By Clemence, Jagshree, and Murad
Table of Contents
01 Organelles That 03 Organelles That
Store, Cleanup, Capture and
and Support Release Energy
02 Organelles That 04 Cellular
Build Proteins Boundaries and
Here are some objectives to help guide you through our presentation and deepen your understanding of this topic:
● I understand the difference between plant and animal cells.
● I am able to name and deﬁne the various organelles that compose the plant and animal cells.
● I am able to compare the various organelles to parts of a factory based on their function(s).
● I understand the importance of these organelles and how they contribute to the cell.
Did you know? 1 million cells die in your body every second!
A lot happens in eukaryotic cells;
therefore, we compare plant and
animal cells to factories. Factories may
seem confusing at ﬁrst, but if we look at
each part separately, we can
understand its purpose and function.
The same works for cells. Its organelles,
or “little organs” each play a vital role
that allow the cell to stay alive and
perform its function(s).
Location Structure Function
Vacuoles are found in animal Vacuoles are sac-like, Every factory needs a
and plant cells. In animal membrane-enclosed place to store things. That
cells, they are spread out
structures. is the function of a
throughout the cell, while in vacuole. A vacuole stores
plant cells, there is one large
materials such as
central vacuole. carbohydrates, salts,
proteins, and water.
Vacuoles are found in plant and animal cells.
In plant cells, there is a large, central vacuole
ﬁlled with liquid. The pressure of the large
central vacuole in the cells help increase their
rigidity, making it possible for plants for plants
to support heavy structures (leaves and
Vacuoles are also found in unicellular
organisms and in some animal cells.
Paramecium contains a contractile vacuole.
By contracting regularly and rhythmically, this
specialized vacuole pumps excess water out
of the cell.
Lysosomes are compared to a Removing “junk” from the cell is
factory’s clean up crew. important because otherwise, it
might accumulate or clutter up.
Lysosomes are small organelles
ﬁlled with enzymes. These A number of human diseases
are caused by lysosomes failing
organelles break down lipids,
carbohydrates, and proteins to function properly.
into small molecules that can be
used by the rest of the cells. Ex. The Gaucher Disease is
caused by the malfunction of
Lysosomes are also involved in
the decomposing of organelles lysosomes.
that have outlived their
Lysosomes are found in plant and
A factory building is supported by
cement columns and beams that
support the walls and roof.
Cytoskeleton are networks of
protein ﬁlaments that give cells
their shape and internal
Certain parts of cytoskeleton also
help transport materials to different
parts of the cell. These organelles
may also be involved in moving the
entire cell as in cell ﬂagella or cilia.
What makes Cytoskeleton are made up of microﬁlaments and
★ Microﬁlaments - threadlike structures made up of
a protein called actin. They form extensive
networks and produce a tough, ﬂexible framework
that supports the cell. Microﬁlaments also help
cells move by assembling and disassembling.
These cytoplasmic movements allow amoebas and
other cells to crawl along surfaces.
★ Microtubules - hollow structures made up of
proteins called tubulins. They play critical roles in
many shapes, and form structures known as
mitotic spindles, which help separate
chromosomes during cell division.
In the picture above, the microﬁlaments are pale purple,
and the microtubules are yellow.
Amoeba Quick View!
Centrioles are organelles Centrioles help organize
formed from tubulins, just cell division.
like the microtubules in Cells
Centrioles are found only
Location in animal cells and are not
present in plant cells.
Centrioles are located
near the nucleus of a cell.
Ribosomes particle that is present in large numbers in
all living cells and serves as the site of protein
synthesis. They occur both as free particles in
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and as particles
attached to the membranes of the endoplasmic
reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Ribosomes are important
because they are responsible for protein synthesis. Free
ribosomes, in particular, are important because they
produce proteins essential for internal cellular activity,
which are not synthesized elsewhere.
Location Structure Function
The Smooth Endoplasmic Smooth ER consists of a long It synthesizes lipids,
Reticulum is located near network of a folded, tube-like
structure. It is like a twisted phospholipids as in plasma
the cell periphery.
pipe line. membranes, and steroids.
Location Structure Function
The rough endoplasmic The structure of the The main function of the
reticulum is located Endoplasmic Reticulum is
around the nucleus. rough because it has rough ER is to produce
many ribosomes attached
to it. proteins so that the rest
of the cell can function
In the picture to the left, you can see the ribosomes attached to the
rough ER’s surface.
The Golgi Apparatus is an organelle that
modiﬁes, sorts, and packages proteins
and other materials received from the
endoplasmic reticulum. The proteins are
“prepared” for storage in the cell or
release outside the cell. The Golgi is found
in both plant and animal cells. The Golgi
Apparatus is like a customization shop
where the ﬁnishing touches are put on
proteins before they are ready to leave
Chloroplasts are referred to the biological
equivalents of solar power plants.
These organelles capture energy from the sun
(sunlight) and convert it into food that contains
chemical energy. This process is called
The chloroplast is surrounded by two
membranes. The organelle also contains large
stacks of other membranes.
What are chloroplasts
made up of?
Chloroplasts contain an abundance of saclike
photosynthetic membranes, as mentioned in the
previous slide. These membranes are called
thylakoids. They are interconnected and
arranged in stacks known as grana (pl. granum).
Pigments such as chlorophyll are located in the
thylakoid membranes. The stroma is the ﬂuid
portion of the chloroplast. Think of the stroma as
the cytoplasm of the cell.
Chloroplasts are found in plant cells.
Some other organisms also contain
Location Structure Function
Mitochondria are located in Mitochondria have an inner The function of the
the cytoplasm of cells and outer membrane, with mitochondria is to generate
an intermembrane space the chemical energy needed
along with other organelles between them. The outer
of the cell. for the cell to function
membrane contains properly.
proteins known as porins,
which allow movement of
ions into and out of the
Mitochondria are compared to
the powerhouses of cells, as they
convert chemical energy stored
in food into ATP.
Did you know? Mitochondria are
inherited from your mother! Like
chloroplasts, they also contain
their own genetic information.
This discovery led scientists to
the idea that these organelles
may be descended from
This theory is called the
A cell wall is a strong, supporting layer around
the cell membrane in some cells. It protects a
cell from outside interactions. The main
function is to support, shape and protect the
cells. Animals do not have cell walls. Most cell
walls are porous enough to allow water, oxygen,
carbon dioxide and certain other substances to
pass through easily. Cell walls provide much of
the strength need for plants to stand against
A cell structure that All cells contain cell
controls which substances membranes, and all cell
can enter or leave the cell. membranes are made up
of lipid bilayers.
The lipid bilayer gives cell
membranes a ﬂexible They are semi-permeable,
structure that forms a which means that some
strong barrier between the molecules can diffuse across
cells and its surrounding. the lipid bilayer but others
Function Contains Fun Fact
The nucleus is control The nucleus contains Prokaryotes lack a
center of the cell; it nearly all the cell’s DNA nucleus, but they do have
and, with it, the coded
contains DNA and RNA. instructions for making DNA that contains the
same kinds of
proteins and other
important molecules. instructions. Only
eukaryotic cells contain a
The nucleus compares to
a factory because it is the
control-center and issues
orders. Without the
nucleus, the cell cannot