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Published by Alpha Omicron Pi, 2015-09-17 15:49:50

1926 February - To Dragma

Vol. XXI, No. 3

Committee on Examinations—Chairman, Examining Officer.
Atlantic—Katherine Stewart, Gamma.
Southern—Margaret Lyon, Pi.
Ohio Valley—Geraldine D. Canfield, Theta.
Great Lakes—Beatrice Bunting, Omicron Pi.
Mid-western—Doris Ingram, Alpha Phi.
Pacific—Edna Betts Trask, Rho.

Committee on Nominations—
Chairman—Edith A. Dietz, Alpha; Alumnae Superintendents, members.

TO SUBSCRIBERS: I n order to receive your
magazine regularly send notice of change of
address to the business manager by the twen-
tieth of the month preceding publication.




69-71 Barclay St. NEW YORK, N. Y .



Vol. XXI FEBRUARY 1926 No. 3


Our Founders 169

Founders' Day in New York 178
Our Founders' Day Luncheon—Los Angeles 184
Founders' Day in Chicago 189
Kappa Omicron Becomes Our Newest Chapter 196
History and Traditions of Southwestern 204
National Panhellenic Congress Meeting 210
The Eyes of Texas Are Upon You 216
Child Protection . 222
The Princeton Student Conference 228
Russia—Past and Present 255
Let Them Speak for Themselves

About the Greatest of Experiments

How the College Cap and Gown Came to be

Items of Interest
Alpha Omicron Pi Fellowship for Graduate Work



Active Chapter Letters

Alumnae Chapter Letters

Alumnae Notes


of A l p h a Omicron P i Fraternity

Alpha—Barnard College—Inactive.
Pi—H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, New Orleans, L a .
Nu—New York University, New York City.
Omicron—University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Kappa—Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va.
Zeta—University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.
Sigma—University of California, Berkeley, Cal.
Theta—De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind.
Beta—Brown University—Inactive.
Delta—Jackson College, Tufts College, Mass.
Gamma—University of Maine, Orono, Me.
Epsilon—Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y .
Rho—Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.
Lambda—Leland Stanford University, Palo Alto, Cal.
Iota—University of Illinois, Champaign, 111.
Tau—University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
Chi—Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y .
Upsilon—University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.
Nu Kappa—Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.
Beta Phi—University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind.
Eta—University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Alpha Phi—Montana State College, Bozeman, Mont.
Nu Omicron—Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.
Psi—University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
Phi—University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan.
Omega—Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
Omicron Pi—University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Alpha Sigma—University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
Xi—University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla.
Pi Delta—University of Maryland, College Park, Md.
Tau Delta—Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, Ala.
Kappa Theta—University of California at Los Angeles.
Kappa Omicron—Southwestern, Memphis, Tenn.
New York Alumnae—New York City.
San Francisco Alumnae—San Francisco, Cal.
Providence Alumnae—Providence, R. I .
Boston Alumnae—Boston, Mass.
Los Angeles Alumnae—Los Angeles, Cal.
Lincoln Alumnae—Lincoln, Neb.
Chicago Alumnae—Chicago, 111.
Indianapolis Alumnae—Indianapolis, Ind.
New Orleans Alumnae—New Orleans, La.
Minneapolis Alumnae—Minneapolis, Minn.
Bangor Alumnae—Bangor, Me.
Portland Alumnae—Portland, Oregon.
Seattle Alumnae—Seattle, Wash.
Knoxville Alumnae—Knoxville, Tenn.
Lynchburg Alumnae—Lynchburg, Va.
Washington Alumnae—Washington, D. C.
Philadelphia Alumnae—Philadelphia, Pa.
Dallas Alumnae—Dallas, Tex.
Kansas City Alumnae—Kansas City, Mo.
Omaha Alumnae—Omaha, Neb.
Tacoma Alumnae—Alumnae Association (temporarily), Tacoma, Wash.
Syracuse Alumnae—Syracuse, N. Y .
Detroit Alumnae—Detroit, Michigan.
Nashville Alumnae—Nashville, Tenn.
Cleveland Alumnae—Cleveland, Ohio.
Champaign-Urbana Alumnae Association—Champaign, 111.
Memphis Alumnae—Memphis. Tenn.
Miami Valley Alumnae—Oxford, Ohio.
Bozeman Alumnae—Bozeman, Mont.
Milwaukee Alumnae—Milwaukee, Wis.
Birmingham Alumnae—Birmingham, Alabama.
Oklahoma City—Oklahoma City, Okla.
Chicago-South Shore—Chicago, 111.



Elizabeth Bond, 3137 Holmes Ave. So., Minneapolis, Minn.

Kathryn Bremer, 855 W. 7th St., St. Paul, Minn.

Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, 456 Broad St., Bloomfield, N. J.

T O D R A G M A is published at 415 Third Ave. N . t Minneapolis, Minn.,
by The Colwell Press, Inc. Entered at the Postoffice at Minneapolis, Minn.,
as second class matter under the Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for
mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of Oc-
tober 3, 1917, authorized February 12, 1920.

T O D R A G M A is published four times a year, September, November,
February and May.

Subscription price, One Dollar per year, payable in advance; Life
Subscription $15.00.

Jessie Wallace Hughan, Alpha.


(Extracts from toasts made at Upsilon Founders' Day Observance and
Sigma Initiation Banquet January 18, 1926, by Laura A. Hurd.)

I HAVE BEEN asked to offer a toast to our four beloved Found-
ers, and also through the pages of T o DRAGMA to give my
impressions of the Founders as I know them. I do not feel that
I can do justice to my subject as the impression I would convey
must be one dealing with qualities of the personality and spirit,
warmth and depth of being, the inner and finer feelings. But I
can, in some slight degree, express my reverence and gratitude
for their friendship and sisterly guidance, and for their great
g i f t of Alpha Omicron Pi to us and to the world.

For some of us, it has been our good fortune to serve in the
high councils of our fraternity and to walk close to our Found-
ers, always supported by their ever-ready help and example.
They are still as interested in our welfare as in the days when
they were classmates at Barnard. Through us, and in them-
selves, youth and appreciation of youth is perpetual. They are
just girls with us. They are proud and yet humble in the con-
sciousness of the greatness into which Alpha Omicron Pi has
grown. Confidently they face the future and know that the
greatest achievements lie before us. The plans they planned,
the dreams they dreamed, are being realized and fruition reached
in us, individually and collectively.

Our rituals are not alone idylls of beauty, but are for vital,
consecrated practice each day from the very moment of investi-
ture at initiation with the privileges of fraternity.

Recently in my fraternity reading I came across statements
such as these: "Rituals of all sororities are alike: they were
formed in the Mid-Victorian period. But they have wholly lost
their meaning to present day chapters. That fineness of ideal is
gone." I can well imagine our Founders would chortle with
merriment in being catalogued with the Mirl-Victorian..s. and
they know and we know, that the fineness of ideal abides. Times
and styles may change but, fortunate f o r Alpha Omicron Pi, the
depth of meaning of the principles of our foundation increases
with the years. Our rituals were cast in a vital form and have
us in their embrace. Let us anew resolve to seek the perfection
of that practical idealism in daily living. The earth yearns for


fulfillment in the making of all things nobler, better, happier.
There is exquisite answer on every hand that true fraternalism
is a necessity in every stage of civilization—and to every human

The Founders gave lovely and tangible expression to our
fraternal purposes. But Alpha Omicron Pi really was no
product of the Mid-Victorian period. Four Mid-Victorians did
not write its rituals. Nor is the motive and inspiration so
bounded chronologically.

More than nineteen hundred years ago there lived and labored
in Galilee a Man of lowly mien. Throughout the countryside and
in the populous places He went,-teaching L i f e , Service, Salvation.
He yielded His life to the Supreme Ideal. Men called His name

A deeper, sweeter meaning, a plan whereby certain precepts
of the greatest Teacher may become dynamic practice, and ideals
may become achievements, is the priceless g i f t our Founders
have given in ritualistic solemnity and beauty. I t has become
a part of spiritual fiber. High principles cannot die. Fraterni-
ties will exist always in some form and probably with but slight
modifications over the present organization. They are lasting
because, at the most impressionable period, when later adolescent
years merge with manhood and womanhood, their purposes,
privileges and responsibilities become a vital part of individual
and collective living. To thwart, to obstruct, this psychological,
spiritual stream is to run counter to the most natural channel of

And. when bccasionally we hear it said that "Sororities, at
their best, have no higher ideals than the college has for all of
its members," may we not feel it to be complimentary to our
existence, a recognition of service and purpose. The fraternity
ideal has been developing, largely from within, f o r better than
three score years, whereas colleges are but beginning to wish to
expand these natural privileges to more or all students, and are
seeking equipment for this purpose. In this effort fraternities
lend sympathy and support. Inherently they are the very equip-
ment, the very hand-maiden, of the college. They provide a ra-
tional organization f o r natural expression. Youth must be prop-
erly served.


The fraternity was spontaneous; it filled an actual need.
Man does not live by bread alone, nor does the formal, logical
presentation of knowledge satisfy the soul, though it may fill
the mind. That intensely human, social nature is a vast part of
spiritual life, and a college is not equipped to make this to order
for each student. I n fraternal union, youth together goes forth
on a great adventure and by friendly, yet ever-widening and
deepening contacts, enlarges human, social, spiritual vision. Its
bonds are continuous. I t has passed beyond a mere experiment
in socialization of group life. As an aid in individual develop-
ment, it cannot be questioned; it is not static but progressive.

Then let us express, as best we may, our love and admiration
of each founder, Jess and Helen, Stella and Bess. The circle
of friendship begun at Barnard almost twenty-nine years ago
now circles a continent. They have been an inspiration to us;
the fineness of ideal abides forever. W e will cherish, we will
practice, we will expand, we will protect, the ideals of our exist-
ence, forever.

I t is probably because each Founder is so individual, lives
her true self, has such f u l l and varied interests, that they have
been such loyal comrades to each other and to us. A t the next
Convention, which meets in Seattle, in 1927, we hope to have all
four with us.

Jessie Wallace Hughan is probably the most honest person
aliVe_because she has allowed Who's Who in America, i n record-
ing her achievements, to print her age too. A Doctor of Phil-
osophy, with her degree f r o m Columbia University, she has
been able to point out to such professors as Seligman where
their logic and economic theory was minus. Tall, erect and
stately, with gray hair and bright eye, she is distinguished of
appearance. Phi Beta Kappa is among her honors. H e r con-
tributions to economic and political thought include such learned
writings as Tlie History of International Relations, Socialism
and Forms of Government, and I understand she is at work on
an outline of Ethics for High School Students. Y o u are im-
pressed with her depth and sincerity of purpose. She has
espoused many a cause, which in early stage was classed as radi-
cal. She is no radical f o r the sake of radicalism or "to be differ-
ent" ; by nature she is shy and retiring but an honest conviction


lifts her into a dynamic leader. I n an ultra-conservative regime
she has often had to suffer for her views. Our patriotism she
wants a reality, no sham. Ethical values are to be sensed and
lived, to be a sincere effort and not to be made a transitory con-
venience. She tolerates no hypocrisy. I n New Y o r k City, as-
signed to what many would consider not the most desirable
appointment, in a Boys' High School on the borders of "Hell's
Kitchen," with much of the disciplinary activities allotted to her,
daily she finds nobility and the joy of service as a teacher. I
would say that Jessie Wallace Hughan is the greatest friend to
her students, and more admired by them and appreciated by their
parents of any teacher in the system. She is a friend to and a
worker for the unfortunate and oppressed.

Helen St. Clair Mullan was awarded the highest scholastic
honors, including Phi Beta Kappa, at Barnard, and followed
her baccalaureate degree with a law course at New Y o r k Univer-
sity. While registered at the latter institution she assisted with
the organization of the group that became N u chapter. Judge
George V . Mullan, of the Supreme Court of New York State, is
her husband and by her training as well as her other gifts, she
has been of vast assistance to her distinguished husband. Alpha
Omicron Pi, of course, believes that Helen would add dignity and
learning to the bench were she ever so honored herself. During
the Mitchell administration she was a member of the School
Board of New York City and is always to the fore i n educa-
tional and civic movements. A t present she is a Trustee of Bar-
nard College to which position she was recently re-elected, and
during her service she has accomplished much in working on
administrative student problems, as well as aiding in promotion
of an extensive building program for the institution. Two
daughters, Georgia and Janet, are growing now toward their
college days and seem to be following in their mother's foot-
steps. Helen Mullan is famous f o r the speeches she does not
make; she will tell you all the facts and figures you request, but you
will never find her by choice on the platform. Although modest,
she is a friend well-met and jovial and hospitable. I n the early
years she was a President of Alpha Omicron Pi. A t present
she is on her seventh year as a Trustee of the Fraternity A n n i -
versary Endowment Fund.


• ••'IS

Helen St. Clair Mullan, Alpha, 98.


Stella George Stern Perry was a Southerner transplanted to
New York City f o r the completion of her education. "Who's
Who" can give the chronological order of her achievements. She
was a pioneer in the movements against Child Labor, doing note-
worthy work along this line, especially in New Jersey at the time
Wood row Wilson was governor. Entering the advertising and
editorial held, she is now well entrenched in her chosen field of
literary activity. For years she was known as one of the leading
authors of magazine stories and books for girls—the latest being
Barbara of Telegraph Hill, only recently off the press. I n the
field of fiction she has produced Palmetto and Come Home, de-
scriptive of and placed in the heart of Louisiana, which she
loves. Her poems have often appeared in T o D R A G M A . Her ver-
satile pen is about to enter another division of the literary field—
the historical novel. Several terms she served as President of
Alpha Omicron Pi and no other member has ever held the office
of Historian. She has never missed a Convention of Alpha
Omicron Pi. H e r husband, George H . Perry, is in the advertis-
ing field, and when his work took him to California in 1915 in
behalf of the World's Exposition then being held, the California
chapters were fortunate in getting acquainted with Stella. To a
personality known and endeared to the throngs of members who
have met her at the several Conventions or who have known the
hospitality of her home, I can add nothing. Instead of the white-
haired lady one of the young members expected to find at Conven-
tion, she has still the bonny glory of her massive dark hair—atop of
brown eyes. She is one who lives intensively in the artistic and
idealistic—the life of the spirit as it is best lived on this earth.
I f she has a fault, it lies in the fact that out of the goodness in
her heart, she gives too much of her strength to others, and,
consequently, may be imposed on by her unthinking friends. I n
service and friendship she has no limits. In our rituals, in their
simplicity and tolerance, you can approach nearest to knowing
Stella Perry.

Elizabeth Heywood Wyman began her college career at
Wellesley, but in her second year she was in the Barnard ranks.
I n community activities, especially educational and religious, she
has long been outstanding in Bloomfield, New Jersey. She has
written several magazine stories and plays for children, and has


been unsparing of herself in the community service particularly
where young people have contacts. A family of young nephews
and nieces, with whom she lives, keep her ever youthful i n spirit.
For several years she served as a member of the School Board
of her city. She is the chairman of the Fellowship Committee of
the National W o r k of Alpha Omicron Pi. Several of the chap-
ters had the opportunity to meet her last spring when the sub-
stituted f o r the Grand President in officially visiting some of
them. She will become ever better known, ever closer to the
undergraduates of the fraternity within the next few years, for
she has been appointed by the Executive Committee to the new
post of Registrar; no better selection could have been made.

Is it not fitting, then, that we pledge allegiance anew to our
Fraternity and to the Founders four, who still are the custodians
and the teachers of our rituals and tradition? I n the nobility of
womanhood, earth has no better.

L A U R A A . H U R D , Upsilon.

The name of Sigma Chi Quarterly has been changed to Magazine of
Sigma Chi and from 1926 on the magazine will be issued five times a year.
Life subscriptions at $50 have been provided for. This last interesting an-
nouncement swells the ranks of fraternities whose publications have ad-
vanced beyond four issues a year. Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Delt:i
Theta are others. So far the quarterly still reigns supreme in the domain
of the women's organizations—which makes us wonder who will be the
pioneer in the N.P.C. family.

Themis of z.T.A.

Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, Alpha, '98.



A NOTHER DECEMBER E I G H T H has rolled by, but not without
engraving in the hearts of the seventy-one who assembled
in the private reception room of the Hotel Martinique an indel-
ible memory of a very successful and inspiring celebration of
Founders' Day this year in New York City. A roll call revealed
to us the fact that this little group was composed of one or more
representatives from sixteen different chapters. A d d to this
the special blessing which we in New Y o r k enjoy, namely, the
privilege of having our four Founders with us in person, and
you are already convinced, I am sure, that we spent a very happy

A l l of you who know the delightful and charming features
of Alpha O events can fully appreciate our thrill on rinding our-
selves once again in the midst of an eager buzz of sisterly greet-
ings, the joy of meeting the new sisters anl renewing our con-
tacts with the others and the feeling of solemnity with which
we are conditioned to respond to the glow of flickering candles
mingled with an odor of red roses.

Before I begin to re-live with you the program of the evening,
let me mention here a particular feature that added so much to
the spirit of the occasion this year—the cooperation of N u chap-
ter in uniting with our chairman and her committee in their
efforts to make this year's event an outstanding one, which they
most certainly did, by a joint celebration of their annual initia-
tion. I t must have been a happy moment for Stella George
Stern Perry, Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, Helen St. Clair M u l -
Ian and Jessie Wallace Hughan to witness the fulfillment of
their hopes and efforts of years ago and the perpetuation of their
ideals, as expressed by the youthful enthusiasm and loyalty of
Nu chapter. A n d what could have been a greater inspiration to
the hearts of the seven initiates than to have had this opportunity
of knowing the women who laid the foundations of all that
Alpha O means to them?

But do not let me give you the impression that the evening
was entirely given over to our more serious reactions to the occa-
sion. Our program was too carefully planned and provided with
music, singing and dancing, and our toastmistress, Pinckney Estes


Glantzberg, Psi, was too well chosen to permit of that. Pinck-
ney kept us as usual bubbling over with laughter by means of
her rippling humor and matchless art of story-telling.

Along with a very splendid repast, delightfully supplemented
by musical numbers furnished by C. LaRue Crosson, also of
Psi, and three pupils of the Juillard Foundation, came—first, a
welcome to all by Ruth S. McDonald of Theta chapter and
President of the New York Alumnae chapter, followed by a
presentation of the initiates of N u chapter. We were exceed-
ingly interested to hear what Elizabeth Heywood Wyman had
to tell us about "those who will do i t , " as observed by her on
her visit last spring to the active chapters. She does not think
that, essentially, there is much difference between "those who
will do i t " and "those who did do i t , " that fundamentally, they
are the same, the chief difference being " i n the greater range of
choice which the girls of today enjoy, in the wider fields of
knowledge open to them, in opportunities f o r more numerous
occupations, and in social and ethical matters." I t is a tempta-
tion to repeat in entirety what each one of the speakers had to
say to us but that would involve great length. I will merely
quote you the closing words of Elizabeth Wyman's speech: " I
once heard a preacher say that 'religion is seeing the glory.' I
believe that i f we live up to our ideals as a fraternity we are
going to see the glory of human life that is sometimes obscured
by tragedy but more often by the commonplace. I t is my wish
for every one who is a member of Alpha Omicron Pi that they
may see the glory both f o r their own sakes and f o r the sake of
those about them f o r whom they can make life both sweeter and
more worthwhile." Stella George Stern Perry, as always, stirred
our hearts with the spirit of love which pervades her pesonality
and imbued us with a renewed strength of purpose to carry on
the ideals of our sisterhood. Not a sound was perceptible when,
reminding us of the hovering soul of Lillian McQuillan McCaus-
land at such moments as these, she presented to Julia L . Tilling-
hast, President of N u , an everlasting tribute to her memory.
There were also speeches by Alice J. Spear, President of Boston
Alumnae chapter, whom we were delighted to have with us and
talk to us about Ruth Capen Farmer; by Julia L . Tillinghast,
and a very charming "Thank you" from Edith Tate Brawn,


Chairman of the Dinner Committee, to those who so kindly con-
tributed their talents to the evening's program and to her Com-
mittee comprised of Salome Schwertley Bratton, Zeta, Ruth
Coughlin Eastman, Iota, Mary S. Meeker, Nu, and Arleta K i r -
Hn, Rho.

Again, this year, we had Margaret Perry Maxwell of Zeta
with us and were entranced, as always, with the loveliness of
her voice. She sang f o r us—"Contemplation" by Widor, " M y
Love is a Muleteer" by di Nodero and "Wake-up" by Phillip.
Kay Jenkins and Thelma Robertson of Chi very charmingly
entertained us with an interpretation of " A Mid-night Fantasy."
And last of all but with no less thrill came the moment when,
with hands and hearts joined in union, we sang the last verse
of "Once More United" and reluctantly bid our farewells.



ALPHA Anna Elizabeth Boyer
Julia L . Tillinghast
Stella G. S. Perry Mary Louise Hingsberg
Helen St. Clair Mullan Helen E. Wall
Jessie Wallace Hughan Helen Joy Cochrane
Elizabeth Heywood Wyman Helen Patricia Schelnin
Josephine S. Pratt Lillian W . Culvas
Wilma V. Pollock Helen M . Schlauch
Louise Sillcox Marjorie Fitzpatrick
Beatrice Anderson Moses Grace L . Garin
Jean Wick (Adams) Peg Drake
Julie F. Froatz
Nu Edna M . Haines
Daisy Gaus
Frances V . Froatz Emma J. M . Earp
Marian A. Vineburg Gertrude Ryder Bennett
Edith M . McGary
Enid Watts ZETA
Ruth Gloria Lawlor
Gertrude M . Hook Salome Schwertley Bratton
Anna Jane Hughes Margaret Perry Maxwell
Lucile Burton
Norma Ethel Benger SIGMA
Dorothy Winifred Scully
Virginia Little Eva Alia Marty
Agnes C. Tufverson Dorothy Clarke Mills
Mary S. Meeker Helen N . Henry



Nell H . Foster Esther W . Baker
Ruth Stafford McDonald Alice Reeve
Thelma Robertson
DELTA Katherine Jenkins

Alice J. Spear UPSILON
Dorothy Taylor Houghton
Eunice Lillian Bassemir Helen W . Fosdick
Marion Ruby Bennett Grace Adeline Brown
Betty Rupe Schneider
Edith Tate Brawn
Wilkie Hughes
Marian Darville
Gladys Combs Terry Ruth E. Baldwin
Anna Bowman Rose
Margaret Graham Psi
Kathryn L Irwin
RHO Betty McOwen
Pinckney Lee Estes Glantzberg
Arleta Kirlin C LaRue Crosson


Barbara L. Porter Louise Arthur Spieldenner
Katherine Maclntyre



W H A T A WONDERFUL gathering we had at our Founders' Day
celebration December 5, 1925! W e met f o r luncheon at
the Women's Athletic Club, a beautiful new building. There
were forty-two Alpha O's present—the largest number since the
chapter was organized.

One of the rooms opening on the roof garden was reserved
for our use, and the table was beautifully decorated in our own
red roses and candles. I t was almost as thrilling to me as an
initiation banquet. A f t e r a scramble, we all found our places,
and quiet reigned while we sang our grace.

The food, of course, was delicious, and to add to our enjoy-
ment of i t , several of the active Kappa Theta girls sang and
played f o r us.

In addition to the attraction of a Founders' Day program,
we had the presence of Rose Gardner M a r x to stimulate us.
Rose had run away from the Sigma celebration, and we were
quite set up to be so honored.

A f t e r the last crumb had disappeared, we settled back com-
fortably in our chairs and had some very informal talks. Mar-
tha Bell, one of the hostesses, gave a word of welcome to all.
Muriel Turner McKinney, alumnae adviser to Kappa Theta. told
us all about the successful rushing season which had just closed
at Kappa Theta chapter. Rose M a r x touched briefly on Conven-
tion and gave us some very interesting sidelights on our Found-
ers. W e all thoroughly enjoyed Mrs. Perry's Santa Claus story.
She closed by reading a statement of the Founders which appear-
ed in an issue of T o DRAGMA some years ago. Her talk filled
us all with new admiration f o r our dear Founders and with
renewed enthusiasm and love for the fraternity which they have
built up.

A f t e r a brief business meeting, we were all free to greet old
friends and make new ones. I t was with reluctance that we
bade one another good-bye and left for our various duties.

H E L E N M . H A L L E R , Omega



ZETA Carmelita Webb

Martha Bell IOTA
Jane Wallace Graham
Jesse McKenna Marie Stejskal


Florence Alvarez Martha W o l f f Benkert
Lota Blythe Jeanette DeMent
Mary DeWitt Margaret Kendall
Olive Freuler
Carrie Kistler ALPHA P H I
Rose Gardner Marx
Florence Pierce Helen Rose
Mae Knight Siddell Dorothy Ropes
Geneva Watson Smith Mrs. Sager
Marion Wagner

Natalie Collins Haines


Edith Meers Helen M . Haller
Margaret Pittman
Edna Harms
Beatrice Freuler Sykler Isabel Hollister
Eva Ferguson
Sheda Lowman Kline KAPPA THETA
Muriel Turner McKinney
Alice Patten Louise Allen
Olga Seibert Lillian Lowden
Florence Stewart Helen Shields
Hortense Wallace Marjory Shiplet
Katherine White



N EARLY ONE HUNDRED Alpha Os met on December 10, at the
Parkway Hotel, to celebrate the founding of our fraternity.
Stella George Stern Perry, one of our four beloved Found-
ers, was so gracious as to accept the invitation of Rho chapter
and of the Chicago Alumnae Association to be our guest on that
occasion. For many of us it was the first opportunity to receive
the inspiration of her personality and love.

Julia Fuller Crane, toast-mistress, before introducing the
first speaker, mentioned the three persons most responsible f o r
Mrs. Perry's joining us at this time—Lola Busian, president of
Rho chapter, Marion Abele, president of the North Side Alum-
nae chapter, and Vera Riebel, president of the South Side Alum-
nae chapter. Dorothy Tinley was awarded the freshman cup
for excellence in scholarship and all-around participation in
campus activities, by Marion Abele.

Stella George Stern Perry, in an opening message to the
pledges, \ congratulated them and Alpha Omicron Pi on their
acceptance of each other. She assured them of happiness in
their fraternity life i f they had chosen Alpha O f o r her ideals.

Melita Skillen, of Epsilon chapter, district superintendent and
past Grand Secretary of the fraternity, paid a tribute to Mrs. Perry
for living the ideals upon which Alpha Omicron Pi is founded.

Merva Dolsen Hennings, past president of Rho, of the Chi-
cago Alumnae Association, and past Grand President of the fra-
ternity, addressed the active chapter in her usual cordial way.

Mrs. Crane then asked Mrs. Perry to tell us something of
the early history of the fraternity, together with incidents per-
tinent to its founding. Mrs. Perry described the other Founders
so vividly, and with such respect and affection, that those of us
who have not had the advantage of knowing them almost felt
their presence. She also praised Lillian McQuillan McCausland
for the fineness of her character and her work in Alpha Omicron
Pi. She made us feel anew our loss, as well as the loss felt in
the entire fraternity world.

Mrs. Crane introduced the following prominent Alpha Os:
Betty Bond. Editor of To DRAGMA, Grace Gilbert, past district


superintendent, Marie Vick Swanson, past Grand Secretary, and
Betty Hiestand Smith, past Editor of To DRAGMA.

Eleven chapters were represented at the banquet: Alpha,
Iota, Theta, Phi, Epsilon, Lambda, Tau, Eta, Omicron Pi, Alpha
Phi, and Rho.



Instead of crossword puzzles, we are presenting in this issue the fol-

lowing questions, which should be easily answered by intelligent and alert

women, such as all Alpha Chis are, taken from The Woman Citizen.

What do you know? Will it be necessary to print the answers later?

1. Who is Helen Gardener ?

2. Who is the first woman judge of a state Supreme Court?

3. Cecelia Beaux?

4. Who was the first woman M.P. in Great Britain?

5. Who was our first Congresswoman ?

6. Who was the first woman to be inaugurated governor of a state?

7. Who is Mary Anderson?

8. Who is Emily Newell Blair?

9. What woman was nominated last year for Vice President of the

United States?
10. What is Mabel Walker Willebrandt's position?

11. What woman college president retired three years ago after nearly

forty years' service?

12. What was Mme. Curie's notable discovery?
13. Who is "Ma" Ferguson?
14. What women will sit in the Sixty-ninth Congress?

15. Who is Mrs. Fiske?

16. Julia Lathrop?
17. What office did Margaret Bondfield hold in England?

18. Who was Frances Willard?

19. Who is Dorothy Canfield?

Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega.



Ti n ; INSTALLATION of Kappa Omicron came as the climax
of one of the most delightful trips I have ever taken. Cir-
cumstances made a change imperative f o r me, and the installa-
tion of a new chapter furnished the means. I had visited en
route Pi Delta, Kappa, Omicron, Nu Omicron, Tau Delta, our
Grand President, Pi, and associated alumnae chapters, and so
was especially f u l l of fraternity spirit when I reached Memphis,
at six a. m., Thursday, November 19. I was met by Linda Best
Terry, Kappa and Memphis Alumnae, one of the new chapter's
sponsors, Grace Gilfillan, president, and K i t t y Kelley, treasurer

of Kappa Omicron. Mamie

Hurt Baskerville's train ar-

rived shortly after mine, so

we waited and drove her to

the sister's where she stayed.

Then Linda drove me home to

breakfast with her charming

family. During the four days

I spent with her, I had ample

opjx)rtunity to learn the mean-

ing of "southern hospitality."

A f t e r breakfast Linda told me

of arrangements, between tele-

phone calls and telegrams

which began to arrive even

then and kept up till Saturday

Plans included tea at the uni-

versity that afternoon, initia-

tion and banquet Friday, meet-

Grace Gilfillan, Kappa Omicron's ing of the city Panhellenic
President Saturday, (the active going
with all the rest of South-

western to Mississippi for a game with Ole Miss) formal

ritual election and tea at Shirly McDavitt Lake's on Sunday

tea at Ehzabeth Clinton's for faculty friends and relatives on

Monday, then the Memphis Special for New York.


Everything went off according to schedule, with none of the
scrambling I had been warned to expect at an installation. As
Memphis Alumnae had picked with the greatest care and
thought the girls who petitioned for Kappa Omicron chapter,
so they planned the details of the installation. By noon every-
thing was checked, and there was nothing to do, so Linda and
I took a nap, then dressed for the Panhellenic tea at South-

Perhaps this is as good a place as any f o r me to give my
impression of the college. To the conventional mind, a wholly
new college seems a bit odd; we will permit an occasional new
building on campus as expansion becomes imperative, but an
entire new plant comes with something of a shock. A n d yet why
not? I tried to visualize Southwestern as it will be twenty-five
years f r o m now and found it an attractive vision. The builders
are planning well. The present buildings are all placed with
preference to the whole and the natural beauties of the campus.

Friday was somewhat strenuous. Linda invited her family
out f o r dinner, her mother to start right after lunch, but told her
husband that he would be expected to drive us to the banquet
as it was too difficult to drive in gold slippers. Her family,
worthy of other A . O. Pi families departed as requested, but
only next door to be available i f needed. Mamie Baskerville and
1 initiated the seven charter members, then after I had installed
the chapter, Alary Annie I.andy Jones pledged three girls. Mamie
stayed and dressed with us, an adventure such as I have not had
in many a long year, for Mamie. Linda and I dressed all over
the house, with most of our sentences unfinished. Dinner at
the Peabody was a great success, thirty-four, representing
Alpha, Omicron, Kappa, N u Omicron, Beta Phi and Kappa
Omicron chapters sat down at an oval table, beautifully decorat-
ed with Alpha roses. Elise Paxton Keebler was toast mistress,
weaving as did the Fates of old, golden threads f o r Alpha Omi-
cron Pi. The first thread, the Founders, was drawn by Mamie
Baskerville; the next, the golden garment, the charities of A . O.
Pi. was my thread; the weavers, the national ofhecrs, Lida Belle
Brame Goyer's, and the newest threads. Kappa Omicron. Sadie
Ramsey's. Mary Annie Jones and Polly Gilfillan made the re-


sponses, after which Kappa Omicron gave an entertainment, a
thrilling melodramatic pantomime of the perils of a lighthouse
keeper's daughter, with Polly holding aloft an electric torch as a
most realistic lighthouse, and showed that every member can
sing, by giving some college and original songs.

On Sunday we had a formal ritual meeting and election of
officers, then turned the meeting over to the new members. They
held a discussion of candidates, and a girl will fall little short
of being an angel i f she passes Kappa Omicron.

Monday afternoon the alumnae chapter gave a tea at Eliza-
beth Clinton's. Besides Elizabeth, Mamie, Linda and I , Mrs.
Diehl, wife of the president of Southwestern, and all the actives
received. I t was especially nice to meet the mothers of the new
members and to know that they, too, were proud of A . O. Pi.
But all good things come to an end, and Linda and I rushed off
to change, have a hasty dinner put forward an hour by good
Mrs. Best, f o r my convenience, then catch the train f o r home,
a tired, somewhat bewildered individual, but most happy, very
proud of our baby chapter and of the honor of being one of the
installing officers.

To know the actives is to feel that they will carry on an ideal,
and to know Memphis Alumnae chapter is to know that the
trust we put in them by accepting the chapter is not misplaced.

J O S E P H I N E S. PRATT, Alpha.

At the summer convention held in Canada, Pi Beta Phi announced
that the Arrow Endowment Fund now exceeds $103,000. This mighty
figure, while staggering in amount, gives us encouragement to look ahead
to the day when our own T H E M I S Endowment Fund, now over $10,000
and not started until the 1923 convention, will have achieved a similar
number of impressive round figures. Then, we can print articles and use
pictures without wearing out our fingers figuring up the discouraging cost

Themis of Z.T.A.



SOUTHWESTERN WAS definitely incorporated as Southwestern
Presbyterian University i n 1875, but it is necessary to go
back to ante-bellum days in order to trace the history of the
property which now forms part of the equipment.

I n 1848 the Masonic Grand Lodge of the state of Tennessee
determined, in connection with the Masonic Fraternity of Mont-
gomery county, to establish a first-class institution of learning
in Clarksville. Funds were obtained, and many other persons,
not members of the Fraternity, made generous gifts to aid in this

A View of Southwestern's Campus

The institution was to be known as Montgomery Masonic
College, and the building erected is the building now known as
"The Castle." I n 1849, however, before the building was com-
pleted, the Grand Lodge of Tennessee directed the appropria-
tions made f o r the support of the college into an entirely differ-
ent channel. The support of the institution, therefore, fell upon
the Lodges of Montgomery county, and the sum of six thousand


dollars had to be borrowed to complete the Castle building. After
endeavoring for a few years to conduct a college, the trustees of
the Montgomery Masonic College, finding themselves hopelessly
involved, offered to transfer the college to any reliable and
responsible association of persons, approved by the Lodges, who
would pay the liabilities of the college, amounting to about nine
thousand dollars, and who would agree to sustain a first-class
male college and academy in Clarksville.

The Presbyterian Church of Clarksville and the Presbytery
of Nashville became interested in this offer through President
W . M . Stewart, the president of the college, a man who was
both a prominent Mason and a prominent Presbyterian. Thus
the Synod of Nashville became interested, and in 1855 accepted
the offer of the Trustees of the Montgomery Masonic College
upon the terms stated above. President W . M . Stewart was
continued as president of the new college, and it was called in
honor of him. Thus, in 1855, Stewart College came into being
as a Synodical institution.

Three years later President Stewart resigned and was suc-
ceeded by the Rev. R. B. McMulIen, D . D . The need of a dormi-
tory was soon felt, and i n 1860 Robb Hall was erected. The
Hall was named in honor of Colonel Albert Robb, one of the
Directors of Stewart College, one who had made a g i f t of land
and who had urged the construction of the dormitory.

During the Civil W a r the college exercises were suspended;
and part of the time the grounds and buildings were occupied by
Federal troops, who were not careful to keep the college prop-
erty intact. Indeed, it required some thousands of dollars to
make the buildings again habitable.

Upon the death of President McMulIen, Professor W . M .
Stewart again assumed the duties of the presidency. I n 1870
he was succeeded by Dr. J. B. Shearer, under whose administra-
tion occurred the incorporation of Southwestern Presbyterian

Before the war. the educational policy of the Presbyterian
church included a program of one first-class college f o r each
synod. There were f o u r synods, each of which maintained a
college or the nucleus of a college. The effect of the war upon
these institutions was utterly destructive; and in view of the


poverty of the South, it was decided that all the synods should
unite and build one university f o r the whole territory.

On May 24, 1874, the directors selected Stewart College i n
Clarksville as the location f o r the new university. The synod
of Nashville turned all the grounds, buildings, endowments,
equipment and franchise over to the new institution known as
Southwestern Presbyterian University: The city of Clarksville
pledged approximately fifty thousand dollars upon the condition
that there should be at all times ten tuition scholarships given to
the graduates of the Clarksville schools. The faculty of Stewart
College was retained, nineteen acres of additional ground were
purchased and the work of the institution proceeded without

I n 1879 the Rev. J. N . Waddel became first Chancellor of
the university. Shortly before, an addition had been made to the
university property in the form of Stewart building, named in
honor of Professor Stewart who had died in the previous year.

In 1888 Dr. Waddel retired from the chancellorship on account

of advancing age. The office was then held i n succession by

Drs. C. C. Hers-

man, J. M . Rawl-

ings. George Sum-

mey, N . M . Woods,

and W m . Dinwid-

die. I n 1914 the

executive title was

changed to presi-

dent, and Dr. John

R. Dobyns was the

first one elected to

fill the office. U p -

on his withdrawal

in Tan.. 1917, Dr.

George Lang, then R o b b 'H a l 1 Southwestern

professor of history and economics, was temporarily appointed
acting head. A t the close of that session Dr. Chas. E. Diehl, pres-
ent head of the institution, was elected president.

During the administration of Chancellor Summey, the endow-
ment was largely increased; and Waddel Hall, a memorial of the


first Chancellor, was erected. The last of the buildings, the
handsome new Commons, was erected in 1918, with funds con-
tributed in part by the city of Clarksville.

About 1900 the church began to realize that the university,
situated as it was on the northernmost border of the territory
of the four co-operating synods—Nashville, Alabama, Memphis
and Mississippi—was badly located with reference to the terri-
tory it was presumed to serve. A n attempt was made to move
the institution to Atlanta, but the directors vigorously opposed
this movement. A decree of the supreme court forbade the
removal f r o m Clarksville to Atlanta. Inasmuch as the majority
of the students came from Mississippi and West Tennessee, and
inasmuch as Memphis, the leading city of the state, had no col-
lege of arts and sciences in or near it, the eyes of the church
turned to that city as the central and strategic location of the

I n January, 1920, a committee reported that a transfer to
Memphis could be effected, and that the Chamber of Commerce
of Memphis pledged itself to raise five hundred thousand dol-
lars f o r the college, provided it came to this city with one million
dollars of additional assets. A campaign committee was appoint-
ed to raise as speedily as possible the funds f o r the removal.
The campaign for one million five hundred thousand dollars was
brought to a successful conclusion in May, 1922.

Meanwhile the campaign committee secured a beautiful cam-
pus of one hundred and twenty four acres on the North Parkway
opposite Overton Park, and secured a quarry at Bald Knob,
Arkansas, as the permanent source of stone f o r the buildings.
The directors determined to build in the collegiate Gothic type of
architecture. Architects were engaged and the contracts were
let in the spring of 1925.

The institution opened f o r its fifty-first session in Memphis,
under the official name of Southwestern, Sept. 24, 1925.

Southwestern favors the policy of selecting carefully all
students; this selection to be made on the basis of moral char-
acter, intellectual fitness and preparation; qualities of leadership,
and potentialities of usefulness to church and state, and to limit
the number of students accepted by her ability to give them
the best advantages, such advantages as they have a right to


expect f r o m the standard college of a church which enthrones
honesty and which worships the God of righteousness.



Your elders say we all must weave our share,
So you i n turn must take the task begun
A n d make your own a golden garment rare,
Of better fabric e'en than we have done.
Let light and love to you be warp and woof,
And heart-warm red the color shining bright;
Weave close together, each from strife aloof,
For strength is built on only union's might.
But trim your cloth with just a little glee,
For you must have some frolics now and then,
And smiles and sunshine mix with charity
Reflected from the hearts of friend to friends.
So now I give a toast to weavers new—
May Alpha O go on and on through you.




SINCE T H E National Panhellenic Congress is a forum for dis-
cussion rather than a legislative body, its greatest benefits can-
not be revealed i n any report of "business accomplished," as
these benefits largely consist of the intangible values of the inter-
change of points of view and information, the broadening effects
of developing a solution of common problems. Those who
attend the Congress come away with a sharpened sense as to
the realities involved in practicing justice, tolerance, fraternity.

The two subjects of general interest to which the Congress
gave most attention were the College Panhellenics, and the ques-
tion of eligibility to membership.

A comprehensive program to be undertaken by the Commit-
tee on College Panhellenics was outlined and discussed. The
Committee will begin work at once on preparing a model con-
stitution f o r college panhellenics and recommended rules f o r
rushing and penalizations.

Alpha Delta Theta, associate member of National Panhellenic
Congress, was advanced to f u l l membership. Several petitions
f o r admission were presented, but were not granted. The pres-
ent roster of N . P. C. is twenty full members and one associate

The Congress adopted new eligibility requirements f o r mem-
bership. Henceforth a fraternity must be an associate member
of the Congress f o r four years before being admitted to full
membership. Admission to f u l l membership will also require ten
years existence as a National and an active chapter roll of ten,
of which the tenth chapter must be at least two years old. For
admission to associate membership the fraternity must:

(a) Be devoted to general fraternity ideals and be national,
as distinct f r o m local, in character,

(b) Be established in universities or colleges authorized to
confer the Bachelor's Degree,

(c) Be mutually exclusive of and in competition with other
general college fraternities,

( d ) Have been established in its national character at least
two years,


(e) Have at least five chapters established in institutions
where fraternities are functioning, and

( f ) Have favorable endorsement of the college authorities
where the several chapters are installed.

The Congress appointed several survey committees to make
studies during the next two years on:

(1) Social conditions on the campuses,
( 2 ) Scholarship standards and grading systems,
(3) Cost of fraternity life and maintenance of chapter

houses, and
( 4 ) Recognition accorded chaperons on college campuses.

R O C H E L L E RODD G A C H E T , Pi.

National Panhellenic Delegate.


Every magazine subscription taken through Mrs. L . A. Higgins, 2122
Evans St., Omaha, Neb., adds to the National Work Fund. All profits go
to the fund and are credited as a contribution from your chapter.

Checks are to be made payable to Mrs. L . A. Higgins.
The following information should be given:

1—Subscriber's name.
2— Subscriber's address.
3—Length of subscription.
5— New or renewal?
6—What is your chapter?



National Panhellenic Congress, January 4-8, Hotel Baker,
Dallas, Texas

What Did They See?

THEY SAW plenty, and acquired a liberal education in addition.
A f t e r many, many years, some of the Old Guard get tired
of telling new delegates: "That was thoroughly discussed and
settled in 1918—or at Indianapolis, or Chicago." But the new-
comers are intensely interested and absorbed in all that takes
place, and feel that there is no way to learn except to ask ques-
tions. So they do! Just because a thing is settled once doesn't
mean it should stay that way, anyhow. This world moves on!
But generalities grow tiresome, and I know you are anxious to
hear some details.

A f t e r the above preamble, your first inquiry would probably
be "Who's the Old Guard?" Incidentally, "preamble" was a
good word at the Congress. So was "legislative"—oh, yes, and

The first member of the Old Guard mentioned should be
Mrs. Parmalee, Delta, Delta, Delta, as she claims to be the oldest
living delegate. Y o u wouldn't think it to look at her, but you
would think how sane, how wise, how fair she is, and you
instinctively know she is a fine mother and a dependable factor
in church and civic affairs.

Lillian Thompson, Gamma Phi Beta, is a bird-like little per-
son who doesn't talk much in sessions but says something worth
while when she does. Also, in her sweet, charming way, she
insists you need not be rude or discourteous in the necessary
business of the organization.

Mrs. Knote, of Alpha X i Delta, is a rather quiet, comfortable
sort of person, who has definite ideas and sticks to them. You
can feel quite safe about her convictions, however, as they are
unfailingly very sound ideas.

Mary C. Love Collins, Chi Omega, is a unique figure in her
severe tailored attire and we trust the rumor that this is her last
Congress is unfounded, as the meeting would be quite incom-
plete without her. She has a keen mind and a soothing voice.


We can imagine an infant going to sleep to the sound of her
voice, but not the infant's mother, as she would be entirely too
interested in what was being said.

Pearl Green, Kappa Alpha Theta, is a small, decided brunette,
with a tremendous amount of energy. In spite of being in the
antique class, as they termed themselves, she would never be
called a back number as she is up to the minute on all conditions
actually existing on the majority of campuses today.

Last of the older members comes Dr. May Agness Hopkins,
Zeta Tau Alpha, Chairman of the Congress; a very charming
and very fair presiding officer. She guided the sessions through
their discussions, at times rather involved, with the deft, sure
hand we would expect in so capable and experienced a physician.

Among the members who cannot claim so many years to their
credit in N. P. C , we must mention Miss Onken, Pi Beta Phi;
a slight but dynamic figure who always had an opinion—a defi-
nite one—and didn't hesitate to express i t ; Alpha Burkhardt
Wettach, Zeta Tau Alpha, is their very clear-thinking, very cap-
able National President who did social hygiene and psychiatric
work in the East before she married, and is now on the staff
at the University of North Carolina.

Rochelle Gachet, Alpha Omicron Pi, broad-minded and
well-informed, did an excellent piece of committee work during
the past two years as Chairman of the Committee on Eligibility
and Nationalization of Social Groups. Though not connected
with the New York Panhellenic House at present, the project
is very near her heart and she spent most of her spare time
answering questions and giving information to delegates and
interested fraternity women.

Mrs. Brown, Alpha Chi Omega, had one of the most trying
chairmanships both during the past two years and at the Con-
gress, but her slender shoulders seem quite capable and she
remained calm and serene under the many tasks assigned to
her. Louise Leonard, Alpha Gamma Delta, is the incoming
Chairman, most energetic and capable, and we rather imagine a
trifle hot-tempered to add spice.

W e fell in love at sight with Mrs. Le Brecht, Kappa Alpha
Theta. Irma Tapp, Alpha Delta Pi, new Secretary of N . P. C ,
is, we are informed, a tobacco broker, and was so introduced


at the banquet. Miss Smith, Delta Zeta, the new Treasurer of
N . P. C , is a very keen, quick, little woman, who is a Y . W . C.
A . secretary in California. Mrs. Kemp, Kappa Kappa Gamma,
a resident of Denver, has a very pleasing personality.

Miss Barbee, Gamma Phi Beta, conducted the Editor's Con-
ference in a very interesting way and many ideas of value were
exchanged. Miss Butterfield, Alpha Gamma Delta, who is re-
sponsible f o r the "Chattering Squirrel," was elected to the chair-
manship of the next Editor's Conference.

* **

Eleven National Presidents attended the 1926 N . P. C.

* **

The Fort W o r t h Panhellenic entertained the delegates with
a luncheon, at which Mary Sears, of Delta chapter of Alpha O.,
presided as toastmistress. The program consisted of cowboy
ballads, Indian songs and negro dialect readings, given in
costume. Decorations in charge of Marjorie Hicks Van Tuyl,
of Kappa chapter, gave local color with miniature covered wa-
gons, flags and other characteristic touches.

* **

Overheard in the Coffee Shoppe: "Is this a Tea Conven-
tion?" "No, it's a woman's political meeting."

* **

Robert's Rules of Order were much in evidence at the busi-
ness sessions. Miss Onken, we think, had two copies. Some
of the Grand Presidents received excellent training to store up
for future Conventions.

* **

Miss Mullen, Kappa Delta, give a tea at the Woman's Club
in Fort Worth for the delegates. We feel this was quite unusual
for one individual to entertain the entire Congress.

* **

Dallas had an opportunity to exhibit her beautiful Country
Club when the City Panhellenic gave a luncheon there, followed
by a drive through the surrounding country.

* **

Overheard on the first day: " I had no idea Dallas was such
a city with skyscrapers in every direction." "Well, don't tell
them you were so ignorant."


Mrs. Kribs, Pi Beta Phi, had a very real task on her hands
with the chairmanship of the banquet, but she should feel fully
repaid. I t was ideal with a beautiful setting, between four and
five hundred guests, splendid program, good music and colorful
decorations of sweet peas in pastel shades, cotton balls, rose
tapers, and a gold star under six flags. I t was the first time
men had been invited guests at a Congress banquet.

K A T R I N A O V E R A L L M C D O N A L D , Grand President.


MAGAZINES: Mrs. L . A. Higgins.

2122 Evans St., Omaha, Nebraska.
Important Note: Checks and money orders must be

made payable to Mattie \ V . Higgins, and not to the
publishers, or we cannot get any commission. See
page 195 f o r additional information.

STATIONERY : The Wolfeboro Press, Inc., Wolfeboro, New
Hampshire, offers 25 percent commission on orders (after
January 1st) on E N G R A V E D stationery, three lines on
paper and envelopes, single sheets 6 by 7 in excellent quality
paper, 100 sheets, 50 envelopes for $1.50. They will accept
not less than ten orders from one address, but each order
will be wrapped separately. This is a special offer, but they
have other lines and will send samples to persons who can
show they can place orders. They will supply any number of
order blanks which serve as samples f o r this particular style.
The commission is deducted before the order is sent, and
should be sent to the Grand Vice-president for credit to the
general National W o r k fund, and not retained by the chap-



T H E FIELD of social work f o r children is extensive and com-
plex. I n no other type of social work have more specialties
been developed. The child protective movement is a field full
of controversy. There are two very different conceptions of the
function of children's protective agencies. One group considers
the protective agency as purely an instrument f o r the enforce-
ment of law. This was the earliest interpretation of the move-
ment, which began about fifty years ago. Protective agencies in
this group take an active part in placing effective laws f o r the
protection of children on statute books, and become powerful
instruments for the enforcement of these laws. As a rule, these
protective societies do not concern themselves with the causes
which lead to tragedy in the child's life, or with the removal of
such causes. Such societies are primarily concerned with the
rescue of the child suffering f r o m brutal treatment. Cruelty to
children has been greatly reduced in the last fifty years. This
result is partly due to the activities of Societies f o r the Preven-
tion of Cruelty to Children, and partly to the greater sensitive-
ness of the public. This year's report f r o m the Massachusetts
S. P. C. C. showed only six per cent of its cases dealt with bru-
tality. The second group of protective agencies have been devot-
ing most of their time to the preventive phases of the work.
M r . C. C. Carstens, Executive Director of the Child Welfare
League of America, says: "The trend of child protection is
toward an early recognition of menacing conditions and less and
less court action."

Society is made up of a group of individuals, each striving
to satisfy his own desires. I f each fellow could be entirely suc-
cessful in this struggle, this world would be a haven of bliss.
Unfortunately, the satisfaction of many of our desires would
mean the deprivation of our weaker brothers. I n the middle ages
the strongest physically were the only ones who could satisfy
their wants. This they did by seizing their neighbor's property,
his rights and his privileges.

I n the present stage of civilization, it is not the physically
strongest who wins. The man who is the happiest citizen is
the one who has learned to live in peace and harmony with his


neighbors. To accomplish this state of bliss, it lias been neces-
sary f o r him to learn to repress those desires which make for
the unhappiness of others and to take advantage of every oppor-
tunity to attain the satisfaction of his wants in ways that are
not h a r m f u l to society. I t is therefore necessary that the child
be trained f r o m his earliest infancy to so direct his efforts and
desires, that he can live successfully and happily in society. I n -
telligence and the ability to live in harmony with one's comrades,
count f o r far more than brute force, in the development of suc-
cessful citizenship, today.

Nothing can be a greater tragedy i n the life of a youth than
to be unable to " f i t i n . " W e have only to read the life of
Byron to realize what terrible tragedies result from such lack
of self-control and adaptability. Lack of training, as well as
lack of intelligent understanding, are largely responsible f o r
such tragedies in the lives of children, and i t is with the idea of
preventing such failures that social workers are now studying,
not only the family histories of the children who come under their
care, but also the personality and behavior of the individual child.
Persons who cannot fit into our ways of living are said to be
mal-adjusted, and our reform schools and penitentiaries are
filled with such mis-fits. A large proportion of the inmates of
such institutions are under twenty-five years of age. The causes
of the tragedies in the lives of these unhappy boys and girls are
many and varied. They may be physiological or they may be
mental. Economic conditions frequently bring about a home
situation that drives the youth to impulsive actions. Frequently
the child's emotional reaction to an unfavorable environment is
responsible for his becoming a behavior problem.

It is almost invariably the "poorly functioning home" that
provides the conditions out of which come our delinquent boys
and girls. The S. P. C. C , therefore, has to deal, not only with
a behavior problem, but also with a home problem. I n order to
understand the situation, we must begin by establishing friendly
relations with the child and with his family, and follow this up
by very careful study of the entire home situation. This study
includes having, not only the problem child, but all the family,
go through a general physical examination, and the child in
question is generally given a psychiatric examination besides.


Frequently disease is responsible f o r incapatibility and friction in
the home, making it an unhappy and cheerless place f o r the chil-
dren. To such a condition have been traced the causes of many
runaways and persistent truancies.

W e must always realize that behavior is no longer regarded
by the psychiatrist as a moral question. Our behavior is our
emotional response to a given situation. The child is not able
to control the nature of this emotional response. I t is up to the
adults who surround him to see that he is not subjected to such
an unfavorable environment that unsocial behavior results. Be-
havior is caused by something. I f we wish to understand the
behavior problem child, we must know what caused his emotional
reactions. Dr. Bernard Glueck says: "Frequently normal chil-
dren, subjected to an environment which brings out abnormal
reactions, may become problem children."

Miriam Van Waters, in her remarkable book, Youth in Con-
flict, says: "Delinquency is a way of responding to the human
situation, it involves the whole being—heredity, physical make-
up, intelligence, habits of emotional response, life history, inter-
action with other human beings and with nature. Y o u cannot
explain delinquency by reference to any one part of the child's
being or environment. I t is the total situation, the entire stream
which must be studied."

We realize that the family life offers the most normal and
constructive human relationships. For this reason, every effort
is made to reconstruct the situation in the child's own home and
family, so that he can live in his home without emotional conflict.
I f , f o r any reason, the reconstruction of the child's own home
life is impossible, then a plan has to be made to place him in a
private family where he can have individual attention and normal

Dr. Esther Richard, in studying problem children in Balti-
more, found that, when undesirable home situations were solved,
the child's work at school improved, the retardation in certain
cases being due, not to feeble-mindedness, but to mal-adjustment.

I t is because we believe that much of the unhappiness and
misery of adults could have been prevented i f they had been sym-
pathetically and understanding^ dealt with as children, that
many of us are striving to give every child a fair chance to de-


velop into a normal and useful citizen. The child is our yester-
day, our today and our tomorrow.

S U S A N K . G I L L E A N , Pi.

Superintendent of the Louisiana Society f o r the
Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Rain in the Mountains

The maple vine, red-stemmed, extends its arms in glee,
The plants and trees all quiver, the flow'rs laugh up at me.
And offer rounded, crystal beads for all who pass to see.

Each boulder in the rushing stream sheds off its wee cascade,
And on the mushroom's velvet roof a diamond drop is laid,
While, trembling on the moss-bank, hangs the butterfly dismayed.

The steaming mists boil up. suspend, sail past and rise again,
Revealing steeps discernible through veil'd slits of rain.
And settling down quite cozily when distant heights they gain.

The cataract omnipotent breaks through its giant way
And through the greying curtain sends a silver sheet of spray,
While whirling at its base the leaping sapphire pool's at play.

I like the rainy mountains; they are nicest to me then,
They are cool and fresh and quiet and free f r o m cares of men,
And my thoughts turn to the hillsides when the dark'ning clouds begin.

Songdo, Korea, F A N N I E W. BUTTERFIELD,

Osaka, Manichi.



Y ES, "East is East, and West is West," but the twain can meet,
for during the week-end of December 11 there gathered at
Princeton, N . J., students f r o m two hundred and f i f t y colleges,
representing every section of the United States. This National
Collegiate World Court Conference, called by the Senior Coun-
cil of Princeton university, had two purposes: first, to express
the mature undergraduate opinion of the United States on the
W o r l d Court; and second, to consider the formation of a per-
manent organization through which undergraduate opinion on
national and international affairs may be effectively expressed.

Student interest all over the country had been aroused on
the question of the entrance of the United States into the
W o r l d Court before the Conference met. A f t e r hearing a debate
in which the Hon. I r v i n L . Lenroot, U . S. Senator f r o m Wiscon-
sin, took the affirmative view and the Hon. Clarence Darrow of
Chicago the negative; meeting in discussion groups with such men
as Dr. Henry Van Dyke, Gen. Henry T . Allen, Commander of the
Rhine A r m y of Occupation, and Henry L . Stimons, Secretary
of W a r under T a f t ; and discussing the issue pro and con in an
open forum, the Conference passed the following resolution:

Whereas, We, the delegates of these two hundred and fifty
institutions of higher learning in the United States of America,
desire to hasten the security of peace in the world and f o r all

Be i t resolved, That we advocate to the President and the
Senate of our country adherence to the Permanent Court of
International Justice under the so-called Harding-Hughes-Cool-
idge reservations.

This decision was made free f r o m the influence of propa-
ganda of any kind and represented the result of thought and
careful deliberation on the merits of both sides of the question.

I n carrying out its second purpose, the delegates to the Con-
ference voted in favor of the establishment of a National Feder-
ation of the Students of the United States of America, to be per-
manently organized within a year on the basis of a survey made
of the colleges and detailed plans worked out through an Execu-
tive Committee. This committee consists of two representatives


from seven geographical sections of the country. The purpose
of this Federation will be: first, to secure an increased interest
and influence upon national and international affairs in the col-
leges and universities of the country; second, to achieve a closer
unity between the colleges of the United States, and to promote
sympathy and understanding between students of this country
and those of the rest of the world. Such means as travel and
scholarships abroad, co-operation between students and faculty on
matters of student government, courses of study, and adminis-
tration of discipline; education of public opinion against com-
mercialism in college athletics; and the encouragement of a spirit
of individuality and initiative as opposed to the prevalent ten-
dency towards standardized mediocrity will be means in attain-
ing these ends.

The Princeton Conference interested men and women of
affairs in college activities. I t showed that students feel that
they have a right to voice their opinion in shaping educational
policies and on national and international questions. W i t h their
enthusiasm, their desire to work f o r better conditions in the
world, and their ideals of responsibility as future citizens, they
have a great opportunity to become a powerful factor in the
educational and political life of the nation. May they make the
most of i t !

A N N M . ANDERSON, Kappa.

POME Delta Quarterly

A girl we love
Is Dotty Burr,
She never asks
What class we were.

Alpha Gamma



As I S I T here with the loveliest Christmas gifts spread out
l>efore me, my heart tingling with the joy of Christmas
and my thoughts continually returning to the party I attended
last night, it is hard to let my imagination travel across the ocean
and across most of Europe to that country where I was spending
Christmas three years ago. Yet when I told Merva Hennings
that I had been asked to write something for To DRAG MA, she
said: " I hope you will tell us something about Russia!"

And after all, as my mother and sisters still live there, it
happens that at one time or another of each day my thoughts
stray f r o m New York or Chicago, as the case may be, cross
the ocean, traverse most of Europe while I f r o w n mentally at
the red tape of crossing the various borders, so deeply impressed
upon me: France, Germany, now the Polish corridor getting i n
the way, Lithuania, Latvia and finally a day and a night to Mos-
cow—the heart of that "strange." "weird," "fascinating" coun-
try, where I grew up and which, with its intrigue, romance, super-
stition and endless delays is terribly upsetting to my acquired
American way of living—and earning my living!

* **

For history is being made there rapidly and my eyes just
seem to pop out recording things when I am there—

1914—the sway the war brought to all hearts! As a school-
girl visiting a friend in Finland during the summer vacation,
brought up on wild and adventurous stories my brother was for-
ever reading—it seemed to me we were all being called upon to
do great things, forget our trifling grievances and view the tre-
mendous events taking place.

1917—Reading about the French revolution, it had seemed a
privilege to live in such epoch-making times, now here was a
revolution, a family of six children finding refuge in my moth-
er's apartment while their house was being burned nearby; f o r
three days the entrance to our house blocked, searching parties
appearing and disappearing, and finally it was over—and on
getting out we could view the ruins and the new-horn freedom.

Then getting through school and—due to my knowledge of
English—holding down two jobs during the summer in organi-


zations sponsored by the embassies, trying to promote and keep
friendly relations with the Allied powers, while the seething un-
rest was becoming manifest throughout the country and was to
come to a climax—the Bolshevik revolution—soon after my
departure to America.

Then my college days at Cornell—with a rapid succession of
new impressions—conscious and subconscious—which became
crystalized, sorted and classified shaping my present personality
only after I left college and began the " l i f e struggle."

* **

I returned to Russia immediately upon completing my studies
at Cornell in 1921—mainly to see my mother, but also because I
was vastly interested in conditions in general. I tried to rid my
mind of all prejudice and preconceived ideas, as I was entering
Russia sitting at the door of a box car in which my fellow travelers
and myself were being transported for seven days over a distance
which formerly used to be covered in about twenty hours; from
Riga to Petrograd.

I was quite persistent in keeping my cheerful spirit. What i f
the street cars did not run and I had to take an hour's walk to
reach my mother's home, what i f people did walk in the middle
of the streets carrying awkward burdens while all mechanical
means of transportation seemed non-existent, what i f grass grew
four inches high between the cobblestones on the quiet, residen-
tial street where I used to pass on my daily trip to school, what
if the whole city looked drab, cobweb covered, starved and for-
lorn, with nothing but reminiscences and no present sensations
other than dull pain—my youthful enthusiasm helped me push
aside these trifling details, as I became absorbed in the unique
opportunity of studying conditions and of providing such com-
fort as I could to those around me.

That was the time when the Soviets were still enforcing
their original ideas of making men and women primarily citi-
zens: making them spend six hours a day in Government offices
which, having no funds at the time, as money was abolished, were
breeding places of idleness. The children, left thus alone at
home, were to be placed in asylums, of which there were but a
few inadequate ones.

I held a routine job in the bridge engineering department of


the so-called Northwestern Railways and gained a rather sub-
stantial idea of the extent of broken-down transportation, which
after the war, the revolution, the civil wars and the experiment-
ing of the new administrations had been reduced to a chaotic

Much of my interest in those days was absorbed by looking
up friends and delivering messages to people whose names had
been given me by various people in America. M y trips would
take me f r o m opera singers to peasant homes, one of these trips
taking five days. I can see myself—starting out eager-eyed on
some such mission on some f r i g h t f u l l y cold day with nothing but
camouflage tea f o r breakfast. But to see conditions, to learn
how other peple were braving the storm, seemed to hold an
opportunity of getting a wealth of knowledge of mankind, of
enriching my life with broad experience.

When I joined the American Relief Administration during
the great famine along the Volga, I found plenty of people to
whom my interest was far f r o m strange. Here were newspaper
men, diplomats, professors, writers, sociologists in quest of the
same thing. Now it became my job to look up needy families
in a far-away city, to interpret during interviews, to accompany
the officers on inspection trips through asylums, hospitals, refugee
stations and feeding posts. One of my daily itineraries stands
out in my mind: a former lady-in-waiting, a communist family
in need, a widow with nine children, and a Tartar woman who
had just sold her chief means of support—a goat. I shall never
forget these days, although I am a great believer in the general
policy of the American Relief Administration of not elaborating
on the harrassing details.

* **

Since I am back here, I am keeping in close touch with con-
ditions and I can see things straightening out. The crisis oc-
curred while I was there. Pressed by the famine, the new Gov-
ernment gradually began to relinquish the Utopian ideas to
which it had clung with a tenacity which seems criminal. Free
trade was resumed, shops started opening up timidly, money was
again in circulation, the newspaper boys counting in millions,
while the peasants still preferred to be paid in kind f o r anything
they sold. A State Bank was reinstalled and the gold basis of


exchange was reinstated. A newly-rich class sprang up; a new
type of communist youth was filling the universities and the
schools. I n an effort to resume foreign relations, the Soviet
government abandoned some of its intolerant ideas—a white col-
lar, tabooed f o r so long, seemed quite essential to international
prestige, and lack of education appeared somewhat of a draw-

The soviet government still has the same strong grip when
it comes to fighting counter-revolutionary efforts or even a mere
suspicion of such attempts. People may be convicted on such
suspicion and may never know their offense against the govern-

But here is one big advantage: Russia is becoming demo-
cratic. The impossible has happened! There is no longer room
f o r social differences. A lady who shines her own shoes is still
a lady! Everybody has passed through the same grind, has had
to work with his hands, and, willingly or otherwise, has lost the
idea of superiority, quite prevalent in old times.

So this is the land known by its cross-stitch embroidery, sam-
ovars, caviar, sables, and ikons. You can hardly speak of anv-
thing "Russian" now-a-days—it is either "pre-war" or "Soviet."


Mrs. Harriet Bliss Ford, in addressing Smith alumnae at the fiftieth
anniversary of the college, on women and work, recommended to her
audience two books. "The first book is 'Women Professional Workers',
by Elizabeth Kemper Adams. Begin with the last chapter and read the book
backwards and forwards several times. The other is the magnum opum,
'Training for the Professions and Allied Occupations' of the Bureau of
Vocational Information. I t is on training and measures 3x7x10 uncut,
but its actual measurement from tip to tip, when opened, is incalculable.
These books will save you much knocking at the wrong door."



W E ARE ALWAYS interested to hear from, and of, those who
have received our scholarships, and no doubt you, too, will
like to share their letters with us.

Wilkie Hughes is modest. She refuses to say, or, apparently,
to believe, that she is doing any work out of the ordinary. Per-
haps it isn't. Perhaps it is the sort of thing that many women of
public spirit and love f o r their profession are doing but we are
sure it is of interest to us as a fraternity and we know that
Wilkie is pursuing it with extraordinary energy.

A f t e r only two weeks vacation she entered the Yale School of
Nursing f o r the summer session and again after a short interval
registered in the Department of Nursing of Columbia University
where she is following a modest program of thirty-six hours
work. For the rest we will let her speak through • an extract
from a letter.

" I have decided that I am a most uninteresting person
"College work has been a bit strenuous. I am carrying thirty-
six hours this year, which keeps me so busy that I am neglecting
New York
"The Nursing Department is most interesting, and it is a
privilege to meet Miss Nutting and Miss Stewart who have given
so much to the nursing profession. There are nurses enrolled
from all over the world. Those of ns f r o m modern nursing
schools appreciate more and more the work of the foreign nurses.
"For one term paper ( I sometimes think class work is just one
term paper after another) I have been doing some Social Service
work. Through this I had my first introduction to Bellevue.
"To see the scientific work and the equipment there, it is hard
to realize that it all grew out of a shelter made by some Dutch
traders about 1658. I t is the oldest hospital of this country
"Honestly, I am afraid for To DRAGMA the proverbial 'to let
you know that I am well, and hope you are the same' will have to
come to your rescue."

Thelma Brumfield has the zest f o r experience which leads her
to find interest wherever she goes and which bids fair to make
her successful in her chosen field. No one can speak f o r her bet-
ter than she can speak f o r herself, so I am quoting verbatim most
of her latest letter. She is still gathering honors and appointments.

"Your letter arrived at the beginning of my vacation which


happened not to be much of a vacation after all. M y week at
home was divided between nursing a dog with distemper and
studying anatomy. The reason for the dog was that he belonged
to our apartment and had been i l l f o r several weeks, so it was
decided best to send him with me where the veterinarians at the '
Agricultural College could see him. Sick dogs are almost as
troublesome as sick humans, I've discovered, though they are
uncomplaining patients. The reason f o r the anatomy was that
I was preparing to take the Bellevue Hospital examinations which
came last week. Luckily I won an appointment there f o r a year,
which means that I ' l l have a complete M.D., for the internship
is almost a necessity these days.

This year we actually have patients of our own, whom we ex-
amine, diagnose and console. We're not permitted to treat them,
of course, but we are responsible f o r knowing the type of treat-
ment they receive, and how well they respond. Some of mine
have been interesting both medically and personally. One old
woman from the mountains thought she had been 'conjured' and
described just how the 'conjure man' did his work, with scorpion
tails, frog skins, and all the nefarious things that the witches in
Macbeth found effective. I don't know just what species of sorcery
she expected us to use to undo the conjuror's work. I had one
old mountaineer who thought it most immodest to be examined
by a woman, and,protested vigorously until he decided that help-
ing me to learn might be a great aid to humanity (he was very
religious) after which he submitted with a blushing face and a
martyred air. Whenever I stuck his finger for blood, he told me
he thought of the L o r d to keep it from hurting so much. I con-
fess that I found his attitude upsetting f o r such a trivial operation.

I have loved having colored patients this year, for they are
all so cooperative, so grateful, and so trusting. The new born
colored babies are the cunningest things I have ever seen, and
the mothers are a l l so proud of them. A t night the patients
in the colored wards sing beautiful old negro spirituals that
are more touching than ever in such a setting.

I am spending my spare time working on a problem i n blood
formation under Dr. H . E . Jordan. It's rather a gamble, for it
may lead to much or nothing. I ' m enjoying it though, and it is
good training in technique and the association with him is an
unusual privilege."





, The following is written in response to a request by the Editor of the
Quarterly that I send a message to my brothers in A K E about the great
experiment in World organization in which my chief interest is centered
in these later years of my life.

A World Secretariat

I meet so many men and women, otherwise well informed, who know
so little about what is being done at Geneva that I wonder i f all my
younger brethren in A K E realize that the year round, there are at work
there, 465 men and women, of thirty-four nationalities, many of them ex-
perts of the first rank, constantly studying international problems. Alosf
disputes between nations arise f r o m misunderstanding of the facts involved
and here for the first time in the history of the world is a group of
scholars, charged with the single duty of searching out, recording and
classifying the unbiased facts in cases as they arise to that they may be
readily available when needed by statesmen. Thus on the foundation of
dependable knowledge of the facts and conditions involved, the League of
Nations is going forward to build the rational processes which it is hoped
may supplant the irrational, savage processes of war as a means of settling
international disputes. This- "Secretariat of the League of Nations," is a
new thing, doing new work in the world and it has already proved itself
to be so useful that i f the League were to be dissolved tomorrow there can-
not be any doubt that the nations would be obliged to organize its equivalent
as an indispensable agency for the conduct of their usual and necessary as
well as their emergency international relations.

A l l the nations of consequence except Russia and the United States, are
making much use of this new agency of civilization and peace in the world.
The future will wonder that such an institution was not devised a century

The Labor Office

I wonder also i f all of my younger friends in A K E know that there is
another body of three hundred and seventeen men and women representing
twenty-eight nationalities, constituting the staff of the "International Labor
Office" of the League of Nations. This Labor Office is controlled by a
governing body composed of twenty-four members, twelve representing
governments, six representing employers and six representing the workers
of various nations. Its purpose is to candidly study the conditions of labor
throughout the world and to formulate legislative and social policies, which
it is believed will improve the conditions of the burden bearers in all lands.
These formulated results are transmitted to the various nations for such
action as each may, in its discretion, deem it wise to take. The principal
investigations and recommendations of this new agency have thus far
related to the following vital problems; the eight-hour day; the unemploy-
ment problem; the employment of women in labor at night, and just before


and after childbirth; the employment of young children and the working
and living conditions of seamen and stokers. The aim is to reduce econonu'c
rivalry, and the ill will that goes with it, by lifting the unfortunate workers
of the world up to the level of the more fortunate ones rather than to
pursue the old way of meeting competition by driving fortunate labor to
lower levels of living and the desperation of hopeless poverty. History
teaches that it is easier and wiser, and the fate of Russia warns us that it
is safer, for the prosperous classes to l i f t labor up than to try to hold it

The First World Court of Justice

I further wonder i f all my friends in A K E fully realize the importance
of the fact that for now more than three years the first Permanent Court
of International Justice ever organized in the world has been sitting at the
Hague discharging its fateful duties with great satisfaction to forty-eight
nations. Three of our presidents, Roosevelt, T a f t and Wilson, f o r twenty-
two years, urged the other nations to join us in organizing just such a court
as this one is, as the best possible agency f o r the settlement of many
kinds of disputes which are constantly arising between nations. And
presidents Harding and Coolidge have both earnestly urged the Senate
to advise and consent to a treaty providing f o r adherence to this court
so that we may not only have the benefit of it in the settlement of disputes
but also so that we may join the other nations in supporting and developing
and improving this new agency of civilization and peace.

This court will live and serve without our aid, but with it there
are those who think it would ultimately become a tribunal with an
influence in international affairs making for peace, comparable to that
of the Supreme Court of the United States in our national affairs. I t
represents a most important first step forward toward the "rule of reason
and the reign of law" in the international world and I hope every loyal
AKE will do all in his power to aid President Coolidge in his effort to
have our government participate in the court on the conditions proposed
by President Harding. I f after having urged the other nations f o r so many
years to create this court we now refuse to join them when they offer it
to us, they must inevitably, and justly, think that through all the years of
advocacy of it by our presidents, we were insincere, perfidious and false.
Every consideration of national honor as well as of national interest re-
quires that we shall adhere to and do all in our power to sustain, develop
and improve this new agency of peace and justice in the world.

A Trust of Civilization

In all former wars surrendered territory with its inhabitants was
parcelled out among the victors to be dealt with in their discretion without
responsibility to any other nation.

I wonder i f all of my friends in A K E know that all the German
Colonies and all of the territory surrendered by Turkey after the World
War are now governed by Great Britain, France, Japan, Belgium, Australia,
New Zealand and the Union of South Africa, under mandates (charters)

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