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Published by Alpha Omicron Pi, 2015-10-01 14:44:41

1907 May - To Dragma

Vol. 2, No. 3

Pioneer of .he Equal Suffrage Movement in New Y o r k State.

To Dragma


Alpha Omicron Pi

Vol. 2. Editor, JESSIE A S H L E Y . No. 3.

May, 1907.


Frontispiece—Susan B. Anthony . . . .

The College Woman in the Suffrage Movement . • 99
. 102
Collegiate Equal Suffrage League Reception . IO4
. 115
Millions of Cattle Starving
. Il6
Editorial . . ......
. Il8
Announcements . ...... . Il8
. Il8
Chapter Notes ....... . 119
. 121
Alpha . 121
• 123
Pi • 125


Kappa ......


Associate Personals ......

Directory . .......

Published by the fraternity three times during: the
academic year.

Subscription Price, - - $t.00 per annum.

A D E L M A H . BURD, Business Manager.

5 Nassau Street, New York City.

To Dragma


Alpha Omicron Pi


Caroline Lexow, Kappa iKappa Gamma.

In the winter of 1900 Mrs. Charles Park, Mrs. Inez Gill-
more and Mrs. Otto B. Cole organized an association known as the
College Equal Suffrage League, with headquarters in Boston
Massachusetts. The object of this League was the furthering of
the sentiment of equal suffrage among the college women of Massa-
chusetts, both graduate and undergraduate, and the general ad-
vancement of the equal suffrage cause among all classes. Mrs. Park,
who is an untiring worker in the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage
Association, was the first president of the League and has also served
in that capacity for the last three years.

The organization, which now numbers 250, is engaged in
various lines of work. T w o large meetings, addressed either by
the members themselves or by prominent speakers, are held every
year. Membership teas, where suffrage is discussed informally, and
to which members bring their friends, form one of the means by
which graduates are reached. Whenever the opportunity arises,
meetings are arranged at the various colleges; and suffrage pamphlets
with membership blanks are distributed in large numbers among
college women, especially among the graduating classes of each year.
The dues are low and the treasury is augmented by receipts from
private theatricals which have met with great success.

Active as the League is in Massachusetts, it still found time,
in the winter of 1905, to establish a branch in New York, known
as the College Equal Suffrage League of New York State.


Starting with a nucleus of less than twenty-five, this organiza-
tion now numbers 110. The same general aims pertain to both
organizations; and, to some extent, the same methods of work.

Still, though very earnest and persistent efforts are directed
toward increasing the membership roll of the New York League,
the chief interest of this branch is centered in the work of the
Committee on Research and Investigation. As its name signifies,
the object of this committee is to superintend a thorough and orig-
inal inquiry into conditions prevailing in those States where women
are enfranchised.

Aside from the value which such work, properly conducted, will
have for the public at large and students of sociology in particular,
the League feels that it is a very definite and practical way of inter-
esting college women in the principle of suffrage; and of trans-
forming their impression that it is merely an academic theory into
a lively conviction of the imminence and importance of the issue.
Wisely or otherwise college students are not accustomed to treat
with great seriousness the numerous pamphlets written either by
the advocates or the opponents of this movement. No concise,
readable, and authoritative treatise on the expediency or inexpediency
of granting the suffrage exists; no statement of the actual work-
ing of the suffrage has ever been made, so far as the League
has been able to ascertain, by a student of social questions generally
acknowledged to be unbiassed in her point of view.

Having determined then that here was a definite need to be
supplied, the League recognized two pit-falls of which it must be
especially wary. Superficiality of treatment and preconceived ideas,
either favorable or unfavorable to the suffrage cause, which have
rendered invalid and useless so much of the literature on this sub-
ject, must be avoided at any cost. Indeed, the League desires that
this investigation should stand as a monument to fairmindedness,
and as an authority to which the student of the development of
women, bewildered by the contradictory statement of suffragists
and anti-suffragists, can turn with the assurance of finding material
collected and compiled with scientific precision and untinctured by

T o succeed in this very ambitious undertaking an investiga-
tor of special qualifications is essential. Obviously, she must be a
trained statistician and sociologist, familiar with the general con-
ditions and unprejudiced in her attitude toward suffrage. More-


over, she must enjoy the confidence of the university world and

possess a record for conscientious scientific work which will be un-

challenged by students of social science.
For the past eight months continuous effort has been made to

secure a woman of these qualifications; and, though, when this ar-
ticle was written, no final arrangements had been made, the League
was about to complete negotiations with one whose wide experience
and high recommendations from economists and sociologists of un-
doubted repute point to her peculiar fitness for this kind of work.

W i t h such an investigation in view, the efforts of the League
have been turned, for the last two months, toward raising the
Colorado Research Fund destined to meet all the expenses of an
investigation covering from fifteen months to two years and includ-
ing in that period a State and a municipal election. I n this short
space of time about one-half of the required $3,000 has been raised,
and, in order that the manipulation of this money may be entirely
legal, the association is about to incorporate under the laws of New
York State. The New York Branch enjoys, in this undertak-
ing, the hearty sympathy and co-operation of the Massachusetts
League, which has given a large and generous contribution to the
Research Fund.

What questions shall such an investigation cover is the query
which immediately arises in the mind of the reader and which can
be answered here only in a most general way.

I t will be impossible, of course, to prove or disprove the senti-
mental claims of either side. On the assertions of the anti-suffragists
that chivalry is dead, or of the suffragists that true courtesy has
never before been accorded women, the report of the investigation
will, in all probability, throw no light.

On the other hand, there are certain definite and important
points about which the discussion has raged and which will be
given careful consideration. These embrace such questions as the
extent and character of woman's political activity, her industrial
and social position, her ecomomic independence; the practical work,
if any, which she has accomplished, especially toward improving the
conditions under which women and children live.

Since we know that the millenium has not dawned in Colorado,
we do not expect to find that either man or woman has yet evolved
into the perfect citizen. What we wish to discover is whether or
not the sum total of human happiness and well-being has been


increased by the enfranchisement of all adults; whether women as a
class show potential or actual capability of seizing upon the special
needs of their children and sisters and creating for them a more
favorable environment.

The League recognizes, moreover, that whatever the conclu-
sions drawn from this investigation they will in no wise be final.
Many may question whether even tendencies can be shown with
only twelve or thirteen years of complete enfranchisement to work
upon. I t is absurd, of course, to attempt to predict in detail the
result of such an inquiry. This much, however, is certain, that a
body of fact will be collected impartially and compiled into a form
convenient for reference; and that this body of fact, increased by
future workers along the same lines, may become the data from
which historians and sociologists can draw the inferences.

By courtesy of The Key, Kappa Kappa Gamma.

This article appeared in The Key in July, 1906. Since then
the League has continued to grow and now numbers nearly two
hundred members. The investigation is proceeding most satis-


On April 6th the Collegiate Equal Suffrage League of New
York gave a benefit reception at the new Colony Club House.
The affair was a great success; between two and three hundred
guests were present, and everyone seemed much interested. M r .
W . T . Stead of London spoke informally. He is strongly in favor
of Equal Suffrage, and gave an amusing account of some of his ex-
periences with those opposed to equal rights. M r . Stead is of the
opinion that any organization which excludes either men or women
is most hurtful to society; that such bodies are abnormal and have
a narrowing and perverting effect upon their members. He said
that the so called suffragette movement in London was necessary,
because in no other way could the women show that they were in
earnest; and that the movement was a protest against the bad faith
of those members of Parliament who promised to support suffrage
bills and then voted against them. M r . Stead said that as a gen-
eral rule it was wiser not to lose one's temper, or not to show it if

C L A R E N C E D. A S H L E Y , J. D., L L . D

Dean of the New Y o r k Unirertity L i ;ch< (•


one did, but that sometimes it was absolutely necessary "to get mad
and do something"; and he thought the suffrage question in England
had reached that point. M r . Stead was heartily applauded. He
is exceedingly simple in manner, and impresses one with his sin-
cerity. The Rev. Anna Shaw also spoke a few telling and inspira-
ting words.

Among those present were Miss M . Carey Thomas, President
of Bryn M a w r College, Mrs. Wilbur, Mrs. Catt, Mrs. Blatch, all
well known suffragists.

When the speaking was over, Miss Caroline Lexow, Presi-
dent of the League, invited all those present to take tea, and a
sociable hour followed.

The Colony Club owns a charming home, which has made
quite an impression in the New York club world. The building
and decorations are very simple, and in extremely good taste. A
number of well known New York women are numbered among its

The Collegiate Equal Suffrage League should appeal to all
college students. Part of its work is investigation. Active member-
ship is permitted only to those who have done at least a year's work
in some recognized college. Its membership is not confined to
women but includes many prominent men, among whom we are
proud to mention Dr. Ashley, Dean of the New York University
Lav/ School.

The time is long gone by when women might, with im-
punity, be ignorant of or indifferent to the suffrage question. To-day
one must perforce take a stand on one side or the other, and one
often hears it stated that the intellectual leaders among women are
all in favor of the suffrage, and that only the timid and weaker minds
are opposed to it. I t is even frequently alleged that when a woman
reaches a certain point of civilization she is sure to favor the suffrage
for her sex.









[The following letter from the President of the American Humane
Association was published in the "New York Evening Post"
on Feb. 19, 1907. |


A L B A N Y , N . Y . , February 14, 1907.
To the Editor of the Evening Post:

S I R — I write you for the purpose of calling the attention of
the readers of your paper to the terrible conditions which exist
among live stock in the extreme West, and, especially the North-
west, of the United States. The American Humane Association
has been receiving statements concerning the suffering and deaths
which have been occurrng during this severe winter among the
stock. The condition is particularly bad in the western part of
North Dakota and in Montana east of the Rocky Mountains, em-
bracing an area of in the neighborhood of 140,000 square miles.
Matters are even worse in Alberta, just over the line from the
United States. The winter has been the worst for stock since
1886-87. A t that time the live-stock business was almost annihi-
lated in the Northwest from the enormous number of cattle which
were frozen and starved to death.

Competent observers of the present state of affairs in this
region, who are experienced stockmen and cattle-raisers, estimate
that the loss will not fall under 75 to 80 per cent, of the entire
stock. One large stock-dealer in Helena, who owned at the be-
ginning of the winter about 30,000 head of cattle on his ranges in
the northeastern part of the State, declares that already 40 per
cent, of his stock is dead. The ground is covered by two feet of
snow. A thaw followed by cold weather spread ice over every-
thing. Then more snow had fallen, and the cattle began to die.
I t was impossible for them to get at the poor, dead, last summer's


grass which lay beneath the snow, which is their only relief from

The sheep-men have been suffering equally. As every one

familiar with conditions throughout this vast region knows, little
or no effort is made to feed their cattle or sheep. They are left
out to die and at least half a million head of stock will perish
through cold and starvation during this terrible winter.

The extraordinary thing connected with this freezing and
starving of stock is that the cattle-men and sheep-men of this region
in discussing and considering the subject never seem to pay the
slightest heed to the humanitarian side of the subject. They think
and talk only of the money involved. The raising of stock with
them has become a kind of gambling. They expect to have a cer-
tain percentage of loss in any event and take their chances on a
severe winter like the present one. Most of them were ruined in
Montana twenty years ago by an equally severe winter. They bor-
rowed money and started in again and have prospered. They are
rich now and can afford large losses without bankruptcy. And so
they go on raising the cattle without any thought of winter feed
or shelter, taking their chances on a certain percentage surviving
death by starvation and freezing, which shall give them a ratio of
profit and form the nucleus for more herds, utterly oblivious of the
terrible suffering which is going on about them.

I t is time that public sentiment was aroused, and that these
abuses were ventilated in the papers and great magazines of the
country. The destruction of animal life in the arenas of ancient
Rome was a matter of comparative insignificance as contrasted with
the fearful sacrifices which are permitted with callous indifference
by these cattle kings and stock emperors of the Northwest.

I have just received a letter, dated February 7 last, from a
distinguished citizen of Montana, who was, I believe, formerly a
member of Congress. He writes: "While the losses the present
winter from cold and starvation will be unusually large, yet there
are but few winters when many cattle do not perish from frost or
starvation on our ranges or that do not suffer intensely even if they
survive the winter months. I n some instances reports from this
country are exaggerated, but no human tongue can portray the
miseries and sufferings that come from what is known as pastoral
stock raising in the United States. People who live east of the
one-hundredth degree of longitude know but little of this business


from personal knowledge, and in most cases they are misinformed.
I t seems to me that if this system of stock growing were better un-
derstood in the populous sections of the nation, there would be an
uprising against it. Human greed is the cause of all this suffering
of plains cattle, and, so long as the people of the land quietly sub-
mit to it without protest, the business w i l l be continued while there
is money to be made from it. I t must be borne in mind that when
cattle subsist wholly on the natural grasses of the plains, a large
loss yearly may be sustained, and still leave a profit. Determined
opposition to this barbarous business should come from the East,
after which the law should be invoked. I n my opinion, if the
newspapers and magazines of this country would ascertain the truth
as to this business and deal with the subject as they would with
other great evils, it would be followed by proper legislation."

I might quote from various communications which I have re-
ceived describing the cattle and sheep as huddled together in bunches
of from fifty to one hundred until they drop from exhaustion and
hunger, and die. I have a number of photographs showing these
poor creatures from the time they dropped until the plain has been
whitened by their bones. The snow soon covers, at this time of the
year, these masses of dead animals. The burial mounds of snow
frequently dot the ranges and show the fearful loss of life and the
terrible, unspeakable suffering which millions of poor beasts have
been permitted to undergo in this Western country because of man's
unfeeling cupidity and because the law has not yet compelled him
to be humane.

The American Humane Association asks for liberal subscrip-
tions with which to send its agents through this region to gather
evidence, both written and photographic, which properly presents
the true conditions of affairs to the people of this country, so that
through publicity the beginning may be made to put a stop to these
terrible abuses. Any one interested may communicate with the

W I L L I A M O. S T I L L M A N , President.
The American Humane Association.



[The folloiving letter was furnished the "Brooklyn Citizen' for pub- •
lication at the request of the Editorial Department.]
A L B A N Y , N . Y . , March 2, 1907.

E D I T O R I A L D E P A R T M E N T , B R O O K L Y N C I T I Z E N , Brooklyn, N. Y.:

D E A R SIR—Your kind favor of March 1st, is duly received. I
understand that someone has inquired how we propose to remedy
conditions which exist in regard to range-cattle being permitted
to starve to death during the winter in great numbers on the vast
plains in the western part of this country. I n regard to legislative
interference we are peculiarly placed. This matter comes wholly
within the province of state legislation and the local sentiment
is at present wholly controlled by the financial views of the stock
raisers. I t is barely possible that some method may be devised
by which Federal legislation can reach these conditions just as an
attempt is now being made to control child labor through laws
passed by Congress. The constitutionality and success of this
method is open to doubt.

Personally, I believe that publicity and education of the public
in regard to these conditions w i l l accomplish the cure. When the
great magazines and newspapers of this country are thoroughly
aroused in regard to these inhuman conditions and are justly hold-
ing up not only the stock raisers of the West who perpetrate or
permit these cruelties, but also the good name and reputation of
the state whose taxpayers and voters permit these conditions, to
public execration and condemnation, I believe that the conditions
w i l l not long survive such an attack.

I t is publicity alone which has made it possible for President

Roosevelt to secure the passage of needed reformative legislation

in Congress affecting the railroads and their great interests.

Public sentiment w i l l overwhelmingly condemn the conditions

which now exist where hundreds of thousands of range cattle and

sheep are allowed to perish because of mere greed, when once the

public is informed correctly in regard to existing conditions. I t w i l l

be impossible for the local sentiment in any of these western stock

raising states to face the storm of criticism and contempt once it

has been thoroughly aroused.

This I believe to be the true remedy. I t is merely a matter of

education. Very truly yours,

(Signed) W . O. S T I L L M A N , President.

The American Humane Association.



A prominent Chicago general contractor and engineer offers
the following suggestion as his view of the solution of the cattle
problem of the great ranges of the West:

"For several years I have been acquainted with this condition
and have seen some of it myself. There are also like conditions in
the South, but only the example of some man making a success of
the business by showing that it is more successful, conducted on a
humane basis than otherwise, w i l l bring about the desired change.
I am confident that a man would save money from the dollars
and cents standpoint, by furnishing protection and feed in the
winter, when absolutely necessary, but they will have to be 'shown'
by somebody."





xMinneapolis, Jan. 30.—J. A. Howells, of Minot, N . D . , a lead-

ing buyer of cattle and sheep, declared here yesterday that the
cattlemen of the Northwest would stand to lose more than
$1,000,000 by the severe winter. He made a tour of inspection along

the trans-continental lines, both in the United States and Canada,
and says the lossses w i l l not be so great in North Dakota as in
Alberta aqd Montana.

In the Alberta country, according to M r . Howells, thousands
of cattle had huddled together along the railroad tracks, and dead
cattle were to be seen for a hundred miles or more, lying twenty
deep in many cases. The same conditions, he says, prevail in Mon-

M r . Howells says while in Havre, Mont., last week, a ranch-
man offered him 10,000 sheep for $3,000, which last fall were
worth $30,000. Sheep were dying by hundreds for want of food.
[From a Minneapolis newspaper, Associated Press Dispatch.]


[From the New York Sunday Tribune.]
The Spanish and Mexican bull-fights, which Americans self-
righteously condemn, are trifles in suffering compared with the slow


agony of millions of live stock which all winter long fight unaided
for life on the western cattle ranges. Countless numbers are weeks
in dying. Scenes which would disgrace a Roman amphitheatre. I t
is not famine but sordid greed and heartlessness which is the cause.
[The following article which was prepared, at the request of the

"New York Sunday Tribune/' ivas published by that
paper on March 10, 1907.I

By Dr. William O. Stillman, of Albany, N . Y., President of The
American Humane Association.

"As I write these words there are literally millions of cattle
on the great ranges of the West, from Texas to Montana, which
are on the extreme verge of starvation. They w i l l continue to
starve slowly until spring. Hundreds of thousands will die, and
the rest of those already starving will almost die, but not quite.
This happens every year. Stockmen count regularly on a certain
percentage of loss from starvation, thirst and cold." These are
substantially the words of an expert Western investigator of stock
abuses who is thoroughly familiar with the subject and has lived
in that region all his life.

There is a disposition on the part of many people in the West
and a few people in the East to affect to believe that statements
like the above are largely exaggerated and are caused by an excess
of sentiment rather than by real conditions of suffering. The anti-
cruelty crusade is past the stage of maudlin sentiment. Misrepresen-
tation is not necessary in cases like this. The actual condition is
too unutterably and unbelieveably bad.

Let me quote the statement of another Western man concern-
ing these conditions. The following was written by ex-United
States Senator Paris Gibson, of Great Falls, Mont.: "Add to-
gether all the sufferings of the animals in the Eastern and Central
States, the tortures inflicted upon horses, dogs and all the domestic
beasts of field and city streets, and you have not sufficient cruelty
in your enumeration to equal one-half the sufferings of the freezing
and starving cattle on our Western plains when the terrible storms
come upon them and prevent them from securing food and shelter.

"No human mind can comprehend the degree of suffering
caused during one winter storm, that leaves tens of thousands of
skeletons of cattle upon these plains; and this picture only faintly
tells the story that God alone realizes in its awful truth and


According to the report of the United States Bureau of Animal
Industry, there were in 1904 over 43,000,000 cattle other than milch
cows, horses and mules in the United States, not to mention
45,000,000 sheep and 47,000,000 hogs. I am giving the figures in
round numbers. O f these cattle over 30,000,000 are range stock.
To be range stock means that cattle must take care of themselves
as best they can from December to April, when the ground is
covered with snow and there is no shelter and not a drop of water
to drink. In nearly all cases not a pound of hay is provided nor
a wind break or shed, or even a well. Is it any wonder that
stockmen in the West are now openingly making statements that
they expect to lose 75 or 80 per cent, of their herds? I n the winter
of 1902-3 on a single range in Texas, $500,000 worth of cattle
died. One large stock owner in Montana, having 30,000 head of
cattle on his ranges, averaging in value $18.42 apiece, according to
census estimates, expects to lose from 75 to 80 per cent, before
spring comes this year. I t is the same everywhere during this
terrible winter throughout the West.

The range cattle business in the United States covers about
18,000,000 square miles. This is almost thirty times the size of all
New England. A great part of the area of eighteen states and
territories is occupied by it. The value of the range stock repre-
sents over $500,000,000, not to mention nearly $100,000,000 in

Such are the conditions which confront humanitarians. I t was
much the same forty years ago, only now the conditions for the
cattle are much worse than they were then. Streams have been
fenced off by barbed wire fences and much of the land has been
fenced in. Ten times the number of cattle are now dependent
upon the same soil. Water has been taken for irrigation. The
shallow rooted prairie grass is trampled under foot and gnawed
to the ground by starving mouths. And yet the number of cattle-
men increases, and their indifference, or blind stupidity, if you pre-
fer the term, continues just the same, while their losses increase.
They expect to lose from 5 to 15 per cent, by starvation, anyway.
I f it becomes from 25 to 50 per cent., it is merely a bad year. The
number of skeletons dotting the great plains is nothing to them
except that they represents dollars and cents. They make no efforts
to improve conditions. This hellish work has gone on year after
year, and it is time that the voice of civilization and intelligent


humanity should be heard. The owners of these range cattle can
be educated. They can be made to see that if it is a pleasant thing
for them to have three meals a day and comfortable beds, it is
wrong for them to have their helpless beasts deliberately exposed
to conditions where lingering death must inevitably ensue. These
respectable men bitterly resent any criticism. One prominent West-
ern newspaper, when its attention was called to these conditions on
account of recent writings of mine, jauntily remarked that I would
better centre the efforts of the humane world on the factory and
mining towns of New England, where human beings are ground
down year after year. There is more suffering in one winter day
among the thousands of dying—and starving but not dying—cattle
of the ranges in the West than could be represented by any two
years of suffering among factory and other operatives in the East.

These conditions should be exposed. There is no blacker stain
on the civilization of this nation than is represented by this delib-
erate and unfeeling sacrifice of stock in unumbered quantities in a
species of commercial gambling. These respectable citizens, owning
the range stock, take their chances on enough surviving the starva-
tion and frost each year to pay them a profit. The rest they are
indifferent to.

We people in the East cannot imagine the sufferings of these-
poor beasts. I t is the intention of the American Humane Associa-
tion to send agents to investigate and photograph these dying and
dead range stock as soon as possible. W e are raising money for
that purpose and invite contributions from any one interested in
an exposure of these diabolical conditions. We must depend mainly
on publicity for curing this evil. Publicity will procure the neces-
sary legislation and in time will convert the cattle owners.

I have before me a word picture, by a man living in the West
for a great many years, who is thoroughly familiar with present
conditions affecting livestock. "Imagine," he says, " a single
animal in December, already guant from hunger, cold and thirst—
of the three, thirst is most terrible—imagine this wretched creature
wandering about on an illimitable plain, covered with snow, with
nothing to eat except, here and there, buried under the snow, a
sparse tuft of scanty mosslike grass; eating snow for days and
weeks, because there is nothing to drink; by day wandering in the
snow, by night lying down in i t ; swept by pitiless winds and icy
storms; always shivering with cold; always gnawed with hunger;


always parched with thirst; always searching for something to
eat, where there is nothing; always staring with dumb, hopeless
eyes, blinded, swollen and festering from the sun's glare on the
wastes of snow. Imagine that, and imagine j'ourself enduring one
hour of it. Multiply that hour by twenty-four. Multiply that
period by the slow moving days and nights from December to
April—if life lasts that long. Multiply that by forty millions, and
you have the statistics of brute suffering in this one way for one
year and every year, in this unspeakable trade."

The Daily Missoulan, of Missoula, Mont., recently con-
tained the following: "Butte, Mont., Feb. 3.—Conrad Kohrs, of
Deer Lodge, one of the most prominent stockmen of the state, is in
Butte, and states that he is in receipt of advices from the northern
ranges that his stock losses will reach about 80 per ce,nt. of his
herds, so fierce is the storm that is sweeping the northern districts
of Montana. M r . Kohrs states that the conditions in Valley County
and the other big cattle and sheep sections is simply appalling, the
stock dying by the hundreds.

"The long plains of Northern Montana afford the stock little
shelter from the stinging sweep of the snow and wind. Unable
to break the crust of ice covering the grass of the ranges, the cattle
and sheep huddle in bunches of from fifty to a hundred in the
coulees, there to drop from exhaustion and hunger and die. Bunches
of dead cattle catch the drifting snow, which soon buries them
completely, with the exception of a protruding leg or head. These
burial mounds of snow frequently dot the ranges, and only too
plainly indicate how fearfully the herds are being ravaged by the
terrific weather prevailing." Is it not a miracle that any animals
survive these conditions?

Note:—The foregoing statements are founded wholly on declarations
made by Western men, experienced in stock matters, in order to meet
the claim sometimes advanced that eastern people are not competent to
express opinions about the care of stock in the West. These statements
are not exaggerated. The most recent report of the United States
Bureau of Animal Industry which can be procured, that for the year 1004,
(not an especially severe winter compared with the present one) shows
that over 482,000 head of cattle were reported as having died from ex-
posure ( ? ) during the last year in the state of Texas alone. This does
not include the number of sheep which died from a similar cause. The
percentage was nearly as large. It does not include the horses of which
large numbers died.

In 1005, a United States Congressman, from Seattle, Washington,


wrote this Association—"In going across the continent, as I do sev-
eral times a year, I have been shocked beyond expression at the scenes
I have witnessed in the way of countless carcasses of cattle that have
died of slow starvation. I only wish that I could express to you some
remedy for this great evil."


That the campaign of education and agitation which T h e
American Humane Association has begun is already beginning to
bear fruit, is shown by the following excellent clipping from the
"Independent," of Lincoln, Neb., printed on Feb. 28,. 1907- After
referring to the statements which appeared in The New York
Evening Post, it says: "The American Humane Association has
been moved to protest by the suffering of livestock on the north-
western ranges this winter. The present winter has been the worst
for twenty years over an area of 140,000 square miles extending
from western North Dakota to the Rocky Mountains. A single
ranchman reports that he has lost 12,000 head of cattle. Mounds
of sheep and cattle, dying huddled together in a vain effort to
warm their starved bodies, raise snow hillocks to dot these plains.

"The Humane Association complains that this matter has been
treated entirely in its economic aspects. I f the ranchman could
in the long run make the most money by letting his cattle run
unprotected and unfed on the plains during the winter, well and
good; that is the thing to do. For a nation that professes horror
of bull fighting this is not a consistent view in the opinion of the
friends of the animals. Their proposed campaign through the press
is to be welcomed. Changing conditions in the livestock business
promise in no great time to make unprofitable the system complained
of, in which case it will disappear, but nothing but good can come
of the efforts to create sympathy for the suffering cattle and sheep
of the present time. W e disgrace ourselves by letting our cattle
and sheep starve and freeze like Russian peasants. Besides, a move-
ment which educates us to demand the protection of the lives of
animals even though that might make the cost of meat higher, could
conceivably lead finally to the protection of human life also, even
though that involve costly steel railroad cars, properly equipped and
inspected steamships and mines, and even devices to prevent the
packing of people into street cars like cattle on their way to market."

We regret that we have no room to publish other extracts from
western papers. The Association earnestly desires to raise funds


with which to fully investigate the condition of livestock on the
ranges and in transportation and stockyards. I t is believed that
full reports and protographs of these conditions, with accompany-
ing publicity, will ultimately do away with these horrors by securing
the needed remedial legislation. W e ask for liberal contributions
for this purpose. Address Dr. William O. Stillman, President,
The American Humane Association, Albany, N . Y .



Many hearty good wishes have already been extended to Sigma
by our various chapters, and it is now our privilege to once more
repeat the glad words of welcome. I t is with great pride and pleas-
ure that we add the new name to our list of chapters and see our
directory so satisfactorily enlarged. T o D R A G M A extends most cor-
dial greetings and the sincerest wishes for a long life and a worthy
one to Sigma.

We print in this issue of T o D R A G M A a leaflet issued by the
American Humane Association. We urge every reader of our maga-
zine to carefully consider this article and to take serious thought
of the terrible conditions therein described. Alpha Omicron Pi can
do a great deal for this cause. We can bring the facts to the at-
tention of a great many people. W e can spread the knowledge
of this horror far and wide. We can, perhaps, aid in collecting
some money—if only a little—to help forward the work. W e
earnestly ask your interest and sympathy with these ill-used "lesser
brethren." Let us band ourselves together and do all we can, liter-
ally all we can, to help to blot out this abomination.

The editor particularly requests the chapters to make a point
of seeing that the directory is kept up to date, and that it is abso-
lutely correct. Each chapter should appoint one girl to attend to
this matter, and after each issue of the magazine she should prompt-
ly notify the business manager of any error or omission she may

We feel that we must make one more effort to arouse interest
in increasing the circulation of T o D R A G M A . Alpha Omicron Pi
numbers over two hundred associate members, while our subscrib-
ers number but a pitiful thirty-eight. This won't do. I t is dis-
couraging to the editor and more discouraging still to the business
manager. I t is a grave reflection upon our fraternity spirit. W e
should be eager to keep in touch with our own chapter and with the


fraternity as a whole. We hope those who are active members now
will prove themselves enthusiastic when they become associate. And
won't the active members do a little missionary work in increasing
the number of our subscriptions? We should have at least one
hundred and fifty associate names upon our list instead of thirty-

We have received a copy of the Sorority Handbook edited and
gotten out by Mrs. Martin. I t seems to us to be a step in the
right direction, and deserves to succeed. Mrs. Martin has put hard
work into the little volume, and has gathered together useful in-
formation. The article found in the beginning of the book deserves
particular comment. W e recommend it to our members.


We regret that we are unable to publish in this number a

report of the installation of Sigma Chapter at Berkeley, California,

and also some account of our Grand-President's visit to the chap-

ters outside of New York. We know the readers of T o D R A G M A

will be disappointed not to have some word of these most interesting


Mrs. Mullan promised to furnish both of the above articles,

and agreed to have them in the hands of the Editor on April 8th, at

the latest. We have delayed going to print until to-day, April 24th,

and have just received word that she will be unable to write them

at present on account of other work and a visit to Providence. We

must, therefore, wait until the November number, when we hope

to print the articles. T H E EDITOR.

The editor wishes to express sincere regret for two unaccount-
able errors which were made in Alpha Chapter notes in the Febru-
ary issue of T o D R A G M A . These errors were most unfortunate and
the editor offers apologies for them. We beg leave to correct them

I t was Edith Maie Burrows who lost her father, not Elizabeth
Robinson, as stated in the magazine. And it is Jennie Wylie's
father who is pastor of a New York church, not the father of Jessie

Another regretable fact is the misunderstanding with regard


to material from Omicron. We intended to devote this number to
Omicron Chapter, but through some mistake nothing reached us.
I t was of course too late to take up another chapter for this num-
ber, so we have been obliged to do the best we could with substitute
articles. We hope hereafter to continue the series unbroken.

There seems to be some confusion concerning who is and who
is not entitled to a copy of T o D R A G M A . I refer every member
of Alpha Omicron Pi to sections 44 and 46 of the Rules and Reg-
ulations. In accordance with the former rule, as many copies of
each issue of T o D R A G M A are sent by express to each chapter as
there are active members in that chapter, plus one for the chapter
room. The Business Manager obtains this information from the
Grand Treasurer, as only those actually taxed as active members
are entitled to the magazine. I f any active member lives away
from college or the college town, her chapter must see that her
number is forwarded to her, as the Business Manager cannot un-
dertake to mail individual copies to actives.

A l l associate members who desire to receive T o D R A G M A can
only do so by subscription. The price is one dollar a year (three
numbers), and the year begins with the date the subscription is
filed. For instance, A sends one dollar in May, 1907, and unless
she specifies that she desires to receive back numbers, she w i l l
receive the May, November and February, 1908, numbers, and her
subscription will then have expired. I n other words, one dollar
pays for three numbers only, beginning with any number designated
by the subscriber; and when no such designation is made, the num-
ber issued nearest the date of the receipt of the subscription is
presumed to be the one desired.

Nearly every subscription now on file expires with this num-
ber of T o D R A G M A . Those associates who desire to continue to
receive the. magazine, must send Post Office money order for one
dollar, with the address to which the magazine is to be mailed, to the

Business Manager by October, 1907.

I hope every active member will make herself an agent for

T o D R A G M A and canvass among the associate members for sub-

scribers. Unless there is a large increase in the interest displayed

by the members of Alpha Omicron Pi, the magazine will not

flourish. ADELMA H. BURD.




On Pledge Day—April second, we pledged two girls, Vora
Jacques, '10, and Hazel Waite , ' i o . We hope, later on, to find
more girls in 1910 who will be congenial as fraternity sisters.

On April thirteenth, Alpha will give her usual Spring Dance
in the theatre at Barnard. Our Dean, Miss Gill, has promised to
be a patroness.

Alpha is rejoiced at the addition to our fraternity of Sigma
Chapter, and extends to all its members a hearty greeting.

Emma Lay, '07, has been elected a member of Class Day Com-

Jo Pratt, '07, is chairman of the Under-graduate Tea Com-
mittee. She is also on the Senior Dance Committee.

Kathleen Hurty, '07, is secretary of the Philosophy Club.
Mary Maxon, '08, is chairman of the Finance Committee, and
Jennie Wylie, '09, of the Chapel Committee of the Y . W . C. A.
Jessie Cochran, '09, was a member of the Sophomore Dance
Committee. She is chairman of the Reception Committee of the
Y. W . C. A. and Margaret Yates, '08, is a member of her com-
Vora Jacques, '10, had a part in the Freshman show.


The last three months have marked a significant stage in Pi
Chapter's development, not in numbers, for we feel that our family
of fourteen is comfortably large, but in the broadened point of
view which this far-south unit is learning to take in regard to its
national kin. We are glad to owe this advance in part to the visit
of Helen St. Clair Mullan on her return from the installation of
Sigma Chapter at Berkeley, Cal., and in part to the hearty little
note from Sigma in response to a telegram of congratulation that
Pi had sent on the day when the Berkeley girls were initiated into
our fraternity. And then, too, there was a frank and altogether
enjoyable letter from Kappa. None of these incidents amounted

T *




• Q4

u {£3 Mil


to much more than a fleet hand-clasp, but the warmth remains and
Pi will show that she is not the least cordial spirit in Alpha Omi-
cron Pi.

Just now Pi Chapter is very much interested in the pass-
age of a rule which w i l l l change the rushing season at Newcomb
from the first three weeks in October to the three weeks following
February examinations. The rule is to apply only to girls who
matriculated in October and November; girls who come in later
are not to be rushed until they have been at college for three
months. In view of the conditions which the rule is expected to
cover, it is thought a very good one, and the Faculty has given it
enthusiastic support. T o our minds the proposed change involves
a principle dear to the heart of Alpha Omicron Pi, that is the
doing away with hasty ill-judged rushing, and more important
still, the testing of a girl in her standing at college before she
is admitted to our fellowship.

The college world has rolled on very tranquilly since our last
letter. The Freshman class is the only one that changed its offi-
cers in the mid-year, and our three Freshmen are all in receipt of
honors. Dorothy SafTord was re-elected class editor for the Tulane
Weekly; Mary Pierce is vice-president,and Innis Morris is treasurer.
Marguerite Saunders and Lily Dupre are in the Dramatic Club
play, and Josie Handy is manager. I do not know how to bring
it in very well, but it is too good not to write home to our big
A O P hearth-side, that when the president of Pi Beta Phi was here
several months ago, she was anxious to introduce Phi Beta Kappa
at Newcomb, and when she had looked over the college records
she said that the Alpha Omicron Pi girls would be the ones
most likely to make the honorary society. Now it is time to blush
and withdraw. But aside from all nonsense; with best wishes for
the vacation, and especiallly for the long vacation of our '07 sisters,
Pi sends her share—and it is a large one—of truest love and hope
to make the big total of Alpha Omicron Pi.


Nu Chapter convened in February to initiate two new mem-
bers from the junior class, Theodora Wadsworth Baker and Helen
Augusta Ranlett. After the impressive ceremony, a delightful
supper was served, at which several members of Alpha Chapter


were present, as well as some of our Associate members who are
too busy to be often with us.

The most recent acquisition for the chapter-room is an electric
stove. Though the man who cares for the room complains that he
cannot get it to give any flame, we girls find that it simplifies the
task of preparation for our parties. But it has forever done away
with the picturesque retreat to the open in which we indulged
whenever one of our number screwed her courage to the point of
lighting the wick of its predecessor.

A new custom has been instituted, which has proved so agree-
able that it will be continued, that of entertaining our professors at
luncheon. The first guest, Prof. Aymar, was most inspiriting in his
attitude of comradship toward women who are entering his own
profession. Emboldened by one good time, we then invited Dean
Ashley and Prof. Tompkins, carefully choosing the day on which
they make a practice of lunching together. On the morning of the
day, the president found it necessary to admonish the butler about
the state of the floor, and was assured " i t was good enough for the
Dean!" He then swept up various crumbs, and said: " I t was good
enough for anyone!" Our guests proved entertaining, and apprecia-
tive, even hinting at the end that they would be willing to come
again. The only drawback on our side was that no girl succeeded
in listening to both professors at the same time.

W i t h the exclusion of all but chapter members from the
roof, we fortunate few who possess keys to the coveted position
have felt our chapter room to be a fortress. Indeed we are as-
sured that if it is ever invaded, guile not force must be the means.

Of late all senior members of the fraternity have been deeply
engrossed in literary labors. Any stray junior who may chance
to loiter in the chapter room to rub brass with silver polish or
develop other latent traits of housewifery, catches phrases from the
lips of eager collaborators that prove law and literature may be
unexpectedly one.

Much of the fraternity interest now centers in the recently
posted schedule of examinations to be given by the University.
Many of the seniors are planning for Bar examinations as well.
The fraternity standard of scholarship has hitherto been so high
that most of us feel a secret fear we may not equal it.



Throughout the year there has been the greatest interest
among the fraternities concerning pledge day for the coming year.
The plan adopted by the Pan-Hellenic Association for this year, of
having rushing season last for one month was not satisfactory to all
six fraternities. As the matter now stands, three are opposed to
making pledge day later than matriculation day, while the other
three are working to secure a longer rushing season. The question
will be fully decided at the next meeting of the Pan-Hellenic

So far this year, eleven new members have been taken into
Kappa, making sixteen with the old girls.

In social life Kappa has taken a prominent part, and has intro-

duced the pleasant custom of informal teas, to which non-fraternity

girls as well as those belonging to fraternities are invited. These

little teas have been most enjoyable, and have afforded an oppor-

tunity for the girls to become better acquainted.
We are interested at present in having some work done on

our little room. We are having the ceiling done over and a new
floor put i n ; we think that it is the most interesting little hole,
quoting Dr. Smith, that we know of.


Zeta has had a very successful year. Since our first initiation
in the fall we have taken in seven more girls. On January 19th
we initiated Madge Alderman of Marion, Iowa; Alfreda Powell
of South Omaha, Nebraska; Eunice Bauman of West Point, Ne-
braska; Charlotte Wallace of Lincoln, Nebraska, and Jessie
Kreidler of Fullerton, Nebraska. On March n t h , Emma Ben-
nett and Katherine Lee, both of Lincoln, were initiated.

Socially the University has been very lively. Zeta has had rep-
resentatives at practically all the parties. We have given up our
customary big dance this year, but have given several small ones,
Plans are now almost completed for a progressive dinner to be
given to our men friends.

We have planned for a chapter house, and hope to have it
completed by the time college opens next September. We feel this
will strengthen and concentrate our interests as nothing else can.

Winifred Waters has been elected to "Silver Serpent" a Junior


club, and Laura Rhoades to the "Black Masque" a Senior club.
Laura Rhoades is also chairman of the "Juniors' Senior Reception
Committeee" as well as vice-president of the Junior Class.

In the annual basket-ball tournament, Zeta was well repre-
sented, having Edna King and Florence Parmelee on the Senior
team, Mattie Woodworth on the Junior and Eunice Bauman on the
Freshman teams. Florence Parmelee is Secretary of the Senior
Class, Eunice Bauman is Secretary of the Freshman Class and is on
the Freshman Hop Committee.

Bessie Chambers is Chairman of the Bible Study department
of the Y . W . C. A. Zeta is planning to take charge of the dec-
orations and of service at table at the "May Morning Breakfast",
which is an annual affair given by the Y. W . C. A.

Bernice Rawls and Winifred Waters are out of college this
semester, but expect to return next fall. Minnie Bauman, who is
also out of college this year, has just returned home after a three
weeks visit with her fraternity sisters. Laverna Barnum has vis-
ited the chapter several times this year.

A great many of our alumnae and associate members hope to
return for our banquet in June. Would that we could have rep-
resentatives from all our chapters! As it is, we extend best wishes
for a pleasant vacation to our fraternity sisters. Zeta sends a hearty
welcome to Sigma. We do not feel so lonesome and far away from
the other chapters now that we have Sigma.



Helen St. Clair Mullan, Alpha '98, has become a partner in
the new law firm of Hoy, Martin and Burnet.

Margaret Elliman Henry, Alpha '02, who sailed for Italy on
the Cedric November 29th, 1906, has been in Sicily.

Sadie Rothschild, N u '04, has announced her engagement to
Samuel A. Herzog.

Edna Spears, Zeta '05, has left Newmans Grove, Nebraska,
where she was teaching, and is again at home in Lincoln.

Marion Benedict Cothren, N u Spec, has a baby daughter,
Frances, born in March, I9°7-

Man- Murray Wooley, Kappa '07, also has a baby girl born
in November, 1906. She is named Mary Virginia, and is Kappa"s
first baby.

Virginia Nunn, Kappa '09, was called home in February by
the ill-health of her father, and was unable to return to college.

Lillian Donovan, Kappa '08, sailed in January for an ex-
tended trip abroad.

Clara May Murray, Kappa '08, and James Edward Cleland,
of Lynchburg, Virginia, were married on April 10th, at the home
of the bride's parents in Memphis, Tennessee. Virginia Nunn, '09,
lone Mathis, Spec., and Huella Bedford, '07, were bridesmaids.
M r . and Mrs. Cleland will reside in Lynchburg; and Kappa is to
be congratulated upon thus having another associate sister residing
near tp her home.

Elizabeth Chadwell Pitney, Alpha '07, gave birth to a daughter
on April 2nd.

Corris Damon Peake, Zeta '04, had a son born in November,
1906. His name is Frederick Damon Peake.

Laura Buchanan, Zeta '06, is in the University Conservatory
of Music. She is making great progress on the violin.

Luree Beemer, Zeta Spec, is taking china painting in the A r t
School of the University.

Adelma H . Burd, N u '03, has been appointed referee by the
Supreme Court in three equity cases.


Helen K. Hoy, N u '03, has announced her engagement to Har-
old Greeley. They studied together in the University Law School.
Mr. Greeley works for a law firm in W a l l Street, while Helen
Hoy practices law with Margaret Burnet and Helen Mullan.

Fannibelle Leland, Alpha '05, was sitting with her parents on
the lawn in front of their hotel in Kingston, Jamacia, at the time
of the earthquake. Part of the hotel collapsed entirely, and the
walls of the rest fell. I t was the first afternoon that Mrs. Leland
had left her room since their arrival in Kingston.

Clarice Watkins, Kappa '09, made her debut at her home in
Bermingham, Alabama, on December 24th, 1906.

Katharine Nelson, Kappa '09, is attending Stuart's School in
Washington, D. C.

Helen Hoy, Nu '03, whose engagement to M r . Harold Greeley
is lately announced, was one of the speakers at the reception given on
March 2nd by the Alumna? Association of the Woman's Law Class.

Alice Dillingham, N u '05, sails for Europe in April.
Laura Booth, N u '04, expects to sail on June 22nd with three
friends to spend three or four months abroad.
Elizabeth J. Moss, N u '05, who has had a long and severe ill-
ness this winter, is now convalescent.




Members are requested to notify the Business Manager of T o

DRAGMA of any inaccuracies or omissions in the directory or of any

change of address.



Grand President, Helen St. Clair Mullan.

Grand Vice-President, Edith Berrell Fettretch.

Grand Recording Secretary, Stella Stern Perry.

Grand Corresponding Secretary, Elizabeth Iverson Toms.

Grand Treasurer, Edith Prescott Ives.

Grand Doorkeeper, Jessie Wallace Hughan.

Grand Historian, Stella Sfern Perry.

Chairman Committee on New Chapters, Viola Clarke Gray.

Editor of T o DRAGMA, Jessie Ashley.
Business Manager of T o DRAGMA, Adelma Helene Burd.

Examining Officer, Dorothy Greve.


Jessie Wallace Hughan, Alpha '98 Term Expiring.

Helen St. Clair Mullan, Alpha '98 Life.
Stella Stern Perry. Alpha '98 *
Elizabeth Hewvood Wyman, Alpha '98 Life.
December, 1908
Elizabeth Iverson Toms, Alpha '06 December, 1908

Marie Ernestine Bres, Pi '06 December, 1908
December, 1908
Edith Prescott Ives, N u '05 December, 1908
Decemher, 1908
Harriet Cone Greve, Omicron '06 December, 1907
December, 1907
Elise Lamb, Kappa '06 December, 1907

Helen Piper, Zeta Spec December, 1907
December, 1907
Jessie Ashley, N u '02, New York Alumnae December, 1907
December, 1907
Edith Berrell Fettretch, Alpha '05 October, 1907

Cleveland Genevieve Dupre. Pi '04 October, 1907
October, 1907
Adelma Helene Burd, N u '03 October, 1907
October, 1907
Dorothy Greve, Omicron '05 October, 1907
October, 1907
Grace Harris Echols, Kapnn '06

Viola Clarke Gray, Zeta '02

Josephine Southworth Pratt, Alpha '07

Anna Estelle Many, Pi '07

Elinor Byrns, N u Spec

Queenie McConnell, Omicron '07

Lola Matilda Wannamaker, Kappa '08

Florence Mathewson Parmelee, Zeta '08

Daisv Julia Mansfield, Sigma '07



ALPHA—Barnard College, Columbia University, New York City.
P i — H . Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, New Orleans, La.
Nu—New York University, New York City.
OMICRON—University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
KAPPA—Randolph Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va.
ZETA—University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.


128th St., New York City.
ALPHA—Jessie I . Cochran, 120 West 12th St., New York City.
Pi—Virginia Withers, 1420 Euterpe St.. New Orleans, La.
Nu—Florence E. Bruning, Graham Court, 7th Ave. and 116th St., .

New York City.
OMICRON—Lucretia H . Jordan, White Ave., Knoxville, Tenn.
K A P P A — M a r y N . Hurt, R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.
ZETA—Alice R. Spears, 630 No. 16th St., Lincoln, Neb.
SIGMA—Grace F. Batz, 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

October 1, 1906.

Ahlers, Viola Emily, Sigma '08.
*P. 1106 Eddy St., San Francisco. Cal.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley. Cal.

Albers, Emma Carhart, Omicron '05.
P. Henley St., Knoxville, Tenn.

Alderman, Madge, Zeta Spec.
P. Marion, Iowa.
T . 1637 N . St., Lincoln, Neb.

Anderson, Helen Beatrice, Alpha '05.
P. 400 West 151st St., New York City.

Arnold, Blanche Hammett, Nu Grad. (deceased).
Aron, Beatrice Marguerite, Alpha '09.

P. Liberty Road, Englewood, N . J.
Arthur. Helen Van Tych, Nu '01.

P. 34 Gramercv Park, New York City.
Ashley, Jessie, N u '02.

P. 34 West 54th St., New York City.
Ayres, Mattie Garland. Pi '04.

P. University Place, Knoxville. Tenn.

Pand T indicate "Permanent" and "Temporary" addresses respectively.



Bancroft, Helen Davis, Sigma '10.
P. 1940 Summit St., Oakland, Cal.

Barnum, Laverna Pollard, Zeta '07.
P. Union, Neb.
T . 1201 D St., Lincoln, Neb.

Baskervill, Margaret Lewis, Kappa '08.
P. Hernando and Linden Sts., Memphis, Tenn.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

Batz, Grace Fay, Sigma '09.
P. 825 Chester Ave., Bakersfield, Cal.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

Bauman, Eunice, Zeta ' i o .
P. West Point, Neb.
T . 640 No. if>th St., Lincoln. Neb.

Bauman, Minnie Gussie, Zeta Spec.
P. West Point, Neb.
T . 1439 S St., Lincoln, Neb.

Bedford, Huella Glover, Kappa '07.
P. 1056 College Ave., Memphis, Tenn.

Beemer. Luree, Zeta Spec.
P. Beemer, Neb.
T . Lancaster, Neb.

Bennett. Emma, Zeta Spec.
P. 1546 So. 21st St., Lincoln, Neb.

Bigelow, Lula Ellis King ( M r s . Clifford G . ) , Zeta '04-
P. 396 South 41st Ave., Chicago, 111.

Boardman, Esther Carver, Sigma '07.
P. Immaculate Heart Academv. Hollvwood. Los Angeles,

T . 2030 College Ave.. Berkeley, Cal.

Booth, Laura, Nu '04.
P. 130 West 91st St., New Y'ork City.

Boss, Anna Marie, Alpha '05.
P. 14 West 95th St., New York City.

Boyce, Florence Bessie, N u '05.
P. Mountain View, Franklin, Co., N . Y.

Boyd, Roberta Bliss, Sigma '09.
P. Yuba City. Cal.
T . 2411 Durant Ave.. Berkeley, Cal.

Brackett, Mary Morrell, Alpha '99.
P. 604 West 115th St.. New York City.

128 , TO DRAGMA.

Bradshaw, Blanche Laracy, Kappa '06.
P. High Point, N . C.

Bratt, Frances, Zeta '07. See Gorman.
Bres, Io Leigh, Pi '00. See Moi'se.

Bres, Marie Ernestine, Pi '06.

P. 2223 Milan St., New Orleans, La. Lawrence),

T . 133 Tulpehocken St., Germantown, Pa.
Bres, Nell, Pi '07.

P. 1427 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La.
Bright, Carrie Maxwell, Sigma '10.

P. 2040 Cedar St., Berkeley, Cal.
Brodie, Eleanor Elizabeth Van Cott ( M r s . Orrin

Alpha '02.

P. 23 Harrison Ave., Port Richmond, Staten Island, New
York City.

Bruning, Florence Edith, Nu '07.

P. Graham Court, 116th St. and 7th Ave., New York City.
Buchanan, Mary Hart, Omicron '10.

T . University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Buchanan, Laura Finney, Zeta '06.

P. Hastings, Neb.

Burchenal, Emma Howells, Alpha '07.

P. The Grafton, 2708 Broadway, New York City.
Burd, Adelma Helene, N u '03.

P. 5 Nassau St., New York City.
Burkitt, Pauline Clarissa, Zeta '09.

P, 1330 J St., Lincoln, Neb.
Burnet, Margaret May, Nu '01.

P. Madison, N . J.
Burrows, Edith Maie, Alpha '08.

P. 25 Neperan Road, Tarrytown, N . Y .
Butler, Ella Lilian, Kappa '06.

P. 315 Fifth St., Lynchburg, Va.
Byrne, Julia, Pi '07.

P. 5903 Prytania St., New Orleans, La.
Byrns, Elinor, N u Spec.

P. 226 West 75th St., New York City.

Caldwell, Harriet Moore, Omicron '07.

P. 408 Main Ave., Knoxville, Tenn.


Caldwell, Katherine, Omicron '07.

P. 408 Main Ave., Knoxville, Tenn.

Calhoun, Emma Shaw, N u '07.

P. 201 West 1 ooth St., New York City.

Carter, Alice Burt Sandidge (Mrs. Thomas), Pi Grad.

P. 108 Wesley Hall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville,


Carter, Helen Torrey Gurley (Mrs. Charles Cosgreve), Pi '07.


Caulkins, Edith, Omicron '08.

P. 503 West Vine Ave., Knoxville, Tenn. •

Caulkins, Fannie Lee, Omicron '04.

P. 415 Georgia Ave., Chattanooga, Tenn.

Chadwell, Elizabeth Willard, Alpha '07. See Pitney.

Chambers, Bessie May, Zeta '10.
P. 2962 North 25th St., Omaha, Neb.
T . 1300 G Street., Lincoln, Neb.

Cherry, Frances Geraldine, Kappa '08.
P. Halls, Tenn.

Clark, Flora Rachel, Kappa '10.
P. Texarkana, Tex.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

Clark, Matgaret Elizabeth, Alpha '02. See Sumner.
Cleland, Clara Murray (Mrs. James Edward), Kappa '08.

P. Lynchburg, Va.

Cochran, Jessie Isabelle, Alpha '09.

P. 120 West 12th St., New York City.

Coddington, Elizabeth Cadmus, Alpha '02.
P. 38 Hamilton Ave., Passaic, N . J.

Colcock, Mary Rugely, Pi '02.
P. Cor. Joseph and Hurst Sts., New Orleans, La.

Cothren, Marion Benedict ( M r s . Frank Howard), N u Spec.

P. 173 South Oxford St., Brooklyn, N . Y .

Courtian, Gladys Dewey, Sigma '10.
P. 2642 Derby St., Berkley, Cal.

Crippen, Josephine, Pi '02.
P. 1537 Thalia St., New Orleans, La.

Curdy, Anne Richardson Hall ( M r s . Robert James), Alpha '98.
P. 1106 East Armour Boulevard, Kansas City, M o .

Damon, Corn's Mabel, Zeta '04. See Peake.


Damon, Lucy Edna, Zeta '07.
P. Mason City, la.
T . Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N . Y.

Davis, Mary Adelaide, Sigma '10.
P. 3749 S. Figuera St., Los Angeles, Cal.
T , 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

Day, Alice Hooker, N u '04.

P. 28 Fifth Ave., New York City.
Dickson, Agnes Lillian, Alpha '99.

P. 52 Summit Ave., Jersey City, N . J.
Dietz, Edith Augusta, Alpha '05.

P. 217 West 105th St., New York City.
Dillingham, Alice, Nu '05.

P. Englewood, N . J.
Donovan, Lillian, Kappa 08.

P. Macon, Ga.
Doty, Madeleine Zabriskie, Nu '02.

P. 12 Charles St., New York City.
Douthat, Kathleen, Omicron '07.

P. Fayctteville, Tenn.

T . Barbara Blount Hall, U . of T., Knoxville, Tenn.
Drew, George Mary, Alpha '99.

P. 342 Gregory Ave., West Orange, N . J.
T . The Noble Institute, Anniston, Ala.
Dupre, Cleveland Genevieve, Pi '04.
T . Dixon Academy, Covington, La.
P. Opelousas, La.
Dupre, Edith Garland, Pi 'oo.
P. Opelousas, La.
T . Louisiana Industrial Institute, Lafayette, La.
Dupre, Mary Lilybel, Pi '07.
P. Opelousas, La.
T . Josephine Louise House, 1231 Washington Ave., New

Orleans, La.

Earle, Ruth, Alpha '02. See Lawrence.
Eastman, Catherine Crystal, N u '07.

P. Elmira, N . Y .

T . 12 Charles St., New York City.
Echols, Grace Carolyn Harris ( M r s . Dyke S.), Kappa '06.

P. Decatur, Ala.


Echols, Mary, Kappa '06. See Elliot.
Elliman, Margaret Grote, Alpha '02. See Henry.
Elliot, Mary Echols ( M r s . Council B . ) , Kappa '06.

P. Decatur, Ala.


Fettretch, Edith Berrell, Alpha '05.
P. 335 West 88th St., New York City.

Frame, Jean Herring Loomis ( M r s . James Everett), Alpha '04.
P. 115 East 72nd St., New York City.

Francis, Sallie Woodard, Omicron '05.
P. Fayetteville, Tenn.

Frierson, Lucia Davidson, Pi '08.
P. 101 South Main St., Columbia, Tenn.
T . Josephine Louise House, 1231 Washington Ave., New
Orleans, La.

Fuller, Flora Todd ( M r s . Bert Cornelius), N u "03.
P. 750 Halsey St., Brooklyn, N . Y .


Gachet, Rochelle Rodd, Pi '09.
P. 1640 Arabella St., New Orleans. La.

Garland, Olive Rosamond, Nu '02.

P. Daytona, Fla.
T . 34 Gramercy Park, New York City.
Gaus, Daisy, N u '04.

P. 497 Halsey St., Brooklyn, N . Y . Tenn.
Gibson, Anna Williamson, Omicron '07.

P. Cor. 7th and Chestnut Sts., Chattanooga,
Gillean, Sue Katharine, Pi '03.

T . Lake Charles, La.

P. 1625 Second St., New Orleans, La.

Gimper, Alma Merrow Wilson (Mrs. Earle H . ) , Pi '00.
P. Fond du Lac, Wis.

Glenn, Helen Mildred Lewis, Alpha '04.

T . Hotel Regent, Sherman Square, New York City.
P. 33 Forest Ave., Atlanta, Ga.

Gookin, Nina Jackson, Omicron '03. '07.
P. Bristol, Tenn.

Gorman, Frances Bratt (Mrs. Bernard D . ) , Zeta
P. Genoa, Neb.

Gray, Viola Clarke, Zeta '02.
P. 1527 South 23rd St., Lincoln, Neb.


Greshani, Katherine Okey, Omicron '07.
P. Cor. Eleanor and 3rd Sts., Knoxville, Tenn.
T . Barbara Blount Hall, U . of T., Knoxville, Tenn.

Greve, Dorothy, Omicron '05.
P. 636 Douglass St., Chattanooga, Tenn.

Greve, Harriet Cone. Omicron '06.

P. 636 Douglass St., Chattanooga, Tenn.

Gurley, Helen Torrey, Pi '07. See Carter.

Guyol, Carolyn Beauregard. Pi '09.
P. Covington, La.
T . 2925 Coliseum St., New Orleans, La.


Hall, Anne Richardson, Alpha '98. See Curdy.
Handy, Josie, Pi '07.

P. 1720 Valence St., New Orleans, La.
Hardie, Flora May Sanders, (Mrs. Eben), Pi '05.

Harpham, Edna May, Zeta Spec.

P. 1546 South 22nd St., Lincoln, Neb.
Harris, Grace Carolyn, Kappa '06. See Echols.
Hart, Marion Smith, Zeta '09.

P. 1304 L St., Lincoln, Neb.
Hascall, Florence King, N u '02.

P. n o East 16th St., New York City.
Haynes, Ethel, Zeta '06.

P. Decatur, Iowa.
Henry, Margaret Grote Elliman ( M r s . James Buchanan), Al~

pha '02.
P. Care F. P. Freeman and Co., 25 Broad St., New York

Holden, Eleanor Sanford, Alpha '06.

P. Madison, N . J.
Hopson, Willie Lee, Kappa '06.

P. Quitman, Ga.
Howard, Lillian Alice Catherine, Alpha '06. See Perry.
Howe, Eva Marie, Pi '04.

P. 1627 Josephine St., New Orleans, La.
Hoy, Helen Katharine, Nu '03.

P. 569 Fifth Ave., New York City.


Hughan, Ethel Margaret, Alpha '04.
P. 663 Quincy St., Brooklyn, N . Y .

Hughan, Jessie Wallace, Alpha '98.

P. 663 Quincy St., Brooklyn, N . Y .
Hulbert, Edythe Josephine, Alpha Grad.

P. 64 West 68th St., New York City.
Hurt, Mary Neal, Kappa '09.

P. Charlotte. N . C.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.
Hurry, Kathleen Elizabeth, Alpha '07.

P. 44 West 106th St., New York City.


Innes, Morris, Pi '10.
P. 1637 Palmer Ave., New Orleans, La.

Ives, Edith Prescott ( M r s . Frederick Augustus), N u '05.
P. 257 Lenox Ave., New York City.

Ivy, Alice Palfrey, Pi '03.

P. 1556 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La.

Johnson, Lucetta Pitney, Alpha '07.

P. Morristown, N . J.
T . 419 West 118th St., New York City.
Jones, Annie Elizabeth, Zeta '07.
P. 1710 B St., Lincoln, Neb.
T . Bryn M a w r College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Jones, Jennie Florence Preston ( M r s . Benjamin Franklin), A l -

pha '01.
P. 67 South Prospect St., South Orange, N . J.
Jones, Mary Eilleen, Kappa '06.
P. Anderson, S. C.
Jordan, Lucretia Howe, Omicron '08.
P. White Ave., Knoxville, Tenn.
Jung, Lillian Marie, Pi '08.
P. 1409 Louisiana Ave., New Orleans, La.


King, Edna Browning, Zeta '07.
P. 1723 F St., Lincoln, Neb.

King, Lula Ellis, Zeta '04. See Bigelow.
Kitchen, Nellie Ornisbee, Zeta Spec.

P. 1645 E St., Lincoln, Neb.


Kreidler, Jessie Gertrude, Zeta '10.
P. Fullerton, Neb.
T . Woman's Bldg., 12th St., Lincoln, Neb.

Kyle, Ailsy, Omicron '10.
T . University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.


Lamb, Elise, Kappa '06.

P. Fayetteville, Tenn.

Lawrence, Ruth Earle (Mrs. Richard Wesley), Alpha '02. York
P. 2519 Sedgwick Ave., University Heights, New

Lay, Sara Emma, Alpha '07.

P. 2137 Fifth Ave., New York City.

Le Gore, Lila Marie, Zeta Spec.

P. 1629 C St., Lincoln, Neb.

Lee, Eugenia Converse, Alpha Spec.

P. Stafford Springs, Conn.
T . 1230 Amsterdam Ave., New York City.
Lee, Katharine Marie, Zeta Spec.

P. 1944 E St., Lincoln, Neb.

Leland, Fannibelle, Alpha '05.
T . Prince George Hotel, 14 East 28th St., New York City.

Lewis, Leonora Roberta, Pi '04.
T . Biloxi, Miss.

P. Ocean Springs, Miss.

Little, May, Kappa '10.

P. Texarkana, Ark.
T . College Park, Va.
Loomis, Jean Herring, Alpha '04. See Frame.
Lyon, Elizabeth Barringer, Pi '07.

P. 602 College St., Clarksville, Tenn.

T . 1209 Fourth St., New Orleans, La.


Mabry, Lucie Mabel, Kappa '10.
P. Texarkana, Tex.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

McCaw, Marie Agalice, Kappa '08.

P. Yorkville, S. C.

McConnell, Queenie, Omicron '07.

P. 517 Fifth St., Chattanooga, Tenn.
T . Barbara Blount Hall, U . of T . , Knoxville, Tenn.
McEachron, N . Allene, Zeta '05.
P. 2821 North 18th Ave., Omaha, Neb.


McKeen, Helen Josephine, N u '05.
P. 136 Henry St., Brooklyn, N . Y .

McNeal, Berenice, Sigma '07.
P. Winters, Cal.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

Macdonald, Evelyn Blunt, Alpha Spec.

431 Riverside Drive, New York City.

Manning, Cora Hilda, Sigma '10.
P. 2706 Central Ave., Los Angeles, Cal.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

Mansfield, Daisy Julia, Sigma '07.
P. M t . Taber Station, Portland, Oregon.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.

Many, Anna Estelle, Pi '07.
P. 2336 Marengo St., New Orleans, La.

Marrin, Marie Josephine Ainsworth, Alpha '07.
P. 233 West 45th St., New York City.

Marshall, Frances Worstell (Mrs. Clifton Gregory), N u Grad.
P. 155 West 58th St., New York City.

Mathis, lone Augusta, Kappa Spec.
P. 1210 Madison Ave., Memphis, Tenn.

Matthew, Sarah Wheat, Sigma '08.
P. 2009 Lincoln St., Berkeley, Cal.

Maxon, Mary, Alpha '08.
P. 239 South Tenth Ave., Mount Vernon, N . Y .

Mayo, Janie, Omicron '08.
P. 721 Eleanor St., Knoxville, Tenn.

Mayo, Laura Swift, Omicron '09.
P. 721 Eleanor St., Knoxville, Tenn.

Meader, Bertha Estelle, Pi '99. See Patton.
Mercier, Adele Mathilde, Pi '02. See W i n n .
Metcalf, Felicia Leigh, Omicron '09.

P. Fayetteville, Tenn.
Miller, Emma Jane, N u '07.

P. 127 Riverside Drive, New York City.
Mitchell, Elizabeth Eleanor, Zeta Spec.

P. 1445 G St., Lincoln, Neb.
Moise, Io Leigh Bres ( M r s . Harold Alexander), Pi '00.

P. 2208 Milan St., New Orleans, La.
Moore, Martha Wickham, Alpha '02.

P. 76 Passaic Ave., Passaic, N . J.


Morrill, Evelyn Margaret, Sigma '09. '98.
P. 2622 Haste St., Berkeley, Cal.

Morris, Innes, Pi ' i o .
P. 1637 Palmer Ave., New Orleans, La.

Mosher, Jessie May, Zeta '07.
P. 229 South 26th St., Lincoln, Neb.

Moss, Elizabeth Jackson, N u '05.
P. 306 East 120th St., New York City.

Mullan, Helen St. Clair (Mrs. George Vincent), Alpha
P. University Heights, New York City.

Murray, Clara May, Kappa '08. See Cleland.
Murray, Mary Beatrice, Kappa '07. See Wooley.
Mysing, Lily Anna, Pi '09.

P. 1309 Felicity St., New Orleans, La.

Nelson, Bessie Louise Swan ( M r s . Arthur Mandeville), Alpha

P. 422 Homestead Ave., Mount, Vernon N . Y .
Nelson, Katherine Braxton, Kappa '09.

P. Winchester, Ky.
Nolan, Sarah Louise, Kappa '08.

P. Jacksonville, Fla.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.
Norman, Mary Marguerite, Pi '06.

P. 3811 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, La.
Norton, Mildred, Pi '05.

P. 2005 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, La.
Nunn, Virginia Lee, Kappa '09.

P. Frankfort, Ky.

T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

O'Neill, Laura Isabel, Pi '02.

P. Baldwin, La.

Parkerson, May Stirling, Pi '03.
P. 2912 Prytania St., New Orleans, La.

Parmelee, Florence Mathewson, Zeta '08.
P. 1924 Corby St., Omaha, Neb.
T . 1300 G St., Lincoln, Neb.

Patton, Bertha Estelle Meader ( M r s . Avery), Pi '99.
P. Asheville, N . C.


Peake, Corris Mabel Damon (Mrs. Edmund James), Zeta 04.
P. 516 North 32nd St., Omaha, Neb.

Pearce, Mary, Pi '10.
P. Punta Gorda, British Honduras, Central America.
T . 1230 Washington Ave., New Orleans, La.

Perkins, Ethel Marie, Zeta '09.
P. 1720 Cherry St., Lincoln, Neb.

Perry, Lillian Alice Catherine Howard ( M r s . Francis Tiffany),
Alpha '06.

P. St. Marks Place, New Brighton, Staten Island, New
York City.

Perry, Stella George Stern ( M r s . George Hough), Alpha '98.
P. Hotel Alabama, 15 East 11th St., New York City.

Pierce. Maude Elizabeth, Zeta Spec.
P. Wilsonville, Neb.
T . 431 So. 12th St., Lincoln, Neb.

Pierce, Mary, Pi '10.
P. New Orelans, La.

Piper, Elsie Ford, Zeta '04.
P. 1731 D St., Lincoln, Neb.

Piper, Helen, Zeta Spec.
P. 1731 D St., Lincoln, Neb.

Piper, Jennie Louise, Zeta '04.
P. 1731 D St., Lincoln, Neb.

Pitney, Elizabeth Willard Chadwell ( M r s . Frederic Vernon),
Alpha '07.

P. Morristown, N . J.
Pollak, Wilma Vera, Alpha '02.

P. 1730 Broadway, New York City.
Pope, Elizabeth Sophia, N u '06.

P. 804 Lafayette St., Brooklyn, N . Y .
Potter, Mary Grosvenor, N u '07.

P. 500 West 121st St., New York City.
Powel, Ailsie Kyle, Omicron '02.

P. Rogersville, Tenn.
T . Synodical College, Holly Springs, Miss.

Powell, Alfreda, Zeta 'io.
P. 2424 B St., So. Omaha. Neb.
T . 640 No. 16th St., Lincoln, Neb.

Prahl, Josephine Anna, Alpha '08.
P. 455 West 143rd St., New York City.


Pratt, Josephine Southworth, Alpha '07.
P. 11 Locust Ave., New Rocii^ic. N . Y.

Preston, Jennie Florence, Alpha '01. See Jones.
Provosty, Andree Jeanne, Pi '06.

P. 2936 Esplanade Ave., New Orleans, La.
Provosty, Eliska Paule, Pi '05. See Tobin.


Quackenbos, Man- Grace ( M r s . Henry Forrest), N u
P. 12 Fifth Ave., New York City.


Radford, Laura Gray, Kappa '06.
P. 119 Harrison Sr.. Lynchburg, Va.

Radtke, Eve Pauline, N u '07.
P. 213 Prospect Ave., M t . Vernon, N . Y .

Rauh, Ida, Nu '02.
P. 54 East 73rd St., New York City.

Rawls, Berenice Margaret, Zeta '10.
P. 708 Adams St., Creston, la.
T . 335 North 14th St., Lincoln, Neb.

Ray, Verna Margaret, Sigma '10.
P. 310 Walnut St., San Francisco, Cal.

Reed, Edna Lyman, Pi '03.
P. 4423 Pitt St., New Orleans, La.

Reed, Katharine Marguerite, Pi '00.
P. 4423 Pitt St., New Orleans, La.

Rembaugh, Bertha, N u '04.
P. 1435 Poplar St., Philadelphia. Pa.
T . 1 Broadway. New York City.

Rhoades, Laura Alida, Zeta '08.
P. 2621 Charles St., Omaha, Neb.
T . 1433 R. St., Lincoln, Neb.

Rice, Frances Martin ( M r s . ) , Nu Grad.
P. 515 Macon St., Brooklyn, N . Y .

Roberts, Lillie Belle, Kappa '10.
P. Valdosia, Ga.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

Robertson, Mabel Pearl, Sigma ' i o .
P. 1132 Center St., Salem, Oregon.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.


Robinson, Elizabeth Devereux, Alpha '08.
P. Andrews Ave., University Heights, New York City.

Roper, Grace Candace, Zeta '06.
P. 1732 Ryons St., Lincoln, Neb.

Roper, Mabelle Alice, Zeta '04.
P. 1732 Ryons St., Lincoln, Neb.

Rothschild, Sadie Frances, N u '04.
P. 1215 Madison Ave., New York City.


St. Clair, Helen, Alpha '98. See Mullan.
Safford, Dorothy Noble, Pi '10.

P. 1306 Webster St., New Orleans, La.
Salley, Helen Wilson, Kappa ' i o .

P. Orangeburg, S. C.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.
Sanders, Flora Mary, Pi '05. See Hardie.
Sanderson, Lucile Ferguson, Kappa '10.
P. Texarkana, Tex.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.
Sandidge, Alice Burt, Pi Grad. See Carter.
Sanville, Florence Lucas, Alpha ' o i .
P. 419 South Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Saunders, Marguerite Agusta, Pi '07.
P. 2925 Coliseum St., New Orleans, La.
Schmidt, Rose Everallyn, Sigma "09.
P. 1031 San Antonio Ave., Alameda, Cal.
Schramm, Ethel Bell, Alpha 07.
P. 527 West 124th St., New York City.
Schreiber, Emma Estelle, Zeta '06.
P. 2311 North 28th Ave., Omaha, Neb.
Schultz, Florence Elizabeth, Sigma '09.
T . 2411 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal.
Scott, Bessie Trimble, Alpha '05.
P. 26 Grove Terrace, Passaic, N . J.
Sercomb, Margaret Grace, Alpha '05.
P- 539 Terrace Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.
Sheppard, Bernice Fairfax, Kappa '10.
P. Texarkana, Tex.
T . R. M . W . C , College Park, Va.

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