that may be, we want to cure heartburnings not to cause
them. How? I n two ways.

First, instead of limiting the number of fraternities represented
in a college, increase their number. Let there be enough for every
girl who wishes to belong to one to have a broad chance of doing
so. I f there are not enough nationals already in existence to supply
the need, let any group of girls start one. Welcome, invite new
chapters. Let there be no talk about best or worst or any ridiculous
assumption that the newest founded may not be as good or better
than the oldest. I f the fraternities are bad, abolish them. I f they
are good, let there be enough for all. I f no more are founded it will
be natural proof that no more are wanted and any talk of left-outs
and heartburnings will be absurd on its face.

The answer is sometimes made that the difficulties are too great.
That answers itself. A group of girls unwilling to take a chance on
their merits, to try to build up something that they desire, are not
capable members of a large national, permanent thing that requires
and exacts devotion and undiscouraged enthusiasm. They do not
want it enough. But when a new group is formed, let us accept it
instantly in glad cooperative friendship and help all we can.

Second: Let there be no disappointments consequent upon "rush-
ing" and dropping—a cruel and insulting practice. This can be done
by removing all unnatural barriers against natural friendships, by.
having it distinctly understood that any fraternity member may make
friends with whomever she pleases and any non-fraternity member
or freshman may do the same, that in all these friendships nobody
is involved but the parties to them,—that the fraternity is not a
factor. Let it be distinctly understood,—by plain words i f necessary
until the rule is established,—that every girl in college, in a
fraternity or not, is a perfectly free agent and can choose her friends
on a personal and not a communal basis, without the slightest im-
putation that the fraternity is interested. Let there be a Pan-Hellenic
agreement i f necessary that the fraternity question shall not be
mentioned before a set date. Let all entertaining be done for its
own sake and hospitality's sake, too. Let the friends of the fraternity
girls be invited, whether they are rushees, girls in other fraternities
or girls not under consideration for membership. Let the frater-
nity entertaining be done throughout the college year, not in a wild
scramble in one week. Let the fraternities be a component part of
the college social life. Let< the entertaining be something more


than "showing off". Let the pledge-day be simply the first day upon
which anybody may be asked and let it be generally known that the
fraternities do not bind themselves to choose upon that day,
that there is no imputation of being left out on a girl's part, or of
being unsuccessful on the fraternity's, i f the offers are not given or
the lists filled until later, when acquaintance is better founded.
Especially in those institutions that have Sophomore or late pledge-
day, all rules against honest friendly intercourse should be removed.
I f it is necessary, have it announced by Pan-Hellenic to the student
body, that a fraternity girl's friendship for a new girl need not
involve either her fraternity or her friend, that it is bad college
etiquette to discuss the fraternities with a fraternity member before
a certain date, and bad ethics for the fraternity member to do so.
Remove all these absurd, unnatural barriers to just plain human
"getting acquainted." This would save unfairness, artificiality and
subsequent mourning.

Of course, some people may still be disappointed. I n all life, in
or out of college, we are sometimes disappointed about not "being
asked" on occasion. I t may not be abnormal that life begins its little
similarities at college. But i f the undergraduate body is brought to
realize that a fraternity is only a group of people, that there is noth-
ing superior or apart about it in our minds, that any girls who
wish to may form one for themselves,—I think the trouble will soon
be reduced to a minimum.

A l l this implies perfect fair-play on the part of the chapters
themselves. They should respond to that need,—or they deserve
to perish. And Pan-Hellenic is the police department.

I I I . — I t is claimed that fraternities break up friendships.
I can only reply that they need not do so. They did not injure
mine I know. Our whole class, Barnard '98, fraternity, non-frater-
nity and rival fraternity women,—is bound to this day with hoops of
steel. And any friendship so easily broken will surely break soon
from one cause or another.

As a matter of fact, among the many college women, in or out of
fraternities, with whom I have talked on this subject, I have not
found one who did not have close and undisturbed friendships in
other "camps".

I believe that this charge does not hold to any appreciable extent
and could never hold as concerned a worthy and real friendship.

I V .— I t is charged that secrecy is an evil. I n some minds it arouses
suspicion, they say, and in others it covers us with unduly tempting

As to the first, while to unformed youngsters in the high school


fraternities there is a danger hi secrecy and definite evils have been
found, it is absurd to say that any sane person whose opinions are
worth consideration would think i l l of a group of right living, right
thinking young women, so accepted by the college community, so
proved by daily intercourse in the common college life, directed by
prominent alumnae equally respected in their homes and by society,
—because, forsooth, they have a secret bond or pledge. As to the
second, ask any fraternity girl in any college anywhere, whether she
is looked upon as a tempting and mysterious person because of this
secrecy alone,—or ask any non-fraternity girl i f she considers herself
unduly tempted by that fact alone. I f they have sense of humor, your
reply will be a shout of derision.

In fact, there is very little secret about any fraternity nowadays,—
simply something like a motto, a manner of greeting, an inspiring
ritual, a tender and idealistic pledge. These things are secret but
in the sense of being sacred, too deep and dear to reveal. Besides,
the fraternity relationship extends all through life and these sacred
and poetic signs and passwords have a very real value when we use
them in after years in meeting and greeting sisters in all quarters of
the world and under all circumstances.

I cannot think that anyone would object to our keeping these
secrets i f the constitution and purposes of the fraternities were made
public. There is no reason why they should not be put in the hands
of a properly accredited person in every college,—the Dean, for
instance,—and be open to examination by every other person who
can give her or him a real reason for wishing to see them. I am
sure that we have every reason to be willing to have our purposes
examined; there is every reason why we should rejoice to do so. And
the same is doubtless true of the other fraternities.

No one objects to the secrets of Masonry and other fraternal
orders, because the beneficence of their general purposes is under-
stood. Let us allow ourselves to be as frank and surely no one will
be stupid enough to demand the unnecessary sacrifice of our little

Some years ago there was a better reason for the hatred of secrecy,
for many fraternity members were silly and surrounded themselves
with an air of aloofness and would not speak of their society to "out-
siders". This absurd attitude, which was merely a weak imitation
of some men's secret societies, died a natural death. I f it survives any-
where it must be moribund. College women usually have a sense
of humor; so this pose could not long continue. Surely it is not
worth any faculty's consideration at this date. I f any chapter any-
where does put on such foolish airs either the student body is


itself silly enough to stand for them—for which we can suggest no
cure—or it will kill them with wholesome ridicule.

The practice of Pi Chapter in welcoming non-fraternity or other
fraternity girls into its open door at all times is a good example of
how easily remediable is any impression of secrecy or aloofness.

And let us be glad to tell those things that it can possibly be any-
body's business to know.

V.—The charge is made that fraternities dabble in politics.
This may once have been generally true. I t is rarely or never
true now of women's fraternities. I t has cured itself as all evils must
in a system that is in itself idealistic. I f anything, the contrary is
true. Sometimes the fraternities are so upright that they lean over
backward, are so self-conscious in their desire for virtue that they
hesitate to support their members for college offices for which they are
fit. This is perhaps, a charge in itself. But both phases,—electioneer-
ing and over-conscientiousness,—should they occur, can easily be
remedied. I t is well known that the national governing board of any
national fraternity need only be notified by anyone that a chapter is
playing politics to investigate the situation immediately and punish
where a true bill is found. Every national board is immovably op-
posed to such delinquency and ready to act drastically upon it.
Indeed the fraternities have a supervision here beyond that of other
groups and societies. As to the extreme of over-conscientiousness,
that would soon bring about the fraternity's own loss, and good sense
ought in time to remedy it. At any rate, it could scarcely deprive
the college of the services of a strong girl who was really wanted
for any office; for in that case the general vote would certainly over-
come the votes of the relatively small number of her too cautious

VI.—Most of these charges have not, we have seen, a very real
foundation, or at worst, a partial truth. But here follows one more
serious because it is deserved. Charges are made that pledge-day,
rushing and such competitive activities bring with them a good deal of
hauling and pulling and backbiting and over-excitement and even
impolite behavior; that they are undignified.

We must admit that these evils are found. They are not all found
in the same place, perhaps; they are not always found at all. But
that they exist, who will deny?

However, we can cure them by milder measures than giving up our
lives. That would be like abandoning a garden of beautiful flowers
because a few weeds had sprung up. Impoliteness we can tear up
immediately by a little pull of self-control and kindness. The lack
of dignity in rushing is deeper rooted, but a little healthy gardening


can remove that from the lovely place in which it has been allowed to
get a lusty start.

In the first place, let us remember that the fault here is not only i n
the fraternities. I t is largely also in the rulings and restrictions
placed upon them by external boards and by the youthful over-se-
verities of Pan-Hellenics. Certainly this was true at Barnard. A
large proportion of the trouble,—perhaps nearly all of the trouble
—at Barnard came from the unnaturalness consequent upon too much
outside interference.

Nevertheless, the whole idea of rushing for members is fundamen-

tally absurd.
Look! Here is a college protesting, we are told, because the fra-

ternities hurt feelings by leaving girls out, because the fraternities think
too much of themselves and show their complacency and sense of
superiority. And here, on the other hand, are these, exclusive, snob-
bish, longed-for, high and mighty bodies tearing a very small group
of girls backwards and forwards out of one another's hands, mourning
if they lose one who prefers to go elsewhere. Is it an anomaly? Is it
not against all good sense and good taste? Is it ladylike? I t is
surprising that they think ill of us for it?

Let us stop it.
Let us not rush a girl of whom we would never have thought except
that another fraternity "saw her first". Let us look around for our-
selves and discover the merits in the quiet unintroduced girls whom
nobody has seen. Let us take in girls at any time during any of the
four years when we happen naturally to want them. No need to be
in a hurry,—look around, learn the student body, get to know a
girl first. I f she happens to be one whom other fraternities have not
noticed, so much the better for our acumen. So much the surer that
she is our sort. Let us be polite to one another if we do happen,
two or three groups of us, to like and desire the same girl. Let's give
her time and a chance to see which one she likes,—we cannot prove
it to her, nor can she justly decide, by arguments or giving parties.
I f she fits naturally into another group, let us not act as i f it
were an insult or a deadly blow to us. We want our natural con-
genial friends. There are many little quiet, unknown girls who
are going to develop wonderfully at college, especially i f we help
them. What's the hurry? What's the scramble?
I f we try to have character, scholarship as far as our ability, honest
friendliness and a desire to be useful, loyalty to one another and all
the worth while things, girls who like that sort of striving w i l l — i f we
give them time to discover that we do too—very probably come to
us. And those who prefer another chapter as being bigger or older


or richer or any such trivial, superficial, nothing of a reason,—
shouldn't we be glad that we escaped fellowship with them, since they
would surely be misfit? Those who prefer another chapter for some
honest preference or similarity of interests, shouldn't we compliment
them and be happy for them?

Let all rushing cease, I say. Allow every kind of untrammelled
friendship and friendly intercourse. Never choose a girl just because
another crowd does; and never deny yourself a girl you want for that
reason either. Let every fraternity girl follow her natural bent in
making friendships with the distinct understanding that the fra-
ternity is not responsible or in any way committed. Choose at leisure
and at any time. Treat all rival claimants with politeness and
perfect fair-play.

Let every chapter in Pan-Hellenic agree to conduct this game by
the rules of good sport i n every game, not by watching and hard-and-
fast rules only. Let the student body know that every girl has an
equal chance, because we are not i n a hurry, but want to find the girls
that seem naturally ours. Let is be understood that we offer them the
same privilege i n choosing us.

I realize, of course, that some choosing must be done early i n the
year by those chapters who live in houses. And of course there is
no reason why some such choosing should not be done early every-
where, other things being right. What I mean to advocate is this,
not giving ourselves the impression that this asking day is a fatal day,
that we must fill up now or never, that we must grieve i f we have
not asked our proper affinities at this time. Keep looking for our sort
all the time. The friendship that grows slowly is seldom the weaker
for that.

Whether the cures that I suggest appeal or not, this must be done:
the fraternities must earnestly and determinedly and immediately
seek the true cure and apply it. These weeds must not spread.
Nor must we be banished from our bowers of loveliness for their
unworthy sakes.

V I . — I t is said that fraternities are so interested in their internal
affairs as to neglect the general life of the college.

This is untrue as it stands and yet there is a lesson in it. I t is
false, because every fraternity is eager beyond all else to have its
members excel in all phases of the college life. Every fraternity cele-
brates such achievements by one of its number with a joy and heart-
someness that is one of the sweetest treasures of fraternity life. Fra-
ternity life stimulates to effort in this direction and is the mightiest
factor in developing both talent and ambition. Fraternity bonds


are the most potent too in binding the alumna? to continue to seek to
reflect honor upon the college and to serve it.

But it is true that the fraternities have not come to the f u l l measure
of their usefulness. I t is true that there are large and splendid
services that they might render to the college, and, by the alumna?
bodies, to the world. I t is true that they might serve to enrich
the social life of their institutions,—and later of the community.

Every college has definite needs. Let the fraternities seek to fill

There are building funds to assist. There are scholarships and
loan funds to help found. Dances and parties and plays should be
tendered to the whole college or to large groups irrespective of our
own interests. Chapters of different fraternities could combine in
such efforts. There are stimuli to scholarship to be offered. What
interest do we take in helping our college to attract girls from a
distance by making it a more attractive place? Are there girls in
our community who would like to attend our college, and do we help
them to do so? These are but a few chance thoughts,—each place
has its own necessities.

We alumnae, too! Do we find nothing larger than ourselves to
serve? Let us search, then, if no other than a selfish reason,—for
there is no bond so strong as comradeship in a larger purpose. Let
us show the college and the community that the fraternity has made
us not less but more earnest in their causes.

These are the charges against us. This is our problem.
Let us face the situation with courage and energy, determined to be
saved. Let us not lose a chapter for lack of brave action. Let us
make clear to every faculty and counsel interested that we know
we have in our fraternity what is worthy to endure. Let us invite
them to show us what is evil and promise that, once shown, ours
and not theirs shall be the task of curing it.
We have a precious life to save. With good temper, earnest co-
operation with every force that seeks to make us better, with patience
and determination under discouragement, with faith, hope and love
and with prayer, let us save i t ! So shall we not die but live

And now let us not forget to prove the value of our bond, by
standing behind Alpha chapter in her need with constant kindness
and encouragement and the definite promise to do whatever is re-
quired of us to save her when the time comes.




(As reported in Shield of Phi Kappa Psi.)

Representatives of fifty-five fraternities and sororities met at Chi-
cago, May 30th and 31st, upon invitation of the executive council
of Delta Upsilon, to consider matters of general interest to all
Greek-letter societies. The immediate cause of the calling of the
congress was the introduction during the past winter in the legis-
latures of many states of bills hostile to fraternities. The congress
decided to establish a permanent information bureau, to be known
as the College Fraternity Bureau, with headquarters in Chicago.
The duties of this bureau are set forth in the following resolution,
which was adopted by the delegates:

Whereas, there has recently been threatened legislation, hostile to
fraternities in some states, and anti-fraternity action by faculties in
some American colleges and universities; and

Whereas, there is need for combined action on the part of the
fraternities to combat the enactment of such hostile laws and regu-
lations; and

Whereas, action looking to this end ought to be initiated in the
shortest, quickest and most effective way;

Therefore, be it resolved, by the representatives of the fifty odd
fraternities represented at this conference, that there be established
as soon as practicable, a bureau of information at Chicago, 111., to
be maintained by intercollegiate fraternities of the United States,
to be known as the College Fraternity Bureau:

I t shall be the duty of this Bureau :

L To collect and maintain a reference library containing all ac-
cessible data concerning fraternities, with reference to pending or
threatened anti-fraternity action by legislatures or faculties.

2. To furnish such data to the local organizations of various
universities and colleges as these organizations may find such data

3. To conduct in such manner as may seen best a campaign of
publicity calculated to disseminate knowledge concerning fraterni-
ties among the American people, and particularly in those states
where the fraternities have been, or are likely to be, attacked, that
will tend to explain fairly the aims and purposes of fraternities and
to eradicate and overcome false impressions and statements.

Such bureau shall be managed and controlled by an executive
committee of nine (afterward changed to ten) members, of whom
not less than three shall be members of sororities and at least one


of whom shall be a member of a professional fraternity. Such ex-
ecutive committee shall be selected in such manner as this confer-
ence shall determine.

The adoption of this report shall not obligate or bind any fra-
ternity in any manner whatsoever to support said bureau, but i f
this report is adopted by a majority vote, the roll of fraternities
represented shall be called and those whose delegates are authorized
to do so, may pledge themselves to support such bureau and to pay
their proportionate cost thereof. Those delegates who are not
authorized to act for their respective fraternities are urged to place
the matter before their fraternities to the end that such fraternities
shall take definite action upon the matter as soon as practicable.

In case this resolution shall be adopted, all intercollegiate fra-
ternities not here represented, including all professional intercol-
legiate fraternities, shall be advised of the action here taken and
cordially invited to co-operate in the maintenance of said bureau.

In addition to the foregoing resolution, the following declaration
of principles was adopted by the representatives:

We, representing fifty-five of the Greek-letter societies located in
colleges and universities of the United States of America and the
Dominion of Canada, having a membership of 400,000 men and
women, do make the following declaration:

Whereas, we believe that the people of our country are not familiar
with the true purposes and ideals of our societies, and with the
actual conditions among the same.

Now therefore we, represented in convention at the city of Chi-
cago by officers and delegates of our said societies, do declare

That it is our earnest wish and desire to inculcate in our various
chapters or local societies, the principles of true womanhood and
manhood; to promote the moral welfare of all our members; to
stimulate and encourage scholarship; to prescribe obedience to all
authority; to inculcate loyalty to and active interest in the insti-
tutions where they may be located; to foster a democratic and friend-
ly spirit between our members and all others with whom they may be
associated; and among our members to inspire a true and lasting
friendship, and we do further declare that to those ends we have
through our officers and councils dedicated ourselves in the past and
do pledge ourselves for the future; that where we fail we will remedy
and where we succeed, such shall be to us only an incentive to better

And we do further declare that our association together in such
societies is only in fulfillment of the natural desire of all people to


seek friendship among each other, and that we consider our members
not as elected to any privilege but rather as dedicated and pledged
to a life of striving for the perfection of our ideals, and

We do further declare that we welcome all sincere criticism of
our lives and conduct and do pledge ourselves to take counsel upon
the same and to remedy all things wherein we may fall short of
these, our ideals and principles;

And, remembering our long and prosperous existence, our oppor-
tunities and hopes for the future, our thousands of great and true
members now in the service of the world, the thousands of our young
men and women in our brotherly care, the sen-ice of many good and
noble men and women given to the perfecting of these principles;

We do pledge ourselves to promote these things in all ways and
to continue our efforts to that end.

I t was felt by the representatives that in many cases the public
had confused the high school fraternities with college fraternities,
and after some discussion the following resolution was adopted:

Be it resolved, That the representatives of the fifty-five fraterni-
ties and sororities here assembled declare their opposition to high
school fraternities and sororities, and express the hope that their
organizations will soon legislate against the initiation of members
of high school fraternities.


MR. JACKMAN (Delta Upsilon)—We believe that the salvation
is not in fighting and restricting fraternities, but in establishing more
fraternities. And I want to say that we advocated that before the
committees and that since the bill has been killed we have had
three groups of students from the University of Wisconsin come to
us and ask us to help them get national fraternities.

M R . H A N N A (Beta Theta Pi)—Every fraternity represented in
this house ought to grant seme more charters. There are places you
could put them with success and advantage to your own fraterni-
ties. There ought to be more fraternities—and i f you and I and
all of us would help bring them into being—you would not hear
of this hostility. I t would cease in a very short time.

MR. PATTERSON (Delta Upsilon)— Fighting—Education and a
reporting system.


MR. T R I M P E (Sigma Chi)—As the discussion has developed it
has been confined, perhaps, up to this point, to organization for the
purpose of combating in a way the anti-fraternity sentiment which
is getting to be such a very serious menace to all our interests. We
will have to have a basis of comity and understanding. We will
have to have the concerted and official co-operation of the various
bodies we represent here. We will in other words have to perfect
a practical, efficient organization.

MRS. CHASE (Alpha Gamma Delta)—Information is the great
thing we need in our fight; it is one of the sinews of war. Second
there must be money subscribed.

MR. E. HOLDERNESS (Sigma Alpha Epsilon)—If I could stand
before the congress. I should voice it as my firm conviction that, i f
we stand today on sinking sands, it is because we have not stood
together as fellow-Creeks on the broad foundation of perfect frank-
ness, confidence and co-operation.

M R . MATTHEWS (Tan Beta P i ) — i believe that we will find in
every case that we have heard about (concerning anti-fraternity leg-
islation) there is some personal animosity at the bottom of the action.


or Motions Passed by Unanimous Vote of All Congress Fraternities.

1903 to 1904. 1—No student shall be asked to join a fraternity be-
fore she has matriculated.

2. Matriculation shall be defined as the day of enrollment as a stu-
dent in the university or college.

1904-1905. 3—A pledge day shall be adopted by the national fra-
ternities in each college where chapters of two or more fraternities

4. Pledge day in each college shall be fixed by the Pan-Hellenic
association existing there.

1907. 5—High school fraternities shall be discountenanced.
1910. 6—Students in a university summer school are ineligible for

fraternity pledging.
1913.—A pledge shall expire at the end of one calendar year.
1912-1913. 7—A girl who breaks her pledge to one fraternity shall

not be asked to join another for one calendar year. From the
Pan-Hellenic Bulletin.





The Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations is a co-operative or-
ganization managed by the New York alumna? of Barnard, Bryn
Mawr, Cornell, Mt. Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar, and Welles-
ley. Employers in search of efficient workers and educated women
seeking the best vocational opportunities have long felt the need of a
clearing house through which they might meet, and the Bureau pur-
poses to supply this need in New York. I t aims also to investigate
the present conditions of women's work, to develop new opportunities,
to establish close connections with the colleges and to aid in giving
information to undergraduates, to give specific advice regarding
equipment for different vocations, and to insure in every possible way
a wise choice of occupation and adequate preparation for its demands.
We ask your co-operation in fulfilling these purposes.

To EMPLOYERS the Bureau offers its services as an organized means
of finding well qualified candidates for positions in which education
and special training are required. Wide contact with college alum-
nae and with many other women well equipped for professional
service enables us to recommend the right worker for the right place.
Our list includes secretaries for literary, financial, or executive posi-
tions, investigators, workers in various branches of philanthropic
service, laboratory assistants in physics, chemistry, bacteriology, and
biology, bookkeepers, proof readers, librarians, travelling companions
and couriers with practical business experience and knowledge of
foreign countries, trained nurses for executive of institutional posi-
tions, musicians, editorial writers, and household administrators
trained in domestic science. For the first year, at least, teachers
will not be registered. A l l other occupations offering desirable op-
portunities for women are included in the Bureau's work. No fee
is charged to employers.

To WOMEN WORKERS the Bureau offers its services as their agent
in securing positions other than teaching. Careful study is made to
ascertain the fitness of the applicant for the work which she wishes to
do, and to suggest to her the possibilities in line with her attainments.
To any who are without experience or training advice is gladly given,
but no applicant is registered who is not qualified. Graduation
from college is not a requirement. A l l educated women, whether
college graduates or not, are eligible i f they are prepared for the
work which they seek. The Bureau aims not only to aid women who


are beginning their careers, or changing their positions, but especial
interest is taken in finding larger opportunities for women of long
experience and thoroughly tested efficiency.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT. The Bureau is not a commercial agency but
a co-operative organization yielding no profits to anyone connected
with it. I t is incorporated under the laws of the State of New York.
For the first year the funds necessary for the work have been provided
by contributions from members of the co-operating organizations.
Sound growth demands, however, that it become self-supporting as
soon as possible. I f its work develops so well as to yield *a profit
the money will be used for the better accomplishment of its purposes.
In determining the fees to be charged to applicants the directors aim
to make the amount as low as seems consistent with the possibility
of ultimate self-support.


From The Agency Circular

Social work is a changing profession. New organizations develop
to meet newly discovered needs, and positions change their scope with
changes in the social program. Therefore it is not possible to out-
line definitely the types of work. Only a suggestion can be given
of some of the present activities of societies employing paid workers.
These include charity organization, family treatment and relief,
promotion of public health and sanitation, treatment and prevention
of disease, organized effort on behalf of the child at work, at school,
as dependent or delinquent, provision for the treatment of offenders
by the courts and by probation officers, the study of industrial con-
ditions and of immigration problems, recreation, settlement work,
and neighborhood activities.

In connection with such work executive secretaries, superintend-
ents, agents, investigators and assistants of various kinds are needed.

As the standard of efficiency has been raised in the field of pro-
fessional social work, it has become increasingly difficult and unde-
sirable to enter this occupation without definite training or experience.
The standard for registration in the Department for Social Workers
requires either one or more of the following qualifications:—(1) a
college education, (2) a year's course in a professional school which
offers training for social work, (3) a year's experience as a paid
social worker. To those who cannot meet these requirements the


Department will gladly give advice about the opportunities to secure
experience under competent direction.

Professional training for social work may be secured in one of the
schools of philanthropy. Some university courses offer valuable
preparation, and certain technical courses, such as physical training,
or domestic science, are of distinct use as part of the equipment of
social workers.

In view of the complex character of the field and the rapid develop-
ment of new activities, it seemed essential that there should be a cen-
tral registry. To meet this demand, the Department for Social
Workers was established as a branch of the Intercollegiate Bureau of

The Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations is organized and man-
aged by the New York alumni associations of nine leading eastern
colleges for women. The purpose of the Bureau is to secure posi-
tions for college women in pursuits other than teaching.

I n the Department for Social Workers, both men and women
are eligible for registration. I t hopes to be of service not only by
registering workers and positions but also by investigating and mak-
ing available facts in regard to the opportunities in this field..

Correspondence and inquiries should be addressed to Miss Sigrid
V. Wynbladh, 38 West 32d Street, New York.



A vocational conference, on occupations other than teaching, for
college women, is creating much enthusiasm among the college women
of the Northwest, because it is the first of its kind that has ever been
held in this section of the country and is something that will be of
great benefit.

•It is planned primarily for collegiate women and will consist of
lectures in the mornings and individual conferences in the afternoons.

The idea of holding vocational conferences is comparatively new
and this being the first, we are proud of the fact that our Dean
White is the instigator of this movement and that it will be held
here at our college. Several have been held during the last three
or four years in the East and Middle West, but they have all been
confined to one student body and dealt more or less with local prob-
lems. The conference to be held here in April is the first that has
invited delegates from the neighboring institutions and it is hoped
that all the thirteen institutions of higher education in the Pacific


Northwest will send delegates from the faculty and student body as
well as their deans of women.

We believe that such a gathering of college and professional women
will do much toward broadening and enlarging the young women of
the Washington State College. No slight is intended to teaching
as a vocation, but it is believed that too large a proportion of our
women students and graduates are entering that profession, and that
many of them have no business teaching and are, through ignorance
of the opportunities open to them in other fields, missing the work
that would be congenial to them, and thus cheating society out of
their best efforts. There is too much to be done these days for a
woman to finish her college course without some definite idea of what
she is going to do when she has left the halls of her alma mater.
The purposeful woman will try to shape her work and elect those
courses in college which will give her the greatest amount of prep-
aration for her future work. One of the aims of the conference is
to give information concerning the natural qualifications and prep-
arations necessary to success in the various vocational fields.


—From the Adelphean of Alpha Delta Pi.




We realize, now, that we are all members of Jackson College.
There are at present no candidates for a Tufts degree, for our pres-
ent Seniors were the first entering class after the founding of Jackson
in the spring of 1910 and will receive Jackson degrees.

The first assembly of all the Jacksonites, as we now call ourselves,
was held on the Saturday following registration, September the
twentieth. We celebrated by holding a banquet at Metcalf Hall, our
main dormitory, and invited the freshman class as our guests. The
affair was under the auspices of the A l l Around Club and proved
a great success. I trust we may make this occasion an annual affair.

Emma Hulen A H A '14, president of the A l l Around Club gave
the address of welcome and introduced Helen Hearsey X O '14, as
toastmistress. The other speakers were Mrs. Caroline S. Davies,
Dean of Jackson, Dr. Maud Carvill A O I I '96, physical directress
of Jackson, Mrs. Cora P. Deurck '96, president of the Tufts Alum-
nae Association, Leslie Hooper A O I I '14, Edith Cochran X fi '14,
Isabella Cameron A H A '14, Eleanor Bisbee A O I I '15 and Aileen
Hagarty 2 K '16.

I am sure i f you have ever witnessed the birth of your college
you may perhaps realize what this meant to everyone of us. I am
unable to express in words how much we all were inspired by such
a gathering and how much responsibility we all felt that our dear
Alma Mater may have the proper support in the future by those
whom she intends to shelter and protect during their academic years.
There are now about one hundred students enrolled and I sincerely
hope that there will be several hundred before many years.

So let us all give three rousing cheers for Jackson College, Rah,
rah! rah!

GLADYS E. K E I T H A ' 1 5




Special to The New York Times.

I T H A C A , N . Y., April 26.—The city board of tax assessors has
finally refused to make any material alterations in the valuations of
various properties belonging to Cornell University fraternities in
spite of violent protests against discriminating increases in their
valuations which have been made this year.

A table showing the valuation of various fraternity properties this
year and three years ago and corresponding valuations of private
property in the same districts has been compiled. On practically all
fraternity house on the H i l l the valuations have been considerably
raised and in certain cases they have been doubled, while those on
private properties remain the same.

One of the hardest fights is over the figure placed on a certain
property situated northwest of the university grounds and away from
town. The house had been a private residence until this year, when
it was sold to a fraternity. This spring the valuation of the prop-
erty was doubled, though no improvements had been made upon it
and property in the same neighborhood was not raised.

The attitude of the assessors on the fraternity assessment question
was well reflected on "grievance day" when, in answer to a fraternity
representative who compared its property with that of surrounding
citizens, a member of the board said:

"Don't compare fraternity property with private property; com-
pare this assessment with other fraternity assessments."

I t seems to be a case of open discrimination and in all probability
the students will take their case to the Supreme Court.





Special to The New York Times.

N E W H A V E N , Conn., A p r i l 19.—The famous stand taken by
militant sophomores at Vale has at last found open expression through
the usually staid columns of the News. Much idle rumoring and
wild conjecture has been indulged in here, and still more so outside
of Yale, as was the case with Stover last year. But, at any rate,
"The Truth of the Sophomore Movement" featured The News for
Tuesday. To begin with, the sophomores say they do not aim at
abolition of the societies, at least not necessarily so, but rather for
a change in their system. Two chief points are made, excessive
secrecy and inadvisable choice of members. Exactly what is meant
by excessive secrecy is in itself a problem, for secrecy is a self-explan-
atory word, and how it can be "excessive" or "reasonably private," (as
1915 wishes it,) is a question answerable only by the coiners of the
euphonious phrase. Just how much secrecy or how little, meets with
their approval they alone can say.

Within this very vague and abstract charge there is a concrete
attack upon Tap Day as being too public and sensational. On this
ground mention may be made of the fact that, supposedly with the
approval of the societies, Dean Jones has this year made Tap Day
far less public by excluding all visitors.

The lack of any substitute to take the place of Tap Day is notice-
able in the sophomore petition. Abolition of Tap Day, as it now
exists, is the most definite demand, but no constructive word as to
how, other than by Tap Day, society elections may be given out is put
forward. The second general basic trouble with senior societies is
said to be because their members are unwisely chosen. "Family in-
fluence or personal interests" are inveighed against, and it is said that
men should be judged "on their characters as revealed at Yale," "not
on any indefinite assumption of future possibilities." Men who will
"reflect the greatest credit on the societies" themselves are those who
should be elected. Members of the different societies, from the
present senior class, seem disposed to discuss this entire subject with
some freedom among their classmates, and with no excessive secrecy
they state that society elections are always made with great care and
deliberation, and that, indeed, the societies always elect those who,
as they think, will reflect the greatest credit upon their organization;
that, indeed, it is obvious that they desire always to have such men as


do reflect the greatest credit upon them, compose their memberships.
The 1915 petition says:

" I n consequence of the above considerations; we suggest that
secrecy be reduced to a reasonable privacy; that Tap Day as it now
exists, be abolished and that the greatest care in the choice of men,
as outlined above, be exercised. Such external criticism as this can
only be effective i n proportion to the influence which it exerts on the
members of the societies themselves, for we well know that whatever
change may occur must come from within."

The present members of senior societies who discuss this petition
seem to feel, on the whole, that its drafters are sincere and that they
are earnestly and sanely acting for what to them seems best for Yale.
Though some details of the petition seem—for occult reasons—to
amuse them, they tend to regard it as made in good faith, but largely
fallacious in its hypotheses.

I t is the consensus of opinion that nothing will be directly effected
as a result of this petition as these organizations themselves are
avowedly interested, first and foremost, in the welfare of Yale, and
therefore whatever to then seems best for Yale will, in the future, as
in the past, be done from within, largely irrespective of external
pressure. In spite of lurid accounts thereof, this situation is not a
new one. Yale's history has many such. Nor will it, in all prob-
ability result in any very radical changes, nor indeed in any changes,
according to the social elite, which they themselves had not already
long considered. There seems to be a prevailing opinion throughout
the country that Yale is facing a crisis, and is in the throes of self-
betterment. To a great extent the crisis is past and the throes are
imaginary. The great amount of criticism heard of late has only
brought Yale to fuller realization of its own wonder and strength.
A new note of enthusiasm is gradually drowning out the sound of the
hammer. A new confidence in athletics is being felt, and a new
attitude of hope in all things. Now, most of all, one hears that
those who really and unselfishly have the good of Yale at heart,
above all personal questions, will further that good by upholding
and constructing. Yale is, indeed, just finding itself, and except to
the dyspeptic few, the discovery is largely happy.




I go into the wind to pluck a rose,
That great white rose, wide-blown. It must not die
Ravished by tempest, all its tender snows
Torn rudely from its heart. Nay, it shall lie
In languorous safety, here upon my breast,
By every beating of my heart caressed.
Oh, let us save a gentle thing from storm
Whene'er we can;
Too pitifully oft they suffer harm,—
I f flower or man !


A sjlver mist by the trade-wind blown
Comes hurrying in from the west;
A small bird flieth alone, alone,
And cleaveth the grey mist's breast,

So buoyant and brave,
Facing wind and the wave
And all that the strange mists hide!
When a day calleth me
To the Hidden Sea,
On as gallant a wing let we ride!


San Francisco, 1913.



Although Boston is generously sprinkled with "beauty parlors"
Madame Angelo's hair shop had perhaps the largest number of regu-
lar patrons.

Madame herself, a thin lipped, narrow eyed woman melted into a
black crepe gown was of the Canadian French variety, tho' her cus-
tomers were led to believe that Paris had had the honor of being her
birth place.

She heartily agreed with Americans that only by being an expert in
one line could success be won, so she devoted her energies to supplying
the demand for false hair. Her selection of rats, transformations,
turbanettes, puffs and braids was endless. She did hair dressing
also but the other branches of the beauty business she left to her

She always managed to get clever girls to work for her. A good
judge of human nature was Madame and the said judgment was
seldom obscured by compunctions of any kind. "To get them smart,
but not too smart, that is indeed the problem" she used to sigh.

"Too smart" meant to her those abandoned creatures who joined a
Union, and so couldn't work till ten or twelve at night i f business
were rushing. To obviate this difficulty she tried always to get girls
of different nationality, knowing well the underlying contempt the
average emigrant has for every other foreigner who hasn't happened
to be born in his particular country.

Her present force made her smile with satisfaction. Ireland in
the person of Hannah Grady, Germany's daughter Gretchen Nico-
demus, a waif from Sweden, Cimbria Anderson, and a fellow country
woman of Madame's, Sophy Willett, made up the personnel. They
were all good workers and life looked a fair and gracious thing to
Madame one July afternoon as she moved about the cool shop ob-
serving with pleasure the line of autos waiting at the curb.

In the room behind her the girls worked steadily. To prevent
idleness when she was not present she had lately established a neat
little system of fines—if the pile of finished pieces beside any one
girl wasn't as large as Madame thought it should be, her wages were
docked a quarter. Under this spur the girls had responded gallantly,
but naturally, as Hannah expressed it, "We are not W A S T I N G our
love on Madame."

The room was fairly large, with three windows, the outlook from
them being into back yards.

Around the wall were arranged pigeon holes in which were "hanks"
of hair ranging in color from palest straw to jet black.


A row of lockers with the name of its owner on each one held the
out-door garments of the girls, who sat at a long table running length-
wise of the room.

During a lull in the demands of the customers Madame came
in to see how the work was progressing. She passed round the
table in silence inspecting critically what had been done.

The continual ringing of the telephone bell in her office, which
opened off the work-room, called her away.

"Billy is going to catch it for not answering that 'phone," remarked
Hannah. The most noticeable thing about her were her jolly little
pug nose and her huge teeth—when she smiled they gave her a look
of strength and force.

"Serve him right, the lazy kid," answered the girl beside her in
a curious husky voice. Her eyes large, dark and restless, were set
too near together, and her eyebrows projected unusually. She was
rather remarkable but somewhat repellant.

"What's he got to do aryway but hang around that cool store.
He don't have to work here day in, and day out over hair that comes
from Heaven knows where. Bah! I hate i t ! I wish sometimes
every blooming woman was as bald as—as a tomato, that's the smooth-
est thing I know of."

"Lots of good it would do us." from Hannah. "Madame would
sell wigs instead of rats, that's all. You sure get me tired with your
endless whining, Sophy, you are never satisfied. You know per-
fectly well that little chap Billy is on the dead jump every minute of
the day. When he isn't delivering parcels and Madame can't find a
blamed thing to keep him busy, she sends him out into the broiling
sun to wash windows. He certainly has a cinch—well, not hardly!
And here you sit in a comfortable chair and only have to keep your
fingers moving. By the same token we better be doing it. Cimbria's
pile is growing too fast."

They worked a while in silence.

"Only have to keep my fingers going," quoted Sophy bitterly.
"That don't look so awfully good to me. Why should I spend my
days in this hole trying to make other women beautiful? Why
shouldn't they work for me? Why can't I have the things I ' d like
just as they do? I want stunning clothes and a red auto and a big
house. Oh D O N ' T I want them I " her fist came down upon the
table making the scissors jump.

"We all W A N T those things," replied Hannah, "but only a few
of us get 'em. So what's the use of hating what you have got
'cause you can't have what you're not likely to ever get? Besides
if you did have 'em I ' l l bet you wouldn't be any happier. Didn't


you and me work in a woolen mill for six months and wasn't you
always mourning about the noise—and the wages? Now here you
are in a quiet room with three dollars more a week and you keep right
on fussing—fussing, fussing."

Cimbria had closely followed this conversation tho' she hadn't
paused in her work.

She was a striking looking girl with grey eyes and quantities of
pale ash-colored hair arranged without a rat. She looked cool and
neat in a white shirt-waist suit and green silk tie.

As Hannah ceased speaking she glanced at Sophy who was working
in sullen silence.

"But you are not born to such a life," she said. Her voice was
low and throaty,—a pleasant contrast to Sophy's harsh notes and
Hannah's high ones.

"You can't break into that class as a burglar does into a house.
You would not be at home. Last week when I had finished dress-
ing Mrs. Williams' hair she asked me to come down-stairs and lunch
with her. She is old and her heart is weak so she must be humored.
So, tho' I wished to come down town again, I stayed. After we were
seated at the table two of her nieces came in and joined us. They
were very beautiful girls about my own age. They were kind
to me but what would you — we had no common interests.
They told their aunt of their golf, of their dances, of the trip last
winter to Italy, and talked of a possible run into Norway for a few
weeks this summer. I knew the names of all these things, they knew
the heart of them. And I? On what subjects could I talk? Of
how many turbanettes we had made that day? Of how cool it was
beside the fountain on the Common? Of how the babies cry and
cry on the fire-escapes these warm nights? No, no. We are on
different sides of a fence and there is no gate except one is an artist.
Ah, then!"

I t was evident that Gretchen adored Cimbria for while she talked
the German girl's placid face was aglow with pride.

"Why not tell them of the books you read and read, and of the
Grand Opera you hear?" she asked, anxiously, grieved to have her
idol appear at a disadvantage.

Cimbria laughed. Catching Sophy's eyes fixed on her in a ques-
tioning way, she said, " I board at Gretchen's home so she knows my

"Who took you to Grand Opera?" eagerly asked Sophy.
" I went by myself—it costs but little in the highest balcony."
"Oh!" Sophy's tone was disgusted. "You went because you liked
it. I thought maybe you sat on the floor with some swell and had a


chance to see the Four Hundred. It's by me how you can enjoy a l l

that racket. I like music but I want it a waltz or a two-step, tho' a

barn dance isn't too bad. As for books, life's too short to spend it

that way. I want what I want when I want it—a good time and no

She finished in a harsh low tone that grated on Cimbria's nerves.
"Don't we live here in America where we are all supposed to be

free and equal?" she rushed on. " A healthy lot of freedom we have.
We are the slaves of the upper classes!"

"Come, come, girl, cut that out." Hannah interrupted. " I am
glad that Russian you used to admire so, got another girl. He cer-
tainly worked his tongue over time. He was awful generous with his
ideas but they didn't seem to bring him in any money."

"Speak not of him to me, I hate him," flamed Sophy.
"Well, quit your pipe dreams of red autos, they aren't for the likes
of us, and the sooner you know it the sooner you'll find you can
enjoy a car ride on a hot night," counselled Hannah. With her
lightning change of mood Sophy tossed off her emotion with a laugh.

" I guess you are right, Grandmother," she said scoffingly.

Cimbria and Gretchen were growing used to these discussions be-
tween the practical Irish girl who had a vein of sterling common-
sense in her makeup, and the reckless, passionate Canadian.

Sophy's mental processes reminded Cimbria of an ant she had once
idly watched. She judged he was the father of a hungry family for
he was staggering under the weight of a dead fly and he seemed to be
in a feverish hurry. He would rush up a blade of grass which
would always bend at the end letting him fall back again to the
place from which he started. I t was p i t i f u l to see him wasting so
much energy.

So it was with this girl. Lacking the mental ability to frankly
face her situation and become content in it, she allowed her emotions
to lash her over the same well-worn road only to be brought back to
actualities by Hannah who really liked her, for they had been fellow-
workers for some time, and the Irish girl understood her moods per-

"Why care so much about things, Sophy," said Cimbria, "It's
only the people with whom one lives that really count."

Her listeners knew she was alone in the world. Mrs. Anderson
had died in giving her birth on board the steamer whose name she
bore. The father, crazed by grief, jumped overboard before New
York was reached, leaving his small daughter to be taken by some
kind-hearted emigrants. They had chanced to work in a mill where
the owners ran a library for their employees, and there Cimbria had


practically spent her childhood. She could go there and escape from
the swarm of children and the poverty of her home surroundings.
She read ravenously. Fiction, Philosophy, travel, history,—she grew
acquainted with them all.

When she reached the wage-earning age she was not strong enough
for mill work, yet her public school education had fitted her for
nothing else.

Her foster family moved to the West thus throwing her on her
own resources. She had come to Boston and had managed to pick
up a scanty living doing first one kind of unskilled work and then

About a year before, Madame had found her i n a labor agency.
Before long she realized what a treasure was hers, so Cimbria had
been taught the business and Madame had twice raised her wages.

The patrons of the establishment liked her because she was so
gentle, so silent,—and some of them, because she was so pretty.

In turn the work was attractive to her because it brought her :n
contact with people of refinement and the houses to which she went
satisfied her genuine love of artistic surroundings.

The pile of finished pieces beside her chair was the largest, Sophy
having the least of all. Gretchen, the practical, noticed the differ-
ence and commented upon it, remarking that Sophy would probably
have to pay a fine.

"Yes, hang her, of course I shall! And my last week's washing not
paid for yet." grumbled Sophy.

Cimbria, whose chair was opposite, gathered up a handful of her
work and transferred it to Sophy's place, waving aside her torrent of
thanks with a smile.

"Well, say, Cim, will you go to the Castle Square with me tonight
and see Ben Hur? I've got two tickets," she pleaded.

"Yes, and thank you," replied Cimbria.

The door from the shop opened at that moment to admit the head
and shoulders of Billy,

" H i ! girls," he wispered loudly. "We're getting inspected by the
Board of Health. You just ought to see the smooth guy out here
puting up the questions to Madame. I've got the mumps on one side,
suppose I lose me job?"

His sudden disappearance was accounted for by the entrance of
Madame Angelo. Her appearance checked the laughter of the girls
over what they considered Billy's joke.

She was white under her powder, and her chin trembled when she


Young ladies," she said, " I would like to ask i f all of you have
been enjoying good health lately. Gretchen?"

"Ah, yes, Madame, you could not tell my strength from that of
a horse."

"As slick as a kitty, Madame,"
"Why, about the same, J guess. I don't sleep very well and my
throat bothers me some, it's the east wind I guess, tho'."
"Very well, Madame, thank you."

"What is that mark on the back of your hand?" said Madame


"Only a bruise, I think. I must have hit it against the table, tho'
I don't remember doing it. I t isn't sore but it doesn't seem to heal."

She held out a slender hand cruelly disfigured by an angry-looking
patch. I t was bright red in the center, shading to saffron on the
edges. The skin round it had a curious lifeless look.

Madame grew whiter, i f possible. Without further speech she
left the room.

"Now what do you know about that?" demanded Hannah. "What
a sudden interest she takes in our health. She'll be asking us to
dinner at the Touraine pretty quick, because we don't get nourish-
ment enough at home. She certainly did look broken up. I f it's any
thing catching she is afraid it will hurt the business," she added

"What is she trying to find out?" wondered Sophy.
" I would like to know myself," from Cimbria. "Why should my
hand make her look so queer. I t can't be smallpox. I have had it
too long."
With the easy philosophy of their class they dismissed the subject
and kept on working.
When Madame again entered she had regained her self-possession.
"It's been such a warm day, girls, that I ' l l give you the rest of the
afternoon, but please be here promptly at eight tomorrow," as she
finished speaking she entered her office, locking the door behind her.
The girls looked at each other in amazement.
"Holy cats!" exclaimed Hannah. "Suppose someone has left
her a fortune? A holiday and it's only two days before the Fourth
when she has to give us one!"
"Madame has the kind heart after all," ventured Gretchen folding
up her apron calmly.


"Don't you believe it," rejoined Hannah. " I t isn't us she is sorry
for, it's herself. But I ' l l quit knocking her. She has her good

"What do you care what the reason is," interrupted Sophy. "We've
got it, let's go out and enjoy it. My, but I am glad to leave this
stuffy old place for once before six o'clock. Come on, Han, go with
me to the circus. I t will have to be a Dutch treat, tho,' I have just
money enough for myself. Don't you forget, Cim, that you've a date
with me tonight. I ' l l meet you at the door about ten minutes of
eight. Oh isn't it great we have an afternoon off!"

Her voice was more hoarse than ever from her emotion, and she
fairly radiated joy as she took a few waltz steps round the room.

Cimbria quietly tidied the place glancing now and then toward the
office door.

"What a kid you are, Sophy," chided Hannah, pinning on a huge
hat. "You sure need a mother's care, and that's what you'll get this
afternoon. Yes," in answer to Sophy's little crow of joy, " I am
coming with you. What's a holiday for anyway i f not to blow in
something extra. Gretchen, why can't you come on, too?"

"Ah, no. I must go home and help mine mother with the wash-
ing," said Gretchen.

"Too bad, old girl," from Hannah. "Cimbria how about you,
will you join us?"

"No, I ' l l go along with Gretchen. I can take care of the baby,
poor dear. He is just cutting his teeth and Mrs. Nicodemus doesn't
get much sleep."

On the street the four separated with brief goodbyes.
At the theatre that evening Cimbria and Sophy found their seats
were in the first row of the second balcony.

Sophy's gown was a much beruffled tan colored affair, her black
hair was plentifully sprinkled with pins, studded with brilliants,
while on her knee she held a red hat so big it had to be tilted at an
angle to go in between the seat and the rail. She was restless with
excitement. The afternoon in the hot circus tent had but waked her
up and whetted her desire for more. She talked constantly, her
voice attracting attention, which was as wine to her.

Cimbria was dressed in white lawn, finished at the neck by an
Irish lace collar which permitted a glimpse of her pretty throat.
She was enjoying herself in her quieter way, as much as her com-
panion. She listened to Sophy's remarks, but as they consisted
chiefly of comments on the audience, they required no answer, and
she was free to follow her own train of thought. To be one of a
crowd was a pleasure to her for she was always speculating about


the men and women, their lives and their tastes. She was recalled to
the presence of her companion by an excited whisper from her.

"Do you know I think these men just behind us are Harvard
medical students, they've been talking so much about cutting people
up. Just listen to their jollying. They are so funny!"

Two of the boys in question were evidently freshmen, and with the
prodigality of youth they were making the audience a handsome pres-
ent of their opinions on all sorts of subjects. They were very witty
at the expense of their two companions, older men, who were
carrying on a low-toned conversation and ignoring the gibes and
jeers hurled at their heads.

Sophy was delighted. Comedy of this type she could understand.
I t charmed her to discover that beings from a sphere of life she
regarded with reverence, could indulge in it. At last one of the
youths said, " A l , do you know why Harris the Great is with us to-
night? You probably think it's because he wants to listen to your
sparkling remarks and gaze into your dreamy eyes, but you have an-
other think coming. Did you know the medical profession took off
its hat to him last week because he proved he knew more about lep-
rosy than any six men in Uncle Sammy's little burg? I f you were in
the last stages you might expect some attention from him. Being
a healthy chap with a double chin, he takes not an atom of interest
in you."

"No, I didn't know i t , " from the other man, "but I hope to Heav-
en he'll never get a chance to take an interest in me! Why is he
wasting his time here i f he is such a grind? Looking for patients?"
He laughed at the folly of his question.

"My son," reprovingly said the other voice, " have you never done
any religious reading? Your parents, my boy, can't be any better
than they ought to be. They may have made you read the Bible,
but unless you have mastered Ben Hur also you can't truthfully be
called, in the broadest sense of the term, an educated man. To go back
to Harris, there is a scene in this play that has two lepers in it, and
Harris is here in his professional capacity. You may expect to see
him leap upon the stage and ask to examine them to see if they are
indeed the real things."

The house was darkened and the curtain rose, putting a stop to

further conversation.
Sophy, who had the theater habit in its most acute form, lost

her identity completely and when the scene ended sat entranced,
waiting dumbly for her mimic world to open to her again. Cimbria's
attention was caught by a new voice behind her.


"Freshmen don't change much, do they, Harris," it said; "those
two idiots are getting fun out of the same moth-eaten jokes we
laughed over. It's pretty good to hear the chaff again, tho' I can't
believe it's almost six years since I went west. It's a great country
but Boston isn't far behind. Harris, did Hums tell the truth, are
you making leprosy your special branch?"

"Yes, I am," responded the man addressed as Harris.

Cimbria at once became interested, the voice was so mellow in tone,
and so sympathetic.

"It's time some of us waked up to the gravity of the situation,
for the number of cases in this country increases each year, but they
have been confined to California, as a rule, and we New Knglanders
haven't paid much attention to it. During the past year, since this
damned fashion of wearing false hair became the rage, we have had
more than our share, right here in Boston. Joe, I sometimes think
women are all fools. This talk about their dainty feminine ways
has about as much foundation as the fairy tales we heard in our
childhood. I suppose half the women in this house would be insulted
if asked to use an unwashed knife and fork, or to sleep between sheets
not fresh from the laundry, yet consider what they put on their
heads. This mad craze for big hats demands the present style
of hair-dressing. Most of the raw material for the rats, etc., comes
from China where it's taken from the dead bodies of convicts, lepers
and outcasts. It has to come from this class for no respectable
Chinaman would sell his queue during his life time, and his relatives
would be afraid to after his death. When it reaches America the
importers give it to families in the slums to be cured for the shops.
You can fancy the kind of people who would do such work and the
places in which it is done. It's been no surprise to me that we have
had six or seven cases here in the city of girls who have worked in
hair-stores and caught the disease. As far as we know now, it's
quite incurable. You know as well as I do, what that means."

The speaker's voice grew low and earnest.

" I n our profession we grow used to almost everything but I tell
you, Joe, it makes my heart bleed to think of those girls, ignorant,
light-hearted, and wholly unfitted to meet tragic things, being up
against such a fate, and all because the fashionable woman wants
to carry round a head the size of a barrel!"

"But isn't emigration at the bottom of it, Harris?" asked his
friend. "Europe is flooding us each year with all kinds of people
from all kinds of places. Politically they bring us anarchy, com-
mercially they cause low wages, and physically they give us diseases


we never knew of before. America reminds me of a huge snake that's
swallowed too large a meal. She has become sleepy and inert from

"You are half right, Joe," from Harris, "but in this case it's
the exception. The Americans seem to be giving it to the emigrants.
The families who bleach and boil and wave it t i l l it's ready for the
market know nothing about sanitary measures. We haven't time to
teach 'em. Naturally the process through which the raw material
goes would kill the germs but the same combs and brushes are used
before and after, and the work is carried on in the same air-tignt
room. You can imagine the result. We aren't playing the game with
these incoming people, and, by George, it's a cruel thing!"

This conversation had been carried on during the pauses between
the acts and Cimbria found that her attention was divided between
the story unfolding before her eyes and the numberless ideas called
up by the earnest discussion behind her. Perhaps, because of it,
her interest in the dungeon scene was more intense. At its close
Sophy wiped the tears from her cheeks and said with a sol)—

"Ain't this elegant? I just love a play I can cry over. That last

act was a dandy, but mustn't it be fierce to have that sickness. Why

didn't they have a doctor?"

"There weren't many there," explained Cimbria, "besides leprosy
could be cured then only by a miracle."

"Well, that's one thing we don't have to worry about nowadays,"
said Sophy, with a careless laugh. "Doctors can cure most anything
now, but," she went on with a curious persistence, " i f a person should
get it. would he have to go round the streets hollering 'Unclean,
Unclean.' Wouldn't it be funny?"

"Don't, Sophy, can't you see how awful it is? Don't speak as i f
it were a joke," entreated Cimbria.

Sophy's volatile mind had flown off at another tangent and she
shrugged her shoulders at the protest.

To Cimbria's keener imagination the scene had been a torture.
Tho' she knew the two women were but figures in fiction yet the
pity of their situation had gripped her t i l l she found herself with
clinched hands, and waked to the fact that the last act was almost

After the close air of the theatre, the cool out-of-doors was wel-
come. The mystery of the night and the subtle appeal of the city
came to both girls tho' in different ways. Cimbria was content to
be an on-looker. She enjoyed watching the men and women who had
laid aside their daytime habit of hurry, and seemed satisfied to drift


down the streets looking into the shops, watching the crowd for
acquaintances, drinking soda, or riding in autos.

The scene had the charm of novelty to her, for she seldom went
out, dreading to go alone, and yet dreading more the men she was
thrown with.

To Sophy it was all an old story, and because of her very familiar-
ity it was the more intoxicating. Unlike Cimbria, she panted to be-
come part of it. She wanted to be one of the women watched over
so carefully by their escorts, or one of those riding by so comfortably
in touring cars. This gay, frothy side of life appealed keenly to
her and she rebelled fiercely because she was not born to it.

At her suggestion, they went into a drugstore for a soda, but their
enjoyment of it was spoiled by the open admiration of Cimbria
shown by a fast looking man buying cigars.

He followed them when they left the store to the delight of one
and the disgust of the other.

They hurried to Sophy's boarding house and Cimbria consented to
stay the night with her, for she dreaded the lonely walk to her own

Eight o'clock the next morning found the girls at Madame
Angelo's. They were in high spirits from their brief holiday and
their curiosity as to its cause ran high. Madame looked white, her
eyes were encircled by black rings, and her mouth was a thin red

About nine she led the way into her private office, followed by a
man who carried a small case.

" I wonder what that means," mused Hannah "he doesn't look like
a book agent."

Madame called her name rather sharply and she entered the of-
fice. Gretchen worked stolidly. Sophy was indifferent, but Cimbria
was shivering with dread, but of what she could not say.

Hannah returned and Gretchen went in.

"What happened to you, Han?" demanded Sophy.

"Nothing much," Hannah answered indifferently, "he's a doctor
and he looked down my throat, asked me some fool questions, then
he told Madame I was O. K . "

"Well, I hope he'll do something for my throat. It's been troub-
ling me for months. That's why my voice is so queer," said Sophy.
" I f Madame has him look at it, it won't cost me anything."

Gretchen returned and Sophy took her place in the office.
Cimbria worked nervously, the suspense was getting on her nerves.


Sophy did not return but Madame called for Cimbria and her voice
was like chilled steel.

"Miss Anderson is the last one, Doctor," she said.
Sophy was seated by the window looking at the photograph of a
good-looking young man on Madame's desk.
After one keen glance from a pair of brown eyes the doctor said,
"May I see the back of your right hand. Miss Anderson?" and
Cimbria, with a queer feeling of surprise, recognized the voice of
the man named Harris, who had sat behind her the evening before.

The examination was brief.
"That's all, Miss Anderson," she was told and the doctor's voice
was pitying.

"Do you find anything the matter, Dr. Harris?" from Madame.
"May I see you alone, Madame Angelo?" he responded.

"No," she answered sharply. " I f it is as bad as you suspect,
these girls will have to be told."

"As you please. I t is even worse than I feared, both these young
women show symptoms of the disease in an advanced form. Miss
Willett's eyebrows and throat told me the truth at the first glance,
and this patch on Miss Anderson's hand can't be mistaken."

Madame dropped into a chair.
"My business is ruined, ruined, ruined," she moaned.
The contempt in Dr. Harris's eyes was not good to see.
"Have you no heart, Madame?" he demanded sternly. "What
of these girls, condemned to separation from their kind, haven't you
any pity for them?"
"Dr. Harris, what is this disease we have?" asked Cimbria. Her
lips were white but her voice was steady.
In sheer pity the man hesitated.
"Leprosy," supplied Madame.

Cimbria's hands clinched over the back of the chair in front of


"And what—what will you do with us?" she whispered looking

at the doctor.

"My poor girl, you will have to go to an island down the harbor,"

he answered.
Sophy, who had been stunned into silence now broke in.
"Do you mean, Doc, t^at we, Cim and me, are like those women

we saw on the stage? That we are lepers?" her voice broke on the
last word.

"Yes", responded the doctor, passing his handkerchief over his


"Of course we can be cured, you doctors can do everything these
days. How long will we have to stay on the island?" she went on.

"Can't you understand," snapped Madame, as i f tired of the
scene, "that it will be for life? Leprosy can't be cured."

Sophy leaped from her chair, which crashed over behind her, she
caught the doctor by both shoulders and shook him, asking fiercely,
"Is that so? Tell me, is that so? Must I go away from all the
fun? Why, good God, Doctor, I can't! I tell you, I can't!"

She burst into a storm of tears. The doctor, holding her gently
by both arms, put her into the chair behind which Cimbria stood,
silent and white, but with dry eyes. She put out her hands and
drew Sophy's head to her breast.

"That's right, Doctor," she said steadily, "we belong together,
your place is over there."

She pointed across the office to Madame who, in answer to a
knock had opened the door to a man in uniform.

"The ambulance you telephoned for, is here, Dr. Harris," he
said touching his cap.

M A U D B. COLCORD, Gamma.



{Chi Omega Social Service Prize Essay.)

Long, long ago, when the foundations of our school system were
laid, the United States was essentially an agricultural country. The
great mass of the people were farmers. Even professional men,
physicians and lawyers, had their own little plots of ground which
they tilled at the same time that they practised their profession.
The small merchant and skilled artisan eked out their existence with
the proceeds of the gardens surrounding their shops, and the chil-
dren, receiving their practical industrial education at home, were
sent to the little red schoolhouse to be grounded in the three R's
and educational fundamentals.

But there came a change. A long series of inventions brought
about the so-called Industrial Revolution, with its subsequent change
in the arts. Then followed the break-up of the old social soli-
darity. A new industrial era whose chief characteristic was the
elaboration of the division of labor, replaced the old order. The
stages of production became split up into separate operations, each
of which, because repeated continuously, could be performed by a
machine, hence the introduction of machinery on a large scale and
the Consequent horizontal division of labor. A t present our social
stratification is one of groups composed of the same kind of work-
ers. Throughout the years, the groups have been growing farther
and farther apart, and not only this, but the gap between employer
and employee has been growing wider and wider.

The separation of society into sharply defined parts has been
furthered by the inpouring streams of immigrants from foreign civi-
lizations. These people bring with them their hereditary racial an-
tipathies, thus rendering our population still less homogenous by the
presence of the great gulf between those of different nationalities.
The mass of the population now, instead of in the country, is in the
cities, and congested districts have taken the place of spacious farms.
Accompanying these conditions has been the development of prob-
lems of labor and of the unemployed, and of the employment of
women and children in factories. There has been and is still danger
of the loss of individuality in our working population, and danger
that in the future there will be a strengthening instead of weaken-
ing of the lines of demarcation between the social groups.

And what is to be the solution of the present problems? Our
population continues to increase, streams of immigrants are still


pouring in. Some say a complete subversion of the present indus-
trial order and socialism. Others have various answers. But why
not utilize for good the forces already present in society? Why not
base our hopes upon evolution instead of revolution? Begin at the
beginning and build up our society on rock foundations. Create a
homogeneity and sense of patriotic ownership which will not fail in
time when concerted action is necessary. From the great melting
pot of the nations turn out a perfect whole.

But where to begin? Obviously, at some point which is a com-
mon advantage ground for all. There is no place that so fulfills
his requisite as the public school. As Luther Halsey Gulick says:
"Communities must have some material and social machinery by
which various classes shall come to know each other; some instru-
ment that shall cross-section racial, financial, and social strata; some-
thing that shall go beneath these and touch fundamental human in-
terests. Of these the central one is the love of children and the
machinery most natural as well as most available is the public
school system."

The little red schoolhouse should stand for more than the funda-
mental three R's, it should be the "focal point" in a community's so-
cial life. I t is true, however, that the public school has not as yet
adapted itself to the needs of the masses. " I t is a failure," is the,
cry—and why? Because it equips only about one-fifth of those at-
tending for their future life in the world. But the movement for
the wider use of the school plant as an aid to community develop-
ment is spreading rapidly. Its purpose is by various means to edu-
cate five-fifths instead of one-fifth of our population, and by grap-
pling with its very roots to instill into society the right principles of
law and order.

There are many ways in which the school plant may be utilized
in addition to its regular daily routine. I t may serve for evening
schools, vacation schools, vacation playgrounds, athletics, games,
and folk-dancing, public lectures, meetings of various organizations,
recreation centers, and social centers. The North and East have
been most active in work along these lines, and, therefore, before we
take up New Orleans, let us examine for a moment the steps taken
by other parts of our country.

In the City of New York, which may be taken as a good example
of the Northwestern cities, there are evening schools of all types, ele-
mentary, trade and high schools. The elementary schools offer f u l l
courses in grammar and secondary subjects, besides commercial
courses and domestic science, dressmaking, millinery, mechanical


drawing, carpentry, and English for foreigners.1 The high schools
offer the regular high school curricula with additional manual train-
ing, commercial courses, and special courses for those wishing to take
civil service examinations. The many trade schools are proficient
in technical instruction, both for men and women, their primary ob-
ject being "to give raw apprentices a solid grounding in their trades
and to afford those already caught in industrial machinery a means
of escape—an opportunity to broaden their experience and improve
their skill."2 Besides the above-named courses, New York offers
classes in salesmanship, illustrating, applied chemistry and pharmacy.

The good that the evening schools are doing can hardly be over-
estimated. For the students employed during the day, they afford
a golden opportunity to obtain a broader culture. The technical
schools greatly promote the wage-earning capacity of the workmen
by increasing their efficiency. Perry, in his very helpful book, has
some interesting statistics showing the actual increase in the wages
of night school pupils.'1 In these days of specialization and minute
division of labor, the skilled workman is becoming more and more
rare, and the evening technical school is a helpful factor in provid-
ing industrial training, the lack of which has produced the condi-
tion of unemployment of so many among our working classes, in the
sustenance of whom society is so frequently called upon to aid.

The women as well as the men are receiving valuable training in
these schools, both as wage earners and as housewives. Besides this
fact, the evening classes afford companionship and recreation for
hundreds of the many lonely young women in our large cities, hence
their possible influence in the mitigation of the great social evil ex-
isting among our lower classes.

England, and many of the countries on the continent, have done
much towards solving the problem of the unemployed and inefficient
labor by making attendance at evening or afternoon technical schools
compulsory. The business firms are forced to allow all workmen
under a certain age enough time each week during which they may
attend the continuation schools. I n England, also in some cities in
the United States, a tuition is charged, the business concerns pay
the fees, believing that they can well afford to do this in view of
their increased returns. In Munich and Bavaria, the attendance of
domestic servants of every kind is required—a long step toward the
solution of the problem of domestic service.

'Perry, p. 29.
2I'erry, p. 25.
3Page 86.


I f carefully regulated compulsions were had in the United States,
as it is in New York and Massachusetts, together with consistent effort
on the part of the whole country, the educational standard of our
lowest classes might be materially raised.

Since the early nineties vacation schools have been making steady
headway in the United States, until at present they are to be found
in nearly every city of the Union. Some of the vacation schools of-
fer purely academic courses, while others include manual training,
mechanical drawing and domestic science. I n the first class, pupils
who through illness or unavoidable absence, have failed to pass dur-
ing the regular school term, may make up their deficiencies. In the
second class, idle hands may find helpful occupation, and tired bodies,
through well-directed play, healthful recreation. Narrow, dirty al-
leys, hot pavements, crooked streets and crowded tenements, allow
small opportunity for the child to stretch his limbs and expand his
chest in beneficial exercise. The vacation school, with its large, cool
rooms and spacious yard, is a restful place in the summer time. "For
both teacher and pupil, the vacation school affords an occupation of
choice, and one which, making small demands upon the head, satis-
fies the heart and fills the hands."4

Games are introduced into the schools for educational and social
purposes, while new ideals of cleanliness are inculcated through the
daily use of baths connected with the schoolhouses. The manual
training and domestic science, besides the courses in housekeeping
sometimes given, supply to the child that industrial training which
he or she is incapable of obtaining at home.

In most of the cities the authorities are receiving hearty coopera-
tion from the children. They seem to hold themselves responsible
for the success of their school. Their work is well done, and they
are always orderly. The play period is never encroached upon, and
the children are allowed as much freedom as possible. Thus in
these schools, the children are developing self-reliance and self-con-
trol, necessary qualities of good citizenship.

The vacation schools may be of much service to the community at
large by a well-chosen series of lectures delivered in them. I n 1909,
under the auspices of the Visiting Nurses' Association, a course of
lectures was given in Chicago upon the proper care and feeding of
infants, the necessity of cleanliness and suitable clothing, the prepa-
ration and preservation of milk, and the use of barley water and the
various substitutes for milk which are employed during the period
when intestinal disease is prevalent among infants. Thus the school

•Perry, p. 191.


may have its share, as it ought to have, in instructing those who
have little chance for such knowledge, in the preservation of life and
health, the two most important assets.

Carefully compiled statistics show the beneficial results of vaca-
tion schools. Some of the most interesting were that there was an
absolute decrease in the number of cases brought before the juve-
nile courts in communities where there were vacation schools, and that
living conditions of families in densely populated portions of the
city had improved, that the instruction received in summer classes
had helped "to make the house cleaner and the clothes less dependent
on the strained devotion of a pin."5

In recognition of the need for play and f u n demanded by health-
f u l growth which life in our crowded cities has come so near to tak-
ing away, many of our school yards are being equipped as play-
grounds which are to be open every day in vacation for the use of
all boys and girls who want them. A careful, tactful supervisor who
directs the various activities is in charge of each playground. The
supervisors act merely as playfellows with the children in order to
secure the best results, and to allow f u l l development of the individ-
uality of each child.

Gymnastics, regulated games, songs, story-telling, chair-caning,
basket-weaving, housekeeping, Kite-making and folk dancing
are usually carried on in the playgrounds. I t is not necessary to have
them equipped expensively. Some simple gymnastic apparatus
will suffice, and in addition there should be a may-pole, a sand-pile,
skipping ropes, bean bags, swings, and garden space. Many of the
schools have shower baths already attached, and these are thrown
open to the use of the children. I n those schools which have not, it
has been shown that the baths can be very easily rigged up by means
of a rubber hose with a shower attachment. "The eagerness with
which children have availed themselves of these privileges," says
Mr. Perry, "shows that cleanliness is just as contagious as the
measles when one is in a position to catch i t . "

New York has put her playgrounds to good use by setting aside
one out of every five for the exclusive enjoyment of mothers and
babies. No child over six is allowed to enter unless she is in charge
of a baby. Cleveland has a playground equipped with a tent which
is used as a cool, day nursery for mothers living nearby. I n many
of the playgrounds, helpful instruction by medical experts is given
to ignorant mothers as to the proper care of the child. Small bath-

T e r r y , p. 140.


tubs are even provided and a trained nurse gives practical lessons in
the cleanliness of the baby.

Swimming classes are provided for the older children, and travel-
ing libraries help them to enjoy and appreciate good literature.

Mr. Perry summarizes the effects as follows:
There is a marked reduction in delinquency as well as a decrease
in lawlessness. A Kansas City judge finds an actual decrease of
seventy-five per cent in the cases appearing before the juvenile courts
in playground districts. There is a lessening of loss of children's
lives due to accident in the streets and near dangerous places. There
is a tremendous Americanizing influence in cities with large immi-
grant populations. The boys and girls work together for a com-
mon whole. The athletic games and sports develop friendliness and
tend to increase appreciation of one another. By the acquisition of
the athlete's "code of honor," the character is influenced for good.
The folk dances, besides the physical benefits they bestow, make the
children feel important, and also should the dances be those of their
own countries, that they are appreciated in America. The large
festivities with which the playgrounds usually end the long sum-
mer season bring the parents together in common good-fellowship.
And the relief which the mothers get from the care of the children
results in the direction of more time and energy to household du-
ties. A l l of the playground activities tend to develop the spirit of
cooperation, and as they reach all classes and all nationalities, "lay
the foundations of a greater social cohesiveness later on."

The public school buildings have been very successfully used as
public lecture centers in many of our cities. The subjects, aimed
to be of vital interest to the people, and yet give much needed infor-
mation, are of all kinds, artistic, intellectual, and civic. They are
often illustrated, sometimes with moving pictures. The lectures
have been on "First Aid to the Injured," with practical demonstra-
tions, and also on the latest scientific methods of curing diseases.
I n one particular center weekly lectures on science were given for
seven years, and examinations held at the end of each term for any
who wanted to take them. In Cleveland, after one of the illustrated
talks on "Mow We May A i d the Fight Against Tuberculosis," the
committee received forty letters from the pupils of the school telling
of sanitary improvements in their homes, made as a result of the
lecture.6 The lectures often aid home study by displaying bulletins
showing where the nearest branch of the public library may be

'Perry, p. 193.


The persons attending these lectures are a cosmopolitan multitude.
I n fact, so many of the Yiddish, Italians and Germans are inter-
ested that some cities have provided special lectures for them, given
in their own tongues.

The utilization of the public school for meetings of various or-
ganizations is proving beneficial to the community. Not only is
the cooperation of the parents with the teachers secured by the
mothers' clubs, but the parents themselves are often benefited. The
Chapman School Parents' League in Boston offers a prize of five
dollars for the best kept home flower garden, the best kept vege-
table garden, the best kept window boxes, and the best kept home
premises,7 thus encouraging the beautifying of the home.

The use of the buildings for political meetings stimulates the
participation in political activities by the masses, and gives
them important facts about our government. There is no force
in society so capable of killing graft government as the training of
the masses to realize their importance and proper sphere in our ad-
ministration, and the instilling into them of upright, honest political

One of the most interesting of the extended uses of the school
plant is that for evening recreation and social centers. In the
dirty, overcrowded tenement districts, with their ugly, sordid aspects
and disagreeable odors, where could the inmates find opportunity for
relaxation and room for recreation on a winter's evening? The re-
creation centers supply the need. Here there is provision for old
and young, students and those not in school. The New York cen-
ters have ball games, shuffle-board, ring toss, quoits, ping-pong, gym-
nasium work, wand drills, folk dancing, and one center has a class
for deaf mutes. The centers are also equipped with a "quiet games
room," an evening study room, and bathing facilities. The evening
study rooms are meeting a long-felt need. Poor students are often
the outcome of environment. Where in their noisy, cold, uncom-
fortable home quarters could they find opportunity for study? The
room is under the supervision of a kind, sympathetic teacher, who
shows the students how to study, directing them how to rely on
themselves rather than upon her in the case of some difficulty aris-
ing. These classes have resulted in better pupils for the day schools.
There are many literary societies which read books, study economics
and Shakespeare, and carry on debates worthy of maturer minds.
Civic clubs which discuss present-day problems are many in number

7Perry, p. 242.

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