HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF
OF WAR, REVOLUTION, AND CIVIL UNREST
Edited by Jon Woronoff
1. Vietnam, by William J. Duiker. 1989. Out of print. See No. 27.
2. Bangladesh, 2nd ed., by Craig Baxter and Syedur Rahman. 1996. Out
of print. See No. 48.
3. Pakistan, by Shahid Javed Burki. 1991. Out of print. See No. 33.
4. Jordan, by Peter Gubser. 1991
5. Afghanistan, by Ludwig W. Adamec. 1991. Out of print. See No. 47.
6. Laos, by Martin Stuart-Fox and Mary Kooyman. 1992. Out of print.
See No. 35.
7. Singapore, by K. Mulliner and Lian The-Mulliner. 1991
8. Israel, by Bernard Reich. 1992
9. Indonesia, by Robert Cribb. 1992. Out of print. See No. 51.
10. Hong Kong and Macau, by Elfed Vaughan Roberts, Sum Ngai Ling,
and Peter Bradshaw. 1992
11. Korea, by Andrew C. Nahm. 1993
12. Taiwan, by John F. Copper. 1993. Out of print. See No. 34.
13. Malaysia, by Amarjit Kaur. 1993. Out of print. See No. 36.
14. Saudi Arabia, by J. E. Peterson. 1993. Out of print. See No. 45.
15. Myanmar, by Jan Becka. 1995
16. Iran, by John H. Lorentz. 1995
17. Yemen, by Robert D. Burrowes. 1995
18. Thailand, by May Kyi Win and Harold Smith. 1995
19. Mongolia, by Alan J. K. Sanders. 1996. Out of print. See No. 42.
20. India, by Surjit Mansingh. 1996
21. Gulf Arab States, by Malcolm C. Peck. 1996
22. Syria, by David Commins. 1996. Out of Print. See No. 50.
23. Palestine, by Nafez Y. Nazzal and Laila A. Nazzal. 1997
24. Philippines, by Artemio R. Guillermo and May Kyi Win. 1997
1. Australia, by James C. Docherty. 1992. Out of print. See No. 32.
2. Polynesia, by Robert D. Craig. 1993. Out of print. See No. 39.
3. Guam and Micronesia, by William Wuerch and Dirk Ballendorf.
4. Papua New Guinea, by Ann Turner. 1994. Out of print. See No. 37.
5. New Zealand, by Keith Jackson and Alan McRobie. 1996
New Combined Series
25. Brunei Darussalam, by D. S. Ranjit Singh and Jatswan S. Sidhu.
26. Sri Lanka, by S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe and Vidyamali Samaras-
27. Vietnam, 2nd ed., by William J. Duiker. 1998
28. People’s Republic of China: 1949–1997, by Lawrence R. Sullivan,
with the assistance of Nancy Hearst. 1998
29. Afghanistan, 2nd ed., by Ludwig W. Adamec. 1997. Out of print. See
30. Lebanon, by As’ad AbuKhalil. 1998
31. Azerbaijan, by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. 1999
32. Australia, 2nd ed., by James C. Docherty. 1999
33. Pakistan, 2nd ed., by Shahid Javed Burki. 1999
34. Taiwan (Republic of China), 2nd ed., by John F. Copper. 2000
35. Laos, 2nd ed., by Martin Stuart-Fox. 2001
36. Malaysia, 2nd ed., by Amarjit Kaur. 2001
37. Papua New Guinea, 2nd ed., by Ann Turner. 2001
38. Tajikistan, by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzedeh. 2002
39. Polynesia, 2nd ed., by Robert D. Craig. 2002
40. North Korea, by Ilpyong J. Kim. 2003
41. Armenia, by Rouben Paul Adalian. 2002
42. Mongolia, 2nd ed., by Alan J. K. Sanders. 2003
43. Cambodia, by Justin Corfield and Laura Summers. 2003
44. Iraq, by Edmund A. Ghareeb with the assistance of Beth Dougherty.
45. Saudi Arabia, 2nd ed., by J. E. Peterson. 2003
46. Nepal, by Nanda R. Shrestha and Keshav Bhattarai. 2003
47. Afghanistan, 3rd ed., by Ludwig W. Adamec. 2003
48. Bangladesh, 3rd ed., by Craig Baxter and Syedur Rahman. 2003
49. Kyrgyzstan, by Rafis Abazov. 2004
50. Syria, 2nd ed., by David Commins. 2004
51. Indonesia, 2nd ed., by Robert Cribb and Audrey Kahin. 2004
Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the
Middle East, No. 51
The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Lanham, Maryland • Toronto • Oxford
SCARECROW PRESS, INC.
Published in the United States of America
by Scarecrow Press, Inc.
A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.
4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200
Lanham, Maryland 20706
PO Box 317
OX2 9RU, UK
Copyright © 2004 by Robert Cribb and Audrey Kahin
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission
of the publisher.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cribb, R. B.
Historical dictionary of Indonesia / Robert Cribb, Audrey Kahin.— 2nd ed.
p. cm. — (Historical dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East ; 51)
ISBN 0-8108-4935-6 (alk. paper)
1. Indonesia—History—Dictionaries. I. Kahin, Audrey. II. Title. III. Series.
DS633 .C75 2004
∞ ™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of
American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper
for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America.
Editor’s Foreword vii
Reader’s Note xiii
Acronyms and Abbreviations xvii
THE DICTIONARY 1
Appendix A. Governors-General of the Netherlands Indies 463
Appendix B. Netherlands Ministers of the Colonies 467
Appendix C. Rulers of the Early States 473
Appendix D. Cabinets of the Republic of Indonesia 477
Appendix E. Republic of Indonesia Officeholders 479
Appendix F. Parliamentary Strengths and Electoral
Performance of the Parties, 1945–1999 499
About the Authors
When the first edition of this volume appeared just over a decade ago, it
would have seemed almost pointless to ask in which direction Indonesia
would turn. Everything seemed perfectly clear. It had a political regime that
was, if anything, too stable and an economy that was moving smartly ahead
toward a secure status as a newly industrialized country. But now, with the
damage caused by the Asian financial crisis and the uncertainty since the
fall of Suharto, there are many questions to answer: political, economic, so-
cial, and even religious. Will democracy take hold this time, or will insta-
bility reign (unless the army intervenes again)? Will industrialization con-
tinue and supplement weaker agricultural and mining sectors, and will the
states leave more room for private enterprise? Will the many peoples, re-
gions, and classes come together or splinter further? Will Islam cohabit
comfortably with other religions, or will the appeal (or fear) of an Islamic
state be too strong? This book cannot provide the answers, but it can cer-
tainly elucidate the questions and give some idea of where Indonesia is
headed at present. So it is of much greater interest for all those concerned
about Indonesia, the Indonesians first and foremost, followed by the rest of
Southeast Asia and the broader world as well.
This second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Indonesia has been
thoroughly updated and considerably expanded, partly to round out its
overall coverage, and very much also to include information about the
many things that have occurred meanwhile. It has a double advantage in ex-
amining Indonesia as a country but also looking closely at its numerous
components, without which nothing makes sense. Thus, while the chronol-
ogy and introduction help us see the overall thrust, some of the most useful
dictionary entries deal with the specific ethnic groups, islands, and regions,
giving their history prior to the creation of the state of Indonesia and even
prior to Dutch colonization. Others present the most notable leaders of all
periods and important aspects of politics, economics, and social, cultural,
viii • EDITOR’S FOREWORD
and religious life. The bibliography, which is also expanded and updated,
has the additional advantage of relating specific works to specific entries,
so readers know where to seek further information. And the list of
acronyms and abbreviations is virtually indispensable.
This book is the result of a joint effort. It is based on an excellent and
much-admired first edition by Robert Cribb, who has written widely about
Indonesian history and politics; was professor of Southeast Asian history at
the University of Queensland in St. Lucia, Australia; and is now at Aus-
tralian National University. It has been updated and expanded, while main-
taining much of the original text, by Audrey Kahin, who was managing ed-
itor of Southeast Asia Publications at Cornell University and coeditor, and
then editor, of Indonesia. She has also written extensively on Indonesia, in-
cluding several books, and is presently a freelance editor and writer.
What they both obviously share is an intense interest in the country,
where they have traveled frequently and widely, and an ability to convey
this interest to others. That may explain why this book is, among other
things, written in a style that can be easily read by students while including
a wealth of information that is not readily available elsewhere, and cer-
tainly not in such an accessible form.
The Historical Dictionary of Indonesia is intended primarily as a conve-
nient reference tool for those whose studies or professional activities de-
mand ready access to reliable information on Indonesia’s history to the
present. The current edition is an updating and revision of the dictionary
prepared by Dr. Robert Cribb and published in 1992. The major changes in
the revised version are in the coverage of the last 15 years of Indonesia’s
history, which have been the most turbulent experienced since the 1960s, or
indeed perhaps since the transfer of sovereignty at the end of 1949. In or-
der to devote the necessary space to the events of these years, I have felt it
necessary to cut some items from the first edition of the dictionary that, al-
though interesting and useful in themselves, are not of central importance
for those seeking to understand the nature of contemporary Indonesia. The
original dictionary contained an immense amount of valuable information
on the history of Indonesia under the Netherlands East Indies Company
(VOC) and the Dutch colonial government, and although it has been nec-
essary to shorten some of these entries in order to keep the volume to a rea-
sonable length, they provide such a useful treasure of information (particu-
larly for English-speaking readers with little access to Dutch sources) that
most of them have been retained.
The emphasis in the present edition is, however, on the late Suharto pe-
riod and on the military, economic, and political forces that helped maintain
its power but ultimately led to its downfall. It also covers the transfer of
power to a new administration, the disorder and violence that has followed
this change, and the often unsuccessful efforts by reformers to push for a
new, more democratic state and society. In view of the fact that one of the
major problems facing the governments of post-Suharto Indonesia is how to
dismantle the centralized administrative structure that has characterized In-
donesia since independence without this leading to disintegration, there is
x • PREFACE
also a greater focus in the dictionary on the Indonesian regions outside Java.
Although East Timor gained its independence in 1999, there are still several
extensive entries dealing with that territory and its relations with Indonesia,
for the Suharto regime’s invasion of East Timor in 1975 and the struggle
leading to its ultimate liberation have had a profound effect on the recent
history of the Republic of Indonesia.
In revising and updating this Dictionary, I have been indebted especially to
Dr. Robert Cribb, who compiled the original dictionary and provided me
with many of his notes and ideas for a revised version. I am also grateful to
him for drawing the maps that appear here. Anyone wishing to follow the
text more closely through its geographic context is advised to consult his
Historical Atlas of Indonesia (Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2000), which has be-
come an indispensable reference for scholars working on Indonesian history.
I am grateful to Scott McCasland-Bodenstein for his computer assis-
tance, to Margaret McCasland for helping me with the technical side of
preparing the bibliography, to Kaja McGowen who provided useful advice,
and to friends and family who have had to accept the fact that so much of
my time over the past couple of years has been occupied in bringing this
work to completion.
My thanks also go to Jon Woronoff, who has made useful suggestions
and has been patient as I missed several deadlines, and the staff at Scare-
crow Press, especially Kim Tabor and Andrew Yoder.
Several changes have been made in the order of the components in the re-
vised Historical Dictionary of Indonesia to bring it into line with other vol-
umes in this series. The following is a brief guide to the main sections com-
prising the dictionary.
After this reader’s note, there is a list of acronyms and abbreviations.
This list is by no means exhaustive, as Indonesians seem to have an ongo-
ing inclination to update and introduce acronyms into their language at a
spectacular pace. It has also been necessary to retain many of the acronyms
that were of importance in earlier decades of Indonesia’s history but are no
longer in use. As in the first edition of the dictionary, I have followed the
rule that where the acronymic origin of a word has become obscure (e.g.,
Gestapu, Masjumi, Fretilin, Golkar, and PRRI/Permesta), the entry appears
under the acronym with a cross-reference from the full name. In the list of
acronyms, as in the dictionary as a whole, cross-references to other dic-
tionary entries are usually indicated by the use of bold type. I have at-
tempted to maintain a consistent use of terminology both in the acronym
and its translation. In using the dictionary, readers not familiar with an or-
ganization’s full title or its English meaning will find these in this list.
In the chronology that follows the maps, as in most of the rest of the dic-
tionary, the emphasis is on the more recent period rather than on the early
history of the archipelago. The same chronological divisions are used here
as in the historical section of the bibliography, so that it should be easy to
refer to the literature relating to the different periods. As is the practice
throughout the volume, bold type has been used to indicate a cross-refer-
ence to the relevant dictionary entries.
The introduction has been expanded to provide a more detailed back-
ground of Indonesia’s history, especially in the postindependence period,
and give a broader context for the entries that follow.
xiv • READER’S NOTE
As mentioned in the preface, the greatest change in the dictionary is in
its coverage of events of the past 15 years. The entries dealing with politi-
cal and economic events of the Suharto era have also been expanded, and
some of the coverage of colonial history and the Sukarno era condensed.
There is more biographical data on people who have played an important
role in these recent periods, especially in the political and economic fields.
There is probably still inadequate coverage of the arts in Indonesia, and I
hope the bibliographical entries in the section on Indonesian culture will
lead readers to explore the field more deeply for themselves.
Again, as throughout the volume, cross-references are indicated by bold
type. I have also continued Dr. Cribb’s practice of numbering the items in
the bibliography and noting the number of the relevant bibliographic item
within square brackets at the end of most of the dictionary entries. These
references are not exhaustive, but they provide an easy way for the reader
to find works on which the entry is based and suggestions for further read-
ing on the topic.
The bibliography has been expanded to include a selection of the volu-
minous literature that has appeared on Indonesia over the past 12 years, and
it has been necessary to remove some of the earlier, more ephemeral works
in order to make room for them. A more extensive introduction to the bib-
liography appears immediately preceding it.
As Dr. Cribb noted in his preface to the original dictionary, all works on
Indonesian history require an explanation for the spelling. General entries
in the dictionary use modern Indonesian spelling (ejaan yang disempu-
rakan [EYD], or perfected spelling; see INDONESIAN LANGUAGE).
Until 1973, Indonesian words followed Dutch spelling conventions, most
notable of which were the use of tj for the English sound ch, j for y, oe for
u, dj for j, and sj for sh, although in the early independence period, some of
these conventions had already changed, especially a more common use of
u instead of oe. The Indonesian spelling reform of 1973, which attempted
to harmonize usage in Malay and Indonesian, generally brought these
spellings closer to English-language usage. The major changes were for j
now to be rendered as y, tj as c, dj as j, nj as ny, and ch as kh. The greatest
confusion with these changes in spelling comes with the rendering of per-
sonal names and names of organizations. I have generally followed the con-
vention of retaining the original spelling of names of people or organiza-
tions that ceased to exist before the introduction of the spelling changes,
while in all other personal names the spelling generally used is either that
preferred by, or most commonly employed in referring to, the person. (See
also entry on NAMES.)
READER’S NOTE • xv
Contemporary Indonesian terminology and spelling are used for place
names: thus Kalimantan and Sulawesi, not Borneo and Celebes, although
the common English spelling of Sumatra and Java is used instead of the In-
donesian Sumatera and Jawa. The recently introduced Papua has been used
for Indonesian Western New Guinea, previously known as Irian Jaya (and
before that, Irian Barat), as this is now its official name and the name most
Papuans prefer, although it is still unclear whether it will be retained in of-
ficial Indonesian usage.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Note: The headings under which the terms appear in the dictionary are set
in bold type.
ABRI Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, Armed
AD Forces of the Republic of Indonesia.
AJ Angkatan Darat, Army.
ALRI Anno hijrae, Muslim year. See CALENDARS.
AMS Anno Javanicae, Javanese year. See CALENDARS.
ANETA Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia, Navy of the Re-
APEC public of Indonesia.
APODETI Algemene Middelbare School, General Secondary
School. See EDUCATION.
ASEAN Algemene Nieuws en Telegraaf Agentschap, General
News and Telegraph Agency. See NEWS AGEN-
BABINSA Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Associação Populár Democrática Timorense, Timo-
rese Popular Democratic Association.
Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia Serikat, Armed
Forces of the Federal Republic of Indonesia. See
Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Asisten Presiden Republik Indonesia, assistants to the
president of the Republic of Indonesia. See
Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia, Air Force of the
Republic of Indonesia.
Bintara Pembina Desa, NCOs for Village Develop-
ment. See DWIFUNGSI.
xviii • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
BAIS Badan Intelijen Strategis, Strategic Intelligence Body.
BAKIN Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara, State Intelli-
gence Coordinating Agency.
BAKORSTANAS Badan Koordinasi Bantuan Pemantapan Stabilitas
Nasional, Coordinating Body to Assist in Maintain-
ing National Security.
BAPERKI Badan Permusyawaratan Kewarga Negaraan In-
donesia, Consultative Body of Indonesian Citizenship.
BAPINDO Bank Pembangunan Indonesia, Indonesian Develop-
BAPPEDA Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah, Regional
Development Planning Board.
BAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, Na-
tional Development Planning Board.
BB Binnenlandsch Bestuur, literally, administration of
the interior, the European bureaucracy of the
Berdikari Berdiri atas kaki sendiri, to stand on one’s own feet.
BFO Bijeenkomst voor Federale Overleg, Federal Consulta-
tive Meeting. See FEDERALISM.
BIA Badan Intelijen ABRI, Armed Forces Intelligence
Agency. See INTELLIGENCE.
BIMAS Bimbingan Massal, mass guidance. See GREEN REV-
BKKBN Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional, Na-
tional Family Planning Coordinating Body. See
BKR Badan Keamanan Rakyat, People’s Security Organiza-
tion. See ARMY.
BKS Badan Kerja Sama, Cooperative Bodies.
BNI Bank Negara Indonesia, Indonesian National Bank.
BPK Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan, State Audit Board. See
BPM Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij, Batave Petroleum
Company. See “KONINKLIJKE”; OIL.
BPS Badan Pendukung Sukarnoisme, Body to Support
BPS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xix
BPUPKI Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau; also
Badan Pusat Statistiek, Central Statistical Body. See
Bulog Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan
CCP Indonesia, Investigatory Body for Preparatory
CGI Work for Indonesian Independence.
CONEFO Banking and Trading Corporation. See STATE EN-
Barisan Tani Indonesia, Indonesian Peasants’ Front.
DEKON Badan Urusan Logistik Nasional, National Logisti-
DGI cal Supply Organization.
DI Chinese Communist Party. See CHINA, RELATIONS
DPA Consultative Group on Indonesia.
DPN Center for Information and Development Studies. See
DPR-D IKATAN CENDEKIAWAN MUSLIM INDONESIA.
Conference of the New Emerging Forces. See
Centre for Strategic and International Studies.
Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia, Indonesian Is-
lamic Preaching Council. See ISLAM IN INDONE-
Deklarasi Ekonomi, Economic Declaration. See
Departemen Luar Negeri, Department of Foreign Af-
fairs. See FOREIGN POLICY.
Dewan Gereja Indonesia, Indonesian Council of
Churches. See PROTESTANTISM.
Darul Islam, House of Islam.
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Special Territory of Yo-
gyakarta. See YOGYAKARTA.
Daerah Khusus Ibukota, Special Capital Territory. See
Dewan Pertimbangan Agung, Supreme Advisory
Dewan Pertahanan Negara, State Defense Council.
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, People’s Representative
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, People’s Represen-
tative Council local assemblies.
xx • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
DPR-GR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Gotong Royong, mutual
DRET Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Sementara, provisional.
Drs Democratic Republic of East Timor.
Dt Doctorandus. See TITLES.
DVG Datuk. See TITLES.
Dienst voor Volksgezondheid, Public Health Service.
EC Europees Bestuur, European administration. See BIN-
EYD European Community.
Europese Lagere School, European Lower School. See
FBSI Ejaan yang disempurnakan, perfected spelling. See
FDI INDONESIAN LANGUAGE.
Forças Armadas de Libertação Nacional de Timor,
FRETILIN Armed Forces for the National Liberation of Timor.
FSPSI Federasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia, All-Indonesia Fed-
eration of Labor. See LABOR UNIONS.
FUII Foreign direct investment. See INVESTMENT, FOR-
G/30/S Front Demokrasi Rakyat, People’s Democratic Front.
Frente Revolucionária do Timor Leste Independente,
GAM Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor.
Federasi Serikat Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia, Federation
GANEFO of All-Indonesia Workers’ Associations. See LA-
GAPI BOR UNIONS.
Front Umat Islam Indonesia, Indonesian Muslim Com-
GBHN munity Front.
Gerakan Tiga Puluh September, 30 September Move-
ment. See GESTAPU.
Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, Independent Aceh Movement.
Games of the New Emerging Forces. See NEKOLIM.
Gabungan Politik Indonesia, Indonesian Political
Garis Besar Haluan Negara, Broad Outlines of State
Policy. See MAJELIS PERMUSYAWARATAN
GDP ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xxi
GERWANI Gross domestic product.
GESTAPU Gerakan Rakyat Indonesia, Indonesian People’s
GOLKAR Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women’s
HANSIP Gerakan September Tiga Puluh, September 30 Move-
HIR Geneeskundige Hogeschool, Medical School. See ED-
HMI Gereja Kristen Injil di Tanah Papua, Papuan Church of
HVK the Christian Gospel. See PAPUA.
IAIN Golongan Karya, Functional Groups.
IBRA Hak Azasi Manusia, human rights.
ICMI Pertahanan dan Keamanan, (Department of) Defense
and Security. See ARMED FORCES.
Pertahanan Sipil, Civil Defense. See ARMED
Hogere Burger School, Higher Civil School. See ED-
Hollands-Chinese School, Dutch Chinese School. See
Herziene Inlands Reglement, Revised Native Regula-
tions. See LAW.
Hollands-Inlandse School, Dutch Native School. See
Himpunan Kerukunan Tani Indonesia, Association of
Indonesian Peasant Leagues. See LABOR UNIONS.
Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam, Muslim Students’ As-
Himpunan Nelayan Seluruh Indonesia, All Indonesia
Fishermen’s Association. See LABOR UNIONS.
Hoge Vertegenwoordiger van de Kroon, high represen-
tative of the Crown. See GOVERNOR-GENERAL.
Institut Agama Islam Negeri, State Islamic Religious
Institute. See EDUCATION, ISLAMIC.
Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency. See BANKING.
Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Indonesia, All Indone-
sia League of Muslim Intellectuals.
Indo-Europees Verbond, Indo-European Union. See
xxii • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
IGGI Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia.
IMET International Military Education and Training Pro-
INDRA gram. See UNITED STATES, RELATIONS WITH.
INPRES International Monetary Fund.
IPKI Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency. See DEBT,
ISDV Instruksi Presiden, presidential instruction.
JABOTABEK Ikatan Pendukung Kemerdekaan Indonesia,
KABIR League of the Supporters of Indonesian Indepen-
KAMI Ingenieur. See TITLES.
KAMMI Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging, Indies
KAPPI Social Democratic Association.
Jakarta-Bogor-Tanggerang-Bekasi. See JAKARTA.
KASAD Jemaah Islamiah, Islamic community. See ISLAM IN
KASI INDONESIA, ISLAMIC STATE.
KKN Kapitalis birokrat, bureaucratic capitalist. See CLASS
KNIL Kamar Dagang dan Industri, Chamber of Commerce
KNILM and Industry.
Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Indonesia, Indonesian
Students’ Action Front.
Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia, National
Front of Indonesian Muslim Students.
Kesatuan Aksi Pemuda dan Pelajar Indonesia, Indone-
sian Youth and School Students Action Front. See
KESATUAN AKSI MAHASISWA INDONESIA.
Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat, army chief of staff. See
Kesatuan Aksi Sarjana Indonesia, Indonesian Gradu-
ates’ Action Front.
Kolusi, Korupsi, dan Nepotisme, corruption, collu-
sion, and nepotism.
Komite Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian National
Koninklijk Nederlandsch Indisch Leger, Royal
Netherlands Indies Army.
Koninklijk Nederlands-Indische Luchtvaartmaatschap-
pij, Royal Netherlands Indies Air Company. See AIR
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xxiii
KNIP Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat, Central Indone-
sian National Committee.
KNPI Komite Nasional Pemuda Indonesia, Indonesian Na-
tional Youth Committee.
KODAM Komando Daerah Militer, Regional Military Com-
mand. See DEFENSE POLICY; DWIFUNGSI.
KOGA Komando Siaga, Readiness Command. See KO-
MANDO OPERASI TERTINGGI.
KOGAM Komando Ganyang Malaysia, Crush Malaysia Com-
mand. See KOMANDO OPERASI TERTINGGI.
KOKAR Korps Karyawan, Employees’ Corps. See KORPS PE-
GAWAI REPUBLIK INDONESIA.
KOMNAS HAM Komisi Nasional Hak Azasi Manusia. National Com-
mittee for Human Rights.
KOPASSANDHA Komando Pasukan Sandi Yudha, Secret Warfare Com-
mando Unit. See KOMANDO PASUKAN
KOPASSUS Komando Pasukan Khusus, Special Commando
KOPKAMTIB Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan
Ketertiban, Operational Command for the Restora-
tion of Security and Order.
KORPRI Korps Pegawai Republik Indonesia, Government
Officials Corps of the Republic of Indonesia.
KOSGORO Koperasi Serba Guna Gotong Royong, Multipurpose
Cooperative for Gotong Royong.
KOSTRAD Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat, Army
KOTI Komando Operasi Tertinggi, Supreme Operational
KOTOE Komando Tertinggi Operasi Ekonomi, Supreme Oper-
ational Command for the Economy. See DWI-
KOWILHAN Komando Wilayah Pertahanan, Regional Defense
Commands. See DEFENSE POLICY.
KPM Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij, Royal Packet
KPU Komisi Pemilihan Umum, General Elections Commit-
tee. See ELECTIONS.
KRISMON Monetary crisis. See FINANCIAL CRISIS.
xxiv • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
KUHAP Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana, proce-
dural code for criminal law. See LAW.
Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana, criminal code.
LBH See LAW.
LEKRA Lembaga Bantuan Hukum, Legal Aid Bureau. See LE-
GAL AID SERVICES.
Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat, Institute for People’s
LKBN Lembaga Pertahanan Nasional, National Defense Insti-
tute. See DEFENSE POLICY.
Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Indonesian
LKMD Academy of Sciences.
LMD Lembaga Kantor Berita Nasional, National News
Agency Institute. See ANTARA.
MAHMILLUB Lembaga Keluarga Berencana Nasional, National Fam-
ily Planning Institute. See FAMILY PLANNING.
MANIKEBU Lembaga Ketahanan Masyarakat Desa, Institute for
MANIPOL Village Community Resilience. See DESA.
MASJUMI Lembaga Musyawarah Desa, Village Consultative
Council. See DESA.
Liquefied natural gas. See GAS.
MMI Mahkamah Militer Luar Biasa, Extraordinary Mili-
MONAS tary Tribunal.
Malapetaka 15 Januari, Disaster of 15 January.
MPR (S) Manifes Kebudayaan, Cultural Manifesto.
Manifesto Politik, Political Manifesto.
Mr Malaya, Philippines, and Indonesia.
MUI Madjelis Sjuro Muslimin Indonesia, Consultative
Council of Indonesian Muslims.
Majelis Islam A’laa Indonesia, Supreme Islamic
Council of Indonesia.
Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia, Council of Indonesian
Defenders of the Faith. See ISLAMIC STATE.
Monumen Nasional, National Monument. See
Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (Sementara),
(Provisional) People’s Deliberative Assembly.
Meester in de Rechten. See TITLES.
Majelis Ulama Indonesia, Council of Indonesian Is-
lamic Scholars. See ISLAM IN INDONESIA.
MULO ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xxv
NASAKOM Meer Uitgebreide Lagere Onderwijs, Broader Lower
Education. See EDUCATION.
Nasionalisme, Agama, Komunisme; nationalism, reli-
NEFO gion, communism.
Netherlands Forces Intelligence Service. See POLI-
NGO TIEK INLICHTINGEN DIENST.
New Emerging Forces. See NEKOLIM.
NIAS Neo-Kolonialis dan Imperialis, neocolonialists and im-
NII Nongovernmental organization.
NIROM Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij, Netherlands
NIT Trading Company.
NTB Nederlands-Indische Artsenschool, Netherlands Indies
NU Doctors’ School. See HEALTH.
OLDEFO Netherlands Indies Civil Administration.
OPEC Negara Islam Indonesia. See DARUL ISLAM.
Nederlandsch-Indische Radio Omroep Maatschappij,
OPSUS Netherlands Indies Radio Broadcasting Company.
ORBA See RADIO.
ORI Negara Indonesia Timur, State of East Indonesia.
Nusatenggara Barat, Western Lesser Sundas.
ORMAS Nusatenggara Timur, Eastern Lesser Sundas.
OSVIA Nahdlatul Ulama, Revival of the Religious Scholars.
Old Established Forces. See NEKOLIM.
PAI Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See
PAN Organisasi Papua Merdeka, Free Papua Movement.
PANGAB Operasi Khusus, Special Operations.
Orde Baru, New Order.
Oeang (i.e., Uang) Republik Indonesia, currency of
the Indonesian Republic.
Organisasi Massa, mass organizations.
Opleidingsschool voor Inlandsche Ambtenaren,
Training School for Native Officials. See EDUCA-
Persatuan Arab Indonesia, Indonesian Arab Union. See
Partai Amanat Nasional, National Mandate Party.
Panglima Angkatan Bersenjata, commander in chief of
the armed forces. See ARMED FORCES.
xxvi • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
PANGESTU Paguyuban Ngèsti Tunggal, Association for Striving
towards Harmony with God.
Partai Rakyat Sosialis, Socialist People’s Party. See
PARI PARTAI SOSIALIS.
PARINDRA Partai Republik Indonesia, Party of the Indonesian Re-
PARKINDO public. See TAN MALAKA.
Partai Indonesia Raya, Greater Indonesia Party.
PARSI Partai Kristen Indonesia, Indonesian Christian Party.
Partai Muslimin Indonesia, Indonesian Muslims’
PBI Partai Sosialis Indonesia, Indonesian Socialist Party.
See PARTAI SOSIALIS.
PDI Partai Indonesia, Indonesia Party.
Partai Bulan Bintang (Moon and Stars Party).
PDI-P Partai Buruh Indonesia, Indonesian Labor Party.
Persatuan Bangsa Indonesia, Association of the In-
PELNI Partai Demokrasi Indonesia, Indonesian Democratic
PEPUSKA Partai Demokrasi Indonesia—Perjuangan, Indone-
PERMESTA sian Democratic Party of Struggle.
Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia, Emer-
PERTAMINA gency Government of the Republic of Indonesia.
Perusahaan Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian
National Shipping Company. See SHIPPING.
PESINDO Pemilihan Umum, general elections. See ELECTIONS.
Pemilikan Pusat Kapal-Kapal, Central Shipowning
PETRUS Authority. See SHIPPING.
Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam, Universal Struggle
Charter. See PRRI/PERMESTA REBELLION.
Persatuan Islam, Islamic Union.
Perusahaan Tambang Minyak Nasional, National Oil
and Gas Mining Corporation.
Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah, Islamic Education
Pemuda Sosialis Indonesia, Indonesian Socialist
Pembela Tanah Air, Defenders of the Homeland.
Pembunuhan/ Penembakan Misterius, mysterious
PI ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xxvii
PIR Perhimpunan Indonesia, Indonesian Association.
PK Politiek Inlichtingen Dienst, Political Intelligence
PKK Persatuan Indonesia Raya, Greater Indonesian Asso-
PKRI Partai Keadilan, Justice Party.
Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa, Rise of the People
PNI-Baru Partai Komunis Indonesia, Indonesian Communist
PPKI Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga, Family Welfare
PPKI Development. See DESA.
PPKJ Pakempalan Kawula Ngayogyakarta, Yogyakarta
PPP Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan, Justice and Unity Party.
See PARTIES, POLITICAL.
Persatuan Katolik Republik Indonesia, Catholic
Union of the Republic of Indonesia. See PARTAI
Perusahaan Nasional, state enterprise.
Partai Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian National
New PNI. See PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL IN-
Persatuan Perjuangan, Struggle Union.
Pusat Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia, Indonesian Work-
ers’ Struggle Center. See LABOR UNIONS.
Panitya Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Committee
for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence. See
BADAN PENYELIDIK USAHA PERSIAPAN KE-
Persatuan Politik Katolik Indonesia, Indonesian
Catholic Political Union. See PARTAI KATOLIK.
Pakempalan Politik Katolik Jawi, Political Association
of Javanese Catholics. See PARTAI KATOLIK.
Persaudaraan Pekerja Muslim Indonesia, Indonesian
Muslim Workers’ Brotherhood. See LABOR
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan, Unity Develop-
xxviii • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
PPPKI Permufakatan Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan
Indonesia, Confederation of Indonesian Political
PRRI People’s Republic of China. See CHINA, RELA-
PSII Partai Rakyat Demokrasi, Democratic People’s
PUSKESMAS Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia, Revolu-
PUTERA tionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia.
PWI See PRRI/PERMESTA REBELLION.
R.A. Partai Sosialis Indonesia, Indonesian Socialist Party.
REPELITA Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia, Indonesian Islamic
RIS Association Party.
RMS Perusahaan Terbatas, limited liability company.
RPKAD Persatuan Ulama Seluruh Aceh, All-Aceh Ulama Asso-
RRI ciation. See ACEH.
RUSI Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat, Center for Society’s
Health (see HEALTH).
Pusat Tenaga Rakyat, Center of the People’s Power.
Persatuan Wartawan Indonesia, Indonesian Reporters’
Association. See NEWSPAPERS.
Raden. See TITLES.
Raden Ajeng. See TITLES.
Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun, Five-Year De-
Rechtshogeschool, law school. See EDUCATION.
Republik Indonesia Serikat, Republic of the United
States of Indonesia.
Republik Maluku Selatan, Republic of the South
Resimen Para Komando Angkatan Darat, Army
Regeringsreglement, Government Regulating Act. See
Radio Republik Indonesia, Radio of the Republic of
Indonesia. See RADIO.
Republic of the United States of Indonesia. See RE-
PUBLIK INDONESIA SERIKAT.
Suku, Agama, Ras, Antar-golongan; ethnicity, religion,
race, intergroup relations.
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xxix
SARBUPRI Serikat Buruh Perkebunan Republik Indonesia, Union
of Plantation Workers of the Republic of Indonesia.
Satgas Papua See SENTRAL ORGANISASI BURUH REPUB-
SBG LIK INDONESIA.
SBSI Satuan Tugas Papua, Papua Task Force. See PAPUA.
SEATO Serikat Buruh Gula, Sugar Workers’ Union. See SEN-
SH TRAL ORGANISASI BURUH REPUBLIK IN-
SIT Serikat Buruh Sejahtera Indonesia, Indonesian Pros-
SIUPP perous Workers’ Union. See LABOR UNIONS.
SMP Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
SOBSI Sekolah Staf dan Komando Angkatan Darat, Army
SOKSI Staff and Command School. See ARMY.
SPSI Sarjana Hukum. See TITLES.
St. Sarekat Islam, Islamic Association.
STICUSA Surat Ijin Terbit, publication license. See CENSORSHIP.
Surat Ijin Usaha Penerbitan Pers, permit to operate a
STOVIA press company. See CENSORSHIP.
Satgas Merah Putih, Red and White Task Force. See
TABANAS Sentral Organisasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia, All-
TAPOL Indonesia Federation of Labor Organizations.
THS Sentral Organisasi Karyawan Seluruh Indonesia, All-
Indonesia Federation of Employee Organizations.
Serikat Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia, All Indonesia
Workers’ Union. See LABOR UNIONS.
Sutan. See TITLES.
Stichting voor Culturele Samenwerking, Institute for
Cultural Cooperation. See LEMBAGA KEBU-
School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen, School for
the Training of Native Physicians. See EDUCA-
Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret, Executive Order of 11
Tabungan Pembangunan Nasional, National Develop-
ment Savings Scheme. See BANKING.
Tahanan politik, political prisoners.
Technische Hogeschool, Institute of Technology. See
xxx • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
TKR Tentara Keamanan Rakyat, People’s Security Army.
TNI See ARMY.
TRI Tentara Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian National
TRIKORA Army. See ARMED FORCES; ARMY.
TRITURA Tentara Pembebasan Nasional, National Liberation
Army. See PAPUA.
UDT Tentara Republic Indonesia, Army of the Republic of
USDEK Indonesia. See ARMY.
UUD Tri Komando Rakyat, People’s Triple Command. See
Tentara Republik Indonesia Pelajar, Student Army of
VSTP the Indonesian Republic.
Tri Tuntutan Rakyat, Three Demands of the People.
See KOMANDO AKSI MAHASISWA INDONE-
Televisi Republik Indonesia, Television of the Repub-
lic of Indonesia. See TELEVISION.
União Democrática Timorense, Timorese Demo-
Undang-undang ’45, 1945 Constitution; Sosialisme a
la Indonesia, Indonesian socialism; Demokrasi Ter-
pimpin, guided democracy; Ekonomi Terpimpin,
guided economy; and Kepribadian Indonesia, In-
donesian identity. See MANIFESTO POLITIK.
Undang-Undang Dasar, Constitution. See CONSTI-
Voorlopige Federale Regeering, Provisional Federal
Government. See SUCCESSION.
Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, United East In-
dies Company. See DUTCH EAST INDIES COM-
Vereeniging van Spoor- en Tramweg Personeel, Union of
Rail and Tramway Personnel. See LABOR UNIONS.
Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality. See ASSOCI-
ATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS.
Map 1: The Indonesian archipelago: main geographical features
Map 2: The Indonesian archipelago: traditional distribution of ethnic groups
Map 3: Java in the 16th and 17th centuries: the expansion of Mataram
Map 4: Indonesia in the 17th century: major states
Map 5: Dutch territorial expansion in Sumatra, 1817–1907
Map 6: Netherlands East Indies: administrative divisions in 1940
Map 7: Federal Indonesia, 1948–1949
Map 8: Indonesia: provinces and military regions, 1958–1959
Map 9: Indonesian provinces and their capitals, 1976–1999
Map 10: Golkar in the 1992 elections
Map 11: Indonesia: Oil and gas fields in production, 1994
Map 12: Indonesian provinces, 2003 (with new provincial capitals)
Early History (to c. 1400)
1.9 million years ago Hominids Pithecanthropus and Meganthropus
lived in Java (see PREHISTORY).
40,000 years ago Wajak Man (Homo sapiens) lived in Java.
15,000–8,000 years ago Sea levels rise, separating Java, Sumatra, and
Kalimantan from the Asian mainland and New Guinea from Australia.
c. 3000 B.C. Austronesian peoples begin moving into Indonesia from the
Philippines (see MIGRATIONS).
c. 1000 B.C. Kerbau introduced to Indonesia.
c. 400 A.D. Hindu kingdoms of Tarumanegara and Kutai emerge in
West Java and East Kalimantan.
c. 675 Rise of Srivijaya in Sumatra.
c. 732 Emergence of Mataram under Sanjaya.
c. 760 Construction of Sivaitic temples at Dieng.
c. 824 Construction of Borobudur begins.
c. 840 Construction of Prambanan begins.
860–c. 1000 Golden age of Srivijaya.
Before 929 Political center of Java moves to East Java.
914–1080 First known Hindu kingdom on Bali.
1006 Srivijaya attacks Java.
xlvi • CHRONOLOGY
1019–c. 1045 Airlangga rules Java.
1023–1068 Chola raids on Sumatra.
c. 1045 According to legend, Airlangga divides his kingdom into Kediri
1222 Ken Angrok founds Singasari.
1292 Civil war in Singasari; Jayakatwang kills Kertanegara; Mongol in-
vasion of Java.
1293 Wijaya founds kingdom of Majapahit and rules (1293–1309) as
c. 1297 Sultan Malek Saleh of Pasai, first known Muslim ruler in the ar-
c. 1330–1350 Adityavarman rules in Minangkabau.
1331–1364 Gajah Mada is prime minister of Majapahit.
1387 Founding of Banjarmasin.
Islamic States and the Expansion
of the VOC: 1400–1800
1402 Kingdom of Melaka founded.
1406, 1408, 1410, 1414, 1418 Expeditions by Zheng He (Cheng Ho) to
c. 1478 Demak becomes first Muslim state on Java.
1511 Portuguese seize Melaka.
1522 Portuguese build fort in Ternate.
1527 Sultanate of Demak defeats Majapahit.
1552–1570 Banten rises as independent state under Sultan Hasanuddin.
1570 Revolt against the Portuguese in Ternate.
1575–1601 Senopati rules Mataram.
1596 First Dutch ships under de Houtman arrive in Banten.
CHRONOLOGY • xlvii
1605 Dutch seize Ambon.
1607–1645 Rise of Aceh under Sultan Iskandar Muda.
1613–1645 Sultan Agung rules Mataram.
1619 Dutch establish base in Jayakarta (later Batavia).
1621 Dutch seize control of Banda islands.
1623 “Amboyna Massacre.” Mataram subjugates Gresik and Surabaya.
1629 Sultan Agung unsuccessfully attacks Batavia.
1641 Dutch capture Melaka from Portuguese.
1641–1675 Aceh ruled by Queen Taj al-Alam.
1663 Treaty of Painan establishes Dutch influence in Minangkabau.
1667 Makassar falls to Dutch and Bugis forces; Treaty of Bungaya;
Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) wins control of north coast of Java.
1671–1679 Revolt of Trunojoyo on Java.
1704–1708 First Javanese War of Succession.
1719–1723 Second Javanese War of Succession.
1723 Forced delivery of coffee to Dutch by regents of Priangan begins.
1740 Revolt of the Chinese in Batavia.
1746–1755 Third Javanese War of Succession.
1755 Treaty of Giyanti.
1778 Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen
1790–1820 Gold rush in West Kalimantan (see KONGSI WARS).
1795 Batavian Republic founded; first census conducted on Java.
1799 VOC bankrupt.
Colonial Rule and the Nationalist Movement: 1800–1942
1800 1 January: VOC Charter allowed to lapse; company properties
taken over by the Dutch state.
xlviii • CHRONOLOGY
1803–1837 Paderi Wars in Central Sumatra.
1808–1811 Herman Willem Daendels governs the Dutch Indies.
1811 August–September: British conquest of Java.
1811–1816 Thomas Stamford Raffles is lieutenant-governor of Java.
1812 British seize Bangka and Belitung from Palembang.
1813 First land rent introduced; Sultanate of Banten abolished.
1815 Eruption of Tambora.
1816 Dutch restored to their Indonesian possessions.
1817 Botanical gardens at Bogor founded; revolt by Pattimura in Ambon.
1821 Cholera reaches Indonesia.
1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty; founding of Nederlandsche Handel
1825–1830 Java War.
1828 Dutch settlement at Lobo in Papua.
1830 Cultivation system introduced.
1846 Commercial coal mining begins in South Kalimantan.
1854 Revised Regeeringsreglement (Constitution) of the Netherlands
1859–1863 War of Succession in Banjarmasin.
1863 Tobacco cultivation begins in East Sumatra.
1864 First railway established.
1870 Agrarian Law; start of Liberal Policy.
1871 Undersea telegraph cable laid between Java and Australia.
1873–1904 Aceh War.
1877 End of batig slot (budgetary surplus) transfers to Dutch treasury.
1878 Coffee plantations devastated by disease.
1880 Coolie Ordinance introduced.
CHRONOLOGY • xlix
1883 Eruption of Krakatau.
1886 First oil discovery at Pangkalan Brandan.
1888 Anticolonial uprising in Banten.
1891 Tooth of Java Man discovered in East Java.
1894 Dutch conquest of Lombok.
1901 Start of Ethical Policy.
1902 Transmigration begins.
1905 Dutch occupy Tapanuli, North Sumatra; decentralization measure
introduced in Dutch territories.
1905–1906 Dutch conquest of Bone.
1908 Budi Utomo founded; antitax rebellion in West Sumatra; Dutch
conquer southern Bali.
1910 Outbreak of bubonic plague on Java; Sarekat Islam and Indische
1912 Muhammadiyah founded.
1914 Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereniging (Indies Social Dem-
ocratic Association) founded.
1916 Volksraad installed.
1917 Rebellion in Toraja land.
1918 Influenza pandemic.
1920 Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI, Indonesian Communist Party)
1923 Communists expelled from Sarekat Islam.
1925 November: Algemene Studieclub founded.
1926 November: Communist uprising in Banten; internment camp es-
tablished at Boven Digul. 31 December: Nahdlatul Ulama (NU, Revival
of the Religious Scholars) founded.
1927 January: Communist uprising in West Sumatra. June: Tan Malaka
establishes Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI, Indonesian Republican