The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by Seameo Voctech, 2018-12-13 01:42:23

SV JOURNAL 2012

SV JOURNAL 2012

Keywords: vocational and technical education

ISSN 1810-5416

Volume 11 Number 1, December 2012

ADVISOR
MR. ALIAS BIN HAJI ABU BAKAR
DIRECTOR OF SEAMEO VOCTECH

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS
DR. PARYONO, SEAMEO VOCTECH
MR. PHILIP LOVEDER, NCVER Australia
PROF. RICHARD G. BAGNALL, Hong Kong Institute of Education

REVIEWERS
DR. CHIN WEI KEH, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
DR. PARIKSHAT SINGH MANHAS, University of Jammu, India
MR. PUNANG AMARIPUJA, Yogyakarta Muhammadiyah University, Indonesia
MR. EDWARD M. DELA ROSA, SEAMEO VOCTECH
MR. SAIFUL ANUAR A. RAHIM, SEAMEO VOCTECH

MANUSCRIPT EDITORS
MS. NOORASHIKIN HAJI NAWE, SEAMEO VOCTECH
MS. LIYUSHIANA, SV Intern, PhD Candidate in Business & Management, ITB, Brunei

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal
Journal for Vocational and Technical Education and Training

Published by SEAMEO VOCTECH Regional Centre
Jalan Pasar Baharu, Gadong BE1318
Negara Brunei Darussalam
E-mail: [email protected]
URL: http: //www.voctech.org.

i

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal

Š‡
‘—”ƒŽ ‹• –Š‡ ‘ˆˆ‹…‹ƒŽ Œ‘—”ƒŽ ‘ˆ ‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ‡–”‡ ˆ‘”
‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰Ǥ Š‹• ‹• ƒ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Œ‘—”ƒŽ ™Š‡”‡„› –Š‡
†‹–‘”‹ƒŽ ‘ƒ”† ‡„‡”•ǡ ‡˜‹‡™‡”• ƒ† —–Š‘”• ƒ”‡ ˆ”‘ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• …‘—–”‹‡• ‘– ‘Ž› ˆ”‘
‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ”‡‰‹‘ „—– ƒŽ•‘ „‡›‘†Ǥ Š‡ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ’—„Ž‹•Š‡† Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ •‡Ž‡…–‡† „ƒ•‡† ‘
–Š‡‹” “—ƒŽ‹–› ƒ† ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ…‡ǡ ƒ† Šƒ˜‡ ‰‘‡ –Š”‘—‰Š –™‹…‡ „Ž‹† ”‡˜‹‡™ ’”‘…‡••‡• „› ’‡‡”•Ǥ

– ‹• ƒ ‡†‹— ‘ˆ •Šƒ”‹‰ ƒ† †‹••‡‹ƒ–‹‰ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡• ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†
‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰ ȋ Ȍ –‘ –Š‡ …‘—‹–› ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ‡‰‹‘ ƒ† ƒˆƒ”Ǥ
‡ „‡Ž‹‡˜‡ –Šƒ– —…Š …ƒ „‡ ‰ƒ‹‡† ™Š‡ –Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ ˆ‘…ƒŽ ’‘‹– ™Š‡”‡ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• •‘—‰Š– ƒ†
—–‹Ž‹•‡† –‘ ‡Šƒ…‡ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† –”ƒ‹‹‰ǡ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž› ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒǤ

Š‡ ‡†‹–‘”‹ƒŽ ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‘—”ƒŽ ƒ”‡ ƒ• ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ ƒŽŽ ”‡ƒ†‡”• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡† ‹ ™‹–Š …—””‡– ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•ǡ ‹†‡ƒ•ǡ ‡™• ƒ† ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘

ƒŒ‘” ‹••—‡• ‹ –Š‡ ƒ”‡ƒ …‘…‡”‡†Ǥ
x ‘ ‹ˆ‘” ”‡ƒ†‡”• ‘ ƒŒ‘” †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–• ‹ –‘ ‡ƒ„Ž‡ •Šƒ”‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡•Ǥ

Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ƒ”‡ƒ• ƒ”‡ …‘˜‡”‡† ‹ –Š‡ Œ‘—”ƒŽǣ
x ‘˜ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ƒ† …—””‹…—Ž— †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ
x —ƒ ”‡•‘—”…‡• †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹ Ǥ
x ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ†˜ƒ…‡‡–• ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‹ Ǥ
x ‡•‡ƒ”…Š‡• ‹ Ǥ

‡ƒ†‡”• ƒ† …‘–”‹„—–‘”• ™‹•Š‹‰ –‘ •—„‹– ƒ—•…”‹’– ˆ‘” ’—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ •Š‘—Ž† ”‡ˆ‡” –‘ –Š‡
‰—‹†‡Ž‹‡• ƒ† †‡–ƒ‹Ž• ‘ –Š‡ ‹•‹†‡ „ƒ… …‘˜‡” ‘ˆ –Š‹• Œ‘—”ƒŽǤ


SEAMEO VOCTECH would like to emphasise that all opinions expressed in the published articles
are those of the Authors of the respective articles and do not necessarily reflect the views of
SEAMEO VOCTECH or any member government of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
Organisation (SEAMEO).


ii

Director’s Message

Š‡ ›‡ƒ” ʹͲͳʹ ƒ”‡† ƒ› •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ– ‹Ž‡•–‘‡• ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡˜‡–• ‘”‰ƒ‹•‡†
„› ‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ‡–”‡Ǥ ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ– ‡˜‡–• ™‡”‡ǣ

ͳȌ ‘‡–‘—• ‘ˆˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ˜‹•‹– ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‹‹•–‡” ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒ ƒ†

‘—…‹Ž ”‡•‹†‡–ǡ –Š‡ Š‘‘—”ƒ„Ž‡ǡ ƒ‰ ‡”Š‘”ƒ– ‡Š‹ ”ƒ‰ ƒ›ƒ ‡”‹ ‡”ƒ ȋ ”ǤȌ
ƒ–‘ ‡”‹ ‡–‹ƒ ƒŒ‹ ™ƒ‰ „— ƒƒ” „‹ ƒŒ‹ ’‘‰ ˜‹•‹–‡† –Š‡ ‡–”‡ ‘ ͺ ‡…‡„‡” ʹͲͳʹǤ
ƒ‰ ‡”Š‘”ƒ– ‡Š‹ ƒŽ•‘ ‘ˆˆ‹…‹ƒ–‡† –Š‡ …‡”‡‘› ‘ ”‡ƒ‹‰ ‡™ƒ ‡”ƒ–ƒ‹ ƒ• Ǯ ‡™ƒ ‡”‹

‡”ƒǯ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• Žƒ—…Š‡† –Š‡ ‡™ –”ƒ‹‹‰ ”‘‘ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‡šŠ‹„‹–• ‘ ‡–”‡ǯ• ‹Ž‡•–‘‡ •‹…‡
–Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘ ’”‡•‡–Ǥ

ʹȌ  ‡š…‡’–‹‘ƒŽ •‡…‘† ‰Ž‹•Š ‡‹ƒ”Ǧ ‘”•Š‘’ ™ƒ• …‘†—…–‡† ‘ ʹ͵ǦʹͶ …–‘„‡”

ʹͲͳʹ Š‡Ž† ƒ– Š‡ ‹œ“— –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‘–‡Žǡ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒ ™‹–Š –Š‡ –Š‡‡ DzEnhancing
Innovative Teaching in VTET through the Effective use of English and Technologydzǡ ‹
…‘ŽŽƒ„‘”ƒ–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ”—‡‹ǯ• ”‹–‹•Š ‹‰Š ‘‹••‹‘ǡ ‡–”‡ ˆ‘” ”‹–‹•Š ‡ƒ…Š‡”• ȋ ˆ Ȍ

™‹–Š –Š‡ •—’’‘”– ‘ˆ —ƒ ‡•‘—”…‡ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹˜‹•‹‘ ƒ† ‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ —””‹…—Ž—
‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒǯ• ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

͵Ȍ •—……‡••ˆ—Ž Ǯ ‡ƒ…Š‡” †—…ƒ–‹‘ š’‡”–• ‡‡–‹‰ ™ƒ• Œ‘‹–Ž› ‘”‰ƒ‹•‡† „›

™‹–Š –Š‡ •—’’‘”– ‘ˆ Ǧ ƒ† ƒŒƒ„Šƒ– ‹˜‡”•‹–‹‡• ‡–™‘”ǡ
Š‡Ž† ƒ– Š‡ ‘›ƒŽ ”…Š‹† Š‡”ƒ–‘ ‘–‡Žǡ ƒ‰‘ǡ Šƒ‹Žƒ† ‘ ʹͷǦʹͺ ‡…‡„‡” ʹͲͳʹǤ Š‹•
‡š’‡”– ‡‡–‹‰ ™ƒ• Š‡Ž† ‹ …‘Œ—…–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‘ˆ‡”‡…‡ –Š‡‡ Dz Š‡
š…‡ŽŽ‡…‡ ‹ ‡ƒ…Š‡” †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘˜ƒ–‹‘dzǤ ‡ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ
†—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰ ‡š’‡”–• ˆ”‘ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒǡ ƒ„‘†‹ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǡ ƒ‘ ǡ
ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ ›ƒƒ”ǡ ‹‰ƒ’‘”‡ǡ Šƒ‹Žƒ†ǡ ‹‡–ƒ ƒ† ‡’ƒŽ ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‡† ‹ –Š‡ ‡‡–‹‰
ˆ‘…—•‹‰ ‘ •Šƒ”‹‰ –Š‡ …—””‡– •–ƒ–—• ƒ† ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ƒ‰‡†ƒ ‘ˆ –‡ƒ…Š‡”

‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ƒ† •‹ƒ ƒ…‹ˆ‹… ”‡‰‹‘Ǥ

Š‹•
‘—”ƒŽ ‹• ‘™ ƒŽ•‘ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ‘Ž‹‡ …ƒ „‡ ƒ……‡••‡† ˜‹ƒ
Š––’ǣȀȀ‘Œ•Ǥ˜‘…–‡…ŠǤ‘”‰Ǥ Š”‘—‰Š ‘Ž‹‡ Œ‘—”ƒŽǡ ‹– ™‹ŽŽ ”‡ƒ…Š ™‹†‡” ƒ—†‹‡…‡• ƒ† Š‘’‡ˆ—ŽŽ›ǡ ™‹ŽŽ

Šƒ˜‡ ‘”‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ– ‹’ƒ…– ‘ ’‘Ž‹…‹‡• ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•Ǥ

‘ ƒŽŽ ‘—” …‘–”‹„—–‘”• ‘ˆ –Š‹•
‘—”ƒŽ ‡…‡„‡” ʹͲͳʹ ••—‡ǥ —” •‹…‡”‡•–

–Šƒ• ƒ† ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ• ›‘— •Šƒ”‡† ›‘—” ‡š’‡”–‹•‡ǡ ™‹•†‘ǡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ– ˆ‹†‹‰• ƒ† •–—†‹‡•
‹ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ƒ† …—””‡– ’‘Ž‹…› ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•Ǥ ‘” –Šƒ–ǡ ™‡ Š‘’‡ –Šƒ– ‰”‡ƒ–‡” ƒ™ƒ”‡‡••
ƒ† ‹–‡”‡•– ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‹†—…‡† ˆ”‘ –ƒ”‰‡–‡† ”‡ƒ†‡”• ƒ† ‘–Š‡” •–ƒ‡Š‘Ž†‡”•Ǥ

™‘—Ž† ƒŽ•‘ Ž‹‡ –‘ –ƒ‡ –Š‹• ‘’’‘”–—‹–› –‘ ™‡Ž…‘‡ ‘—” ‡™ ‡˜‹‡™‡”ǡ ”Ǥ ƒ”‹•Šƒ– ‹‰Š
ƒŠƒ• ‘ˆ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ
ƒ—ǡ †‹ƒǤ ƒ•– „—– ‘– Ž‡ƒ•–ǡ › •‹…‡”‡ ‰”ƒ–‹–—†‡ –‘ ƒŽŽ –Š‡ †‹–‘”‹ƒŽ
‘ƒ”†ǡ ‡˜‹‡™‡”• ƒ† ƒ—•…”‹’– †‹–‘”Ǥ



Šƒ ›‘— ƒ† ƒ••ƒŽƒ

“Together We Excel”

Transforming TVET in the 21st Century

MR. ALIAS HAJI ABU BAKAR
‡–”‡ ‹”‡…–‘”

iii

Editorial

‡ƒ” ‡ƒ†‡”•

‘” –Š‹• ‡…‡„‡” ʹͲͳʹ ‡†‹–‹‘ǡ
‘—”ƒŽ ˆ‘…—•‡• ‘ –Š‡ –Š‡‡ ‘ˆ
ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ‘” ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
”ƒ‹‹‰ ȋ ȌǤ ‡Ž‡…–‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ •–—†‹‡• …‘†—…–‡† „› –Š‡ ‡„‡”• ‘ˆ –Š‡
ȋ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‡–™‘”Ȍ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š‡”• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘Ǧ
‡„‡”ǡ –Š‡ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‘ˆˆ‡” •’‡…‹ˆ‹… ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ •–ƒ–—• ‘ˆ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ– –Š‡ •…Š‘‘Ž
ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡• —•‹‰ –Š‡ ‘†‡Ž ’”‘’‘•‡† „›
ȋʹͲͲͷȌǤ  ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ –Š‡ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ƒŽ•‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹••—‡•ǡ…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• ƒ† …‘•–”ƒ‹–•ǡ ’‘Ž‹…‹‡• ƒ†
•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡•ǡ ƒ† ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‰‘‘† ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‘ˆ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
‡ ™‘—Ž† Ž‹‡ –‘ –Šƒ ‘—” ‡†‹–‘”‹ƒŽ „‘ƒ”† ”‘ˆǤ ‹…Šƒ”†
Ǥ ƒ‰ƒŽŽ ƒ† ”Ǥ Š‹Ž‹’ ‘˜‡†‡” ˆ‘”
–Š‡‹” …‘–‹—‘—• •—’’‘”–• ‹ ’—„Ž‹•Š‹‰ –Š‹• Œ‘—”ƒŽǤ ‡ ƒŽ•‘ Ž‹‡ –‘ ™‡Ž…‘‡ ƒ† –Šƒ ‘—”
‡™ ‡˜‹‡™‡”ǡ ”Ǥ ƒ”‹•Šƒ– ‹‰Š ƒŠƒ• ‘ˆ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ
ƒ—ǡ †‹ƒǤ

Š‡ ˆ‹”•– ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• „› ƒ”›‘‘ ƒ”›‘‘ ƒ† ‡Œƒ‹
Ǥ —‹–‘ ‘ Ǯ ‡–ƒǦƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ
–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒǯǤ Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” ™ƒ• „ƒ•‡† ‘
–Š‡ ˆ‹†‹‰• ˆ”‘ –Š‹”† ›‡ƒ” ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ’”‘Œ‡…–• …ƒ””‹‡† ‘—– „› ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š‡”• „› Ž‘‘‹‰
ƒ– •‹‹Žƒ”‹–‹‡•ǡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡•ǡ ƒ† „‡•– ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‘ˆ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•Ǥ ‡ƒŽ‹•‹‰
–Šƒ– –Š‡ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š †‡•‹‰• —•‡† ‹ –Š‡•‡ …‘—–”‹‡• ™‡”‡ ‘– ƒŽŽ ’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡Žǡ –Š‡ ˆ‹†‹‰• ™‡”‡
…‘’ƒ”‡† ˜‡”› …ƒ—–‹‘—•Ž›ǡ ƒ† ˆ‘…—•‡† ‘”‡ ‘ –Š‡ Ž‡••‘• Ž‡ƒ”‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „‡•– ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‹
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Š‡ •‡…‘† ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ „› ˜ƒ ƒƒˆ‹ ƒ† ‘‡Šƒ”–‘ –‹–Ž‡† Ǯ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ •–‹–—–‹‘• ‹
†‘‡•‹ƒǯǤ Š‹• •–—†› ™ƒ• ‹–‡†‡† –‘ ˆ‹† ‘—– ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–
‡…‘†ƒ”› ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ …Š‘‘Ž• ȋ ȌǤ ‘‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ˆƒ…‡† „› •‘‡ •…Š‘‘Ž•
™‡”‡ –Š‡ ‹•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡– ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ •—’’‘”– –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡• ƒ† –Š‡ ‡š–‡•‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹–‡”‡–
ƒ……‡••ǡ •‘‡ –‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ‹ŽŽ‹–‡”ƒ–‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡”•ǡ Ž‘™ ‹…‡–‹˜‡• ˆ‘” –‡ƒ…Š‡”• –‘ –ƒ‡ –”ƒ‹‹‰ǡ Ž‘™
ˆ”‡“—‡…› ‘ˆ ”‡‰—Žƒ” –—” ‘ˆˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹–›ǡ ƒ† —ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ …‘’—–‡”• —•‡† „› •–—†‡– ‹
Ž‡ƒ”‹‰Ǥ

Š‡ –Š‹”† ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• –‹–Ž‡† Ǯ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‡Ž‡…–‡† …Š‘‘Ž• —†‡” ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ƒ‘ ǯ ™”‹––‡ „› ‘—Ž‹Šƒ‘‡ ‹•‘—Žƒ–Š ƒ† ƒƒŽ‡ ‡—ƒ‰Ǥ Š‡ •–—†› ƒ‹‡† –‘ ˆ‹†
‘—– –Š‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‘ˆ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹–‘ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ’”‘…‡••‡• ‘ˆ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘• —†‡”
–Š‡ ‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ Ž‘…ƒ–‡† ƒ– †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ”‡ƒ•ǡ
—”„ƒǡ •—„Ǧ—”„ƒ ƒ† ”—”ƒŽ ƒ”‡ ‹ ƒ‘ Ǥ Š‡ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ™ ‹–‡†• –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ ‘™ǦŠ‘™
ƒŽ”‡ƒ†› ƒ– –Š‡ •‡…‘†ƒ”› ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ Š‡ ˜‡”› ƒŒ‘” …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡ ‹ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰ ‹
‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ™ƒ• Žƒ… ‘ˆ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡• ƒ† ˆ—†ǡ ƒ† ƒ™ƒ”‡‡•• ‘ ƒ‘‰ –‡ƒ…Š‡”•ǡ ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ• ƒ†
•–ƒˆˆǤ

Š‡ ˆ‘”–Š ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• –‹–Ž‡† Ǯ ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰
ȋ Ȍ •–‹–—–‹‘• ‹ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǯǡ „› —Šƒƒ† —”‹ ƒ—†ǡ —Šƒƒ† ƒ•Š‹† ƒŒ—††‹ǡ
ƒ”‹ƒŠ •ƒ‹Žǡ ‘Š† ƒˆƒ”‹ ‘”†‹ǡ •—Ž ƒŠƒ” ‹‰Šƒ–ǡ ƒƒŽ—Žƒ”‹ˆ‹ —„ƒ”‹ǡ ‘” ƒ†‹Žƒ
‘Š† ‹ǡ ‘Š† ‘Ž‹ˆŽ‹ „†—Ž ƒ‹†ǡ ƒ† ƒŠ›—††‹ ”•ƒ–Ǥ Š‡ ’ƒ’‡” •–—†‹‡• –Š‡
ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍ ƒ† ‡š’Ž‘”‡† –Š‡ „ƒ””‹‡”•
’”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ†‘’–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ •—„Œ‡…–• ‹
–‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ •…Š‘‘Ž• ‹ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǤ

Š‡ ˆ‹ˆ–Š ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• „› ‹Žƒ‰”‘• ƒ’‘• ƒŽŽ‡• ƒ† ‘‹‡ ”—œǦ —ƒ”‹‘ ‘ Ǯ —”˜‡› ‘ –Š‡
ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ —„Ž‹… ‡…‘†ƒ”› ‡…ŠǦ
‘… ‹‰Š …Š‘‘Ž• ‹ –Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡• ȋʹͲͳͲȌǯǤ Š‡ •–—†› ƒ‹‡† –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ •–”‡‰–Š• ƒ†

iv

…ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’—„Ž‹… •‡…‘†ƒ”› –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ •…Š‘‘Ž• ‹ –Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡• ‹
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰ ‹ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• –Š‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† ƒ†‡“—ƒ…› ‘ˆ ‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ǡ
…ƒ’ƒ…‹–› „—‹Ž†‹‰ǡ ƒ† —–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ –‘ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ ƒ† ‡Šƒ…‡ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ǡ …‘’‡–‡…‹‡• ‘ˆ
–‡ƒ…Š‡”•ǡ ƒ† „‡•– ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ƒ† •–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡• ‡’Ž‘›‡† –‘ ‘˜‡”…‘‡ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• ˆƒ…‡† †—”‹‰ –Š‡
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Š‡ •‹š–Š ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• –‹–Ž‡† Ǯ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍ ‹–‘
‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ Šƒ‹Žƒ†ǯǡ „› ‘…Šƒƒ
ƒ–”ƒ‘‘Ž ”‹„‘‘ƒǤ Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” ’”‡•‡–• ƒ
‘˜‡”˜‹‡™ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’‘Ž‹…‹‡• ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‘ˆ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† …‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘
–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍ ‹–‘ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ Šƒ‹Žƒ† ‹…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ ‰‘‘† ‹‹–‹ƒ–‹˜‡• ‘ˆ
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰ ‹ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡† „› –Š‡ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘• ƒ† „—”‡ƒ—• —†‡” –Š‡ ˆˆ‹…‡ ‘ˆ
–Š‡ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‘‹••‹‘ ȋ Ȍǡ ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ Šƒ‹Žƒ†Ǥ

Š‡ •‡˜‡–Š ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• „› Šƒ† ‘Šƒ†Œ‹ Ǥ ƒ•ƒ ‘ Ǯ Ǧ„ƒ•‡† Žƒ••”‘‘ ƒƒ‰‡‡– ˆ‘”
‡ƒ…Š‡” ”ƒ‹‹‰ ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǯǤ Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” †‹•…—••‡• –Šƒ– …Žƒ••”‘‘ ƒƒ‰‡‡– ‹•
ƒ ‹’‘”–ƒ– …‘’‘‡– ˆ‘” ‰‡––‹‰ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ƒ† Š‹‰Š •–—†‡– ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡‡– ‹
˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Ǧ„ƒ•‡† …Žƒ••”‘‘ ƒƒ‰‡‡– ‹• ”‡‰ƒ”†‡† ƒ• –Š‡ ‘•– ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ‘†‡Ž
ƒ† ”‡…‘‡†‡† –‡ƒ…Š‡”• ‹ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ —•‡ DzŠ›„”‹† –‡…Š‹“—‡•dz ƒ• ‡ƒ…Š –‡…Š‹“—‡
Šƒ• ‹–• ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•Ǥ

Š‡ ‡‹‰Š–Š ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• –‹–Ž‡† Ǯ ‡ƒ•‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •‹‰ Ǧ ‡ƒ”‹‰ ‹ ƒ’ƒ…‹–› —‹Ž†‹‰ ‘ˆ ”ƒ‹‡”•
ƒ† ‡Ž‹˜‡”› ‘ˆ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰ ȋ Ȍ ‘—”•‡• ‹ ”‹ ƒƒǯǡ „›

ƒƒƒ
ƒ›ƒŽƒ–ŠǤ Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” ˆ‘…—•‡† ‘ …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› „—‹Ž†‹‰ ‘ˆ ‹•–”—…–‹‰ •–ƒˆˆ ‹ •‡…–‘” ‹• ƒ
’”‡˜ƒ‹Ž‹‰ †‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž–›ǡ ƒ† ƒƒŽ›•‹‰ ™Š‡–Š‡” ‡ǦŽ‡ƒ”‹‰ ‹• ƒ „‡––‡” ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡ –‘ †‡Ž‹˜‡” –”ƒ‹‡”
–”ƒ‹‹‰ ’”‘‰”ƒ• ˆ‘” –”ƒ‹‡”• ‹ –Š‡ •‡…–‘” ‹ ”‹ ƒƒǤ

‡ Š‘’‡ –Šƒ– –Š‹• ‡†‹–‹‘ ‘ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ™‹ŽŽ ‘ˆˆ‡” ƒ …Ž‡ƒ” ’‹…–—”‡ –‘ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ†‡”• ‘ˆ
–Š‡ •–ƒ–—• ‘ˆ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‹ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡•Ǥ Œ‘› ”‡ƒ†‹‰Ǩ

Editor




v

Content

About SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal Meta-analysis of ICT Integration in ii
Vocational and Technical Education in iii
Director’s Message Southeast Asia iv
1
Editorial

Paryono Paryono and Benjamin Guevarra
Quito

Ivan Hƒƒϐi and Soeharto ICT Integration in VTET Institutions in 25
Indonesia 38
54
Soulikhamkone Sisoulath and ICT Integration in Selected TVET Schools
Vannalek Leuang under Ministry of Education, Lao PDR

Muhammad Sukri Saud, Muhammad ICT Application in Vocational and Technical
Rashid Rajuddin, Marimah Ismail, Mohd Education and Training (VTET) Institutions

Safarin Nordin, Asnul Dahar Minghat, in Malaysia
Kamalular‹ϐin Subari, Nor Fadila Mohd
Amin, Mohd ZolkiϐŽ‹ Abdul Hamid, and
Mahyuddin Arsat

Milagros Campos Valles and Connie Cruz- Survey on the Information and 61
Aunario Communication Technology (ICT) Integration

in the Public Secondary Tech-Voc High Schools
in the Philippines (2010)

Rochana Jantrakool (Sriboonma) Integration of Information and 74
Ahmad Sonhadji K. Hasan Communication Technology (ICT) into 86
Vocational Education in Thailand

ICT-based Classroom Management for
Teacher Training in Vocational Education

Janaka Jayalath Feasibility of Using E-Learning in Capacity 100
Building of ICT Trainers and Delivery of
About the Authors Technical Vocational Education and
Guidelines for Contributors Training (TVET) Courses in Sri Lanka

113
114

vii

SEAMEO VOCTECH JournalVol.11 No.1 2012

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal

METAǦANALYSIS OF ICT INTEGRATION IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA


Paryono Paryono1
Benjamin Guevarra Quito
‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ‡–”‡
”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒ



Abstract
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was in the top list of the most important
trends and issues identified by SEAMEO VOCTECH in current years. Considering the
importance of ICT in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), the Southeast
Asian Vocational Education Research Network, or commonly known as SEAVERN agreed to
focus the third year research agenda, 2009/2010, on this area. This is also in line with
SEAMEO Secretariat’s agenda on mapping the status of ICT integration in education in the
member countries that was completed in 2009. This paper was based on the findings from
these third year research projects carried out by SEAVERN researchers by looking at
similarities, differences, and best practices of ICT Integration in TVET institutions. Realizing
that the research designs used in these countries were not all parallel, the findings was
compared very cautiously and it was focused more on the lessons learned from the best
practices in ICT integration. This paper also offers some recommendations for TVET
institutions to enhance ICT integration in their teaching and learning processes.

Keywords: ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍǡ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ
‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ „‡•– ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•ǡ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒǤ




̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴

ͳ ‡ ‹• •‡…‘†‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ –ƒ–‡ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‰ ȋ ‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ• ‡‰‡”‹ ƒŽƒ‰Ȍ

ICT INTEGRATION INTO VTET INSTITUTIONS IN INDONESIA


Ivan Hanafiͳ
‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ• ‡‰‡”‹
ƒƒ”–ƒ

ƒƒ”–ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ


Soehartoʹ
‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ• ‡‰‡”‹ ‘‰›ƒƒ”–ƒ
‘‰›ƒƒ”–ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ




Abstract
Currently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is mainly needed
especially in technical and vocational education. This study was intended to find
information on the integration of ICT at Secondary Technical and Vocational Schools
(SMK). This was a survey study and the data were collected from three school elements,
namely, administrators, teachers, and students. The data were also collected from relevant
literatures and by interviewing the students and the teachers at some schools in Jakarta.
The findings of the study indicate that integration of ICT in SMKs was based on the policy
of government stated in Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and the Regulation of
Ministry of National Education No. 23 of 2006. When this study was conducted, there were
3538 SMKs in Indonesia and 392 of them were located in DKI Jakarta. Most of SMKs in DKI
Jakarta have conducted ICTǦbased learning, 227 schools (57.9%) have conducted the ICT
based learning wholly, 159 schools (40.6%) conducted it through collaboration with other
parties, and the rest 6 schools (1.5%) have not yet conducted at all. The average ratio of
the number of computers in school for the students to practice was 1:20. Implementations
of ICT based learning were the use of computer to deliver the materials in the classrooms
by teachers, the teaching of computer skill and data processing, the access of information
from onǦline internet, and the evaluation of learning. Some constraints faced by some
schools were the insufficient financial support to develop ICT facilities and the extension of
internet access, some technology illiterate teachers, low incentives for teachers to take ICT
training, low frequency of regular turn off electricity, and unavailability of computers used
by student in learning.

Keywordsǣ –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›ǡ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ†
‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘



1 SEAVERN Coordinator, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
2 SEAVERN Coordinator, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

ICT INTEGRATION IN SELECTED TVET SCHOOLS UNDER

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, LAO PDR





Soulikhamkone Sisoulath
Vannalek Leuang

ƒ‘ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘”•
‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ’‘”–•ǡ ƒ‘


Abstract

This study aimed to find out the level of ICT integration into teaching and learning
processes of TVET institutions under the auspices of the Department of Technical and
Vocational Education located at different geographical areas, urban, subǦurban and rural
area in Lao PDR. The design was descriptive quantitative and qualitative using survey and
document analysis. The population size is composed of 9 administrators, 41 teachers and
staff, 103 students from the first to third year representing every training section of the
schools. It was found that ICT has been integrated in TVET schools but still at the
beginning stage based on the UNESCO Model. Several strategic papers and reports
mentioned about the important of ICT. The Education Law intends to include IT knowǦ
how already at the secondary education level. The TVET Master Plan highly promotes the
use of ICT through offering IT training programs as well as integrating ICT as a core
curriculum at all levels. In practice, however, ICT tools and facilities were very limited in
terms of quantity and quality. Overhead projectors, LCD, digital cameras and tape players
were available, but white board and printed materials were still widely used facilities to
support teaching and learning. Internet was not yet accessible to administrators, teachers
and students thus online learning was not yet possible. Some strategies have been
discussed to improve access to ICT facilities i.e. encouraging private investment and
promoting learners to use ICT in learning. The very major challenge in integrating ICT in
education was lack of facilities and fund, and awareness on ICT among teachers,
principals and staff.

Keywords: ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† …‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ –‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ Ȍǡ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰
ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ǡ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ‘ Ǥ

ICT APPLICATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND

TRAINING (VTET) INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA


Muhammad Sukri Saud
Muhammad Rashid Rajuddin

Sarimah Ismail
Mohd Safarin Nordin
Asnul Dahar Minghat
Kamalularifin Subari
Nor Fadila Mohd Amin
Mohd Zolkifli Abdul Hamid

Mahyuddin Arsat
ƒ…—Ž–› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘
‹˜‡”•‹–‹ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒ


Abstract
The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the application of Information of
Communication Technology (ICT) in classroom in vocational and technical education and
training institution in Malaysia. The primary objective of this study was to study the
application of ICT in vocational and technical schools in Malaysia. This study also explored
the barriers preventing the application and adoption of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning technical subjects in technical and vocational

schools and in Malaysia. This study involved all instructors in technical and vocational
schools in Malaysia. A survey was conducted to gather the data. The findings of the study
showed that application of ICT was widely used in teaching and learning technical
subjects at vocational and technical education and training institution in Malaysia. Two
major barriers were identified: lack of time for preparing the teaching materials and lack
of knowledge and skills for producing advanced ICT teaching materials.

Keywords: ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰ •–‹–—–‹‘ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘

ƒ† ‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› ȋ ȌǤ

SURVEY ON THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
INTEGRATION IN THE PUBLIC SECONDARY TECHǦVOC HIGH SCHOOLS
IN THE PHILIPPINES (2010)




Milagros Campos Valles
Connie CruzǦAunario

Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡• ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š‡”•



Abstract
The study aimed to determine the strengths and capabilities of the public secondary TechǦ
voc schools in the Philippines with regard to ICT integration in education. Specifically, it

attempted to determine the ICT skills of the techvoc teachers, how ICT is utilized and
resourced, and how it is integrated into the teaching and learning environment. Other

factors were also generated which include benefits and impact of ICT in the students’

learnings. The respondents comprised 688 teachers and 36 administrators from the
twentyǦeight (28) Techvoc public secondary schools randomly selected from the 16 regions

of the country. The data were analyzed/interpreted by frequency and percentage

distribution and mean response, using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

Keywords: •–”‡‰–Š• ƒ† …ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–‹‡•ǡ ’—„Ž‹… •‡…‘†ƒ”› ‡…Šǡ ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹
‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

INTEGRATION OF OINFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

TECHNOLOGY (ICT) INTO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THAILAND

Rochana Jantrakool (Sriboonma)
ˆˆ‹…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‘‹••‹‘

‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘
Šƒ‹Žƒ†


Abstract
This research paper presents an overview of the policies and practices of integration of

information and communication technology (ICT) into vocational education in Thailand

including the good initiatives of ICT integrating in vocational education provided by the

institutions and bureaus under the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC),
Ministry of Education. The target populations were administrators and teachers in

vocational and technical institutions. A simple random sampling technique was used to
identify the vocational and technical institutions. The sample respondents were the 107

administrators and 178 teachers. The mailed questionnaires; adapted from SEAMEO
VOCTECH’ s questionnaires, were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were run for

looking at frequency and percentage. The component of factors was found by using factor

analysis.


The result of the study was found that the main factor component of the teachers’ ICT

integration in vocational education at the school level comprised of three components as
the following; 1) factors of ICT benefits, opinion on the ICT statements, and people as ICT

supporter called as capacity; 2) factors of and impact of ICT implementation, teachers’
skills, teaching method, and facilities using called as competency; and 3) ICT challenges,
school support, and devices called as constraints.


In the mean time, the factor component of the administrators’ ICT integration in

vocational education was comprised of two components as the following; 1) factors of
people’s attitude toward ICT, impact of ICT implementation, and impact of improving the

teaching and learning environment called as competency; and 2) factors of ICT facilities,
frequency of software using, and ICT challenges and constraints called as capacity and

constraint.


Keywords: –‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ǡ ‹–‹ƒ–‹˜‡•ǡ …‘’‡–‡…›ǡ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• ƒ†

…‘•–”ƒ‹–•Ǥ

ICTǦBASED CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR TEACHER TRAINING
IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Ahmad Sonhadji K. Hasan

–ƒ–‡ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‰ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ


Abstract
Classroom management is an important component for getting effective learning and high
student achievement. Particularly in vocational education, it is necessary to find an
appropriate model of classroom management. The ICTǦbased classroom management is
regarded as the most effective model. The study used classroom action research method
with qualitative approach. The findings have shown that various ICT media and channels
can enhance effectiveness of students to receive course outline and course materials, to
mastery the content of lecture, to enjoyably participate in group discussions, and to do

well their assignment and examination. In applying the ICTǦbased classroom management,
it is recommended that the teacher in vocational education use “hybrid techniques”,
because each technique has advantages and disadvantages.

Keywordsǣ ǡ …Žƒ••”‘‘ ƒƒ‰‡‡–ǡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” –”ƒ‹‹‰ǡ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

FEASIBILITY OF USING EǦLEARNING IN CAPACITY BUILDING OF ICT
TRAINERS AND DELIVERY OF TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

AND TRAINING (TVET) COURSES IN SRI LANKA




Janaka Jayalath
‹”‡…–‘”ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ›•–‡•
‡”–‹ƒ”› ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‘‹••‹‘
Dz ‹’—ƒ–Šƒ ‹›ƒ•ƒdz ‘Ž‘„‘ ͷǡ ”‹ ƒƒ



Abstract

Capacity building of instructors in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

sector in Sri Lanka is a prevailing difficulty. Trainer competencies on technology are to be
continuously upgraded to match with the industry developments. Geographical

distribution of the trainers throughout the country adds more complications for fulfilling

this need of onǦgoing, real time training of the trainers. Therefore, this research was

focused on analysing whether eǦlearning is a better alternative to deliver trainer training

programmes for ICT trainers in the TVET sector. Further the feasibility of converting some

selected training courses in to eǦlearning based material is evaluated. Available literature
was reviewed to identify whether any previous research was done and to ascertain the

major requirements of conducting trainer training programmes and delivering such

programmes in eǦlearning environment. Based on the identified requirements, a
questionnaire survey was developed and administered to main stakeholders namely

trainees, trainers and TVET administrators. The sample was selected using simple random
sampling method. From the survey, several favourable indications were revealed in the

areas of English language ability, effectiveness of training delivery and trainers with good

educational background which are plus points for implementation of eǦlearning. The need
for trainer training is specially elaborated in the areas of eǦlearning strategy, technology

and the technical support on learning management systems. The need for awareness in eǦ

learning is identified in many instances of the research outcome. When considering the
outcomes from all three categories, there is a very high potential to change the traditional

course delivery methodology to eǦlearning. Several recommendations were made in the

broad areas of infrastructure, training and institutional requirements were made for the
development and implementation of eǦlearning in TVET sector in Sri Lanka. Infrastructure

development was a key recommendation with setting up of centralized server facility

including internet connection to every ICT training center. It has further been
recommended trainer capacity building and thereby converting traditional training

course modules to eǦlearning based material.


Keywords: ‡ǦŽ‡ƒ”‹‰ǡ …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› „—‹Ž†‹‰ǡ –”ƒ‹‡”•ǡ –‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘

ƒ† –”ƒ‹‹‰Ǥ

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal Vol.11 No.1 2012


About the Authors



Paryono Paryono, Ph.DǤ Ȃ …—””‡–Ž› –Š‡ ‡’—–› ‹”‡…–‘” ˆ‘” ”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽ ˆˆƒ‹”•ǡ ƒ† ‡•‡ƒ”…Š
ƒƒ‰‡” …— ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•– ‘ˆ ‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ‡–”‡ǡ ”—‡‹Ǥ ‡ ‹• •‡…‘†‡†
ˆ”‘ –Š‡ –ƒ–‡ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‰ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ ’ƒ”›‘‘̷˜‘…–‡…ŠǤ‘”‰

Benjamin Guevarra Quito, Ph.DǤ Ȃ ˆ‘”‡” ƒƒ‰‡” …— ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•–Ǥ
—””‡–Ž›ǡ Š‡ ‹• ƒ ’”‘ˆ‡••‘” ƒ– –Š‡ ‡™ ”ƒ ‹˜‡”•‹–›ǡ –Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡•Ǥ ƒ‹Žǣ
„‡Œƒ‹“—‹–‘̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘

Ivan Hanafi, Ph.D. Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” †‘‡•‹ƒ ƒ† ƒ Ž‡…–—”‡” ƒ– ‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ•
‡‰‡”‹
ƒƒ”–ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ ‹˜ƒǤŠƒƒˆ‹̷‰ƒ‹ŽǤ…‘

Soeharto, Ph.D. Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” †‘‡•‹ƒ ƒ† ƒ Ž‡…–—”‡” ‘ˆ ‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ•
‡‰‡”‹ ‘‰›ƒƒ”–ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ •‘‡Šƒ”–‘̷—›Ǥƒ…Ǥ‹† Ǣ Šƒ”–̴Šƒ”–‘̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘Ǥ‹†

Mr. Soulikhamkone Sisoulath Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” ƒ‘ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹”‡…–‘”
‘ˆ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‡–”‡ǡ ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ’‘”–•ǡ ƒ‘ Ǥ ƒ‹Žǣ
•‘—Ž‹Šƒ‘‡̷Š‘–ƒ‹ŽǤ…‘ Ǣ ˜‡†…̷Š‘–ƒ‹ŽǤ…‘

Mr. Vannalek Leuang Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” ƒ‘ Ǥ —””‡–Ž›ǡ Š‡ ‹• –Š‡
‡’—–› ‹”‡…–‘”
‡‡”ƒŽ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ’‘”–•ǡ
ƒ‘ Ǥ ƒ‹Žǣ ˜Ž‡—ƒ‰̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘

Muhammad Sukri Saud, Ph.D., ƒ† Muhammad Rashid Rajuddin Ph.D. Ȃǡ
‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ ƒ† „‘–Š ƒ—–Š‘”• ƒ”‡ ‡‹‘” ‡…–—”‡”• ƒ† ”‘ˆ‡••‘” ƒ–
‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‰‹‡‡”‹‰ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ…—Ž–› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹˜‡”•‹–‹ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹
ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒ ƒ‹Žǣ ’̴•—”‹̷—–Ǥ› Ǣ ’Ǧ”ƒ•Š‹†̷—–Ǥ›

Ms. Sarimah Ismail Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ ƒ† Mr. Mohd Safarin
Nordin, Mr. Asnul Dahar Minghat, Mr. Kamalularifin Subari, Ms. Nor Fadila Mohd Amin,
Mr. Mohd Zolkifli Abdul Hamidǡ ƒ† Mr. Mahyuddin Arsatǡ ƒ”‡ ƒŽŽ Ž‡…–—”‡”• ƒ– ‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ
‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‰‹‡‡”‹‰ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ…—Ž–› ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹˜‡”•‹–‹ ‡‘Ž‘‰‹ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǡ
ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ •ƒ”‹ƒŠͳ͵ͷ͵̷‰ƒ‹ŽǤ…‘ Ǣ ‘Š†œ‘Ž̷—–Ǥ› Ǣ ’Ǧˆƒ†‹Žƒ̷—–Ǥ›

Milagros Campos Valles, Ph.D., Ȃ ƒ† Professor Connie CruzǦAunario „‘–Š ƒ—–Š‘”• ƒ”‡
‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘”• ˆ‘” –Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡•Ǥ ”Ǥ ƒŽŽ‡• ‹• –Š‡ ‹”‡…–‘” ‘ˆ ‡…Š ‘… ‹–
—†‡” –Š‡ ‡’–Ǥ ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡• ƒ† ”‘ˆǤ ”—œ ‹• ƒ Ž‡…–—”‡” ƒ– ‘ŽŽ‡‰‡ ‘ˆ †—•–”‹ƒŽ
‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›ǡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡•Ǥ ƒ‹Žǣ ‹Žƒ‰”‘•˜ƒŽŽ‡•̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘ Ǣ …‘‹‡…”—œƒ—ƒ”‹‘̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘

Rochana Jantrakool (Sriboonma), Ph.D., Ȃ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” Šƒ‹Žƒ† ƒ†
–Š‡ ‡ƒ† ‘ˆ ‘Ž‹…› ƒ† –”ƒ–‡‰› ‡’ƒ”–‡–ǡ ˆˆ‹…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ‘‹••‹‘ǡ ‹‹•–”› ‘ˆ
†—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ Šƒ‹Žƒ†Ǥ ƒ‹Žǣ ”‘…Šƒ•”‹̷‡‹•…Ǥ‘‡Ǥ‰‘Ǥ–Š

H Ahmad Sonhadji K. Hasan, Ph.DǤǡ Ȃ ƒ ’”‘ˆ‡••‘” ƒ– –Š‡ –ƒ–‡ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‰ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǡ
†‘‡•‹ƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ ƒ•‘Šƒ†Œ‹Š̷›ƒŠ‘‘Ǥ…‘

Mr. Janaka Jayalath Ȃ –Š‡ ‹”‡…–‘” ‘ˆ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ›•–‡•ǡ ‡”–‹ƒ”› ƒ† ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘
‘‹••‹‘ǡ ”‹ ƒƒǤ ƒ‹Žǣ Œƒ›ƒŽƒ–Š̷–˜‡…Ǥ‰‘˜ǤŽ


113

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal Vol.11 No.1 2012



Guidelines for Contributors

ŽŽ ’”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽ •–ƒˆˆǡ ƒ…ƒ†‡‹…‹ƒ•ǡ –”ƒ‹‡”•ǡ ‘ˆˆ‹…‡”• ‹ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
”ƒ‹‹‰ „‘–Š ™‹–Š‹ ƒ† ‘—–•‹†‡ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ”‡‰‹‘ ƒ”‡ ‹˜‹–‡† –‘ …‘–”‹„—–‡ –‘

‘—”ƒŽ ‘ ‘…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ‹‹‰ „› ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡
‰—‹†‡Ž‹‡• „‡Ž‘™ǣ

1. Address for Submission
‘–”‹„—–‘”• ƒ”‡ ‹˜‹–‡† –‘ •—„‹– –Š‡‹” ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ˜‹ƒ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… ƒ‹Ž ‘” „› ’‘•– –‘ –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰
ƒ††”‡••ǣ
SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal


ƒŽƒ ƒ•ƒ” ƒŠƒ”—ǡ
ƒ†‘‰
ƒ†ƒ” ‡”‹ ‡‰ƒ™ƒ ͳ͵ͳͺ
‡‰ƒ”ƒ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒ
‡Žǣ Ϊ͸͹͵ǦʹͶͶ͹ͻͻʹ
ƒšǣ Ϊ͸͹͵ǦʹͶͶ͹ͻͷͷ
Ǧƒ‹Žǣ ‹ˆ‘̷˜‘…–‡…ŠǤ‘”‰

2. Copyright
ŽŽ …‘–”‹„—–‹‘• —•– „‡ ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ ƒ† ‘– ’—„Ž‹•Š‡† ‡Ž•‡™Š‡”‡Ǥ ‘–”‹„—–‘”• —•– ƒŽ•‘ ‡•—”‡
–Šƒ– –Š‡ ™‘” ‹• ‘– ƒ ‹ˆ”‹‰‡‡– ‘ˆ ƒ› ‡š‹•–‹‰ …‘’›”‹‰Š– ƒ† ™‹ŽŽ ‹†‡‹ˆ›
ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ƒ› „”‡ƒ…Š ‘ˆ …‘’›”‹‰Š– Žƒ™•Ǥ ‘ ‡•—”‡ ’”‘’‡” ’‘Ž‹…‹‰ ‘ˆ —•‡
Š‘Ž†• –Š‡ …‘’›”‹‰Š– ‘ˆ ƒ› ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ’—„Ž‹•Š‡† ‹ –Š‡ Œ‘—”ƒŽ —Ž‡•• ‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ ƒ‰”‡‡†Ǥ

3. Article Format Required
ƒȌ Word Length Ȃ ”–‹…Ž‡• •Š‘—Ž† „‡ „‡–™‡‡ ʹǡͲͲͲǦͶǡͲͲͲ ™‘”†• ‹ –‘–ƒŽǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰
ƒ’’‡†‹…‡•ǡ „‹„Ž‹‘‰”ƒ’Š‹‡• ‡–…Ǥ
„Ȍ Theory and Technical Terms Ȃ ‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡‘”› ƒ† ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š •Š‘—Ž† „‡ •Š‘”–ǡ ƒ›
–‡…Š‹…ƒŽ –‡”• —•‡† —•– „‡ ‡š’Žƒ‹‡† –‘ ‡ƒ„Ž‡ ”‡ƒ†‡”• ™‹–Š‘—– —…Š ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‹–› ‹ –Š‡ –‘’‹…
…Š‘•‡ –‘ …‘’”‡Š‡† ™Šƒ– Šƒ• „‡‡ ‡š’Žƒ‹‡†Ǥ
…Ȍ Word Processing Ȃ ”–‹…Ž‡• •Š‘—Ž† „‡ –›’‡† ‹ ‘”†ǡ †‘—„Ž‡Ǧ•’ƒ…‡† –Š”‘—‰Š‘—– ƒ†
ƒ—•…”‹’–• •Š‘—Ž† ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™ –Š‡ ‰—‹†‡Ž‹‡ ‘ˆ ‡”‹…ƒ •›…Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
†Ȍ Author’s Biodata Ȃ ”–‹…Ž‡• —•– „‡ ƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡† „› –Š‡ ƒ—–Š‘”ǯ• „‹‘†ƒ–ƒ ‘ˆ ƒ„‘—– ͷͲ
™‘”†•Ǥ —–Š‘”ǯ• ƒ††”‡••‡† ƒ† …‘–ƒ…– —„‡”• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‡Ǧƒ‹Ž ƒ††”‡••ǡ —•– ƒŽ•‘ „‡
’”‘˜‹†‡†Ǥ › …Šƒ‰‡• –‘ –Š‹•ǡ ’Ž‡ƒ•‡ ‹ˆ‘” Ǥ
‡Ȍ Title Ȃ ”–‹…Ž‡• —•– „‡ ƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡† „› ƒ –‹–Ž‡Ǥ
ˆȌ Abstract and Keywords Ȃ ”–‹…Ž‡• —•– „‡ ƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡† „› ƒ ƒ„•–”ƒ…–ǡ ‹ ƒ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ •Š‡‡–
‘ˆ ’ƒ’‡”ǡ •—ƒ”‹•‹‰ –Š‡ …‘–‡–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹ ‘– ‘”‡ –Šƒ ʹͲͲ ™‘”†•Ǥ ‡›™‘”†• •Š‘—Ž†
„‡ ‹…Ž—†‡† ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ„•–”ƒ…–Ǥ
‰Ȍ References Ȃ › ”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡• ƒ†‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡ …‹–‡† ˆ—ŽŽ›ǡ ƒ• •Š‘™ „‡Ž‘™ǣ
i. Within a Text
ƒ‡ ƒ „”‹‡ˆ …‹–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‰‹˜‹‰ –Š‡ ’ƒ‰‡ —„‡”• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’ƒ••ƒ‰‡ –‘ ™Š‹…Š ”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡ ‹•
ƒ†‡ •—…Š ƒ• ȋ ƒ‹•„‹–– ͳͻͷͷǡ ͳ͸ǦͳͺȌ
ii. End of Article
ŽŽ ”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡• —•– „‡ –›’‡† ‹ ˆ—ŽŽ „‹„Ž‹‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ †‘—„Ž‡Ǧ•’ƒ…‡†ǡ ‘ ƒ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ ’ƒ‰‡ǡ
—†‡” –Š‡ Š‡ƒ†‹‰ Ǥ Š‡•‡ ”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡• —•– „‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡† ƒŽ’Šƒ„‡–‹…ƒŽŽ›ǡ
„› •—”ƒ‡• ƒ• •Š‘™ „‡Ž‘™ǣ


114

SEAMEO VOCTECH Journal Vol.11 No.1 2012


x For book
—ƒ”ǡ Ǥ ȋͳͻͻͻȌǤ ‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‡–Š‘†‘Ž‘‰›ǣ •–‡’Ǧ„›Ǧ•–‡’ ‰—‹†‡ ˆ‘” „‡‰‹‡”•Ǥ ƒ‰‡
—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

x For book chapter

”ƒ›ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Ƭ ƒ”›‘‘ǡ Ǥ ȋʹͲͲͶȌǤ …‘…‡’–—ƒŽ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ ™‘”ˆ‘”…‡ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– •›•–‡•Ǥ 
Ǥ ‘Œ‡™•‹ ȋ †ǤȌǡ ‘”ˆ‘”…‡ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ƒ† †—…ƒ–‹‘ǣ ‡™
˜‹‡™• ˆ‘” ‡™ …‡–—”›Ǥ
”‡‡™‹…Šǡ ǣ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‰‡ —„Ž‹•Š‹‰ǡ ͳ͹ǦͶʹǤ

x For journal article
‡›ƒŽǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ Ƭ ƒŠƒǡ Ǥ Ǥ ȋʹͲͲ͵ȌǤ ’”‡Ž‹‹ƒ”› ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ǧ ‘‡”…‡ ƒ†‘’–‹‘ ‹
•ƒŽŽ ƒ† ‡†‹— ‡–‡”’”‹•‡• ‹ ”—‡‹Ǥ Journal of Global Information Technology Managementǡ
6 ȋʹȌǡ ’’Ǥ͸Ǧʹ͸Ǥ

x For online article
–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ ȋ Ȍ ȋʹͲͲͶǡ ‘˜‡„‡”ȌǤ ƒ„‘—” ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡
‡‘‰ ‡‰‹‘Ǥ ƒ‰‘ǣ Ǥ ‡–”‹‡˜‡† ‘ ʹͶ …– ʹͲͳͲǡ ˆ”‘ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‹‘Ǥ•‡ƒ•‹ƒǤ‘”‰Ǥ

4. Review of Articles
ŽŽ •—„‹––‡† ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ”‡˜‹‡™‡† „› ƒ ‡˜‹‡™ ‘‹––‡‡ „‡ˆ‘”‡ ƒ……‡’–ƒ…‡Ǥ ’‘ ”‡“—‡•–
ˆ‘” ƒ‡†‡–•ǡ …‘–”‹„—–‘”• ƒ”‡ •–”‘‰Ž› ƒ†˜‹•‡ –‘ ‡‡’ –‘ –Š‡ †‡ƒ†Ž‹‡• ‰‹˜‡Ǥ

5. Honorarium
Š‡”‡ ™‘—Ž† „‡ ‘ Š‘‘”ƒ”‹— ’ƒ‹† –‘ …‘–”‹„—–‘”•Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒŽŽ …‘–”‹„—–‘”• ™‹ŽŽ ”‡…‡‹˜‡ ͵
…‘’‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‹–‡† Œ‘—”ƒŽǤ

6. Opinions Expressed
™‘—Ž† Ž‹‡ –‘ ‡’Šƒ•‹œ‡ –Šƒ– ƒŽŽ ‘’‹‹‘• ‡š’”‡••‡† ‹ –Š‡ ’—„Ž‹•Š‡† ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•
ƒ”‡ –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ—–Š‘”• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ƒ† †‘ ‘– ‡…‡••ƒ”‹Ž› ”‡ˆŽ‡…– –Š‡ ˜‹‡™• ‘ˆ
ǡ –Š‡ ‡’ƒ”–‡– ‘ˆ ‡…Š‹…ƒŽ †—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ ”—‡‹ ƒ”—••ƒŽƒ ‘” ‘ˆ ƒ›
‡„‡” ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‘ˆ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ‹‹•–‡”• ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ




115


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
השבוע בנתניה 2524
Next Book
השבת בנתניה 621