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Lesson learned from the development and implementation of National Teacher Standards in ASEAN Member States and China as inputs for the development of Regional TVET Teacher Standard (P2)

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Published by Seameo Voctech, 2018-11-15 21:41:59

Research Report (Dec 2016)

Lesson learned from the development and implementation of National Teacher Standards in ASEAN Member States and China as inputs for the development of Regional TVET Teacher Standard (P2)

Keywords: Teacher Standard

Regional Cooperation Platform (RCP)

GIZ-RECOTVET

RESEARCH REPORT

Lesson learned from the development and
implementation of National Teacher Standards in
ASEAN Member States and China as inputs for

the development of Regional TVET Teacher
Standard (P2)

List of Contents

I. A Comparative analysis ………………………………………. 1
Country Reports:
1. Brunei Darussalam ……………………………………34
2. Cambodia ……………………………………………..55
3. Indonesia ……………………………………………...68
4. Lao PDR ………………………………………………93
5. Malaysia……………………………………………...118
6. Philippines …………………………………………...139
7. Thailand ……………………………………………...157
8. Vietnam ……………………………………………...167
9. P.R. China …………………………………………...196

II. Appendices
A. Survey for School Directors ………………………...210
B. Survey for Teachers …………………………………215
C. Interview Questions for School Principals ………….221
D. Interview Questions for Teachers …………………...224
E. Interview Questions for National Committee ……….226
F. Interview Guide ……………………………………..230
G. Document Analysis Guiding Questions ……..………231

i

A Comparative Analysis

Lesson learned from the development and implementation of National
Teacher Standards in ASEAN Member States and China as inputs for

the development of Regional TVET Teacher Standard

Dr. Paryono

SEAMEO VOCTECH

Abstract

As inputs for the development of Regional Technical and Vocational Education and Training
(TVET) Teacher Standard, Regional Cooperation Platform (RCP) under GIZ-RECOTVET (A
German funded Platform to Improve the quality of TVET teacher in Southeast and East Asia,
conducts a research project in 8 Southeast Asian countries plus China. The focus of the research
is to describe the process of the development, dissemination and implementation of the national
teacher standard. In addition, the research also collected respondent’s expectations of the
proposed Regional TVET Personnel Standard, which was focused mainly on Teacher
Standard. Using mixed research methods, the data were collected using survey questionnaires,
interviews, and documents analysis. A survey questionnaire was distributed to TVET teachers
and administrators/principals. Interviews were carried out to national committee and selected
TVET teachers and administrators. The findings showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
and Vietnam have developed and implemented the national-level teacher standard. Thailand
has developed the standard but no survey result was available. Other countries Cambodia and
Lao PDR, standard for TVET teacher has been developed and soon to be implemented. Brunei
Teacher Standard was developed and implemented at general schools but not at TVET schools
and colleges. In China, the standard has been developed but the implementation was
inconclusive, 80% of respondents perceive it as not being implemented. From the findings in
can be summarized that there are similarities in the steps of developing teacher standard at the
national level, but the number of steps can vary from a simple 4 steps such as in China to a
long 9 steps such as in Vietnam. There are common dissemination methods practiced in these
countries. The most common ones are (1) Shares in the Government websites, printed materials
seminars, workshops, (2) uses mass media and magazines, (3) works with the school
administrators, and (4) Issues circulars or memoranda, emails, and develops a guideline.
Components in the national TVET teacher standard vary from country to country, especially
in regards to terms being used and grouping the components. The findings show some common
issues/problems in the development and dissemination stages. The most common issues and
problems are (1) Unclear guideline, (2) Limited briefing or capacity building, (3) Resistance
from some teachers, (4) The briefing and socialization did not reach all teachers, and (5)
Involvement of industry was very minimum. To address the issues/problems, the respondents
recommended: (1) Involvement of industry (2) conduct research or monitoring & evaluation
to see its effectiveness, and (3) Dissemination process need to be improved. There were
different strategies in implementing the national teacher standard. However, there are some
common strategies: (1) The Central government directs the implementation supported by the
departments, (2) The national body or a committee develop assessment guide and
classification, and (3) Some use the standard as a self-assessment by teachers. During the

1

implementation, there were some issues/problems: (1) Limited time in preparation, (2)
Limited briefing and capacity building, (3) Standard was not detail, no clear instruction, no
division was assigned for teacher assessment. In response to the issues and problems during
the implementation stage, the respondents recommended the followings: (1) Start pilot project
in several areas, (2) train core lecturers, (3) Monitor & evaluate every stage of the processes.
In regards to the expected Regional TVET Teacher Standard 6 countries preferred the regional
standard that has few levels and 2 countries preferred 1 level. In terms of model or the main
components covered in the standard, 5 countries preferred Model 2, and two countries
preferred Model 1 and Model 3. Model 1 consists of Basic and common (Professional) and
(Communication, problem-solving, team work, etc.) and Core/functional (teaching, learning,
and assessment). Model 2 consists of Pedagogical, Personality, Social, and Professional.
Model 3: Education laws and regulations; Pedagogy and pedagogical psychology, Didactic
and teaching methodology, and Subject-based methodology. The most common perceived
benefits from having a regional TVET teacher standard are: (1) To improve the quality of
TVET overall, (2) As a benchmark among teachers in ASEAN countries and possibly increase
mobility, (3) To strengthen ASEAN integration through harmonized TVET development in
the region and having platform for benchmarking. The regional TVET Teacher Standard can
be used (1) To review/update the existing national standard, (2) as an added reference and
value of the national standard, and (3) as a reference only. There are some concerns shared of
having the regional TVET teacher standard: (1) Language and cultural barriers, (2) Political
influence which affects commitment, (3) Limited capacities of TVET personnel and resources
in some country members, (4) Technical competency is not emphasized, (5) Lacking of
Industry participation & support, and (6) Member countries have different status of TVET. In
anticipation, the respondents suggested the followings: (1) The regional standard should be
flexible enough for the members to adopt, (2) The standard should integrate recognition of
prior learning, (3) Before full implementation, conducting a pilot and capability building
programmes are necessary, (4) Include various Ministries handling TVET, (5) Provide
complete and clear guideline to all teachers, and (6) Make sure that the standards shall be
specific, operable, and shall be applied to all teachers

Key Words: Teacher standard, technical and vocational education and training (TVET), regional
standard.

Introduction

The focus on TVET personnel standard has been identified as one of the important areas
by SEAMEO VOCTECH and also by GIZ-RECOTVET considering that TVET has been a priority
area at the regional and some country level. This is even more crucial knowing the quality of
TVET, especially the quality of the TVET personnel is very diverse in the region. Realising that
the region has been embracing ASEAN Economic Community that mobility of workers is
becoming freer, having a regional standard deems very tempting and necessary.

At the regional level, SEAMEO (the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation)
and ASEAN (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations) have placed TVET as a priority agenda.
At SEAMEO, promoting TVET is Priority 4 of Ministers of Education. GIZ-RECOTVET has been

2

focusing its work on TVET personnel and has formed Working Group1 focusing on the
Development of Regional TVET Teacher Standard.

In this study, the purpose is to examine the development and implementation of national
standards for TVET Teachers of ASEAN member countries and China, and to gather stakeholders’
expectations on the regional TVET personnel standard. This study will be used as inputs for the
development of regional standard that is being developed. By considering these inputs, the
proposed Regional Standard for TVET personnel will be more relevant and applicable to all
members in the Southeast Asian region and beyond.

There are 8 ASEAN member countries represented in this study: Brunei Darussalam,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Singapore was
directly participated in the study but provided some information in regards to TVET teacher
standard in ITE Singapore. In addition, P.R. China was also joining the research team and using
the same research blueprint to collect and analysis data. A brief overview of TVET personnel
standard in the participating country will be presented below.

The current status of TVET teacher standard in Brunei Darussalam is yet to be developed.
Brunei Darussalam has developed and implemented Brunei Teachers’ Standard (BTS) that was
officially launched in August 2014 particularly for primary and secondary school teachers. The
aims of the BTS is to ensure high quality of teaching that eventually will ensure better learning
outcomes for students. The development of the standard and its Teacher Performance Appraisal
(TPA) System was spearheaded by the Department of Schools Inspectorate under the request of
the National Education Delivery Unit (PENGGERAK) under the Prime Minister’s Office together
with the Ministry of Education (Department of Schools Inspectorate, MoE Brunei, 2015).
Considering that the BTS is more suitable for general education, Institutions under Institute of
Brunei Technical Education (IBTE) are not implementing the BTS.

In Brunei Darussalam, TVET teachers consist of expatriate and locals. For the local
teachers they are mainly recruited from fresh graduates with minimum qualification of at least one
level higher qualification than the taught programmes of the related field. Most of the local TVET
teachers are recruited prior to acquiring their teaching qualification. Only a small proportion of the
local TVET teachers have industrial experience. The training and recruitment of TVET teachers
in Brunei is based on the in-service model, in which the teacher’s qualification is acquired within
the first few years usually probationary, phase of employment. (Chin, 2012).

In Cambodia, competency standard for TVET Teacher has been developed since 2011 but
has yet to be piloted or implemented due to the lack of necessary resources, such as the curriculum
contents, the experts and funding (Sothy, et al., 2017). TVET teacher education under the Ministry
of Labour and Vocational Training (MoLVT) is offered at the National Technical Training
Institute (NTTI) both for pre-service and in-service teacher education and training (Khemarin,
2012 as cited by Paryono, 2015).

In Indonesia, teacher standard has been developed and partly implemented. The standard,
however, applies to all teachers whether those working at academic or TVET institutions.

TVET teachers for secondary vocational and technical schools are prepared by the
Educational Institutions for Teaching Personnel (Lembaga Pengembangan Tenaga
Kependidikan/LPTK) comprising the universities that offer vocational and technical teacher

3

education formerly known as Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP) and Faculty of
Teaching and Educational Sciences (FKIP) under universities, and private STKIPs (Colleges of
Teaching and Educational Sciences). In addition, Vocational Education Development Centres,
now called P4TK (Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan/
Center for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel) are also in
charge of providing in-service training for TVET teachers (Paryono, 2015).

One of the recent policies under TVET teacher education is teacher certification (Hanafi
2012). The initiative is intended to ensure that the teachers have mastered the required
competencies that lead to the improvement of the quality of education in Indonesia. The
programme is conducted as an in-service for teachers and is expected to produce better quality of
education because the students, including vocational high school (SMK) students, are taught by
certified and professional teachers. Based on this policy, the minimum educational qualification
for TVET teachers at secondary vocational schools (SMK) is either Diploma 4 or Undergraduate
Degree. Under the recently initiated Teacher Profession Education Programme (PPG), the
graduates from D4 or Bachelor (S-1) may pursue for one to two semesters of teacher education
and training. For those graduated from non-pedagogic/didactic programmes (non-kependidikan)
in the areas not offered by LPTK, they may pursue teaching profession through PPG with
additional one to two semesters of teacher education and training.

In Lao PDR, TVET teachers are supplied by Vocational Education Development Center
(VEDC) (now Vocational Education Institute) and the National University of Lao PDR (NUOL).
The Faculty of Engineering of the NUOL train TVET teachers at Bachelor level, whereas, VEDC
trains TVET teachers and trainers at Higher Diploma and Bachelor. (Sisoulath, 2012 as Cited by
Paryono, 2015)

Most teachers graduated from technical schools, polytechnics, colleges or universities.
Currently, the VEDC and some major TVET schools conduct in-service training for TVET
teachers, covering the areas of pedagogy and technical fields. A number of major issues of TVET
teachers need be addressed, including lack of coordination among providers, low qualification of
teachers, lack relevant pedagogical preparation, limited movement and low salary.
(Soulikhamkone, 2012 as Cited by Paryono, 2015).

In Malaysia, it is expected that by the year 2020 all teachers must possess a first degree
before they can join the teaching profession to ensure all teachers pass the ‘quality criteria’ before
leaving the training institute (Hassan et al. 2012). There is a need for Malaysia to have new
National TVET-Teacher Qualification Standards and training policies in conjunction with the
transformation of the vocational education system. According to Hassan et al. (2012) there is a
need to strengthen the skills accreditation programmes in order for the new models of TVET
teachers to fulfil high standards of teacher’s quality and market needs.

Thailand is experiencing a lack of quantity and quality of technical and vocational teachers.
The Office of Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) Thailand launched various programmes
for improving vocational teachers, such as inviting foreign experts to be facilitators for foreign
languages and occupational courses, improving learning management using project- or problem-
based learning (PsBL), improving teachers’ occupational skills, working on research for
developing instructional media (Sriboonma 2012). According to Songthanapitak (2013), a Delphi

4

study on policy reform found that it was necessary (1) to standardize production and development
systems of vocational teachers and workplace trainers, in terms of qualification frameworks at
national and regional levels and (2) to establish a system of laws and regulations to enforce
efficiencies of vocational teacher education (VTE) production and development.

Based on the Songthanapitak study, the researchers recommended the government to issue
laws permitting vocational teachers to be trained at industries according to the needs of teachers
and institutions and to recruit industries with modern technologies as networks for developing
competencies of vocational teachers and workplace trainers by providing tax levy. In order to
develop a proper teaching profession, the government should (1) set up Professional Standards of
vocational teachers in terms of educational science, knowledge application, particular legal
professional organization for issuing of teaching licenses, (2) establish frameworks of
competency-based standards for vocational teachers and workplace trainers at ASEAN regional
and international level, and (3) VTE institutions must be assessed, certified and registered, and (4)
issue regulations concerning remuneration system and career path of vocational teachers, similar
to those in industry.

In Vietnam, Improvement in teacher training is focused on standardizing and upgrading
teacher qualifications and training institution capacity and on adapting training and teacher support
to the new curricula and methodologies (Huang, 2005 as cited in Hai, 2012). In addition, there is
a concerted effort to upgrade the capacity and qualifications of teachers, teacher trainers, and
Teacher Training Institutes (TTIs) as well as in-service training to introduce the new student
curricula and methodologies to teachers (Hai 2012, as cited in Paryono, 2015).

In China, since 20th Sepetmber.2013, Ministry of Education has issued ‘The Professional
Standard for TVET-Teachers’. The standard covers basic requirements of the state for qualified
secondary vocational school teachers; a basic norm for TVET teachers to implement educational
activities and lead their professional development; a fundamental basis of secondary vocational
school teachers’ developing, access, training, assessment and other work (Jiping, 2016).

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the development and implementation of national standards
for TVET Teachers of ASEAN member countries and China as input for the development of
regional standard. By learning and considering the experiences from the participating countries,
the Regional Standard for TVET Teachers, which currently being developed, will be more relevant
and applicable to all members in the Southeast Asian region and beyond.

Research questions

The list of research questions are grouped into three parts: Part A. Development process of national
standard for TVET personnel; Part B.
Part A. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF NATIONAL STANDARD FOR TVET PERSONNEL (Esp.
TEACHERS)

1. The Process and the Committee

5

1.1. What were the processes involved in the development of the National Core Standards of
TVET Teachers?

1.2. Who were involved in the development processes
1.3. Who assigned them
1.4. What is the structure/ organization of the team (composition)

2. Contents and Structure
2.1. What are the contents/elements?
2.2. What is the structure of the National Core Standards?

3. Dissemination
3.1. What were the steps in the dissemination of the National Core Standards?
3.2. Who took charge in the dissemination of National Core Standards
3.3. How is it disseminated and what forms of dissemination?

4. Issues and Recommendations
4.1. What issues were raised in the development and dissemination of National Core
Standards?
4.2. What suggestions or recommendations to improve the development and dissemination
processes

Part B. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL STANDARD FOR TVET PERSONNEL (Esp.
TEACHERS)

5. What are the requirements to become a training/education providers of TVET Teachers?
6. What are the education and training for TVET Teachers to meet the requirements in the

Standard?
7. What are the assessments methods used to determine qualified candidates who meet the core

Standard?
8. Who conducts the assessment to determine if the Teachers meet the Core Standard?
9. What are the requirements of the assessors?
10. What agency certifies the candidate who attains the Core Standard of TVET Teachers?
11. What are the challenges, issues, and recommendations in the implementation of the National

Core Standard?

Part C. EXPECTATION FOR THE REGIONAL CORE STANDARDS FOR TVET PERSONNEL
(Esp. TEACHERS)

12. What would be the perceived benefits of having Regional (ASEAN) Core Standard for TVET
teachers?

13. What are the expected components to be included in the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standard for
TVET teachers?

14. How will the country members utilize the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standard for TVET
Teachers?

6

15. Is there any other suggestion for developing the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standard for TVET
Teachers?

Methods

This study was using a mixed method design by utilising quantitative and qualitative data
collection tolls, analyses, and interpretations. The data collection tools comprised surveys, in-
depth interviews, and document analyses. The population of the study in most countries are
national level development and implementation of teacher standard comprising of documents,
processes, and personnel involved. The sampling techniques were used covering convenience and
stratified random sampling.
All participating research partners were using the same blueprint and data collection tools.
However, not all were strictly follow the guidelines that at certain degree restricted the full
adoption of comparative study. The more details about the variables, data sources, data collection
tools, and analysis can be found in the following research blueprint.

7

RESEARCH BLUEPRINT: Development of National a

Part A. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF NATIONAL STANDA

Research Questions Variable Da

1. The Process and the  Steps or processes in  Comm
Committee. developing the standard. Meetin

1. 1. What were the processes  Types of individuals  Docum
involved in the development of involved (e.g. Comm
the National Core Standards of representatives from involve
TVET Teachers? government, association,
industry, etc.).  Docum
1. 2. Who were involved in the
development processes  The qualifications of those  Assign
who assigned them involved (education,
profession, professional
experience).

 The nature of the job
(position or division) of
those in charge in giving
assignments.

1.3. What is the  Organisational structure of  Docu
committee. Mem
structure/ organisation of the or co
team (composition)  Job description.

and Regional Standard for TVET Personnel

ARD FOR TVET PERSONNEL (Esp. TEACHERS)

ata Source Data Collection Tool Analysis

mittee, Minutes of  Document analysis,  Quantitative and
ngs, documents.  Interview guide and questions qualitative.

ments and  Document analysis  Descriptive analysis
mittee and those  Interview guide and questions (list, percentage,
central tendencies,
ed variation).

ments  Document analysis
ners
 Interview guide and questions
(only if documents are not
available).

 Document analysis

 Interview guide and questions
(only if documents are not
available)

uments,  Document analysis.
mbers of the team
ommittee

8

Research Questions Variable Da
 The
2. Contents and  Main components in the
Structure competency standards any)
(pedagogical, technical,
2.1. What are the personal competencies)  Second
contents/elements?  Nation
 Sub components of the
standard Standa
 Existin
 Levelling of standard  Govern
competencies, if any  Teache
 The Co
2.2. What is the structure of the  Structures of presentation
National Core Standards?  Docum
 Comm

for clar
 The Co

3. Dissemination  Chronological processes of  Existin
disseminating information.  Dissem
3.1. What were the steps in the
dissemination of the National  The position and qualification commi
Core Standards? of those involved in  Docum
dissemination.  Dissem

Comm

ata Source Data Collection Tool Analysis
Consultant (if
 Interview guide and questions
(only if documents are not
available)

dary source  Existing documents (policies,  Quantitative and
nal Policies and exams, etc.) qualitative.
ards.
ng documents.  Document analysis  Descriptive analysis (list,
nment agencies.  Interview (if needed) percentage, central
er associations tendencies, variation).
onsultant (if any)

ments  Available documents (policies,
mittee (if needed exams, etc.)

rification).  Document analysis
onsultant (if any)  Interview (if needed)

ng documents,  Document analysis,  Quantitative and
 Interview guide & questions qualitative.
mination
ittee
ments

mination
mittee (if needed)

9

Research Questions Variable Da
3.2. Who took charge in the  Strategies or ways of  The Co
dissemination of National Core
Standards disseminating (email, pilot,  Docum
briefing, workshop).  Dissem
3.3. How is it disseminated and
what forms of dissemination?  Types of documents (soft or Comm
hard copy, or final printout).

4. Issues and Recommendations  Concerns and issues in  Comm
development and  Implem
4.1. What issues were raised in dissemination processes.
the development and princip
dissemination of National Core teacher
Standards?  The Co

4.2. What suggestions or  List of recommendations.  Comm
recommendations to improve the Implemen
development and dissemination
processes princip
teacher

ata Source Data Collection Tool Analysis
onsultant (if any)  Document analysis,  Descriptive analysis (list,
 Interview guide & questions
ments, percentage, central
mination  Document analysis, tendencies, variation).
mittee (if needed).  Interview guide & questions

mittees.  Interview guide and questions  Quantitative and
 Focus Group Discussion (if qualitative.
menters (school
pals and feasible)  Descriptive analysis (list,
rs)  Survey questionnaire percentage, central
tendencies, variation).
onsultant (if any)

mittees.  Interview guide and questions  Qualitative and quantitative
 Focus Group Discussion (if analysis
nters (school
pals and feasible)
rs)  Survey questionnaire

10

Part B. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL STANDARD FO

Research Questions Variable Data Sour

5. What are the requirements to  Type of Institutions.  Implem
become a training/education  Relevancy of programmes. commi
providers of TVET Teachers  Status in accreditation that
 The Co
examine the status of  Docum
financial, equipment, and  Websit
infrastructure of the
institutions.

6. What are the education and  Level of Education and  Docum
training for TVET Teachers to Training programmes.  The co
meet the requirements in the  The Co
standard?  Required courses  Lecture
 Duration of the education
the futu
and training programme.

7. What are the assessments  Type of assessments  Library
methods used to determine  Docum
qualified candidates who  Examin
meet the core standards?  The C

8. Who conducts the assessment  Composition of assessors any)
to determine if the Teachers
meet the core standards?  Docum
 Assess

(if need

OR TVET PERSONNEL (Esp. TEACHERS)

rce Data Collection Tool Analysis

mentation  Interview,  Qualitative and
ittee  Document Analysis Quantitative

onsultant (if any)

mentation
te

mentation  Document Analysis  Qualitative and
ommittee  Interview Quantitative
onsultant (if any)
ers who teach
ure teachers

y  Document Analysis  Qualitative and
mentation  Interview guide & questions Quantitative
ner
Consultant (if

ments  Document Analysis  Qualitative and
 Interview guide & questions Quantitative
ors and assesses
ded)

11

Research Questions Variable Data Sour
9.What are the requirements of  Teacher qualifications  Docum
the assessors  Professional (technical and  Person

10.What agency certifies the vocational) qualifications
candidate who attains the core
standards of TVET Teachers?  Type of recognition agency  Docum
 Level of achievement in  Nation

accreditation (if any) agency

11. What are the challenges,  List of challenges and  Docum
issues, and recommendations in issues  Person
the implementation of the
national core standards?  List of recommendations (Comm
school

Part C. EXPECTATION FOR THE REGIONAL CORE STAN

Research Questions Variable Data Sour

12. What would be the  List of perceived benefits of  Nationa
perceived benefits of having having regional (ASEAN) (includ
regional (ASEAN) core standard core standard for TVET of Nati
for TVET teachers? teacher standards. Standar

 School
 Teache

rce Data Collection Tool Analysis
ments  Document Analysis
ns involved  Interview guide & questions

ments  Document Analysis  Qualitative and
 Interview guide & questions (if Quantitative
nal Qualification
y needed)

ments  Document Analysis  Qualitative and
 Interview and Questionnaires Quantitative
nnel involved
mittee, teachers,

principals)

NDARDS FOR TVET PERSONNEL (Esp. TEACHERS)

rce Data Collection Tool Analysis

al policymakers  Survey questionnaire  Qualitative and
ding the committee  Interview Quantitative
ional TVET
rd)
l Principals
ers

12

Research Questions Variable Data Sour

13. What are the expected  List of components that may  Nationa
components to be included in comprise pedagogical, (includ
the regional (ASEAN) core technical/vocational, personal of Nati
standard for TVET teachers? attributes/qualifications. Standar

 School
 Teache
 The Co

14. How will the country  Referencing/ benchmarking  Nationa
members utilise the regional processes (includ
(ASEAN) core standard for of Nati
TVET teachers?  Improvement strategies to the Standar
national TVET teacher
standards  School
 Teache
 The Co

15. Is there any other suggestion  List of suggestions and  Nationa
for developing the regional recommendations for (includ
(ASEAN) core standard for developing the regional of Nati
TVET teachers? (ASEAN) core standard for Standar
TVET teachers.
 School
 Teache
 The Co

rce Data Collection Tool Analysis
 Survey questionnaire  Qualitative and
al policymakers  Interview
ding the committee Quantitative
ional TVET  Survey questionnaire
rd)  Interview  Qualitative and
l Principals Quantitative
ers  Survey questionnaire
onsultant (if any)  Interview  Qualitative and
Quantitative
al policymakers
ding the committee
ional TVET
rd)
l Principals
ers
onsultant (if any)

al policymakers
ding the committee
ional TVET
rd)
l Principals
ers
onsultant (if any)

13

Synthesis of the Com

The findings by country will be presented in chapters, while
following table. Considering that there are ten countries participated
the region, the presentation of findings will be grouped into two:

Group 1 comprising Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, and M
Group 2 comprising Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and
Singapore was not directly participated in the study but completed a
used different template/research blueprint that at some points couldn

Group 1. Brunei, Cambodia, Ind
Comparison Country Reports o

1. Development of the National Standard

Brunei Cambodia

Name of the Brunei Teacher Competency Standard for Te
Standard Standard (BTS) TVET Teacher St
In
Official Developed and - Developed, soon to be Qu
Status implemented for implemented (K
general school teachers, Na
but yet to implement - Developed since 2011 but St
for TVET teachers never piloted or -
implemented due to lack of -
necessary resources such as
curriculum contents, -
experts, funding
-
- Will continue soon to
validation of competencies,
develop learning and
assessment packages and
then put into
implementation

mparative Findings

e the synthesis of the comparative analysis will be presented in the
d in the study, 9 from Southeast Asian countries and one outside

Malaysia; and
d China.
survey on the Proposed Regional TVET Teacher Standard. Thailand
n’t provide information listed the following table.

donesia, Lao PDR, and Malaysia
on “TVET Teacher Standard”

Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia
Competency Standard
eacher Core Competency (CS) for TVET Malaysian Teacher
tandard (CS) Trainers and Teachers Standards (MTS) 2009
ndonesians National
ualification Framework Standards of Teachers Special Certification:
KKNI) Vocational Training
ational Competency In development Operation (VTO) for
tandard (SKKNI) process, TVET Teachers
Implemented (2006) soon to be Implemented
KKNI for all levels of implemented
education
SKKNI Indonesian LNQF is planned to be
National Standard developed as well as a
Competence for worker Competency Based
(But there is no core Training (CBT) also
standard specific National Skills
developed for TVET Standard and
personnel) assessment standard

Standards of Teachers,
2010 exists already

14

Perceived Developed Not yet developed De
Status- Not sure if Not sure De
Survey: Tea- implemented
cher Standard No
School/ Not sure if developed (m
College Not sure if No
Principal/ implemented (m
Director
Standard

Trainer of Not sure if developed Not yet developed No
trainers Not sure if Not sure (m
Standard implemented No
(m
Industry Not sure if developed De
Trainer Not sure if Im
Standard implemented

Responsible MoE NTTI & Depart. of Nat. M
Ministry Comp. Standard, MoLVT Ce
Jabatan Kenaziran
Working Sekolah-Sekolah Technical supporting group, Na
Committee (Department of School technical working group and
Inspectorate) expert panel, national and
Champion for international (Philippines)
Accountability and consultants, facilitators.
Performance TVET teachers involved
Management, MoE were nominated by their own
school principals

Development - Consultant hired for - 1 year No
Process assisting the - Workshops and meetings
development of the
standard (UK) on occupational analysis

eveloped (majority) Developed Developed
eveloped (majority) Partly Implemented Implemented
(60%)
ot yet developed
majority) Developed Developed
ot yet implemented Implemented/Not sure Implemented
majority) if implemented
(50:50)

ot yet developed Developed/Not sure if Developed
majority)
ot yet developed developed (50:50) Not sure
majority)
eveloped (majority) Not yet implemented Not sure
mplemented (majority) Not sure if developed Not sure
MoE, Guideline from the
entral Government Not yet MoHR, MoE, MARA
ational Committee implemented/not sure
MoE and MoLSW
ot provided
- MoE, Department of - National Mission NPE
Technical and - TEP
Vocational - Teacher’s Professional
Education and
Department of Conduct
Higher Education - MOE Work Ethics
- Industries experts and
- National University
Laos, Faculty of practitioners
Engineering - Department of Skill

- Vocational Development under
Education and National Occupancy
Development Skill Standard Division
Institute - Consultants

- 6 Vocational - Development of
Colleges Standard & Curriculum
= DESCUM (NOSS
Not yet provided

15

- About 20 people with - Task and duties of a
minimum of Master’s teacher before, whilst and
after teaching
degree level involved
- 4 years to develop - Transforming into units of
competencies and
and test it producing teaching
- Now first year modules

implemented - Next step: produce learning
and assessment packages
for implementation

2. Dissemination Process of the National Standard

Brunei Cambodia Ind

Process Not yet disseminated to TVET Not yet - Received it t
teachers, only to GE teachers. dis- hardcopy, em
seminated
- Guidelines:
- 1. Governme

20/2003
- 2. Education

Regulation N

National Edu

Issues and - Unclear guideline - Limited time
Problems - Limited briefing or capacity - Unclear guid
- English spea
building - Did not reac
- Resistance from some - Lack of unde

teachers development
of national e
Suggestions - Reach out to all teachers, not
only selective - Continuous t
certification
- Steering committee
- Monitoring a

development process
flow chart)
- 5-6 months

donesia Lao PDR Malaysia
through workshop,
mail - As soon as - Standard needs to be approved by
permitted by Majlis Penasihat Pembangunan
ent Regulation No. MoES Kemahiran (MPPK)

n Ministry - Want to involve - Proofreading, validation,
No 19 2005 about headmasters of endorsement
ucation Standard vocational schools
and administrative - 6-7 months
e staff in provincial - By NOSS division (and
deline educational
aking barriers departments in the Accredited Centres, external
ch all teachers country, best if assessors/verifiers, instructors,
erstanding of face-to-face managers)
t and achievement - Disseminated through DSD
education standards - Information website, external verifiers,
training and sessions workshops, emails, CD to
accredited centers and committee
and mentoring - Unclear guideline members for specific fields
- should have been - Unclear guideline
- Involvement of industry was very
reviewed yearly minimum in developing the
NOSS and the syllabus
- Review first (interview).
before
dissemination - More related companies/agencies
should be involved in developing

16

- Transparency - Using media
- Start pilot project in several - Training for
- Disseminatio
areas, train core lecturers as
part of the project be improved
- Involvement of industry, - It should hav
conduct research to see
effectiveness, create teacher preparation f
upgrading centre, create
endorsing agency and have implementat
certified assessors - Disseminatio

more time

3. Implementation Process of the National Standard

Brunei Cambodia In

Process Not yet implemented in Not yet Majority said th
TVET implemented unclear.
To improve the
(BTS is being process:
implemented (first year) - Socialization
by assessing the teachers - Need good p
5 times by school
program managers) implementati
teaching proc
- National stan
certification n
accurate
- Should be a s
judgment ind
achievement
regional stand
- Facilities and
exist but have
appropriate ra
upgrade infra

a for dissemination - Dissemination at the NOSS, Syllabus and they
teachers all vocational should be rewarded.
on process need to schools and - More training and courses to the
d colleges. teachers especially should be
ve sufficient given and to inform all teachers
for the widely.
tion - Participation from counselling
on team need department also one of another
way. (interview)

ndonesia Lao PDR Malaysia

hat the Guideline was - Plan to use outcomes of 3 steps to become a
information sessions for training centre
implementation good implementation

need to be improved - Addressing the system of
preparation for the higher education for
ion in learning and vocational teachers to
cess ensure a direct impact
ndard teacher
need to be more - Need to wait for
approval of competency-
set standard of based standard-curricula
dicates the level of
of national and - Want to propose for an
dards mentoring concept
d infrastructure already focused on different
e not met the target groups working in
atio so students need to the same institution e.g.
astructure and facilities vocational schools
throughout Laos (fresh
graduates & senior
teachers)

17

Issues and Limited time in - Limited time
Problems preparation - Disconnect be

graduates with

need
- Lack of intere

teachers to im

Suggestions - organize regular - Provide recog
workshops or seminars professional c
on the Standard or
- Communicati
- develop a portal or industry abou
website where Teachers skills
can refer to later on
- Evaluation an
- Socialization
- Implementatio

needs special
- Should be a s

assessment th

of achievemen
regional stand

4. Components of the National Standard

Brunei Cambodia Indo

Components 1. Professional 1. Basic 1. Pedago
Knowledge and competencies 2. Person
Skills 3. Social
2. Core
2. Professional competencies Compe
Engagement 4. Profess

Compe

in preparation Limited briefing or - Unclear guideline
etween quality of capacity building - Rapid changes in
h the labor market
Sources or website for technology, lacking
est and spirit of teacher training that they collaboration with
mplement know what is available for industries,
their professional discrepancies in
gnition through development teaching and learning
certification approaches ad
ion with business and resources, learning
ut labour needs and and teaching
materials not fully
nd follow-up developed.
needs improvement - English language as a
on at remote areas medium of
attention. communication
set standard of
hat indicates the level
nt of national and
dards.

onesia Lao PDR Malaysia
Standard 1
ogical Practical instructors: Professional Teaching
nality Basic (common, and core
competencies) Standard 2
etency Knowledge and Understanding
sional Trainer Qualification Level
etency 1 to 4 Standard 3
Teaching and Learning Skill
Theoretical teachers:
1. Social
2. Vocational

18

It is used as assessment - Focuses on
pedagogical skills
of teacher performance
only
in classroom by looking - doesn’t mention
at impact on students’
professional skill at
performance, learning,
and teaching all

Preferred Model 2 Model 3 Mod
Model Few
(according to Few levels One level
survey)
Preferred All staff should start at Should include all -
Levelling the same level, from tasks and duties a
(according to beginning of their teacher must perform
survey) career in technical plus English
Other education language
suggestions

3. Teaching Each content standard is divided
4. Assessment into 3- 8 competencies
5. Self prof. dev.
- Comparative analysis of

existing standards of UK,
Germany, Lao, USA,
Vietnam
- Preferred German
structure, area of
competency,
competency, indicator
(80)

del 2 Model 3 Model 1 and 2

levels Few (3) levels Few levels
-
(1) Professional skill and
knowledge
(2) Professional teaching and
learning process
(3) Personal and professional
attributes
(4) Professional industries and
communities
+ indicators for each dimension
that should be listed out with skills
required for each area

19

5. Perceived Benefits of Having Regional Standard

Brunei Cambodia I

Highest rated To improve the quality of Strengthen - Harmo
benefits TVET overall ASEAN develop
Interview: integration region
It can be used a benchmark
with the quality of teachers in - Provid
other ASEAN countries and benchm
possibly increase mobility.
- To fulf
Other benefits - Exchange program in qualifie
teaching between ASEAN ASEAN
countries; shape ideas on
specialisation area such as - As an a
business, IT, agriculture etc. commu
in the s
- Sharing of educational
development and good - To imp
practices in training between of voca
ASEAN countries
- Build m

6. The Use of the Regional Standard

Brunei Cambodia

Highest To review/update national - As an added - As
rated standard reference and value ref
usage of Benchmarking of the National of
the Standard and Sta
Standard - Measuring tool to identify
and close skill gaps - to update/review it - to
Other
usage - Improve skills of instructors
and benchmark their goals

Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia

onize TVET To improve - Improve the quality of TVET
opment in the quality of TVET overall
overall (60%) and
de platform for to harmonize - Provide platform for
marking TVET benchmarking
development in
the region (52%).

fil the needs of - It can be a standard reference for
ed teachers in TVET training approach which
N members will be recognised by many
avenue for countries in ASEAN and globally.
unication teachers
same field - Preparing the skill workers with
proving the quality standard of ASEAN, enhance the
ational education employability of learners not only
mutual recognition for the country but also for
ASEAN.

Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia

s an added - To update/review the - To review/update the
ference and value National Standard (49%) national standard
the National
andard and - As an added reference - To use it as an added
update/review it and value of the National reference and value of the
Standard (34%) national standard

20

7. Issues/Problems/Challenges of Having Regional Standard

Brunei Cambodia

- Language and cultural barriers - Limited capacities of
- Political instability which affects TVET personnel

implementation of ideas - Lack of teaching and
- Small budget, low number of training available learning resources
- The credibility of trainers
- Location, duration, and approaches to training - Technical competency
- Senior staff might have difficulties to accept is not emphasized

the new Standard compared to new/junior staff - Lacking Industry
participation, incentive

8. Suggestions/Future Direction for Having Regional Standard

Brunei Cambodia Indo

- Exchange program in - Graduates from TVET Instructor - Develop o
teaching between Program should undergo on-job national w
ASEAN countries; training at industries for at least
shape ideas on one year before being nominated - Develop re
specialisation area such to work as instructor internation
as business, IT,
agriculture etc. - Staff exchange program with - Need to do
institutions who are more evaluation
- Include personnel from experienced and qualitative up
all over the globe, higher
avoiding "regional - Explain te
competencies" - providing assistance in teaching, challenges
learning and equipment (e. g. globalizati
- It should be flexible better institutions) world of e
enough to be used by all
the ASEAN countries - motivate t

Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia

- Lack of productive - Less practical, - The financial readiness
teachers and weak pedagogy & for each country,
inadequate MIS
infrastructure - Qualified teachers that are
- Lacking technical ready to change the
- Heterogeneous training method,
classes
- not all ASEAN - Industry/company
- Recognition of countries can commitment,
industry achieve same
level of Standard - Political influence and
- Openness teachers Infrastructure/ facilities

onesia Lao PDR Malaysia

on the basis of - Integrate recognition of prior - To have a
work culture learning in ASEAN, benchmarking through
eferring to advanced countries
nal standards - Accreditation standard for TVET (Singapore, Germany,
o an in ASEAN, Finland/etc.),
n and follow-
- Curriculum licensing in ASEAN, - Have adequate time of
eachers about - Focusing on software training,
s of
ion in the (teacher/human resource) rather - Give information to all
education than hardware (Scholl, etc.) teachers in the country,
teachers - Take into account that not all the
ASEAN countries can achieve - Capability building and
the same level of the standard to clear information
about the standard.
(interview)

21

Group 2. Philippines, Singapore
Comparison Country Reports

1. Development of the National Standard

Philippines Singapore Thailand

Name of the Phil. Trainer ITE (Advanced National Core Standards fo
Standard Qualification Certificate in personal
Technical Thai Qualification Framew
TESDA Education - for higher education
Pedagogy) - for vocational educatio
Official Implemented - for basic education
Status Implemented Thai Profession Qualificati
Framework (TPQF)
- Thai Vocational Quali

Framework
- National Occupational

Standard (NOSS)
- National Industrial Ski

(NISS)

Developed and Implemente

Perceived Developed Not provided Now, 10 Faculties of Techn
Status Implemented
according Education from 10 Univers
to survey Developed develop the TVET teachers
Teacher Implemented
Standard TVET teacher license
School/Coll Developed
ege Not sure if Not provided
Principal/Di implemented
rector Not provided Not yet provided
Standard Not provided Not yet provided
Trainer of
trainers
Standard

e, Thailand, Vietnam, and China
on “TVET Teacher Standard

or TVET Vietnam China
work (TQF) The Professional
Professional Standard for Vocational Standard for
Teachers Teachers

on Issued on Sep 20th,
2013
ion
Developed
ification Not implemented
(80%)
l Skill

ill Standard

ed Developed and Implemented (2010)

nical

sities try to
s’ standard for

Developed
Implemented

Not sure if developed Not yet developed
Not sure if implemented Not yet
implemented
Not sure if developed (69%)
Not sure if implemented Not yet developed

22

Industry Not sure if Not provided Not yet provided
Trainer developed MoE, OHEC
Standard Not sure if ITE
implemented (Autonomy)
Responsible TESDA
Ministry

Working Central office, ITE Standard - Office of Vocational Edu
Committee experts from was developed Commission
industries & by ITE and for
Developme the academe, its own use - Office of Higher Educati
nt Process TESDA Commission
board, and
curriculum - Thailand Professional Qu
developers Institute (public organiza

Consultations Not provided - Department of Skill Deve
among the - Teacher Council of Thail
TESDA - Association of 9 Rajaman
personnel,
stakeholders, University of Technology
people from Kingmongkut’s Universi
the academe, Technology
- All authorized under Tea
Educational Personnel A

- Based on typical resea
methodology, job anal

workshop, focus group

interview, seminar, pu
- Full-renewal every 3/5

ucation Not sure if developed Not yet
Not sure if implemented implemented
ion (76%)
- Ministry of Education and Training
ualification (MoET) Not yet developed
ation) Not yet
elopment - Ministry of Labor Invalids and Social implemented
land Affairs (MOLISA): responsible for (79%)
ngala TVET Ministry of
y and 3 Education
ity of - Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education Department (STVED): The development
achers and national policies on TVET, curriculum, was a collaborative
Act 2003 frameworks endeavour with
arch teachers, school
lysis, - also controlled by the local authorities principals,
p, survey, level university experts,
ublic hearing and policy makers.
5 years Executive Board comprises 9 to 15
people,.i.e. Chairman, experts from
universities, experienced teachers.

Nine (9) steps: 1. Establish the Executive The development
Board, 2. Study the legal regulations, paths consist of
functions and structure, and study relevant four steps:
documents from some advanced countries, Research and
3. Analyse the work of vocational teachers, Draft, Expert
4. Determine the structure and content of Consultation, Open
the national standard for vocational

23

and from the
industry. The
inputs then
used as the
basis in
formulating
the national
core standards.

2. Dissemination Process of the National Standard

Philippines Singapore Thaila
Not provid
Process - Central office issues the Not provided

memorandum then distributed to

the different regions for

implementation.
- There are personnel assigned to

place the information in the

TESDA website. All needed

information are on the website

Issues and - Only selected few were involved

Problems in the briefing and workshop,

thus made others felt left out.

Suggestions

3. Implementation Process of the National Standard

Process Philippines Singapore Thailand GDVT d
of Voca
- Central office Not Selection process permane
issues the provided by OVEC Division
memorandum impleme
then distributed GDVT i
to the different
regions for
implementation.

teachers, 5. Develop the national standard, for Comments, and
6. Organise seminars, consultation, and Issued to the Public
review of the standard, 7. Appraise the
standard, 8. Complete the national
Standard and 9.Submit to the Minister.
(total of 6 months)

and Vietnam China

ded  The Circular regulating the standard Published in MoE website for

is posted in government websites and socialisation and comments,

send it to all divisions and then other websites, media

institutions. (newspapers and magazines),

 GDVT issues a guide on assessment

and classification.

 Organise workshops and conferences

to disseminate the standard

Unclear guideline and limited briefing or Limited briefing or capacity
capacity building building, unclear guideline
and limited time in
Dissemination in mass media, websites, preparation.
through training, seminars, via hard and To address the above
soft copy by post and email issues/problems.

Vietnam China

directs the implementation and the Department The implementation
ational Training Teachers and Managers is the requirement involves 4 aspects
ent body of GDVT. Vocational Training which are more concerned on
n and institutions are tasked to disseminate and the use of the standard: as
ent. foundational bases, for teacher
issued assessment guide and classification. training, for managing

24

- All needed The resu
information are Good, A
on the TESDA
website

Issues and - lack of Teacher Council Not yet
Problems still disagrees 27.5%, L
equipment using the Core (Teache
Suggestions - lack of training Standard of TVET clear ins
- dissemination personnel assessm

process was Provide
Design p
only one way evaluati
- capability Design t
to impro
building for standard
Synchro
teachers and across th
trainers so as to Follow u
impleme
upgrade skills

and become

competitive

4. Components of the National Standard

Philippines Singapore Thailan

Components Trainer Qualification Level ITE focuses Teacher
(TQL) 1 for Trainer/Assessors on Professiona
TQL 2 Training Designers/ pedagogical Competenc
Developers competencies - Core
TQL 3 Training Supervisors Covers 11
and Mentors areas of Competen
TQL 4 Master Trainer competencies - Functiona
and a
All levels have basic and core supervised Competen
competencies, which have field practice - Profession
elements and performance (guided by
criteria for each item, followed mentor) Competen
by variables and range, and
evidence guide 7 Levels

ults are either Meet the Standard (Excellent, teachers, and for teacher self-
Average) or Do not Meet the Standard. development.

disseminated (48.3%), Unclear guideline Limited time in preparation
Limited briefing or capacity building (18.7%) and limited briefing or capacity
er survey). Others: Standard was not detail, no building.
struction, no division assigned for teacher
ment.

guidelines
plans, standards and criteria for assessment and
ion of implementation
training programs for implementation in order
ove teachers’ competence to achieve new
d
onous implementation in all TVET institutions
he country
up and assessment throughout all stages of
entation

nd Vietnam China

al The National Standard for 3 main components: basic concepts
cies Vocational Teachers at (Virtue First, Student-Centred, Based on
secondary and college level Competencies, and Lifelong Learning),
ncy includes 4 criteria with 16 main content (professional philosophy &
al standards and 50 indicators. virtue, professional knowledge and
ncy Criterion 1: The political professional ability, which is divided into
onal and professional ethics. 15 areas and is subdivided into 60 entries)
ncies Criterion 2: Professional and implementation requirements
Capacity. (specific requirements on how to use
Criterion 3: Vocational ‘standard’ for educational administrative
pedagogy capacity, departments, training colleges of
Criterion 4: Capacity for vocational education teachers, secondary
professional development vocational schools and the teachers)
and scientific research.

25

Preferred Not selected, but provides Not provided Not provid
Model listing various components Not provided Not provid
such as specific and common
Preferred competencies that are generic
Levelling to all technical vocational
programs but on the higher
level, pedagogical/teaching
methodologies, personal and
professional efficacies.

Not selected

5. Perceived Benefits of Having Regional Standard

Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietna

Highest Mobility of Not Not Harmonize TVET developm
rated teachers provided provided of teachers strongly agree an
benefits and
teachers Strengthen ASEAN Integrat
Other exchanges quality of TVET overall, Pr
benefits benchmarking, and Facilitat
of teacher strongly agree and

6. The Use of the Regional Standard

Highest rated Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietn
usage of the
Standard Not Not Not To review/ updat
provided provided provided standard, then as
reference and val
national standard

ded Model 2 and 1 Model 2

ded Few levels One level (implied from the national
standard)

Few level (from survey)

am China

ment in the region (97% - 90% believed that the standard will facilitate
nd somewhat agree) mobility of human resources, strengthen ASEAN
integration, and improve the quality of TVET overall
tion, Improve the
ovide platform for - provide a platform for benchmarking, as well as
te mobility (each >90% harmonizing TVET development in the region
d somewhat agree).

nam China

te the national To review/update the national standard, and to use it as an
s an added added reference and value of the national standard. More than
lue of the half of teachers and principals think the standards could be
d. used as a reference only.

26

7. Issues/Problems/Challenges of Having Regional Standard

Philippines Singapore Thailand

- Having a good Not - If not implemented in law and s
representations of stake- provided required in curriculum
holders in the taskforce
- No major agent who takes the o
- Variability of terms used responsibilities
- Language

8. Suggestions/Future Direction of Having Regional Standard

Philippines Singapore Thailand

- Need to pilot test Not - Requires a unify framew
- Need to develop a template on provided standard and qualificatio
can be applied to all part
the monitoring and classroom stakeholders
observation of teachers so as to
ensure uniform implementation - Determine the only one u
- To organize annual meetings standard and framework
- Need assure the national competence standards fo
dissemination of information TVET teachers
before its full implementation.
- Feedback mechanism must be in - Regulate TVET teachers
place apply the competence sta
- Should be a governing body that for TVET teachers
will accredit the competencies
assessed and tested - Follow the framework of
- National certificates should be Training, Testing and
honored in all member countries Certifying

strictly Vietnam China
overall Not yet provided
The existing TVET system is a quite
complicated with multiple agencies
administering TVET institutions (MoET,
MOLISA, other line ministries in the central,
local authorities)

work, Vietnam China
on that
ties and Not - To ensure the quality of implementation, the
provided implementation requirement of standard should be
united provided.
for
or - To use various ways of dissemination, e.g. via Internet,
media, magazines, official report etc.
s to
andards - To provide Teacher Standard in Subject Area to explain
the general standard in a subject background.
f
- To provide more related standards such as Teacher
Certification Standard, Teaching Practice Standard,
Assessment Standard, and Teacher Educator Standard
etc.

- To stress the role of Front-line Teachers in standard
setting.

- To make sure the standards shall be specific, highly
operable, and shall be applied to all teachers.

27

Summary of Findings and Recommendations

RQ1:

What was the process of development and dissemination of the national teacher standard?

From the table above, it can be summarised the status of development and implementation
of the national TVET teacher standard as follows:

(1) The countries that have developed and implemented the national TVET standard:
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore (developed and implemented at the
institutional level), Thailand and Vietnam (inconsistency between the findings from
document analysis (DA) and survey. In DA, the standard has been developed and
implemented, but from survey some respondents perceived that the standard has yet to be
implemented. In the case of Indonesia, the teacher standard is very general, can be for any
teacher, general school teacher or TVET teachers.

(2) The countries that has developed but not yet implemented: Brunei, Cambodia, Lao
PDR, China. In Brunei the standard for general teachers has been developed but for TVET
teachers, the standard has yet to be developed. Cambodia and Lao PDR have developed
the standard but implementation hasn’t taken place yet. In China, the standard has been
developed but the implementation was inconclusive, 80% of respondents perceive it as not
being implemented.

Common development processes

From the findings in can be summarized that there are similarities in the steps of developing
teacher standard at the national level, but the number of steps can vary from a simple 4 steps such
as in China to a long 9 steps such as in Vietnam.

The 4 steps adopted in China consist of: (1) Research and Draft, (2) Expert Consultation, (3)
Open for Comments, and (4) Issued to the Public. The 9 steps in Vietnam covers: (1) Establish the
Executive Board, (2) Study the legal regulations, functions and structure, and study relevant
documents from some advanced countries, (3) Analyse the work of vocational teachers, (4)
Determine the structure and content of the national standard for vocational teachers, (5) Develop
the national standard, (6) Organise seminars, consultation, and review of the standard, (7) Appraise
the standard, (8) Complete the national Standard and (9) Submit to the Minister.

There are common dissemination methods practiced in these countries. The most common
ones are (1) Shares in the Government websites, printed materials seminars, workshops, (2) uses
mass media and magazines, (3) works with the school administrators, and (4) Issues circulars or
memoranda, emails, and develops a guideline.

Components in the national TVET teacher standard vary from country to country, especially
in regards to terms being used and grouping the components. Brunei Teacher Standard has two
main components: (1) Professional Knowledge and Skills and (2) Professional Engagement.
Cambodia has two main components but using different terms: (1) Basic competencies
(communication. problem-solving, teamwork etc.) and (2) Core competencies (Curriculum
Development, teaching, assessment, etc.). Indonesia has 4 main components with 4 levels each:
(1) Pedagogical, (2) Personality, (3) Social Competency, (4) Professional Competency.

28


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