GEO. BANTA PUBLISHING CO., MENASHA, WIS.
This number of
is dedicated to the
Alpha O Teachers
who, with thousands of others, are trying
to make this world a better place
in which to live.
T o D ragma
Alpha Omicron Pi Fraternity
Qtabl* of (ttontetttfl
Directory of Officers 84
The Teaching of the Lyric Helen C. Worster, Y 97
Committees of Alpha Omicron Pi 98
A Method of Teaching English Composition in the 101
First Year of High School Blanche Du Bois, 2 107
Report of Vote on Constitutional Amendments 110
Business Manager's Report 115
The Story and the Child Isabellc Henderson Stewart, 2
The College Girl and Grade Work. . .Mattic R. Carskadon, K 120
In Memoriam 123
The Parent and the Teacher Elizabeth Hiestand, P 130
Realizinz Our Ideals Melita Skillen, E 135
The Vitalization of Arithmetic . . . .Felicia Leigh Metcalfe, O 138
An American Girl in Porto Rico 150
Some Suggestions for Teaching Composition 178
Roberta Williams, O 189
The Vision of the Teacher Roc hell e Gachet, I I
The Honor Roll
How the Youngest Teacher Taught Her Children
Another Discussion of the Gary Schools. .Clara W. Keopka, E
The Educational Atmosphere in Luzern. .Hermine Hatfield, Z
Reference Work for the High School Student
Helps in Teaching Latin Elsie Ford Piper, Z
Alpha O Teachers
The Eperience Exchange
Active Chapter Letters
Alumnae Chapter Letters
News of the College and Greek-letter World
DIRECTORY OF OFFICERS
FOUNDERS OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
Jessie Wallace Hughan, Alpha, '98, 663 Quincy Street, Brooklyn, N . Y .
Helen St. Claire Mullan (Mrs. George V . ) , Alpha, '90, Andrew Avenue, Uni-
versity Heights, New York.
Stella Stern Perry (Mrs. George H ) , Alpha, '98, 2243 Green Street, San
Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, Alpha, '98, 45" Broad Street, Bloomfield, N . J .
Grand President, Isabelle Henderson Stewart (Mrs. B. F . , J r . ) , Sierra City, Cal.
Grand Recording Secretary, Helen N . Henry, Whittier Hall, 1230 Amsterdam
Ave., New York City.
Grand Treasurer, Lillian Gertrude MacQuillin, 155 Angell St., Churchill
House, Providence, R. I .
Grand Vice-president, Jean Loomis Frame (Mrs. J . E . ) , 606 \ V . 122nd St.,
New York City.
Grand Historian, Stella Stern Perry (Mrs. George H . ) , 2243 Green St., San
Registrar, Marie Vick Swanson (Mrs. A . E . ) , 522 Church St., Evanston, 111.
Auditor, Helen Dickinson, 1646 Fair Oaks Ave., Pasadena, C a l .
Examining Officer, Linda Best Terry (Mrs. \ V . L . ) , 231 Avalon Place,
Chairman Committee on New Chapters, Viola Clark Gray, 1527 So. 23rd St.,
Editor-in-chief of To DRAGMA, Mary Ellen Chase, Bozeman, Montana.
Business Manager of T o DRAGMA, Marguerite Pilsbury Schoppe (Mrs. W . F . ) f
Delegate, Anna Estelle Many, 1325 Henry Clay Ave., New Orleans, L a .
EDITORIAL BOARD OF TO DRAGMA
Editor-in-chief, Mary Ellen Chase, Bozeman, Montana.
Business Manager, Marguerite Pilsbury Schoppe (Mrs. W. F . ) , Bozeman,
Assistant Business Manager, Antoinette Treat Webb, 134 Cottage St., Nor-
Exchanges, Helen Charlotte Worster, Caribou, Maine.
Chapter Letters, Margaret June Kelley, 52 Essex St., Bangor, Maine.
ALUMNA ASSISTANT EDITORS
Pi—Alice Ivy, 1556 Calhoun St., New Orleans, L a .
Nu—Elinor Byrns, 27 Cedar St., New York, N . Y .
Omicron—Roberta Williams, 1510 Faust St., Chattanooga, Tenn.
Kappa—Nannie Vaden, 120 Cowarden Ave., Richmond, V a .
Zeta—Elsie Ford Piper, Wayne, Neb.
Sigma—Mrs. Ward B. Esterly, 244 Alvarado Road, Berkeley, Cal.
Theta—Irene McCleod (Mrs. Le Roy), Browns Valley, Ind.
Pelta—Mrs. Maurice J . Keating, 244 Weston St., Waltham, Mass.
Gamma—Elizabeth F . Hanley, Caribou, Maine.
Epsilon—Agnes Dobbins, 386 Classon Ave., Brooklyn, N . Y .
jR 1 0 Mrs. Carolyn Piper Dorr, Berwyn, 111.
Lambda—Corinne Bullard, Porterville, Cal.
Iota—Mary Wills, Watseka, III.
T a u — J u n e Wimer, Elmore, Minn.
Chi—Ruby Davis, 17 3rd Ave., Gloversville, N . Y .
Upsilon—Vivian So Relle, 4740 14th Ave. N . E . , Seattle, Wash.
ALUMN/E ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGERS
pi—Mrs. George P. Whittington, Alexandria, L a .
Nu—Daisy Gaus, 497 Halsey St., Brooklyn, N . Y .
Omicron—Harriet Cone Greve, Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga, Tenn.
Kappa—Frances Allen, 1012 Federal St., Lynchburg, V a .
Zeta—Mrs. B. O. Campbell, 1971 Sewell St., Lincoln, Neb.
Sigma—Emma F . Black, 2913 Fillmore St., San Francisco, Cal.
Theta—Ceilia Bates, Winchester, Ind.
Delta—Annette McKnight, Billerica, Center, Mass.
Gamma—Alice Farnsworth Phillips (Mrs. G . A . ) , 11 Norfolk St., Bangor, Me.
Epsilon—Isabella Stone, 27 Lincoln St., Needham, Mass.
Rho—Elizabeth Hiestand, 1506 Fargo Ave., Chicago, 111.
Lambda—Frances Chandler, 623 Park View Ave., Los Angeles, Cal.
Iota—Annette Stephens Shute, 5818 Erie St., Austin Station, Chicago, 111.
Tau—Zora Robinson, Breckenridge, Minn.
Chi—Ethel Harris, Verona, N. Y .
Upsilon—Laura A. Hurd, 4626 21st Ave. N . E . , Seattle, Wash.
CHAPTER ROLL (Inactive)
Alpha—Barnard College, Columbia University, New York City.
P i — H . Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, New Orleans, L a .
Nu—New York University, New York City.
Omicron—University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Kappa—Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va.
Zeta—University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.
Sigma—University of California, Berkeley, Cal.
Theta—De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind.
Delta—Jackson College, Tufts College, Mass.
Gamma—University of Maine, Orono, Me.
Epsilon—Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y .
Rho—Northwestern University, Evanston, III.
Lambda—Leland Stanford University, Palo Alto, Cal.
Iota—University of Illinois, Champaign, 111.
Tau—University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
Chi—Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y .
Upsilon—University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.
Nu Kappa—Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.
New York Alumnx—New York City.
San Francisco Alumna?—San Francisco, Cal.
Providence Alumnx—Providence, R. I .
Boston Alumnx—Boston, Mass.
Los Angeles Alumnx—Los Angeles, Cal.
Lincoln Alumnx—Lincoln, Neb.
Chicago Alumnx—Chicago, 111.
Indianapolis Alumnx—Indianapolis, Ind.
Pi—Solidelle Felicite Renshaw, 741 Esplanade Ave., New Orleans, L a .
Nu—Mary B. Peaks, 244 Waverly Place, New York City.
Omicron—Mary Dora Houston, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Kappa—Helen Hardy, College Park, V a .
Zeta—Edna Hathway, 1232 R St., Lincoln, Neb.
Sigma—Elaine Young, 2345 Channing Way, Berkeley, Cal.
Theta—Edna McClure, A 0 II House, Greencastle, Ind.
Delta—Lydia Piper, Metcalf House, Jackson College, Medford, Mass.
Gamma—Leola Chaplin, Balentine Hall, Orono, Maine.
Epsilon—Viola B. Dengler, Sage College, Ithaca, N . Y .
Rho—Louise Hoffman, Pearsons Hall, Evanston, 111.
Lambda—Constance Chandler, A 0 I I House, Stanford University, Cal.
Iota—Leota Mosier, Urbana, 111.
T a u — E l s a H . Steinmetz, 406 n t h Ave. S. E . , Minneapolis, Minn.
Chi—Emily A. Tarbell, 503 University Place, Syracuse, N . Y .
Upsilon—Ruth Fosdick, 4732 21st Ave. N . E . , Seattle, Wash.
Nu Kappa—Erma Baker, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.
New York—Edith Dietz, 217 W. 105th St., New York City.
San Francisco—Blanche Ahlers, 2300 Divisadero St., San Francisco, Cal.
Providence—Helen Meslen Eddy Rose (Mrs. A. D . ) 29 Fruit H i l l Ave.,
Providence, R. I .
Boston—Blanche Hooper, 125 Professors Row, Tufts College, Mass.
Lincoln—Jennie Piper, 1731 D St., Lincoln, Neb.
Ivos Angeles—May Chandler Goodan (Mrs. Roger), 2631 Meulo Ave., Los
Chicago—Elva Pease Pettigrew (Mrs. J . ) , 21 E . 155th St., Harvey, 111.
Indianapolis—Irene B. Newnam, 620 E . 13th St., Indianapolis, I n d .
Pi—Clara W . Hall, 1231 Washington Ave., New Orleans, L a .
Nu—Jane Monroe, 144 West 104th St., New York City.
Omicron—Alice Calhoun, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Kappa—Helen Hardy, College Park, Va.
Zeta—Helen Wehrli, 1232 R St., Lincoln, Neb.
Sigma—Helen Clowes, 2345 Channing Way, Berkeley, Cal.
Theta—Beatrice Woodward, A O II House, Greencastle, Ind.
Delta—Helen Rowe, 20 Vine St., Winchester, Mass.
Gamma—Elizabeth Bright, Mt. Vernon House, Orono, Maine.
Epsilon—Mary Albertson, Sage College, Ithaca, N. Y .
Rho—Alice Kolb, 555 Arlington Place, Chicago, 111.
Lambda—Alice Moore, A 0 I I House, Stanford University, Cal.
Iota—Opal Trost, 511 W. High St., Urbana, 111.
Tau—Vivian Watson, 406 n t h Ave. S. E . , Minneapolis, Minn.
Chi—-Frances Carter, 503 University Place, Syracuse, N . Y .
Upsilon—Esther Knudson, 4732 21st Ave. N . E . , Seattle, Wash.
Nu Kappa—Lucinda Smith, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.
YOL. X I FEBRUARY, 1916 No. 2
To DRAGMA is published at 450-454 Ahnaip Street, Menasha, Wis., by George
Banta, official printer to the fraternity. Entered at the post-office at Menasha,
Wis-, as second-class matter, April 13, 1909, under the act of March 3, 1897.
To DRAGMA is published on the twenty-fifth of November, February, May
Subscription price, one dollar per year payable in advance; single copies
Mary Ellen Chase, Editor-in-chief. Marguerite Pilsbury Schoppe, Business
If we work upon marble, it will perish; if we work
upon b?'ass, Time will efface it; if we rear temples, they
will crumble into dust; but if we work upon immortal
minds, if we i7iibue them with principles, with the just
fear of God and love of their fellowmen,—we engrave
on those tablets something which will brighten to all
88 TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA 0MICRON PI
THE TEACHING OF T H E LYRIC
H E L E N C. WORSTER, r ' 12 School,
Head of Department of English, Caribou High
I think, whereas we all acknowledge the double aim of teaching
English, as the immediate giving of an ability to speak and write
fluently and correctly, and the ultimate stimulation of thought, culti-
vation of ideas, and development of the emotional nature, we do
not always recognize that different material must be utilized in at-
taining the different ends. The latter aim, making a high school
pupil grow intellectually and morally as his body grows, finds es-
pecially good means in the lyric poem. With an awakening of the
emotions of life, love, fear, hate, friendship, jealousy, as a goal, we
find absolutely no more valuable teaching material than lyric poetry,
because of its very nature. A lyric is primarily a crystallization of
a mood, an expression of some emotion, stirred in the human heart
under a certain stress of circumstances. Surely a most vital means
of building up a thought and emotional world in a young mind is
an introduction which poetry affords to the emotional world of
The real problem is how to utilize the lyric and bring to the
child the delicate thought of the poem without destroying it in the
process. We know the child lacks the knowledge of language and
grammar to read the poem intelligently, the emotional knowledge
to understand the feeling, and the art knowledge to appreciate the
beauty of it. Yet on the other hand we know that nothing deadens
a lyric, deprives it of power to impress and stir, as a detailed and
painful study. The poem becomes useless when it is torn apart.
A pupil cannot appreciate the thought when his mind is burdened
with new grammatical forms and meanings, with allusions, and
with figures of speech, during the period alloted to the reading of
the poem. Too much analysis, a term which might be called too
mach teaching, is like breaking a piece of statuary into bits to see
why it is beautiful, and then trying to disregard the seams made in
putting it together again. Seams, rather than whole bits, have a
fatal fascination for a growing mind. Must we then, to avoid the
evils of an analysis, allow him to read without understanding and
appreciation? Surely not; because he will get nothing from the
poem except the hatred which anything "too hard" inevitably pro-
From this it is easy to see that a lyric must be neither under-
taught or over-taught. The pupil needs to be helped but helped in
TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 89
such a way that he remembers not the process but the thought of
the poem, because he found in it something kindred to his own feel-
ings. I am going to sketch what I have found a practical method
of teaching the lyric, which does not conflict with this aim; though
I must admit it is no exception to the old rule that what is successful
in one class may be quite the reverse in another, that what works
under one set of circumstances with one teacher, may become a
hopeless tangle under different circumstances with a different teacher.
I have chosen to outline the study of Milton's L'Allegro and / / Pen-
seroso, because they furnish typical problems in lyric teaching, while
they are as difficult as any lyric which will be—or perhaps I should
say, ought—to be read in the high school.
Of course the first step is giving out the lesson, and the first day
will be one of preparatory work, work of such a kind that the pupil
will become interested at once in something. The object is to give
the pupil certain knowledge which he must bring to the first reading-
of the poem to enjoy it, or in other words to make it intelligible to
him. This comprises meanings of unfamiliar or difficult words or
expressions, all allusions, classical or modern, and an explanation of
the title words of the two poems. That amount of information must
be brought to the reading of the poem in order that the pupil shall
not go on disliking the poetry in general, and this poem in par-
ticular, because he cannot understand "the stuff."
Now the lesson should be given out in this way; the unfamiliar
words and expressions and the allusions should each be divided into
two groups, one for the teacher and the other for the pupils. Here
I show the four separate lists, two for each L'Allegro and / /
Pupil's List Teacher's Li si
("Cerberus i. Graces
1. Underworld -| Stygian
, . (Venus and
2. Venus < , , . 4. Thyfsis
^ ,J , ,.
3. Bacchus rr
5. Aurora 5. Thestyhs
7. Hymen 6. Phyllis?
9- Eurydice 7. Fairy Mab
11. Elysian Fields 8. Friar's Lantern
9. Rob;n Goodfellow
I I . II Penseroso
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
UNFAMILIAR WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
Pupil's List Teacher's List
I. raven uncouth
2. lark yclept
3- eglantine hoar
4- liveries landskip
5- hawthorn sock
6. pied buskin
8. jocund IL PENSEROSO
i 2. wanton
Pupil's List Teacher's List
T. Morpheus i. Muses.
3- Cassiopeia (Prince Memmon's Pelops (Sketch)
3- The Tale of Troy
4- Vesta Melancholy.
5- Mt. Ida
14. Cephalus (The Attic Boy)
Pupil's List Teacher's List
gaud decent time)
staid chaun tress
demure (Custom) buskin (Second
pall storied windows
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 91
In the classical allusions I give either the word actually occurring
in the poem or a related term which they will need to know in
finding the reference: for instance, to cover the reference to "Ceb-
erus," "Stygian" and "Cimmerian Deserts," I assign a study of the
Underworld. For all references I give exact pages, not simply
the name of the book in which the term is to be looked up, because
few high school pupils will be able, until they have had a good bit
of experience, to bring interesting or even intelligible information
to the class from general references. A l l such work for these two
poems I give out in Gayley's Classical Myths and Brewer's Hand-
book of Classical Allusions, as many books for such references are
lacking in ordinary high school libraries; and I wish to make my
suggestions practical, even with the meagre equipment which some
may have. The teacher's share of words consists of the allusions
about which it is hard to find complete, fascinating stories. For
example it takes a bit of ingenuity to make the three graces, "The
Mirthful," "The Bright" and "The Blooming" seem real person-
alities: and therefore "The Graces" and "Euphrosyne" must fall to
the lot of the teacher. Again the typical names of shepherds and
shepherdesses, Corydon, Thestylis, and Phyllis, which bring also an
explanation of the pastoral element in English poetry, can be handled
properly only by the teacher. Again she alone is able to give a
charm to the old English fairy tales and beliefs which cluster about
"Queen Mab," Robin Goodfellow," and " W i l l 'o the Wisp," who
appears as "Friar's Lantern" in L'Allegro. The teacher should
explain carefully, what they themselves cannot find, why Milton
chose Italian words and what he wanted each to mean. I n con-
nection with this, should come a little talk about the political and
religious struggle going on in England during Milton's time and
about the two attitudes toward life held by the Cavaliers and Puri-
tans, which so influenced Milton's literary life. I n the study of lyric
poems I advocate no preliminary study of the life of the poet except
where it connects vitally with an understanding of the poem. I n
92 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
fact, I believe that the light is shed the other way: that the study
of the poems may bring an understanding of the poet; but no really
great poem needs the background of the author's life to become
intelligible to the reader. I t ought to be too typical to need a
The next list is of unfamiliar words or expressions. The teacher
should take a share of these also, because it is often difficult to ferret
out a new or special meaning in a term. Many words can be made
interesting by the teacher; but in general, these reports from the
pupils will be necessarily less interesting than the stories from myth-
ologv. I f , however, the explanations are clear and accurate the
purpose has been accomplished. Words such as "uncouth" and
"yclept" must be explained by the teacher, who can make them inter-
esting through a history of their changes. "Hoar" is an example
of a word, which, even hunted up faithfully by a student, fails to
yield for him the material for the picture in "hoar h i l l , " which needs
a teacher's touch to come out. "Sack" and "buskin" should both
be carefullly explained for their connotation in dramatic works.
Each student should be given one or two special assignments in
the stories, according to the number in the division, besides all the
words to look up; and the teacher should say frankly, "We are
going to spend tomorrow telling stories and perhaps studying these
words." The aim in taking up classical allusions in this way is
to make each character so interesting with its attendant stories and
characters, that the mythological figure once for all becomes an
acquaintance of the child, so real, so alive, and so fascinating, that
next year Apollo and Bacchus are just as familiar to him as "Jack
the Giant Killer" and "Little Red Riding Hood." I t seems to me
that the problem of getting pupils familiar with the characters of
mythology, which enrich our literature, will never be solved until
we cease expecting a young mind to retain the idea of "Neptune,"
the god of the sea, practically all that he will get from the average
text, without first telling him a rousing good story where Neptune
sits in that capacity and becomes real by so doing. They do not
forget "Robinson Crusoe" ; no more would they forget "Neptune"
if he were made a part of a story instead of a name of somebody who
may have existed but did not really ever do anything. Why, oh, why,
so blindly disregard that love of stories and story telling, inherent in
children, which is so valuable in disposing of classical allusions?
The hour of storv telling with careful guiding by the teacher as
to the points of the stories turns out to be wonderfully interesting,
and valuable, even making allowances for all differences in ability
of divisions, for all silliness, all misunderstanding of stories, lost
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 93
references, forgotten references, and wrong references. Perhaps i f
a stern, hurried school inspector chances to make his inquiring visit
on that day, he might judge time spent this way a criminal
waste, though the interest of the class ought to lessen his condemna-
tion. Even the hurried inspector, I think, realizes that the value of
any single recitation can only be determined by its relation to
those coming before and after, and by what it is intended to ac-
complish in the whole scheme.
In L'AUegro this story telling usually extends into the second
recitation which is finished out by the report on words. These in
turn run into the third for which work should be given out in a
review on the fundamentals of versification and work in scansion of
lines, taken from the poem. The selecting of such lines brings the
first actual use of the poem; for the wisest method of pursuing the
story telling is not, I think, to mention the names as they come up
in lines but to take them up out of the child's knowledge that there
is such a system as Greek mythology. Scanning the lines introduces
them to the poem and its music. Out of the third recitation there
must come ten minutes in which to read aloud to the class (which has
not yet, remember, read the poem from assignment) the whole poem
suggesting that they bring to your reading all the new thoughts they
have accumulated during the last two hours. Books should be closed
and all eyes be turned to the teacher. Now comes a consideration in
which I confess, I believe we English teachers are apt to fail—that
is in a quiet and intelligent appreciative reading to our classes.
There is a vast difference between reading in an elocutionary man-
ner,—a thing which I think is above all others, to be avoided—and
putting a bit of personal understanding into the reading. There is
also a happy medium, between reading as an elocutionist, which is
not the duty of the teacher, and reading in an unintelligent, expres-
sionless manner, which some teachers affect as the necessary opposite.
The function of a sensitive, feeling reading is to make the poem
clear to the pupils, and thus to intercept partially its feeling to them.
Again and again I realize the truth of what my friend and teacher
Professor Gray says, "No teacher need fear her ability to teach a
poem i f she will live it and feel it as the poet meant she should."
She becomes so f u l l of it, that teaching is the natural outlet. Indeed
it is, I believe, the perfunctory, formal approach of some teachers
to the poems taught that makes it almost impossible to bring them
home to the pupils as real and vital. I t seems to me there can be
little finer joy for an orator in the applause of a multitude after his
splendid oration than comes to a teacher when after a quiet but
sympathetic reading of L'AUegro with its moods of reflection and
94 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
happiness, she looks up to find a classroom of twenty or so very-
young, very restless youths, of whom she has been dimly but con-
stantly conscious during the reading, so quiet and so interested that
her first movement is distinctly audible. When this reading is finish-
ed, whether the hour is over or not, the pupils should be dismissed.
Ask no questions; let them go with whatever impression it has made
upon each undisturbed. The next work should be given out as a
personal reading of the poem to divide it into parts and to select
the lines giving pictures.
There is something, however, in connection with the reading which
I feel has been neglected. A lyric poem cannot be read and under-
stood, to say nothing of appreciated, unless one is in the proper mood
for it. This truth should be explained to the class. The pupils
should be warned not to read it in a hurried moment, when the duty
feeling presses strong upon them, or after an exciting tennis match,
or a race, or a party. Explain that such a mood is wrong for poetry.
I f this mood idea is new, they will be surprised by i t ; some will in-
wardly scoff, others will be interested while the majority will try the
suggestion simply from curiosity, that blessed characteristic which
makes the wheels of teaching turn less laboriously. An organ recital,
a few minutes at their own musical instruments, or listening to an-
other's music, ten minutes of being alone out of doors or watching
the sky may be suggested as fitting and practical preparation for
reading poetry. We acknowledge that poetry is essentially different
from prose. Why, then, try to teacli it as prose? Make them feel it
should be studied differently.
During the next recitation period an outline of the poem showing
the divisions and the progress of thought should be put upon the
board, the model made from a comparison of several of their own.
Simplicity must be the aim, for the thoughts of the poem must not
be lost in a study of the outward form of the poem. I have ex-
pressed the topic in such simple terms as the pupils themselves
would use. Next after the discussion of the pleasures, which comes
up in the outline making, naturally follows a selection of the lines
which they chose as giving pictures and then easily from that the
lines which are musical. There are fortunately in every class—at
least I have yet to experience one in which they were lacking—a
few members that by instinct can find such lines. They unfailingly
and unfalteringly select the sunrise, the rustics at work, and the
landscape pictures. With these to break the ice the teacher can lead
them on, so that finding pictures and music becomes something of a
game and the pupils take it up rather eagerly or at least not in-
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
differently. Through it all the teacher finds opportunity to help
them see why lines are especially good. Again for music they select:
"Russet lawns and fallows gray"
and often the harmony of the famous lines describing music:
"Lap me in soft Lydian airs,"
Very frequently, however, they need help to appreciate this; a fact
which affords an opportunity to point music in the vowel sounds
and in the liquid combinations and repetitions.
From this arises naturally a little talk about the real thought of
the poem, the pleasures which Mirth offers. I f the emotions have
been stirred and pleasure derived from the poem, there remains but
one thing to be made sure, that understanding came with the feeling.
In fact the latter can hardly come without the former. A sort of
understanding usually comes. I t is, however, the crystallization of
that central thought, or teaching, and an expression of it in words,
which needs the guiding hand of the teacher. Emphasis must be
laid on the happiness coming from pure simple pleasures—met with
a mirthful heart, and L'Allegro's lesson is brought home.
The plan for teaching / / Penseroso is practically the same.
The introductory work is not so long as there are fewer classical
allusions, since their knowledge of these has been already somewhat
refreshed and the reviews of versification has been accomplished.
There is, however, at the end of / / Penseroso a chance and a
necessity for careful comparison and contrast with L'Allegro.
The comparison really begins in the outlining. While the class
is busy selecting the musical lines and pictorial lines, two bright
members should be sent to the board; one to put on the earlier out-
line of L'Allegro and the other to place the outline of / / Penseroso
OUTLINES OF POEMS
L'Allegro tl Penseroso
I. Banishing of Melancholy i. Banishing of Mirth
a. Summoning of Mirth 2. Welcoming of Melancholy and her
3. Plea for admittance to her train attendants
4. A review of the Pleasures which 3. A review of the Pleasures which
Mirth can give Melancholy can give
A. In the country A. In the Country
B. I n the City B. Promise of an useful old age
Then follows here the comparison. With this outlining comes
the temptation to follow the poem minutely, putting separately the
'JO TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
different pleasures enjoyed by each. But here is the place to chec
the analytical tendency. Analysis kills imagination; and imaginatio
is the necessary companion of an understanding of poetry. Let them
talk about the different pleasures; but never let them write dow
an unyielding list in black and white. I f the poems have left an
impressions, the pupils will delight in recalling the kind of pleasure
each loved. Diagraming them on the board makes the pupils re
member the outline, the appeal to the understanding, and not th
feeling of the poems—the appeal to their emotions. The two poem
are so rich in comparisons, a particularly interesting process to chi
dren, that the second almost teaches itself.
Each picture selected makes them think of a contrasting one i
L'Allegro and musical lines contrast again. They not only catc
the distinction, but enjoy the different music in the lines describin
the sweet almost sensuous music of L'Allegro, and those describin
the sleepy lullaby music of II Penseroso, "Sweet music breathe"
and those singing the music of the organ: "There let the pealin
organ blow." Again the picture of the gray, showery morning love
by / / Penseroso, sends them hurrying back to the picture of th
sun: "Robed in flames and amber light," of VAllegro.
When it comes to suggesting the central thought in the poem
the joy which comes from study, thought, and contemplation of th
grand things of life, they not only find lines to bring it out, but als
feel a bit of sympathy for that attitude toward life. I n teaching lyr
poetry can we aim at anything more worthy, more f r u i t f u l for them
than that, at the end, they sympathize with the feeling? Sympath
will not come i f they have failed to understand the poem, or i f th
study has been tedious. I f they have temporarily understood an
sympathized, the poem has left its mark upon their emotional lif
and has enriched it. What more can we do? Have we not accom
plished our aim i f we have succeeded in broadening their sympathie
and stirred their feeling to an appreciation of fine things.
May I ask you to glance back for just a moment over this plan
The time necessarily given to these poems will probably be abou
nine recitation periods, making the work cover three weeks i f thre
periods are alloted to literature a week. Perhaps this may seem
bit long, but not too long when you remember that such stud
furnishes an equipment which makes the study of the two followin
poems Comus and Lycidas much easier and much more rapid
Again such material is a splendid source from which the pupils ma
draw help in understanding many other poems which they will read
Perhaps some part of the scheme seems elaborate enough to be un
wieldly; perhaps it seems that the way is too carefully prepared
TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 97
ck gut is this true when you remember that the two poems treated are
on probably the longest and most difficult of the lyrics taught? Run
m through the suggestions applying them to the ordinary shorter lyric,
wn and note how they will fit themselves to the needs of such a poem.
ny I f the scheme can be worked out successfully under ordinary cir-
es cumstances with ordinary resources—and it has—for such poems,
e- think how easily you may adjust it to the less difficult poems.
he Again I urge that this method, which arms a child, all unbe-
ms knownst to him, with the necessary equipment to meet a poem fairly
il- and comprehend much of it at his first reading, which robs him of
that old complaint " I can't understand," is rational and logical.
in But most of all I urge that it is the practical way of bringing home
ch to the young mind the teaching of the lyrics, which should be so
ng rich for him in latent power to stimulate his emotions and to develop
ng his character.
ng C O M M I T T E E S OF A L P H A O M I C R O N P I
he The following list of committees with chairmen and members was
received recently from the Grand President. We regret that at the
m, time of going to press the Constitution Committee was still incom-
plete. I t will be given in the next issue.
ic Mildred H . MacDonald (Mrs. W. T . ) , I , Chairman
m Isabelle Stone, E
hy Helen Foss Weeks, 2
nd Roberta Bright Williams, O, Chairman
fe Frieda Pfafflin Dorner (Mrs. Fred H ) , ®
m- Luise Sillcox, A
es National Alumna? Work
Rochelle Rodd Gachet, I I , Chairman
n? Daisy Cans, N
ut Katherine Barnes, A
a Ritual Committee
dy Stella Stern Perry (Mrs. Geo. H.) A
ng Song Committee
d. Shirley MacDavitt, K, Chairman
ay Beulah Adele Rush, Z
d. Mabel Pauline Gastfield, P
n- At the June Convention it was decided to create four fraternity
d. districts, i . e., East, South, West, and Middle West. The chapters
98 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
in each of these territorial divisions were to be superintended by-
some efficient alumna chosen from the district in which her own
chapter was situated. We feel that these new District Superinten-
dents have been wisely chosen. Their names are not new to Alpha
< hnicron Pi and to her aims.
East—Marion Rich, A
South—Katherine Gordon, K
West—Virginia Esterly (Mrs. W. B . ) , 2
Middle West—Merva Hennings (Mrs. A. J.), P
A M E T H O D OF TEACHING ENGLISH COMPOSITION
I N T H E FIRST Y E A R OF H I G H SCHOOL
B L A N C H E D u BOIS, 2 '03
Teacher of English, San Leandro High School, San Leandro, Cal.
When the pupils enter our high school, very few of them know
how to write a simple exercise in composition with any regard for
the rules of punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. I t was my
aim as one of the teachers of the low Freshman English classes, to
try to get a working knowledge of the simplest rules governing
these laws into the heads of my pupils. Such advanced work as
paragraph developing was not aimed at in any work I have ever done
in my low Freshman classes. I t may seem that I have laid out a
task that would soon be accomplished, but I have never found a
term of twenty weeks too long for the completion of my task.
I n fact, I never have felt sure that every one could be always de-
pended on to put a period at the end of a declarative sentence, and
begin the next one with a capital letter.
I n our school, we have no special classes in composition, but have
to contrive to get it in along with our other English work. Our
classes are large, ranging from thirty-five to forty, and each teacher
has five or six classes each day. So it can readily be seen that it
is impossible for a teacher to correct frequent, long compositions.
When I first began to teach, this is how I handled composition
work. Every week I assigned in all my classes some topic and re-
quired a composition, written out of class, to be handed to me by
Friday. After I had corrected the papers and handed them back
to the owners, I required them to rewrite the paper, correcting all
mistakes. I had personal interviews with the boys and girls who
made the more serious mistakes, explaining the whys and where-
fors of English grammar and constructions. I nearly killed myself
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 99
with overwork in correcting papers. Saturdays and Sundays used
to be hateful to me because a large stack of compositions always
stared at me from my desk. I f I had felt that I was getting an
adequate return for my work in the increased ability of my classes
to write plain English, I should not have minded so much the drudg-
ery, but I failed to see the slightest improvement. The same mis-
takes were made over and over again.
Finally, I evolved this plan, which I have been using now for
some years, and which has given me comparatively satisfactory re-
sults. I took the composition textbooks we use, Woolley's Hand-
book of Composition, D. C. Heath and Co. publishers, and care-
fully selected the thirty or so rules that are habitually violated.
The rules are all numbered, and constant use of the book has made
me perfectly familiar with the number of any of the rules commonly
broken. This memorizing of the numbers of these rules was for
my convenience and speed in correcting. Then I required each pupil
every day to hand in one paragraph (not more than a hundred
words). These paragraphs could not be reproductions of anything
they had read, for I found some would copy verbatim i f allowed to
hand in non-original work, but must tell of some experience that
had happened to them, or of some happening that they had witnessed.
I carefully checked off each composition to see that no one was
shirking and selected six or seven papers to be corrected each day.
Thus I got around the class once a week.
The work of correction went quickly, for the papers were few,
short, and interesting. I n the margin at the left of the paper on the
same line with the mistake, I wrote the number of the rule violated,
and then in the composition I underlined the place where the mistake
occurred. You who are not English teachers would be surprised at
the number of mistakes that can be made in one paragraph by a High
School Freshman. While correcting, I made a memorandum of im-
portant violations found on the papers I was correcting, and the next
day, when the corrected papers were returned, I put the sentences
containing the mistakes on the board, being very careful to give no
hint as to the author of the sentence.
"Where is the mistake in the sentence?" I asked.
Very soon the class learned to detect errors. Then I said, "Find
Rule 278 in your books." The rule was read and explained, and
some child showed how this particular sentence broke Rule 278. I n
this way, gradually all the important rules in the book were made
The pupils who had had their compositions returned were not re-
quired to write a new composition that night but were to correct their
old ones, write every misspelled word ten times, and every rule once
100 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
for each time it was violated. I wished to discourage the habit of
carelessly making the same mistakes over and over again, and this,
I found, was a good way to do it.
The real criticism of the mistakes taken from their own papers, I
found exceedingly helpful. Sometimes, i f a whole paragraph were
particularly bad, I copied the whole thing on the board, had it cor-
rected orally, and then had them bring in for the next lesson the
same ideas written in their own language but avoiding the mistakes
found in the original.
A l l of this work can be done in ten or fifteen minutes, and consider-
ing the amount of time given to it, yields very satisfactory results.
REPORT OF VOTE ON CONSTITUTIONAL
Chapter Vote on Amendments and Petitions passed by Grand Coun-
cil of Alpha Omicron Pi, June, 1915.
Amendments to Constitution;
Art. V, sec. 2, Carried; Opposed by N , K, T, I , X.
Art. V I I , sec. 3, carried unanimously. Sec. 4 new sub-sec. unani-
Art. V I I I , sec. 1, 2, 4, unanimously carried. Sec. 3 carried, op-
posed by I .
Art. I X , unanimously carried.
Art. X new sec. 4, carried; opposed by Boston Alumnae.
Art. X I , unanimously carried.
Amendments to By-laws;
Art. I , sec. 1, unanimously carried.
Art. I I , sec. 3, unanimously carried. Sec. 7 carried; opposed
by I .
New Art. V, sec. 1, 2, carried; opposed by A, N . Y. Alumnae.
Art. V I I , now Art. V I I I , unanimously carried.
Amendments to Rules and Regulations;
5, 11, 15, carried unanimously.
7, carried; opposed by K, I , Chicago Alumnae.
Result of vote; all amendments carried.
No vote from Providence Alumnae.
Copies of these amendments may be obtained by applying to me.
They should be entered in the copies of the Constitution by all chap-
ters and Grand Council members.
Petition from Margaret Vaughan and Shirley MacDavitt for a
chapter at Southern Methodist University at Dallas, Texas, was
passed, and Nu Kappa chapter installed September 25, 1915.
H E L E N N . HENRY, Grand Secretary.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 101
BUSINESS MANAGER'S REPORT
February 1, the chapters stood as follows on the books of the
Business Manager of To DRAGMA. The increase in the number of
subscribers in some chapters is largely due to the faithful work of
the Chapter Alumnae Assistants, and speaks for itself in the following
Chapter No. Alum nee. No. Subscribers Per cent
Upsilon 17 12 70.5
Chi 22 IS 68.1
3 7 25 67.5
Rho 46 27 58.6
Sigma 98 54 55.1
Gamma 91 A 1 4 5 +
Tau 26 11 42.8
Iota A 1 18 40.9
Pi 58 18 40.1
50 20 40
Providence Alumnae 12 4 33
Alpha 86 22 24.8
Theta 101 18 17.8
Zeta 121 20 16.5
81 12 14.8
Delta 122 18 14.7
Omicron 46 5 10.8
MARGUERITE PILSBURY SCHOPPE,
THE STORY A N D T H E CHILD
ISABELLE HENDERSON STEWART, 2 '05
Grand President of A. O I I
Every time I tell stories to a group of children, that particular
group seems to emphasize most strongly to me the value of stories—
for invariably I say, " I never had such attention! That little
girl who crept from her seat, and snuggled close to stay until the
Story-hour ended"; or "that little boy, with open mouth and eyes,
who wiggled off the bench at the telling of 'Little Black Sambo,'
and crashed to the floor at the identical moment when all the tigers
So the experiences go. But as the last Story-hour is the most vivid
permit me to say again, "No, I never, never knew the real value of
stories until I told them in our Rural School here in Sierra City. At
102 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
no time before had a story been told within its walls, where there is
no Robinson Crusoe, not a Fairy Tale, no Alice in Wonderland,
nothing in the library but a few old books—the selfsame ones that
decorated the shelves when I was a little girl, for I attended the same
school with the same teacher.
Even Poets At The Breakfast Table stands just as high up on the
top shelf. How well I remembered it. I have always liked break-
fasts best of the three meals, and that is why I chose it one day. I
returned it the next morning! The teacher says the children do not
care about books. I know why.
The biggest boy, (and the "baddest") who sat in the boys' row in
the back, not wanting to be bored, pulled from his desk a yellow-
backed novel for I was about to tell The Little Red Hen to the
Chart A Class. When I imitated the animals and the fowls, he
thought me quite funny, as did others too, but not the "Chart A
Class." Their longing for another one was so great I saw it in their
eyes. One even ventured that I tell it again. She told me she liked
pancakes when I asked and indeed, so many of them called out that
they had more for breakfast than I , that I began on "The Pancake."
The biggest and baddest, forgetting to live up to his reputation,
had his arms folded over the yellow-backed novel, and with his head
low on his arms drank it all in. The oldest girl wiped her eyes
with the youngest over Little Snow White, and the boys straightened
and thrilled at The Red Thread of Courage.
Friday afternoon in this school is devoted to readings by the
teacher in an attempt, as the teacher said, to impress "morals" upon
his flock. He pointed with pride to signs hung around the room—
"Honesty," "Truthfulness," "Courage," and so on. He showed me
the books he read f r o m ; dry sordid facts, over which the children
yawned, played hooky, I wager.
Had they not in Storyland heard how selfishness, untruthfulness,
and intrigue were punished? Had he failed to catch the expression
on the faces of his grown boys as The Red Thread of Courage ended?
I t is not hard to read children's faces. I could guess well they had
grasped the meaning of each story told. I t isn't ever necessary to
point a moral. I t is always sure to be resented. " I guess I know,"
a little boy once said, and kicked over the waste-basket, when his
teacher after reading the story had tacked on the moral. Poor little
boy. He had been bad !
One of the mothers, who lives near the school, told me the children,
including her own, were repeating phrases and sentences from the
stories. She was a past teacher. "Stories do increase the vocabu-
lary," she said reflectively.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 103
s "Yes," I replied, "that's one of their values."
, But she had put a thought in my head. The next Friday I sug-
gested we play The Little Red Hen counting on the talent from the
e Chart A Class. Then to my astonishment, before Chart A could re-
spond, the biggest boys waved their hands so frantically that their
e seats shook. I noted the amazed look on the face of the teacher.
- So up they came. One boy was pointed out as best for the Little
Red Hen. "He can do it better than the rest of us," they said. (Ah,
I knew they had been practicing, and great was my joy!) Finally all
the characters were agreed upon, but before the Story Play was in
full swing, I suggested that each one prove to us that he could play
e The Little Red Hen called out "Cut-a cut, cut-a-cut, a-rocket-it."
e He did his best and didn't seem even fussed when the school laughed
uproariously. Even the mothers and fathers, for they come now,
were worse than the children. I t is always so.
• The duck did not know how to walk. "Waddle" didn't mean a
thing to him. He tried every conceivable way, even to walking on
his hands with his feet high in the air. I let him think it out; he
sat with his chin in his hand, and suddenly jumped a foot in the air—
the second proof of a future athlete. Then down he got and waddled
like a duck. The school sighed with relief, and not a laugh was now
To walk like a turkey was another problem to puzzle over. The
cat and dog walked around on two feet, until a word from the duck
put them wise. The introduction of the characters now being com-
plete, they all sat on the bench waiting to begin. When I asked i f
they enjoyed sitting on the back fence, with most apologetic looks,
they assumed their proper positions on the floor. A little boy from
the audience volunteered to scatter some wheat, and the play was on.
Some forgot their parts, or took too long in thinking about them,
and then the audience prompted, and at times the other actors. Thus,
every one was in it—but the Story Teller, who sat and listened—
so every one had a good time. The responsibility was met and shared
by all and the first Story Play was a success.
Wasn't it worth while? What did they learn from Nature Study
to Gymnastics, from self-expression to self-control? Then there
was the real good time they had doing it, and the satisfaction of
giving others pleasure. This last point I always like to dwell upon
with children, and they understand.
My last six months of teaching was in a so-called Play School,
a new experiment that was being tried out. The subjects taught were
stories, nature study, dancing and games, nor should I forget the
104 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
story plays. But it is not correct to say that these were "taught"
or that I was a "teacher" I am sure the children would refute either.
Only read and perhaps you will agree.
Since I was granted the privilege of my own ideas, I made every-
thing into stories. Nature study is nothing but stories so wonderful
and real, and for research work, that was of inestimable value to all
of us, we hunted out the nature poems and folk and fairy tales in con-
junction with our particular subject for study. Then we always
played the nature work too, which of itself made a vivid impression
on all our minds. As for active games, and quiet ones too, only look
through a book of children's games. Many are just what you are
looking for and others lend to adaptation, and then again there is
many a nature game that comes out of the air—perhaps to lend itself
to your own idea.
Our dances were stories in themselves; the setting of the country
or the times, of peasants' joys and friendly intercourse. The child-
ren realized that movements in the dance were like notes or phrases
in music, words or sentences in stories—the presentation of the whole
being a story or a "moving picture." And how they danced! A t a
demonstration (these I thoroughly dislike, but it was for the cause)
the mothers and friends crowded up to say they never before had
seen in children such unconsciousness, joyousness, rhythm, and such
living into a dance.
The stories of literature were never properly ended until trans-
ferred into a Story Play. The fifth grades were studying Paul
Revere so we had the story of Polly in Lads and Lassies of Other
Days and not a moment was lost in saying, "Now let's play i t . " The
children always chose the characters, as they have a keen way of
sizing up the proper ones. As the story went the father was to con-
duct family worship, and the Twenty-third Psalm was to be repeated.
While the children were pondering over this fact, one of the boys
quickly rose saying, " I ' l l learn that Psalm i f you let me be the
father." He did learn it, and was a very worthy father.
They are quick in emergencies for one day as we played, the Story
Play came to a halt. We had made no provision for the rooster who
was to crow on the door-step, when a boy from the midst of the
spectators jumped to his feet, came to the front, hopped upon an
imaginary door-step and crowed, and then took his seat. Not a
laugh was heard, merely a look of gratification was given him, of
which he was not conscious.
The Principal at the close of the term remarked that he had dif-
ferent children in his school. They were happy, radiant, and joyful.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 105
And I , too, w a s P P yn a 1 0 1 the secret was Stories, Story plays, and
the doing of these, and the things they had learned to love.
The following books have been of great help to me in selecting
Mother Goose Melodies by W. A. Wheeler, published by Houghton,
Mifflin and Co., Boston. $1.50.
Nursery Rhyme Book by Andrew Lang, published by Warne and Co.,
Nature Myths and Stories by Flora J. Cooke, published by A. Flana-
gan Co., Chicago. $.25.
The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrook, published by
Houghton, Mifflin and Co. $.45.
The Story Hour by Kate Douglass Wiggin and Nora Archibald
Smith, published by Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston. $1.00
The Child's World by Emile Poullson, published by Milton Bradley
Grim's German Household Tales, published by Houghton, Mifflin
The Fables of sEsop by Joseph Jacobs, published by Macmillan and
Co., New York. $1.50.
The Red Fairy Book, The Blue Fairy Book, The Green Fairy Book,
The Animal Story Book by Andrew Lang, published by Long-
mans, Green and Co., New York. $2.00 each.
English Fairy Tales, More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales,
More Celtic Fairy Tales by Joseph Jacobs, published by G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York. $1.25 each.
The Arabian Nights.
Fairy Tales From the Far North by Asbjornsen, published by A. L .
Burt Co., New York. $1.00.
The Book of Legends by H . E. Scudder, published by Houghton,
Mifflin and Co., Boston. $.25.
Fables and Folk Stories by H . E. Scudder, published by Houghton,
Mifflin and Co., Boston. $.40.
In The Days of Giants by Abbie F. Brown.
Norse Tales by Hamilton Mabie, published by Dodd, Mead and Co.,
New York. $1.80.
Wild Animals I Have Known by Ernest Thompson Seton, published
by Chas. Scribners' Sons, New York. $2.00.
The Jungle Book. No. I I by Rudyard Kipling.
Among The Farmyard People by Clara D . Pierson, published by
E. P. Dutton and Co., New York. $1.00.
True Tales of Birds and Beasts by David Starr Jordan.
106 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
Nights With Uncle Rasmus by Joel Chandler Harris, published by
Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston. $1.50.
Story Tellers w i l l find much help and an excellent list of storie
Story Telling in School and Home by E. N . and G . E. Partridge
published by Sturgis and Walton Co.
How Ta Tell Stories to Children, Stories To Tell to Children by
Sara Cone Bryant, published by Houghton, Mifflin and Co
Child's Garden of Verse by Robert Louise Stevenson.
Nonsense Rhymes by Lear.
The Posey Ring (a book of poems) by Kate Douglass Wiggin and
Nora Archibald Smith.
Poems From Alice in Wonderland by Carroll.
Sing Song by Christina Rossetti.
UNEXCELLED BOOKS FOR GAMES A N D DANCES
Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium by Jessie
Bancroft, published by The Macmillan Company. $1.50.
Old English and American Games for School and Playground
(New) by Florence Warren Brown and Neva L. Boyd, pub-
lished by Saul Brothers, Chicago. $.75.
Folk Games and Gymnastic Plays, for Kindergarten, Primary and
Playground. Folk Games of Denmark and Sioeden, for School
Playground and Social Centers. These last two are by Dagny
Pederson and Neva L . Boyd. Published by Saul Brothers, 626
Federal St., Chicago. $.75.
Children's Old and New Singing Games by Mari R. Hofer, pub-
lished by A. Flanagan Co., Chicago. $.75.
Exchanges please send magazines to:
Mrs. Benjamin F. Stewart, Sierra City, Cal.
Miss Mary Ellen Chase. Bozeman, Mont.
Miss Helen Charlotte Worster, Caribou, Maine.
Miss A nna E. Many, 1327 Henrv Clay Ave., New Orleans, La.
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 107
y THE COLLEGE GIRL AND GRADE WORK
M A T T I E R . CARSKADON, K ' 1 4
es Teacher of Fifth Grade, Tome School, Port Deposit, Md.
e, When a girl begins her first year of teaching, she is usually given
so much advice that, for self-preservation, she casts all aside, except
y perhaps a few fundamental principles, and plunges boldly in, with
o. enthusiasm as an only guide. This enthusiasm is a splendid thing,
and vet I wonder if it doesn't often lead us astray?
After teaching for several months my first year, I began to feel
that something was wrong with my work. I was interested, and,
d to a certain extent, the children were, yet we did not seem to be get-
ting any place. Then, one day, the supervisor came, and after
classes were dismissed and we were going over the day's work, her
first remark gave me the cue. "The spirit of your room is splendid,
but where is the system that guides the spirit?" she asked. I thought
over her question carefully for a few days, and then I realized just
e what she meant. I t rather surprised me that I was lacking in system,
for in college I had done tilings in a more or less methodical manner.
d. Without giving much thought to a clearly defined system, I imagined
- that I had one. That is just where the college girl entering grade
work must bring her ingenuity into play. She is not given the
d valuable normal training, that places so much emphasis on "system"
l, and "plans," and she must learn from personal experience in the
6 It is most important that a teacher have a clear outline of her
work, and that once having made this outline she follow it rigidly.
- There should be "an order" of recitations, and the children should
understand that this "order" is law. The daily lesson plan should
also play an important part, and although it may seem a stupendous
task to form a plan for every lesson every day, yet i f the habit is
formed gradually—the teacher soon realizes the help it gives her
at recitation period, and she willingly gives the extra time. There
must not only be "system" in the work but there should be "reason"
in the teacher's every action. We all know the difference between
two schoolrooms—one where order and industry reign, and the other
where an anxious, nervous teacher keeps exclaiming, "Sit down,
Mary." "Put your feet under your desk, John." Yet how easy
it is for us to fall into the habit of not making our words count.
Children are splendid judges, there are none better, and there is no
better test of a teacher's ability than the attitude of her students.
Think, then, how careful we, as teachers should be to give and
demand the best.
108 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
At present, we have been hearing a lot of talk about "Prepared
ness," and I think everyone of us could take that word more t
heart. I t would solve many a problem for new teachers, i f they
would always have their work planned for at least two days ahead
I have found it a wonderful help to slip a small piece of paper as
book mark in every lesson for the following day, thus saving time
during the day by having every book in a certain place and every
recitation marked. This requires only a few extra minutes afte
school, yet saves much time in school.
One thing more, and that a simple question. Why don't more
college girls go into grade work? I t is intensely interesting; the
pay in a number of cases as good as i f not better than the pay in
high schools. You probably feel that you are better prepared fo
higher work, yet a young teacher has the same lessons to learn
whether she teaches in the grades or in the high school. I t is work
that is thoroughly alive, also it is practical experience for any othe
teaching that you may desire to do. So i f after graduation you find
no high school position available, do not give up your plans for
teaching, but go into the grade work. You will like it and you
will find that it pays.
Thy faith why false, my faith why true?
T i s all the fault of thine and mine,
The fond and foolish love of self
That makes the Mine excel the Thine.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 109
y IN MEMORIAM
er Resolutions offered by the Executive Committee in memory of
those sisters in A O I I who died during the years 1912-1915.
e Copies of these resolutions will be spread upon the minutes of
n Grand Council, published in To DRAGMA, and sent to each chapter.
r WHEREAS, it has pleased the Master of our Garden of Alpha
n Omicron Pi to take unto Himself some of His fairest flowers, and,
k WHEREAS, by His direction the following companions have been
er gathered within His home.
r Ruby Christine Madsden, Epsilon,
u Alice May Barber, Sigma,
Elizabeth Abbott Balentine, Gamma,
Martha Moore Muzzy, Alpha,
Helen Fisk Steckley, Zeta,
Asenath Helen Russell, Gamma,
May Sterling Parkerson, Pi,
Antonia Emma Marquis, Tau,
Alma Eaton Peters, Lambda.
B E I T RESOLVED, that we who are left will not grieve for the
departed, remembering that they are now sheltered and safe from
the winds that bruised them and the storms that bent them in the
B E I T FURTHER RESOLVED, that we will strive to follow their
bright examples, growing in grace, in beauty and sweetness, that we
may gladden the passerby and seem good to the sight of our Master.
DOROTHY NOBLE SAFFORD, Grand President.
A N N A E. M A N Y , Grand Secretary. Treasurer.
L I L L I A N G . M A C Q U I L L I N , Grand
110 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
THE PARENT AND THE TEACHER
E L I Z A B E T H HIESTAND, P '12
Graduate Student at Northwestern
Many difficulties prevent a sympathetic and complete understand
ing between the teacher and the pupil. A great factor, not to b
disregarded, is the atmosphere of the home, the psychic and parenta
background of the child. One method of gaining acquaintance wit
the family is the organization of a Parent-Teachers' Club, whic
meets frequently and in which all parents are urged to meet th
teachers of their children. This has been found quite successful i
a community of more than average culture; but when we try th
same plan in a less advanced town, it is found very difficult to secur
a good attendance at these meetings and progress is slow.
The best system within the knowledge of the writer is the "advis
ory plan" as worked out in a certain small city of the Middle West
In the first place it should be noted that the high school was o
the five year type just now receiving so much attention from
educators. The attendance at this school averaged a thousand, the
instructors numbering sixty. Each pupil was listed in a certain
gioup in which his neighbors within a given radius found places
Sometimes there was some distance between the members of a group
in a sparsely inhabited portion of the city, but each group contained
twelve to twenty girls or boys as the case might be. The men
teachers took the groups of boys and each woman member of the
faculty had a group of girls under her wing. A n advisor had
several duties, among which may be mentioned that of assisting a
pupil to select his course sensibly, with proper regard to his per
sonal fitness and vocational desires. Thus the advisor was at the
same time a vocational guide.
In order the better to assist the pupil in his choice of work the
advisor found it necessary to go to his home and actually see his
parents. These calls, jocularly spoken of among the teachers as
"parochial calls," or "going paroching," were at first looked upon
with some degree of suspicion by the parents. They did not know
what to make of this organized invasion of their territory. Very
soon, however, they changed their attitude and . asked that the
advisor call i f he happened to be a little slow about arriving. The
visitor was cordially received in most cases and eagerly questioned
as to the child's position at school. This was a much more agree-
able way to come in contact with the school, an object of awe to
many, than visiting it.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 111
On his part, the advisor looked around and listened carefully to
keep in his mind the answers to certain questions later to be filled
u t on a card for the purpose; such questions as these:
What is the parents' attitude toward the school ?
d- What can you say about the surroundings?
be What does the parent wish the child to do after leaving school?
th How many children in the family?
ch Are any of them working? I f so, at what?
he Of course extreme care had to be exercised in ascertaining the
in answers in some cases, and often very little information could be
he obtained, as it was desirable to avoid antagonizing the parents in
re any way. By gaining some knowledge of the background of the
pupil the advisor could clear up many matters: so frequently is a
child misjudged, or misunderstood, or fails to be appreciated at
s- There was the case of a bright, attractive boy who made life
t. miserable for his teachers. Upon investigation it was found that
f he had no home, his father being a drunkard, his mother dead, and
m his only relative a sister living in a nearby town who occasionally
e sent him money. To support himself he worked as waiter in an
n ice-cream parlor where he was kept up until twelve o'clock or later
s. each night. The next day, when he fell asleep and was awakened
p by the teacher, naturally the extreme nervousness of his tired l>ody
d found vent in every sort of misbehavior. Matters were arranged so
n that he was relieved a little of the pressure, and there was a corres-
e ponding improvement in conduct.
d Jenny Wilson, a frail, delicate little blonde with an almost
a ethereal look, who wanted to become "an art teacher," was found
r- to be utterly alien to her environment. Armed with the assurance
e from Jenny's drawing teacher that she had "fine feeling" and un-
doubted talent, the advisor called at the address given. A swarthy,
e sullen-looking Italian woman surrounded by several young children,
s in a semi-squalid tenement house, was the mother of Jenny.
s Across the street, in his miserable little "Second Hand Clothing
n Store," the father, also foreign, was interviewed. From the condi-
w tions in both home and shop it was evident that there was not a great
y deal of capital for the art education so earnestly desired. I t devel-
e oped that her father wanted his daughter to go to school but one
e year more (she would have been graduated in three) then to enter
d a business college where she could learn to bring in something to
- help. His was a perfectly just view, perhaps, considering the cir-
o cumstances ; the wonder was that his daughter should have nourished
such an aspiration.
1 1 2 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
A sad case that the writer examined was that of a g i r l belongin
to one of the "best f a m i l i e s " who so continually cheated in e
aminations and in her daily work that her teachers could not tru
her and marked her accordingly. T h e mother on finding out th
cause of the girl's failures condoned her behavior! H e r father, to
supported her irregular methods, saying to her, " W h y did you le
them catch you?"
Instances without number could be cited to show the successfu
working of this scheme; and it is noteworthy that the parents, i
general, stood squarely behind the school authorities in their effor
to secure good discipline, attendance and scholarship.
REALIZING OUR IDEALS
M E L I T A S K I L L E N , E '11 Canada
Dean of Women, Brandon College, Brandon,
" Y o u must be converted and become as l i t t l e c h i l d r e n " say
" Y o u have the child's character in these four things—humility
faith, charity and cheerfulness. This is what you have got to b
converted t o , " says Ruskin.
Thus one great teacher commands and another interprets; on
tells where the essential qualities of character are to be f o u n d , th
other studies their native abiding-place and discloses them. Is ther
better expression of the outstanding requirements of the teachin
profession to be f o u n d anywhere?
We who have chosen or been forced into the task of trainin
young minds, have learned our lessons of psychology and pedagog
in the various schools through which we have passed. T h e name
and theories of the foremost thinkers and writers about child-lif
are, of necessity, f a m i l i a r to us a l l , east and west, north and south
and, as we enter upon our work f o r the first time, most of us se
our wills to establishing some system worthy of our education. W i t
l o f t y ideals of discipline and noble ambitions to make of ourselve
teachers different f r o m the commonplace type we know so well, and
a firm conviction that we are properly equipped to meet the need
of this generation, we proudly enter upon our first term of teaching
We a l l know how, as the days and months pass, our pet theorie
are one after another destroyed, reality becomes the iconoclast of
cherished ideals, bewilderment, rebellion, discouragement and utte
weariness come upon us and roseate hues fade into d u l l blues and
greys. These are experiences common to all teachers; the difference
lies only i n the response to these stimuli.
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 113
ng T h e age of the cranky, cross, dispirited school teacher is past.
x- This generation demands fair-minded, tolerant, wide-awake young
ust men and women to present life to its young, and it w i l l have no
he other. The proper environment must be created f o r the best devel-
o, opment of the child as surely as sunshine, good soil and moisture
et must be provided f o r the young plant, and the teacher alone is
responsible for the moral, mental and physical atmosphere of her
i n Has Ruskin touched the keynote to the character we wish to
ts develop in the children whose lives we touch? " H u m i l i t y , faith,
charity and cheerfulness," he says. D o those qualities embody our
ideal of young manhood and womanhood? Some of us w i l l shrug
our shoulders at the mention of humility and our thoughts w i l l
instinctively fly to U r i a h Heep ; but the rest of us know that the
misconception created by that miserable caricature of manhood bears
not the slightest resemblance to true humility, which is the ground
ys rock on which a l l real nobility is founded. T h e n f a i t h i n God, our
fellowmen and ourselves is the only pledge of content, of hope of
y, the j o y of l i v i n g which everyone of us desires above a l l things else.
be A n d what shall I say of charity? Deep i n her heart every A l p h a
O longs to make her l i f e express the f u l l meaning of that symbolic
ne word, and cherishes every opportunity of emphasizing as her ideal
he the love that is so great and far-reaching that it responds to the
re tired cry of a l i t t l e child or a despairing fellow-creature as readily
ng as i t turns to the request of a dear, personal f r i e n d ; the love that
hears the appeal f r o m the heart of A f r i c a and sees the world's need,
ng as clearlv as it hears and sees the desires and needs of the home
gy circle. A n d as we regard the character of the men and women we
es admire most, and question what seeds sown early in l i f e have devel-
f e oped into the strong, splendid qualities now so prominent, we trace
h; them back through the years to those lessons, suggestions and in-
et fluences which emphasized a l l along the way " h u m i l i t y , f a i t h , charity
h and cheerfulness."
es And I believe these f o u r qualities, i f r i g h t l y interpreted, are
d broad enough to include a l l others; but, lest someone should f a i l
ds to comprehend f u l l y , let me mention another—the energizing, v i t a l i -
g. zing force which drives one to do things whether he feels just like
es -it or not, that something which makes him clear and definite in his
f ideas, and ensures his doing satisfactorily any task at hand, the
er initiative which makes f o r success, the i n d i v i d u a l i t y which distin-
d guishes him f r o m the mass.
e I f then these are the traits we admire i n men and women, they
are the ones we, as teachers, must instil i n the young people under
1 1 4 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
our direction. Whether we deal w i t h the wee tot i n the kindergar-
ten, the child in grammar school, or the young man or woman of
university standing, we share the responsibility f o r the implanting
and cherishing o f these ideals. They are instinct in the babe, but
recede as he g r o w s ; they are intimations o f his immortal heritage.
I t is our business to help him hold them, to bring them back to him
when he has let them slip, to keep them constantly near h i m , to
work them into the very atmosphere he breathes. T h a t is the
teacher's duty; it is her privilege.
I f i n her own l i f e there is lack o f these qualities, she can have no
vision of the greatness o f her opportunity or of her possible influence
i n the lives of her students. She w i l l work on, conscientiously
enough perhaps, but w i l l have no j o y i n the w o r k ; she w i l l teach her
subject, but f a i l to train her pupil. The days w i l l become grey, the
discouragement w i l l increase; she w i l l wonder i f she has made a
mistake i n her calling. Discontent and unrest w i l l come upon her,
and she w i l l make r a p i d strides toward the condition o f the prover-
bial old-maid school teacher.
But, on the other hand, let her catch the vision, let her become
like a l i t t l e child i n these respects, and j o y i n her work w i l l keep her
young. I n her conception of the world's w o r k she w i l l know the
importance of her own place and content w i l l dwell with her.
Every conceivable kind o f work awaits the teacher and she must
not feel above her task or show distaste f o r any part of it. Let
her not strive to appear humble because i t seems virtuous, but let
her be w i l l i n g to do hard work not f o r what it may bring, but f o r
the sake of the work itself. O f her then let i t be true at the conclu-
sion o f each day that she
A l l kinds of service w i t h a noble ease
That graced the lowliest act i n doing of i t . "
Every day's discouragement must be offset by the knowledge that
after all, the pupils are not incorrigible, that they are really worth
working f o r , and that one can herself supply some of their many
needs. As soon as love prevades herself she w i l l spur them on to
achievement, teaching, guiding, urging, pointing out standards and
ideals high and yet higher, making them dissatisfied with the good
and eager to attain the best. F r o m her they w i l l learn the joy and
blessing of hard work, and catch the zeal and enthusiasm f o r service,
upon which her cheerfulness is based.
And thus unconsciously the pupil will imbibe the spirit of the
teacher and i f she has been true to the highest and noblest, her work
w i l l have been well done.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 115
- THE VITALIZATION OF A R I T H M E T I C
g FELICIA L E I G H METCALFE, O '09
t Teacher in Fayetteville, Tenn.
. Nowadays most of us enter the teaching profession while we are
m yet young, and i f we are possessed i n any degree o f retentiveness of
o mind, we can remember our childish joys and sorrows engendered
e by lessons respectively interesting and insuperable. T o me,
vicariousness is the sine qua non o f successful teaching. I f we can't
o understand the child's viewpoint, how can we hope to get results?
y You have heard the joke about the teacher who required "Johnny"
r to write the words, " I have gone" several hundred times, and who
e found on her desk that afternoon the stipulated copies together with
a this laconic message, "Teacher, I have went home." A propos of
, this story I have a really truly anecdote to tell you about a young
- man of my acquaintance who, having been through preparatory school
and college was compelled to ask help i n solving a simple problem
when a note i n his possession, on which several payments had been
e made, came due. H o w f u t i l e are the old cut and dried methods of
teaching "Practical Arithmetic" !
e I am going to tell you of a plan that I have used quite successfully,
viz., the organization of a class bank. Children are quick to scent
the elements of play. Have you ever tried make-believe? Isn't it
f u n ? A n d so were our arithmetic lessons.
M y desk was utilized as the bank. The cashier, teller, and book-
keeper were selected f r o m the class by vote. T h e last named was
put i n charge of a nice, new ledger. I was the august auditor.
We used pasteboard money which is quite inexpensive while those
of artistic temperament fashioned realistic looking "green backs."
Deposits and withdrawals were made by the class and entered on
the ledger with meticulous care; loans were granted, notes were
drawn up, and interest calculated. Even the bug bear "partial pay-
ments" became child's play, f o r w i t h money i t was easy to see that
the interest must not be more than the payment. Numbers of the
parents became interested i n our financial adventures, several o f
them who were bankers donating blank check books.
M y sugar coated p i l l method brought me the satisfaction of fre-
quent unsolicited comments, such as, " I understand my arithmetic
better now than ever before." I am sure that the processes of
interest were made much clearer to the class, and alas, f o r honest
confessions—to myself as w e l l .
1 1 6 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
A N AMERICAN GIRL I N PORTO RICO
J A N E LOUISE PIPER, Z '04
M a n y who know that I spent two years as a teacher i n the govern
ment schools of Porto Rico have asked me how to secure a positio
on the island. I n answer I w o u l d say that application must be mad
through the War Department, but that I really know very little abou
the process, as I never made application f o r my position, nor, in fac
ever considered going so f a r f r o m home u n t i l the offer came to me
Miss Anna Tibbets, who had been principal of the Teachers' Colleg
H i g h School when I attended the University of Nebraska in 1909
1911, was elected principal of the Practice School of the Univer
sity of Porto Rico, and the dean wrote her to bring a critic teache
f o r history and geography w i t h her. I had taught these subject
under Miss Tibbets, and she offered the place to me.
T h e best and quickest way to reach Porto Rico is to sail f r o m
New York, although there are boats running from both New Orlean
and Mobile to the island.
There is something very fascinating about an ocean voyage to me
and this trip, f o u r days south i n the f a l l and north i n the summer
is w o n d e r f u l . T h e boats are neither so large nor so fast as th
Trans-Atlantic liners, yet they are comfortable, the food and servic
are good, and the weather's always glorious. I was always sorry
when the trip was over—for I proved to be a good sailor, even though
I lived in fear of a shipwreck.
One is fortunate i f his ship docks at San Juan early in the morn
ing, f o r at that time the harbor is most beautiful. The mornin
sun shining on the houses painted pink and blue and y e l l o w ; th
palm trees and the green mountains so near the sea; and g r i m , o l
E l M o r r o guarding the harbor's entrance, present a scene o f indis
tribable beauty. I t doesn't seem r e a l ; i t seems as though i t were
gigantic painting or a stage setting.
The American school system is of course used on the island wit
this exception, that there are no public kindergartens, the work o
the kindergarten and first grade being combined the first year. Ther
are a few private kindergartens, however.
Practically all towns have schools that take the children through
the eighth grade and several have what they call "Continuation
Schools," where the ninth and tenth grades are added, but only th
four largest towns on the island have high schools where a fou
years' course is given.
The children are taught both Spanish and English in the school
and a l l of the teaching is supposed to be done in English. O f
TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 117
course, i n the lower grades, when a child is just learning the language,
the explanations must be given i n Spanish, but a f t e r he has finished
the fifth grade he is supposed to be able to use and understand
n- English so that a l l the work, excepting o f course, his regular Spanish
on lesson is carried on i n our language.
de The university, located at Rio Piedros seven miles f r o m San Juan,
ut the capital of the island, has a splendid normal department to which
t, students are admitted after completing the eighth grade. The stu-
e. dents have experience i n teaching i n the Practice School w i t h the
ge American critic teachers supervising them. When they have finished
9 - their course, they are ready f o r positions as lower grade teachers in
r- the towns of the island, the higher grades being taught by Americans.
er The rural schools are taught by eighth grade graduates who are
ts supervised by Americans knows as "Supervising Principals."
I f o u n d the Porto Rican children to be bright, interesting and
m friendly and every day that I spent in the schoolroom on the island
ns was a happy one.
T h e social l i f e appealed strongly to me. Near San Juan there
e, are a great many Americans and the l i f e o f the American teacher
r, is very f u l l each week-end. I wish I had the time to describe to you
he some o f the house parties I attended, the w o n d e r f u l sailing parties
ce and picnics under the brilliant tropical moon, the horse-back rides
y through the orange groves, the air around saturated with the fra-
h grance f r o m the blossoms; the Saturday afternoon bathing parties
in the warm, blue A t l a n t i c ; and the auto rides over the w o n d e r f u l
n- roads made years ago in Spanish times by the prisoners.
g Then there are the almost countless balls. There are balls at
he the schools, at the University, at the Casinos, at the American Clubs
d and the gorgeous Carnival Balls and at the Municipal theater. The
s- majority of the Porto Ricans disapprove of the "new dances"; their
a program consists of two two-steps, several waltzes, and their own
Spanish dances, the danzas and mazurkas.
h So, i f a g i r l is so fortunate as to be located near San Juan, her
f l i f e is a very busy, happy one, and even though she teaches earnestly
e five days out of seven, her l i f e is a round of pleasure.
But the g i r l who is sent to the place where she is the only Ameri-
h can i n the town does not have things so pleasant. She has no one
n to talk to, f o r , as a rule, she has never studied Spanish, she has no
e one to take her about, and even i f she had she could not go w i t h
u r him f o r she must observe the Porto Rican conventionalities i f she
would keep the respect of the community, and Porto Rican girls are
s always chaperoned by their mothers or older sisters.
1 1 8 TO DRAG MA OF ALPHA 0 MICRON PI
I had many delightful visits in Porto Rican homes. Many o
the girls are beautiful, all are charming and hospitable and I am
happy to count them my friends. They were so anxious to have m
learn Spanish, yet they knew so much more E n g l i s h than I d i
Spanish that our conversations were usually carried on in my langu
age. T h e older members of the family, especially the mothers, know
very little English.
T h e two years that I spent i n Porto Rico seem to me to hav
been the best of my l i f e , every day brought new experiences, inter
esting and delightful.
There is a lure of the tropics f o r me, f o r , today, as I shive
i n this below-zero weather, I am filled w i t h an eager longing f o
that tropical island—
"Where the blazing dawn tints kindle,
Or the sun kissed rivers dwindle—
I n a land of fairy fantasies and dreams."
SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING
ROBERTA WILLIAMS, O '08
Teacher in Chattanooga, Tenn.
I can't teach English grammar so that children don't hate i t .
B u t English composition! That's another story. For the sake of
those "high and far-off days" when I struggled for composition
subjects, I want to pass on the course I gave last year. M y w o r k
was w i t h children in the higher grades of the elementary school,
and while the suggestions I offer may not be new or unique, they
are like the tested and tried recipes—they w o r k !
F o r the first w r i t t e n work of the school year, I asked each p u p i l
to prepare a composition, and I gave only one direction i n regard
to i t , i . e., " D o the best you possibly can." T h e results of this work
I dated and filed. D u r i n g the last month of school, a f t e r previous
months of conscientious labor, I repeated this injunction, then placed
the two papers on exhibition together, in order to show the year's
progress. Rarely was there failure to show a decided improvement
i n neatness, in arrangement, in illustration, i n the mechanics of
composition, and—praise be!—in a greater variety of subjects. For
in place of " A Picnic" or " A Ball Game" which were almost
universal i n the first attempt, I f o u n d titles ranging f r o m " T h e
Panama Canal" to "Bird Houses."
I n teaching paragraphing during the early weeks, I f o u n d this
plan useful. Each pupil cut f r o m some magazine the picture of a
TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 119
o f house that pleased h i m . T h i s he pasted on theme paper under the
m title "The House that Jack B u i l t " (or, i n the case of the girls, " T h e
me House that J i l l B u i l t " ) . T h e n each day we wrote one paragraph,
d dealing with the steps i n building that house f r o m the choice of a
u- lot in our city and its purchase from a local real-estate dealer, until
w the b u i l d i n g was a finished project.
I early learned the value of special days i n stirring the interest
ve so vital to good w r i t i n g . Edison Day, the birthdays o f L i n c o l n
r- a n d Lee (accorded equal prominence in Tennessee schools) of
Washington and Longfellow, offered the happiest chance f o r the
er necessary biographical work, Hallowe'en, Christmas, Easter, Valen-
r tine's Day and good St. Patrick's Day were rich in possibilities and
afforded w o n d e r f u l scope f o r illustration. Just here I would like to
mention the value the Dennison seals have been to me. T h e tiny
witches, cupids, hearts, etc., give a gala appearance to the papers of
those incapable of drawing their own illustrations—and how the
children love to stick them on!
The historical element I introduced through Columbus Day,
Flag Day, and T h a n k s g i v i n g Day. N e a r l y every state has its pecu-
liar celebration or anniversary—it is Pioneer Day in Tennessee.
Arbor Day brought a flood of "Stories of Famous Trees" (like that
of the Cambridge E l m and the Charter Oak) and that naturally
. suggested "Stories of Famous Songs" f o r the next week.
f N e x t I ordered some of the Perry pictures, i n the half-penny
n size, and we studied two or three really worth-while pictures. A f t e r -
k wards we wrote about the artist, the circumstances under which he
, painted the picture, and our impressions of it, proudly pasting our
y individual copies at the top of the page.
When the subject of friendly letters was taken up, came our
l booster letter. Every man, woman and child i n Chattanooga is a
d "booster" and this letter, w r i t t e n to some distant f r i e n d and setting
k f o r t h the advantages, commercial, social and scenic, of "Dixie's
s Dynamo," called out some of the most c a r e f u l and enthusiastic work.
d B u t the triumph of the year was our Tennessee Book, and a won-
s d e r f u l success i t was, correlating history, geography, d r a w i n g and
t civics with composition. First we painted covers i n our state flower,
the daisy. Inside came the state seal, the state flag i n colors, the
r words and music o f the Tennessee Song; maps illustrating the loca-
t tion, surface, and products of the state, and the thirteen Civil War
e battles fought on Tennessee soil; articles on "The Making of Our
State," "Indians in Tennessee," "Tennessee's War Record," "Fam-
s ous Tennesseans," etc.; and statistics giving latitude and longitude,
height above sea-level, population, per cent of illiteration, and our
1 2 0 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
system of state government. The result was a creditable volume
and a better knowledge of the Volunteer State.
Different clubs and organizations furnished me w i t h another varia-
tion. On "Clean-up Day" the City Beautiful Club offered a prize
f o r the best essay on " H o w I Can B e a u t i f y Chattanooga." The
Manufacturers' Association gave a prize f o r the best paper on " W h y
Use Chattanooga-inade Goods?" and the Garden Club presented
seeds and cuttings f o r the finest set of "Reasons f o r Home Gardens."
So that, w i t h the quarterly newspaper, the invitations to the
various school meetings and entertainments, and the Resolutions
to the Graduating Class. I found all the material that I had time
to utilize, and a l l o f i t seemed to be of lively interest to the pupils.
A n d I think there is some merit i n anything that w i l l make children
look forward to composition day, don't you?
THE VISION OF T H E TEACHER
Head ROCHEI.LE G A C H E T , IT '09 Technical
of Mathematics Department. Alabama Girls'
Institute, Montevallo, Ala.
There was one particular afternoon when I had not long been
a teacher that a most discouraged moment came, but that moment
also brought me a friend with an idea of such true and deep en-
couragement that I now cherish that day as one of the most valuable
of all my teaching experiences.
A t the time I was teaching i n a small town where the high school
had not long been established, and where the spirit o f the town was
hardly up to high school standard. M y college ideals were fresh
and urgent w i t h i n me f o r immediate realization. But at every t u r n
I found myself forced by misunderstanding and prejudice to bide
my time, or arouse unavailing hostility. M y pupils were learning a
few rules and mechanical operations, but these seemed to me hardly
worth while, and they were so f a r , f a r short of the ideal I had of
what I wanted to accomplish! A n d that particular day it seemed
as i f neither the rules nor the operations were going in very f a r , nor
sticking very fast!
Then i t was that the thought was given to me o f the vision required
of the teacher. This vision meant the power to look into the future,
and, to a very real and great extent, the power to live in the future.
It brought up the question of whether when Mary and Jack do not
learn their algebra lesson today, nor tomorrow, nor f o r a whole term,
must I needs ponder whether I am f a i l i n g as w e l l as they? Per-
haps I am, i f the algebra lesson i n itself is what 1 am t r y i n g to
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 121
e, teach. Clearer thinking, however, w i l l bring the knowledge that I
cannot tell whether I am f a i l i n g or not, until Mary and Jack have
- grown up, and are out in the world, or even perhaps until they have
e children of their own to "send to school." T h a t is a woefully long
e time to wait, but at once the idea brings an enlarging and broadening
y of one's efforts that is like a big open space i n which to draw f u l l ,
d free breaths.
" For i t may be that neither Mary nor Jack have foundations enough
e in themselves on which could ever be built any real appreciation of
s the beauty and value o f numbers, and a l l they may be capable of
e learning may be these mechanical operations. I f I can teach them
. these, and give them even a far-off glimpse into the broader outlook,
n I can feel I have done my work for them, though I cannot know
concerning the success of i t u n t i l they begin to show i n their lives
the qualities I have tried by means of numl>ers to give them. N o r
i f their lives disappoint me, need I yet feel utter discouragement;
the real and final test and reward of m y work f o r them w i l l be the
better foundations which they may give their children to build upon.
I f these foundations are firmer and broader. I w i l l have done my
share not only in their lives, but i n the service o f my ideals.
This assurance o f course is very intangible, f o r each person in
this world is the product of so many forces, and of the influences of
so many friends and enemies alike, and to those who have taught
well-prepared children in well-established communities, all this may
seem utterly visionary. But even w i t h the l>est o f pupils does not
this idea help to give l i f e to the teacher's work, and above a l l , does
it not individualize the teacher, who stands so o f t e n in danger of
becoming systematized? I t enables her, too, i n her first years o f
teaching to turn f r o m discouragement to hopes, and to fill her later
years, which would otherwise become d r y and barren, w i t h seeing
and rejoicing. I t keeps her, too, i n touch with this broad world
f r o m which she sometimes tends to d r i f t away.
I doubt i f B r o w n i n g had the teacher i n m i n d , but she can assume
he did when he wrote, "the last of l i f e f o r which the first was made."
They might not need me, yet they might,
I'll let my heart stay just in sight;
A very little smile might be
Precisely their necessity.
122 TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
THE HONOR ROLL
A n H o n o r R o l l is to be printed i n every number of T o D R A G M A .
The chapters, deserving a place on this r o l l , w i l l be those who have
promptly sent i n required reports to the Secretary and the Registrar.
To extoll further the sadly neglected virtue of being on time would
be a reiteration. Instead we p r i n t here the names of the five chapters
who i n this number deserve a place on the Honor R o l l . The fact that
there are only five speaks f o r itself.
T H E HONOR ROLL OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
T h e f o l l o w i n g five chapters of A l p h a Omicron P i were absolutely
punctual i n sending their September, October, and November reports
to the Grand Secretary and Registrar. They are named in the order
in which their reports were received.
The complete table given below shows the standing in punctuality
attained by the several chapters.
SECRETARY'S REPORTS REGISTRAR'S REPORTS
SEPT. OCT. Nov. SEPT. OCT. Nov.
Iota On time On time On time On time First rec'd Second rec'd
On time On time On time Prompt Prompt Prompt
Chi On time On time On time Prompt Prompt Prompt
Nu On time Prompt On time On time On time On time
Delta On time On time On time On time On time On time
Late On time On time Prompt Prompt Prompt
Late On time First rec'd On time On time On time
Late On time On time On time On time On time
Tau Late On time On time On time On time On time
Rho Late On time On time On time On time On time
Omicron.... Late Prompt On time On time On time On time
Theta Late On time On time On time First rec'd
Pi Late Late On time On time A week late
Sigma Late On time Late On time On time On time
Epsilon No report On time Late On time On time On time
Zeta Late On time On time A week late On time On time
Nu Kappa.. Late On time No report No report No report Late
Said Marcus Aurelius, " I learned, not frequently nor without ne-
cessity, to say to any one, or to write i n a letter that I have no leisure;
nor continually to excuse the neglect of duties required by our rela-
tion to those with whom we live, by alleging urgent occupations."
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 123
HOW T H E YOUNGEST TEACHER TAUGHT HER
T h e spring air was filled w i t h yellow pollen, which a l i g h t w i n d
was b l o w i n g among the cottonwoods, as I walked down the avenue
and into the grounds of one of Chicago's private schools.
"Our teacher is going to tell us a b e a u t i f u l story," my nine year
old daughter had told me at breakfast, "and you must come to hear
So I had come, p a r t l y to hear the story, but more especially to see
this teacher, whose charms my little daughter, who had recently en-
tered the school, was continually extolling. "She's the youngest
teacher of a l l , mother, and the very loveliest! She teaches a l l about
birds and flowers and trees, and she makes you love even bugs and
angle-worms! She's w o n d e r f u l ! " Indeed, I had been almost envious
on more than one occasion, when requests and injunctions, so o f t e n
urged by me i n vain, were eagerly granted and j o y f u l l y acceded to
"because Miss Wallace wishes i t . "
I found the Youngest Teacher not i n the schoolroom at all, but
out under the cottonwoods, surrounded by an eager, sweater-clad
group of little girls, among whom I recognized my own daughter.
Apparently the "beautiful story" was about to begin. Virginia, run-
ning to meet me, proudly drew me into the circle, and introduced me
to her adored Miss Wallace; and while the children were discussing
the grave question as to whose t u r n i t was to sit next the teacher, J
had an opportunity to observe this "wonderful person" who could
"make you love even bugs and angle-worms."
She was assuredly young—not over twenty-five at the most, I told
myself—and she was not pretty, though, a f t e r a f e w moments'
scrutiny, I was ready to agree w i t h Virginia—she was lovely. Some-
thing w i t h i n made her so, I thought, as I watched her take the center
of the circle, the grave question having been at last decided, while
the dozen or more children drew their little chairs close around her.
T h a t "something" made her a mother as w e l l as a teacher, I con-
T h e children were a l l eagerness. I t was evident that they had
heard "beautiful stories" before. The Youngest Teacher held in her
hands many long cottonwood catkins, some red and some green, and
before she began her story she gave one of each color to every l i t t l e
g i r l . I noticed that she gave them as though they were precious and
that they were received as such, and spread out c a r e f u l l y i n each
small lap or across the palm of each l e f t hand.
1 2 4 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
" I ' m so glad i t is lovely and warm today," began the Youngest
Teacher to the most flattering audience I have ever witnessed, "be-
cause I can illustrate my story r i g h t out here under the cottonwoods
where it is happening this minute. Look closely, and every time the
w i n d blows you w i l l see tiny grains of pollen flying through the air
among the trees. You know f r o m our cottonwood story yesterday
what the pollen is, and where i t comes f r o m . N o w I am going to tell
you the most beautiful part of the story."
The children were listening intently. One little girl was smooth-
ing the catkins in her hand.
" I want you to look carefully at the catkins," went on the Youngest
Teacher. "See how tired the red ones l o o k — a l l w o r n out and quite
withered away. I picked them up f r o m the sidewalks this morning,
but the green ones—why, I had to find a boy who could climb a
cottonwood to pick those f o r me. Y o u see the red ones have worked
hard, and now that their work is done, they are f a l l i n g f r o m the trees.
A n d you know what they have been doing a l l these weeks?"
" M a k i n g pollen i n the little pollen sacs," one little g i r l whispered.
I t was the real reverence with which these children listened that
"Yes, making pollen ever since they burst f r o m those fat, shiny
buds which we watched last A p r i l . A n d now f o r two days the pollen
has been ready to go away f r o m the father trees over to the mother
trees, and it is that which is blowing through the air now—that fine
yellow dust. There is some on your sweater, V i r g i n i a , " she added,
designating some tiny grains which had b l o w n against Virginia's
"But on the mother trees the catkins are d i f f e r e n t , " she continued.
" T h e y are like the green ones you are h o l d i n g i n your hands. I n -
stead of making pollen they take care of the l i t t l e green seed-sacs
like those which you see there, f o r away down i n the heart of those
l i t t l e sacs live some tiny, t i n y seeds, which by and by w i l l grow
larger, and at last burst the sacs, and fly away on soft, cottony
" A n d now comes the most w o n d e r f u l part of a l l . Those tiny
seeds i n the sacs of the mother catkins w o u l d never grow and be able
to become little cottonwood shoots and afterwards big cottonwood
trees, i f it were not f o r the pollen-bearing catkins on the father trees.
Those tiny grains of pollen must find their way to the mother cat-
kins, and that is what the wind is helping them do this minute.
There are millions and millions of them, and some of them w i l l
never reach the mother catkins, like those which have fallen on
Virginia's sweater, but many w i l l reach the mother trees, and some
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 125
w i l l alight on the l i t t l e green seed-sacs. T h e n they w i l l w o r k their
way inside the seed-sacs u n t i l they reach the tiny seeds."
" A n d that's what makes the l i t t l e seeds g r o w , " my l i t t l e daughter
said s o f t l y , "just as the pollen i n the buttercups and the apple blos-
soms makes those seeds g r o w . "
The Youngest Teacher smiled, and was lovelier than ever.
"Yes," she said, "the l i t t l e seeds w o u l d never be real seeds ex-
cept f o r that. The pollen travels i n many ways. Sometimes i t does
not need to go away upon the w i n d , f o r the bees and the butterflies
carry it f r o m one blossom to another, as i n the buttercups and apple
blossoms; and in some flowers i t does not go away at a l l but simply
drops upon the l i t t l e seed-sacs of its own flower, and works its way
down to the seed, so that it may give the l i t t l e seed what it needs to
grow. A n d that is w h y God makes so many, many pollen grains and
so many, many catkins, because though countless ones fly away, some
w i l l reach the mother trees. N o w away up in the tops of those
mother trees, the green catkins w i l l be guarding their l i t t l e seeds,
while the seeds grow and swell bigger and bigger u n t i l at last i n
May and June the seed-sacs w i l l burst open, and l i t t l e winged,
cottony seeds w i l l float away out i n t o the w o r l d . A n d though many
of them w i l l be lost like the pollen grains, some w i l l sink into the
ground, and by and by trees w i l l grow f r o m them.
" A n d the very most b e a u t i f u l part of i t a l l , " she concluded w i t h
a smile that transcended her face, "is that that is the way G o d has
planned so that H i s creation w i l l never end. I t is the way w i t h a l l
l i v i n g things—trees and flowers and animals and human beings.
The fathers and the mothers each help to make the l i t t l e seed grow."
" D i d we grow f r o m seeds, too?" the L i t t l e s t G i r l of A l l , ap-
parently a newcomer, asked wonderingly.
"Yes," said the Youngest Teacher without the slightest hesita-
tion. "Just as the l i t t l e seeds of the mother catkins live deep down
in the seed-sacs and grow, so you lived and grew beneath your
mother's heart u n t i l it was time f o r you to be born."
The L i t t l e s t G i r l , who was perhaps eight, d i d not seem surprised,
though her face was serious, and very sweet. She seemed to be
thinking that after a l l it was very natural that God should have
planned H i s creation harmoniously. I studied the faces of the other
children. Evidently the conclusion of the story, except to the Littlest
G i r l , was not new, f o r no surprise was manifest. I t was just a most
beautiful ending to a beautiful story. Every face was sweet and
serious, even reverent.
One little girl drew a long breath. "Isn't it a l l just wonderful?"
she said. A n d then the bell rang.
126 TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
C a r e f u l l y they a l l laid their little catkins within the leaves of th
books, and hurried away to their other classes, a f t e r bestowing ad
ing smiles upon the Youngest Teacher. But I lingered.
" I don't wonder V i r g i n i a adores you," I said bluntly, beca
I could not help it, "and I feel just grateful myself. I don't
how you do it. I've just been worrying over how I should t
her a l l the things she ought to know even though I d i d n ' t intend
do it for three years yet."
The Youngest Teacher smiled.
" T h a t ' s j u s t the trouble, M r s . Carver," she said. "Mothers w o r
and wait, and sometimes in the end they don't tell their childre
Why wait? A l l out-of-doors is telling them everyday they liv
and they love to know. Besides, to tell them now, or at least
explain the lesson which the out-of-doors teaches, comes as no sho
to them. I t is just the most natural and beautiful thing in a l l t
world. You saw their faces this morning. I have been teachi
Nature Study i n this way f o r three years, and I have never met w i
the slightest suggestion of anything but interest and reverence."
"But you must remember that supposedly you have only we
bred children here," I interposed. " I t might be different els
But the Youngest Teacher was ready f o r me.
" T h i s is my first year here," she said. " F o r the last two yea
I have done work in three large public schools with children f r o
seven to twelve—children f r o m every class and condition of societ
I have handled large groups at one time, and the result has alway
been the same. T h e i r deep and natural interest leaves them n
time for morbid reflection."
" A n d is i t the same w i t h boys as w i t h g i r l s ? " I asked.
"Exactly, except that perhaps the boys show an even deeper i n
terest. Some of them are almost scientific. I f children, both boy
and girls, f r o m seven, or even earlier, to twelve, could be taugh
these things i n the only natural, that is, Nature's way, then w
should have no need of lectures on Sex Hygiene f o r high schoo
pupils, who for the most part having had no background, canno
help regarding in a morbid way that which they are t o l d i n th
lectures. The laws of health and cleanliness are necessary, I grant
but i t seems a pity that children cannot be guided while they ar
yet children into the storehouse of beautiful things which Natur
has prepared f o r them. There they w i l l learn those same laws, bu
so simply and naturally that they w i l l never know they have been
instructed i n such a formidable sounding subject as Sex Hygiene
I f you mothers would only t e l l such stories as I have told this
TO PRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 127
heir morning to your children when they are six, or seven, or eight years
dor- old then you would have no reason to dread the 'embarrassment'
of telling them when they are older what they have perhaps al-
ause ready heard i n a w r o n g way f r o m someone else. L i f e and the crea-
see tion of i t are b e a u t i f u l . W h y not let them see i t early?"
to "But," I again remonstrated, "though I admit that we would
make better friends of our children and save ourselves embarrassment
rry j f we d i d talk w i t h them more naturally about these things just as
en. you have done this morning, the average mother doesn't know her-
ve, self about buttercups and cottonwoods and apple blossoms."
to "That is very true, and that is why I and others like me exist.
ock You don't a l l know, but when your children come home and tell
the you, you can enter into their stories with sympathy and share their
ing interest. They have no embarrassment. Why should you? A n d for
ith any mother who truly wants to know, there are ways and ways of
f i n d i n g out. Get Miss Comstock's Hand-book of Nature Study. I t
ll- is the best thing I know f o r teaching mothers and teachers how to
se- teach their children. I think, M r s . Carver," she finished a l i t t l e
shyly, "that i f you mothers would study that book or one like i t ,
ars the creation of l i f e w o u l d seem a great, great deal more b e a u t i f u l ,
om and a little less—well, perhaps we would best say—necessary."
ys Then something suddenly arose in my throat, and because again
I couldn't help it, I put my hand on the shoulder of the Youngest
ht " M y dear," I said impulsively, "you're a born mother, and you
ol ought to be one!"
ot Tears and a l i g h t came into the grey eyes o f the Youngest Teacher.
he " M r s . Carver," she said, " I am a mother already to children who
re need one even more than as i f they had none. A n d by and by I ' m
e going to be a real one in the way you mean, but just now I ' m too
ut busy—helping God teach His miracle."
1 2 8 TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI
A N O T H E R DISCUSSION OF T H E GARY SCHOOLS
C L A R A VV. K E O P K A , E '14 Schools
Teacher of Nature Study in the Gary
I t is w i t h some trepidation that I drag into the limelight the
already over-worked discussion of the Gary, Indiana, schools. Prob-
ably no other topic of educational interest has caused so much dis-
cussion pro and con as this one. T h e many visitors who come to ob-
serve what is being done here carry off so many conflicting tales that I
should think the public would want to suppress every new article on
T h e Gary system is an experiment rather than a perfect plan.
Every year sees it more clearly defined and better organized, but
it is s t i l l so complex that i t is difficult to write, i n so short a paper
as this must be, more than a general account of what i t tries to do.
I shall therefore outline briefly what f r o m my own observation seems
to be the essential features of the Gary system.
1. T o get the f u l l w o r t h of the taxpayers' money by keeping the
buildings and playgrounds i n use practically a l l o f the time. School
lasts f r o m 8 : 1 5 to 4 : 1 5 on regular school days, and the playgrounds
are open t i l l five. I t is also open evenings, Saturdays, and f o r two
months in the summer. There are two shifts of pupils and teachers,
one beginning at 8 : 1 5 , the other at 9 : 1 5 . Pupils have a six-hour
school day, and divide their time between regular work and special
work (cooking, shop, nature study, drawing, auditorium, application,
and p l a y ) . I t is argued that by having these special departments
handle part of the children, the regular teachers w i l l be able to
handle twice as many pupils as teachers i n the ordinary school.
Children who have missed a great deal of work through absence,
or who wish to be promoted to a new grade, have an opportunity to
do extra work on Saturday or in summer schools.
2. T o interest the children to such an extent that they will
want to come to school and spend their spare time there rather than
on the streets. I believe that i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases' Gary children
enjoy going to school. (On the day of this writing, the school boiler
had burst, and classes were dismissed. As I buttoned one little
fellow's coat, he said: " I f I could get hold of Jack Frost. I ' d
shoot h i m f o r making i t so cold we have to go home!") T h i s
interest i n the school is gained by making the regular work as at-
tractive as possible, and by supplementing this w i t h special work.
T h e periods are an hour long, but at the end of each period the
classes go to another room and another teacher, f o r another kind
of work. School, therefore, does not mean one room bounded by
four walls, presided over by one teacher.
TO DRAGMA OF ALPHA OMICRON PI 129
3. T o develop a strong community spirit. C h i l d r e n of a l l ages
are found i n one b u i l d i n g ; they are associated with each other in
the playgrounds, the gymnasium and the auditorium. The school
is one big f a m i l y . C h i l d r e n whom I have never had i n my classes
come to tell me what birds they have seen, or b r i n g a plant which is
new to them. I n many classes questions of vital interest to the com-
munity are taken up, such as m i l k inspection, water inspection, test-
ing the candy sold to children, and also various phases of the c i t y
government. Their school l i f e is correlated w i t h church l i f e by
allowing those children, who wish to do so, to spend an hour
(usually the play hour) at their own church, where a religious in-
structor takes them in charge. A t the end of the hour they return
to their usual classes. I t seems to me that this is a move i n the
right direction. Attending Sunday school once a week, especially
when the teacher does not know how to teach, does not tend to make
religion a matter of great interest to children. The public school
teacher can do nothing i n this matter, except through the Sunday
school. T h e religious instructors are w e l l fitted to teach their sub-
jects, and transmit some of their interest to the children. Wherever
possible they correlate their work with regular school work. The
geography of Asia was a live study to a certain class, because the
religious instructor had aroused interest in Palestine and neighboring
countries. The object of introducing religion into the child's cur-
riculum is to develop an interest i n i t , and is not an effort to establish
parochial schools, as has been u n j u s t l y asserted.
4. T o prepare the c h i l d f o r living in the fullest sense of the
word. Special work is not intended to make specialists, but to open
up fields of interest which have f o r m e r l y been closed to children,
so f a r as the school is concerned. T h e special work opens up new
fields of activity to the g r o w i n g boy who is t r y i n g to find what k i n d
of work he likes to do best. H e may try several branches of shop
work before he finds the one he intends to f o l l o w up, but his train-
ing i n the other branches does not mean he has wasted his time.
H e may use that knowledge i n a small way, and again, he has f o u n d
out that his talents do not lie in that direction. I t often takes the
ordinary boy several years to find out what he wants to d o ; the
Gary boy is finding out while he is i n school, and is preparing f o r i t .
A popular argument against devoting so much time to special
work is that the regular work suffers thereby. This criticism is met
by having the special teacher correlate her work, as f a r as possible,
w i t h reading, writing, and spelling. I n my own work (nature study)
which is given a recognized position in the Gary curriculum, I have
frequent spelling lessons on the words which naturally come up i n