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English Grammar
KHAIDARWISY'S COLLECTIONS

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Published by l.ebee, 2018-03-24 15:16:54

My Grammar Booklet 2018

English Grammar
KHAIDARWISY'S COLLECTIONS

Keywords: English Grammar

Khaidarwisy’s [email protected] 2018

My GRAMMAR
BOOKLET

Name :
Class :
School :

Teacher’s name

KhaidGarrawmismy’[email protected] 2S0K1u8aT 2018

G
RN
AO
MT
ME
A
R

1

1

A common noun is a noun which is common to all
people or things.

PEOPLE • children • sister • neighbour
• baby • nurse • hawker
• father • teacher • boy
• mother • carpenter • girl
• brother • pupil • lady

ANIMALS • tiger • girrafe • turtle
• lion • horse • bear
• fish • frog • snake
• cat • crocodile • zebra
• buffalo • lizard • monkey

• pen • car • television
• pencil
OBJECTS • book • table • lamp
• fan • computer • shoes
• table • plate • cap
• umbrella • blouse

BUILDINGS • mosque • lighthouse • Clinic
• church • school • police
• museum • temple station
• hostel • factory
• hotel • pupil

PLACES • airport • playground • field
• zoo • restaurant • court
• stadium • market 2
• park • cinema
• beach • theatre

A proper noun is a special name that belongs to only
one person or thing that begins with capital letter.

PEOPLE • Encik Idrus • Shakespeare
• Puan fatimah • Alexandra
• Mr. Loh • Mozart
• Mrs. Vijaya • Maria
• Chong Wei • Siti Nurhaliza

ANIMALS • Tompok • Pumpkin
• Sammy • Teddy
• Candy • Bubbles
• Comel • Snowball
• Thunder • Bambi

COUNTRIES • America • Italy
& CITIES • Malaysia • Thailand
• Kuala Lumpur • Kedah
• Malacca • Bangkok
• Jerantut • New Delhi

MONTHS • Monday • Friday
& DAYS • Tuesday • Thursday
• Wednesday • February
DESERTS • Saturday • March
& • July • November

OCEANS • Kalahari Desert • Atlantic Ocean 3
• Sahara Desert • Pacific Ocean
• Gobi Desert • Arctic Ocean
• Great Victoria • Indian Ocean
• Namib Desert • Southern Ocean

2

An abstract noun is something that we cannot see or
touch but can only feel or think about. It is a feeling,
a condition or an action.

• ability • attraction • choice • childhood
• absence • astonishment
• admiration • beauty • co-operation • decision
• anger • bravery
• anxiety • brightness • concentration • disappointment

• consideration •darkness

• conflict • enjoyment

• explanation • imagination • kindness • thought
• faith • leadership • punishment • truth
• freedom • love • pleasure • wisdom
• goodness • knowledge • sadness • youth
• happiness • pride • strength • hope

4

3

A collective noun is the name of a number of things,
animals or people taken together as one thing.

A • a pride of lions • a team of horse; oxen
• a gaggle of geese
N • a herd of cattle

I • a swarm of bees • a pack of wolves

M • a litter of kittens; • a flight of swallows

A puppies • a troop of monkey

L • a school of whales • a brood of chickens

S • a flock of sheep; birds • a nest of mice

O • a loaf of bread • a chest of drawers
• a suit of clothes
B • a string of pearls

J • a pack of cards • a batch of bread

E • a set of tools • a fleet of cars ; ships

C • a row of houses • a suite of furniture ; room

T • a bunch of keys • a collection of pictures ; stamps
• a bale of cotton ; wool
S • peal of bells

P • a party of friends • a board of directors
E • a troupe of dancers • a choir of singers
O • an army of soldiers • a company of actors
P • a bench of magistrates ; • a crew of sailors
L • a field of runners
E bishops
• a band of musicians • a staff of teachers ; servants
• a team of payers
• a bevy of ladies

P • a basket / crate of fruits • a comb of bananas
• a cluster of grapes ;
• a bouquet of flowers
L • a bunch of grapes ; bananas coconuts
A • a clump of trees • a sheaf of corn
N • a hedge of bushes
• a stack of hay
T • a punnet of strawberries • a tuft of grass
S • a forest of trees

5

4

 Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted.
 They can be in the singular or plural forms.
 Singular means one.
 Plural means more than one.
 Articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are used before the singular nouns.

• a ball • a desk • a child
• a cat • a pencil • a boy
Examples: • a rose • a blouse • a toy

 Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be counted.
 They are always in the singular form.

Examples: • rice • oil • salt • hair
• flour • water • sugar • money
• smoke • tea • milk • mud
• rice • sand • cloth • coffee
• perfume • pepper • soup

• soil • fun • jam
• butter • sauce • bread
• porridge • cereal • noodles

6

5

 There are certain words that are used for countable
and uncountable nouns.

• many • several Only used
• a few for countable

• a large number of nouns

• a small number of

• There are many dresses in the wardrobe.
• A few girls helped the old man to carry the bags.
• She bought several notebooks from the shop.
• Aira has a large number of Barbie dolls.
• Pak Ali has a small number of cows in his farm.

Only used • much
for uncountable • a little
• a great deal of
nouns

• There is too much sugar in my tea.
• A little salt will make the soup tastier.
• There is a great deal of rubbish at the backyard of

her house.

7

• any • several Can be used
• some for countable
and uncountable
• plenty of
nouns
• a lot of

• I ate a lot of apples yesterday. ( Countable )
• I need a lot of flour to make the cookies. ( Uncountable)
• Father bought some oranges yesterday. ( Countable )
• Please add some sugar into the coffee. ( Uncountable )
• Are there any brownies in the box? ( Countable )
• Is there any milk in the bottle? ( Uncountable )
• The grocer sold plenty of eggs yesterday. ( Countable )
• She adds plenty of sugar into my coffee. ( Uncountable )

• isn’t / aren’t / wasn’t / weren’t any
/ doesn’t / don’t/ didn’t : many / much

• too many / much

• only a few / a little

• in asking questions any

8

6

Phrasal Quantifiers are phrases that show quantity.

Phrasal Nouns
Quantifiers powder, tomato ketchup, water, milk, oil, syrup

A bottle of

A crate of Apples, mangoes, canned drinks, oranges, pears

A slice of Cake, bread, meat, beef, mutton, cheese

A spoonful of Sugar, salt, flour, rice, oil, cough syrup, medicine

A tube of Chocolate topping, whipped cream, toothpaste

A pinch of Salt, nutmeg, chilly powder

A cube of Ice, chicken stock, cheese, sugar

A scoop of Ice cream, rice, jelly

A tin of Biscuits, milk powder

A pail of Water, cement, sand

A can of Soup, sardines, soft drink, mushrooms, milk

9

Phrasal Nouns
Quantifiers
A jar of jam, honey, chutney, pickle, peanut butter
A stick of cinnamon, celery, cheese
A bunch of grapes, bananas, rambutans
A bundle of sticks, vegetables, firewood
A sprinkle of glitter, grated cheese, sugar, chocolate rice
A sack of potatoes, onions, sugar, rice
A cylinder of gas
A plate of noodles, rice, fruit, fried vegetables
A tub of ice cream, cream
A tray of eggs
A sachet of chilly sauce
A clove of garlic
A drop of ink

10

7

Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Adding ‘s’ to the
No 1 singular form

Singular Plural Singular Plural

cottage cottages street streets
year years poster posters
month months ruler rulers
day days
noun nouns girl girls
song songs office offices
canoe canoes bank banks
carrot carrots

Adding ‘s’ to the nouns
No 2 that end with ‘o’

Singular Plural Singular Plural

motto mottos banjo banjos
kimono kimonos zero zeros
piano pianos dynamo dynamos
solo solos radio radios
video videos kangaroo kangaroos

11

Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Adding ‘es’ to the nouns that end
No 3 with ’s’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’ and ‘x’

Singular Plural Singular Plural

abacus abacuses class classes
dress dresses church churches
bus buses sandwich sandwiches
octopus octopuses crutch crutches
fish fishes watch watches
wish wishes
bush bushes fox foxes
glass glasses

No 4 Adding ‘es’ to the nouns that end with ’o’.

Singular Plural Singular Plural

cargo cargoes mango mangoes
echo echoes mosquito mosquitoes
hero heroes volcano volcanoes
tomato tomatoes vertigo vertigoes
buffalo buffaloes
negro negroes

12

Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Changing ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘es’ for nouns that
No 5 end in ‘y’ and there is a consonant before the ‘y’

Singular Plural Singular Plural

story stories country countries
butterfly butterflies berry berries
injury injuries
diary diaries study studies
candy candies scenery sceneries
lorry lorries city cities
baby babies party parties
army armies

Adding ‘s’ to the singular nouns if the noun
No 6 ends in ‘y’ and there is a vowel before the ‘y’

Singular Plural Singular Plural

day days way ways
donkey donkeys valley valleys
monkey monkeys toy toys
guy guys
key keys turkey turkeys
boy boys

13

Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

No 7 Changing ‘f’, ‘fe’ to ‘ves’

Singular Plural Singular Plural

elf elves wolf wolves
knife knives wife wives
hoof hooves thief thieves
leaf leaves
life lives
calf calves
loaf loaves

No 8 Adding ‘s’ to nouns ending with ‘f’ and ‘fe’

Singular Plural

gulf gulfs
roof roofs
chief chiefs
beef beefs
café cafés
dwarf dwarfs

14

8

as the subject of the verb as the object of the verb

 I : I have taken my lunch  Me : My mother bought me a
pair of jeans.
Subject : I Object :
Verb : me
Verb : have  You
bought
 You : You are pretty. Object :
: The fresh air is good for
Subject : You you
Verb : are
 He : He wore a black jacket. you
Subject : He
Verb : is

Verb : wore  Us : My sister gave us some clay.
 She : She bought a dress.
Object : us
Subject : She Verb : gave
 Them : I show them some shawl.
Verb : bought Object : them

 It : It has a broken wing. Verb : show
 It : They chased it away.
Subject : It Object :
Verb : has it
 We : We enjoy eating cookies.
Subject : We Verb : chased

Verb : enjoy  Her : He sent her some flowers.
 They : They love local fruits
Object : her
Subject : They Verb : sent
Verb : love  Him : We told him the news.
Subject : him

15 Verb : told

9

Possessive pronouns are used to show owning or having something of
your own.

M I have a dictionary.
I

N It is mine.
E

O

U Anne and I have a pet cat.
R
S It is ours.

H Darry has a computer.
I
S It is his.

H Siti has a beautiful hat.
E

R It is hers.
S

T

H Liz and Sue has a kitten.
E
I It is theirs.
R

S

Y I have a dictionary.
O

U It is mine.
R

S 16

10

Possessive pronouns are used to show owning
or having something of your own.

Myself I wrote the letter myself.
I bought the blouse myself.

Yourself You washed the car yourself.
You watered the plants yourself.

Yourselves Please clean the room yourselves.
You should hang the clothes
yourselves.

Herself Aina baked the cake herself.
She arranged the books herself.

Himself My uncle painted the wall himself.
Rajan fed the fish himself.

17

Possessive pronouns are used to show owning
or having something of your own.

Ourselves We cleaned the drain ourselves.
Salma and I picked the fruits
ourselves.

Itself The cat scratched itself.
The kitten licked itself.

Oneself One should have confidence in
oneself.
One could easily arranged it
oneself

Themselves They decorated the room
themselves.
Laila and her friends sang the
song themselves.

18

11

• We use demonstrative pronouns to
“point” at people or things.

Type Usage
1. THIS
Singular ( near )
Example :
This is my bag.

2. THAT Singular ( far )
Example :
That is my bag.

3. THESE Plural ( near )
Example :
These are my bags.

4. THOSE Plural ( far )
Example :
Those are my bags.

19

12

We can use more than one adjectives when describing
something or someone in sentences.

Opinion / Value Shape Age /
Temperature
• beautiful • Size ( big,
• famous small ) • old
• clever • hot
• handsome • Length • new
• strong ( long , tall ) • warm
• proud • young
• weak • Shape • cold
• friendly ( round, • ancient
• fair square, thin, • modern
• dark fat )
• good
• naughty • Width
• poor ( wide,
narrow )

Colour Origin Material

• red • Malay • rubber
• brown • Indian • cotton
• blue • Chinese • gold
• green • Malaysian • copper
• orange • Italian • leather
• purple • American • plastic

20

13

Formation of the camparative and superlative

Adding –er and -est

No 1

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

Bold Bolder Boldest
Brave Braver Bravest
Clean Cleaner Cleanest
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
Cold Colder Coldest
Dark Darker Darkest
Dear Dearer Dearest
Fine Finer Finest
Free Freer Freest
Great Greater Greatest
High Higher Highest
Kind Kinder Kindest

Forming the comparatives and the superlatives of words
No 2 ending with ‘y’ use ‘-ier’ and ‘iest’.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

dirty dirtier dirtiest lazy lazier laziest
early earlier earliest merry merrier merriest
easy easier easiest naughty naughtier naughtiest
funny funnier funniest noisy noisier noisiest
happy happier happiest ugly uglier ugliest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest wealthy wealthier Wealthiest
hungry hungrier hungriest

21

To form the comparative and superlative of some adjectives,
No 3 the last letter must be doubled.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

big bigger biggest red redder reddest
dull duller dullest sad sadder saddest
fat fatter fattest tall taller tallest
hot hotter hottest thin thinner thinnest
mad madder maddest wet wetter wettest

If the positive ends in ‘y’ there is a vowel before it, the ‘y’
No 4 is not changed. Add ‘er’ to the comparative and ‘est’ to the

superlative.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

gay gayer gayest
grey greyer greyest

To form the comparative and superlative by changing the
No 5 spelling of the positive.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE 22

bad worse worst
far farther farthest
good better
little best
many less least
much more most
up more most
upper upmost

If the positive is long ( more than two syllables ) add more
No 6 to the comparative and most to the superlative.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

brilliant more brilliant more brilliant
charming more charming more charming
dangerous more dangerous more dangerous
expensive more expensive more expensive
foolish more foolish more foolish
generous more generous more generous
handsome more handsome more handsome
ignorant more ignorant more ignorant
learned more learned more learned

polite more polite more polite
robust more robust more robust
serious more serious more serious
splendid more splendid more splendid
wicked more wicked more wicked
hardworking more hardworking more hardworking
intelligent more intelligent more intelligent
interesting more interesting more interesting
fortunate more fortunate more fortunate
luxurious more luxurious more luxurious
merciful more merciful more merciful
peaceful more peaceful more peaceful

23

14

PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST

TENSE TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
added add adding added
add adds allowed allow allowing allowed
arrived arrive arriving arrived
allow allows awoke awake awaking awoken
baked bake baking baked
arrive arrives beat beat beating bitten
became become becoming become
awake awakes began begin beginning begun
bent bend bending bent
bake bakes bit bite biting bit / bitten
bled bleed bleeding bled
beat beats blew blow blowing blown
borrowed borrow borrowing borrowed
become becomes broke break breaking broken
breathed breathe breathing breathed
begin begins brought bring bringing brought
brushed brush brushing brushed
bend bends built build building built
burnt burn burning burnt
bite bites buried bury burying buried
bought buy buying bought
bleed bleeds carried carry carrying carried
caught catch catching caught
blow blows changed change changing changed
chose choose choosing chosen
borrow borrows clapped clap clapping clapped
cleaned clean cleaning cleaned
break breaks climbed climb climbing climbed
closed close closing closed
breathe breathes combed comb combing combed
came come coming come
bring brings cooked cook cooking cooked
copied copy copying copied
brush brushes cried cry crying cried
cut cut cutting cut
build builds cycled cycle cycling cycled
danced dance dancing danced
burn burns dealt deal dealing dealt
dug dig digging dug
bury buries dived dive diving dived
divided divide dividing divided
buy buys did do doing done
drew draw drawing drawn
carry carries dreamed/ dream dreaming dreamed/
dreamt dreamt
catch catches 24

change changes

choose chooses

clap claps

clean cleans

climb climbs

close closes

comb combs

come comes

cook cooks

copy copies

cry cries

cut cuts

cycle cycles

dance dances

deal deals

dig digs

dive dives

divide divides

do does

draw draws

dream dreams

PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE
TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
drink drinks drank drink drinking drunk
drove drive driving driven
drive drives dropped drop dropping dropped
dried dry drying dried
drop drops ate eat eating eaten
failed fail failing failed
dry dries fell fall falling fallen
fed feed feeding fed
eat eats felt feel feeling felt
fought fight fighting fought
fail fails found find finding found
fitted fit fitting fitted
fall falls flew fly flying flown
forgot forget forgetting forgotten
feed feeds forgave forgive forgiving forgiven
got get getting got
feel feels gave give giving given
went go going gone
fight fights grew grow growing grown
handed hand handing handed
find finds hung hang hanging hung
heard hear hearing heard
fit fits hid hide hiding hidden
hit hit hitting hit
fly flies held hold holding held
hoped hope hoping hoped
forget forgets hurried hurry hurrying hurried
hurt hurt hurting hurt
forgive forgives joined join joining joined
jumped jump jumping jumped
get gets kept keep keeping kept
kicked kick kicking kicked
give gives knelt kneel kneeling knelt
knew know knowing known
go goes laughed laugh laughing laughed
laid lay laying laid
grow grows led lead leading led
left leave leaving left
hand hands lent lend lending lent
let let letting let
hang hangs lay lie lying lain
lived live living lived
hear hears locked lock locking locked

hide hides lost lose losing lost

hit hits 25

hold holds

hope hopes

hurry hurries

hurt hurts

join joins

jump jumps

keep keeps

kick kicks

kneel kneels

know knows

laugh laughs

lay lays

lead leads

leave leaves

lend lends

let lets

lie lies

live lives

lock locks

lose loses

PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE
TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
open opens opened open opening opened
paid pay paying paid
pay pays picked pick picking picked
pinned pin pinning pinned
pick picks planned plan planning planned
plucked pluck plucking plucked
pin pins pulled pull pulling pulled
pushed push pushing pushed
plan plans put put putting put
read read reading read
pluck plucks replied reply replying replied
rode ride riding ridden
pull pulls rang ring ringing rung
rose rise rising risen
push push rowed row rowing rowed
ran run running run
put puts said say saying said
saw see seeing seen
read reads sold sell selling sold
sent send sending sent
reply replies sewed sew sewing sewn
shook shake shaking shaken
ride rides shone shine shining shone
shot shoot shooting shot
ring rings shouted shout shouting shouted
showed show showing shown
rise rises shut shut shutting shut
sang sing singing sung
row rows sank sink sinking sunk
sat sit sitting sat
run runs skipped skip skipping skipped
slept sleep sleeping slept
say says smiled smile smiling smiled
spoke speak speaking spoken
see sees spent spend spending spent
stood stand standing stood
sell sells stole steal stealing stolen
stopped stop stopping stopped
send sends struck strike striking struck
studied study studying studied
sew sews swept sweep sweeping swept
swam swim swimming swum
shake shakes took take taking taken

shine shines talked talk talking talked

shoot shoots 26

shout shouts

show shows

shut shuts

sing sings

sink sinks

sit sits

skip skips

sleep sleeps

smile smiles

speak speaks

spend spends

stand stands

steal steals

stop stops

strike strikes

study studies

sweep sweeps

swim swims

take takes

talk talks

PRESENT TENSE PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST

tell tells TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
told tell telling told
think thinks thought think thinking thought
threw throw throwing thrown
throw throws tied tie tying tied
tried try trying tried
tie ties typed type typing typed
understood understand understanding understood
try tries used use using used
waited wait waiting waited
type types woke wake waking woken
walked walk walking walked
understand understands watered water watering watered
wore wear wearing worn
use uses won win winning won
wound wind winding wound
wait waits wrote write writing written

wake wakes

walk walks

water waters

wear wears

win wins

wind winds

write writes

27

15

An adverb is a descriptive word that adds more
information to a verb.

More examples:
carefully, carelessly,
silently, loudly, gracefully,
sweetly, soundly, happily,
sadly, neatly, softly

More examples:
every day, every
afternoon, just now, last
night, last week,
tomorrow, next week,

soon, later

More examples:
hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly,
monthly, yearly, never, seldom,

sometimes, often, usually,
always, twice
28

An adverb is a descriptive word that adds more
information to a verb.

More examples:
Here, away, near, nowhere,

above, there, inside,
everywhere, somewhere,

below, outside

An adverb can be
placed:

after the action The children drank thirstily.

after the object He pushed her roughly.

before the He ran quickly into the
preposition house.
The boys hurriedly
before the action stacked the
if there are many books into
words after it neat piles.

29

16

USAGE EXAMPLES

1.When the action happens 1. Rizal wakes up early every morning.
habitually. 2. The children usually cycle to the library.
3. We always jog in the park.
Words usually used are: 4. Darren visits his grandparents in the
every….., usually,
sometimes, always, weekends.
seldom, often.

2. When we state universal 1. The moon goes round the earth.
truths. 2. Dolphins communicate through sounds.
3. The grass is green.
3. When we give 4. The sun sets in the west.
instructions or directions
1. Please arrange these on the shelf.
4. When we refer to events, 2. Draw an animal and colour it.
actions or situations 3. Please shut the door.
which are true at the 4. Walk along Jalan Meru until you reach to
present time.
a junction.

1. My father works in a bank.
2. Azlan lives in Kota Kinabalu.
3. I am ten years old.
4. We are twins.

30

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) To show an Ali watered the plants at 8a.m. today.
action that They watered in the school hall this morning.
happened in The girls watered the school compound just
the past. now.

b) Words usually Yesterday, last ( night, week, month…), just
used are: now, an hour ago, a few minutes ago, this
morning
c) The simple
past tense is 1)By adding ‘d’ to the words ending in ‘e’.
formed: Examples : bake – baked , dance – danced,

like - liked

2)By adding ‘ed’ to the verb
Examples : clean – cleaned , climb -

climbed , jump - jumped

3) By adding ‘ied’ to words ending with ‘y’
except when the ‘y’

follows a vowel.
Examples: burry – burried , carry – carried,
hurry - hurried

4) By adding consonant + ‘ed’
Examples: chop – chopped , drop –

dropped, stop - stopped

31

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) To show an action Ali watered the plants at 8a.m. today.
that happened in They watered in the school hall this morning.
the past. The girls watered the school compound just now.

b) Words usually Yesterday, last ( night, week, month…), just now, an hour
used are: ago, a few minutes ago, this morning

c) The simple past 1)By adding ‘d’ to the words ending in ‘e’.
tense is formed: Examples : bake – baked , dance – danced, like - liked

2)By adding ‘ed’ to the verb
Examples : clean – cleaned , climb - climbed , jump -

jumped

3) By adding ‘ied’ to words ending with ‘y’ except when
the ‘y’

follows a vowel.
Examples: burry – burried , carry – carried, hurry -
hurried

4) By adding consonant + ‘ed’
Examples: chop – chopped , drop – dropped, stop -

stopped

d) The simple past 5) Without any changes
tense is formed: Examples : cut , spread , shut, put , cost

6) By changing the whole verb ( irregular verbs)
Examples : see – saw , catch – caught, bring - brought

• The simple past tense of ‘am’ and ‘is’ is ‘was’.
• The simple past tense of ‘are’ is ‘were’.
• ‘Was’ is used with ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns.
• ‘Were’ is used with ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’ and plural nouns.

32

17

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) Formula :
Subject + verb to be ( am,is,are ) + verb + ing

b) We use the present They are waiting for you now.
continuous tense She is watching television now.
for actions taking The bears and its cubs are returning to
place at the time of their den now.
speaking.

Word usually used
is : now

c) We also use it for I am visiting my uncle tomorrow.
actions that are She is coming to our house next week.
going to happen in They are sitting for the exam next
the near future. month.
My friends and classmates are planning
to celebrate my birthday this Saturday.

33

18

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) To show an Ali was watering the plants at 8a.m. today.
action that They were dancing in the school hall this
happened morning.
over a period The girls were sweeping the school
of time compound just now.

b) To show two I was swimming while he was building a
past actions huge sandcastle.
happening at We were sleeping while they were studying.
the same
time.

c) To show that They were always playing together in their
something childhood days.
was a past Aminah was always baking cakes in the
habit. afternoon.

d) To show that I was studying in my room last night when it
one action rained.
happened My friends were sleeping when I entered the
while another room.
was still
taking action.

34

19

USAGE EXAMPLES

Formula :

Subject + will / shall + root verb

b) We use the 1. Our examination will start next
simple future Monday.
tense for
planned actions 2. Zafri will pass his driving test soon.
that have yet to
be carried. 3. I shall mop the floor after the party
has ended.
Shall is usually
used for the 4. We shall visit Uncle Osman in the
pronouns I and hospital this evening.
we, whereas will
is used for other. 5. She will teach at the new school.

6. The will go for a picnic.

35

20

• We use the question tags to change statements into

questions.
• Examples : He is a teacher. ( statement )

He is a teacher, isn’t he? ( questions )

• Positive statement will use negative question tags.
• Negative statement will use positive question tags.

POSITIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE QUESTION
TAGS

1. Amin is a naughty boy, isn’t he?

2. Amin and Ahmad are naughty aren’t they?
boys, wasn’t he?

3. Amin was a naughty boy,

4. Amin and Ahmad were naughty weren’t they?
boys, hasn’t she?

5. Aminah has a cat,

6. You have a cat, haven’t you?

7. They will go to school tomorrow, won’t they?

8. Aida can help us, can’t she?

9. We should keep ourselves clear, shouldn’t we?

10. The boy plays football, doesn’t he?

11. The boys play football, don’t they?

12. The boys played football, didn’t they?

36

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS POSITIVE QUESTION TAGS
1. Amin isn’t a naughty boy, is he?
are they?
2. Amin and Ahmad aren’t
naughty boy, was he?
were they?
3. Amin wasn’t a naughty boy,
has she?
4. Amin and Ahmad weren’t have you?
naughty boys, will they?

5. Aminah hasn’t a cat, can she?
should we?
6. You haven’t a cat,
does he?
7. They won’t go to school
tomorrow, do they?
did they?
8. Aida can’t help us,

9. We shouldn’t keep ourselves
clear,

10. The boy doesn’t plays
football,

11. The boys don’t play football,

12. The boys didn’t play football,

37

21

We use conjunctions to join words, phrases or sentences.

TYPES USAGE EXAMPLES

a) Although We use although to 1. John went to work
( walaupun ) join two contrasting although he is sick.
facts
b) And 1. She is thirsty. She is tired.
( dan ) We use and to join She is thirsty and tired.
words, phrases or
c) But , yet sentences. 1. She wants to work but
( tetapi ) her father won’t let her.
We use but to join
d) Or ideas that are 1. Do you want a piece of
( atau ) opposite of each cake or some cookies?
other.
e) If 1. If we don’t go, she will
( jika ) We use or to show a be upset.
choice between two
things.

We use if to show
condition.

f) So We use so to show 1. They were early so they

( jadi , oleh itu ) result watched television.

38

We use conjunctions to join words, phrases or sentences.

TYPES USAGE EXAMPLES

g) because We use 1. Ali won the prize
( kerana )
because to because he had all
h) Either …or
( sama ada, show reason. the correct answer.
salah satu
Refer to a 1. You can either walk
i) Neither ….nor
( mahu pun situation in up the stairs or take
, pun
tidak ) which there the lift.

j) Instead is a choice
( sebaliknya
, gantinya) between two

k) Since things.
( semenjak ,
memandangkan ) Say that two 1. Neither Ben nor Wati
or more went to school
things are yesterday.
not true.

We use 1. You can use the blue
instead to book instead the red
show other one.
choice.

We use since 1. Since you are kind, I
to express give you this present.
cause and
effect. 2. We live here since
1979.

39

22

The subject of a sentence must agree with the verb.

SUBJECT VERBS

SINGULAR PLURAL PRESENT PAST PRESENT PAST
TENSE TENSE CONTINOUS CONTINUOUS
TENSE TENSE

I am was am + verb + was + verb +
do did ing ing
You You have had Example:
play played Example : I was eating
He I am eating just now.
She are were now.
It do did
Ahmad have had are + verb + were + verb
The boy play played ing + ing
The cat
is was Example : Example:
does did You are You were
has had eating just
plays played eating now. now.

is + verb + were + verb
ing + ing

Example : Example:
He is eating You were
now. eating just
now.

40

SUBJECT VERBS

SINGULAR PLURAL PRESENT PAST PRESENT PAST
TENSE TENSE CONTINOUS CONTINUOUS
TENSE TENSE

We are + verb + were + verb +

They are were ing ing
Ali and
do did Example:
Abu We were
The have had Example : eating just
boys play played We are

The cats eating now. now.

Note:
Someone , each one , everyone, anyone, no one, somebody, everybody,
anybody, nobody ( Singular / one )
Use root word after:
Will , would, can, could, may, might, does, do, did, shall, should, to, must

Remember : Use (-ing) after ‘will be’, ‘after’ and ‘before’
Example: He will be going to school by bus if it rains tomorrow.

After swimming, they were very hungry.
Before eating, they wash their hands.

Use ‘past prticiple’ after HAS / HAVE / HAD
Example : She has gone to school.

They had done the homework.

41

23 An

Indefinite Articles

A

‘A’ is used with words ‘An’ is used with words
beginning with a consonant beginning with a vowel sound
sound ( b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,o, of ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘I’, ‘o’, ‘u’.
p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,yz)
• An egg • An ice-cream
• A boy • A flower • An apple • An elephant
• A pen • A box • An igloo • An island
• A rat • A rose • An eagle • An insect
• An ox • An apron
Before a word starting with a • An arrow • An onion
vowel but having a consonant
sound • An ant

• A useful book Before a silent ‘h’
• A uniform
• A European • An hour
• A university • An honour
• A one-eyed man • An heir
• A one-dollar note • An honest boy
• A one-way street • An honourable man
• A ewe • An hourglass
• A one-legged man

42

Definite Articles

The

1. CLASS 2. COUNTRIES
 To refer to a whole class.  To refer to certain countries
 Example :  Example :

The cow is a useful animal The Philippines, The United States

of America

3. SPECIFIC THINGS 4. SECOND TIME
 To refer to a specific thing  To a noun that is mentioned for a

or person second time
 Example :  Example :

The girl who is standing Aisyah has a hamster. The

under the tree is my hamster is cute.

cousin.

5. ONLY ONE 6. SUPERLATIVES
 Before nouns only one of  Before superlatives.
 Examples :
their kinds.
 Examples : the sun, the Abu is the tallest boy in the class.

sea, the earth, the stars Lara is the most beautiful girl in

The earth moves around the village.

the sun.

43

Definite Articles

The

7. PLACES 8. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
 Before names of certain  To refer to a musical instrument

seas, mountains, rivers, being played by someone.
etc.  Example :
 Example:
The South China Sea Alisa plays the piano beautifully.
The London Bridge
The Pahang River Aryan plays the guitar everyday.

We do not use
articles before:

44

24

Means or
Accompaniment

with • My grandfather killed by • Rina goes to school by

the snake with a stick. car.
• She cut the fish with a • We will send the file

knife. by email.

Description

with • The lady with brown in • The boy in white
shorts is my cousin.
hair is my aunty.
• The man with a green • The things were piled

shirt is my neighbour. in a heap

Place

at • They stay at a small in • My aunty was in

village. Kuala Lumpur for
• You can post the
three days.
letter at 51, Jalan • She arrived in

Semenyih. Singapore a week
• We arrived at the
ago.
airport. • The man is in his

office.

45

Place

into • The greedy dog fell into the drain.
• Aisya’s family moved into the apartment next to ours.
• He threw the rubbish into the big dustbin
• She jumped into the nearest taxi.

Time

at in on to from during after before

by for till until since

• Our school holiday fall in October.
• I shall visit her on Wednesday.
• The lady’s working hours is from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.
• He was in Australia from April to May.
• The girl went missing during the picnic.
• We will meet them after lunch.
• Kayla brushes her teeth before she went to bed.
• He will prepare the menu by tomorrow.
• Lisa was admitted in the hospital for a week.
• There were at the bus station until midnight.
• She has been staying with her grandmother since her mother

passed away

46

Place

into • The greedy dog fell into the drain.
• Aisya’s family moved into the apartment next to ours.
• He threw the rubbish into the big dustbin
• She jumped into the nearest taxi.

Time

at in on to from during after before

by for till until since

• Our school holiday fall in October.
• I shall visit her on Wednesday.
• The lady’s working hours is from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.
• He was in Australia from April to May.
• The girl went missing during the picnic.
• We will meet them after lunch.
• Kayla brushes her teeth before she went to bed.
• He will prepare the menu by tomorrow.
• Lisa was admitted in the hospital for a week.
• There were at the bus station until midnight.
• She has been staying with her grandmother since her mother

passed away

47

To show place and
positions

in • I’ll be waiting for on • The book is on the
you in the garden table.

into • The dog fell into at • We arrived at the
the drain. airport.

to • He came by car to from • A loud noise came
our house. from the bushes.

Up • Anis have been over • She jumped over
down walking up and the gate.
down outside his
house

under • He hid my bag
under the table.

48

To show place and
positions

around • The cat is running across • He swim across
the river.
around the tree.

along • We walked along through • The bird flew
the foot path.
through the hole.

near • The picture is beside • I prefer to sit
near the clock. beside my father.

behind • I left the shoes in • He stood in front
front of his friends.
behind the door.

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