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Published by Perpus Kota Semarang, 2018-10-07 23:26:49



GLOBAL .OREST WATCH — an initiative of World Resources Institute The State of the Forest INDONESIA
10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002 USA
Telephone: +1 202-729-7694
.acsimile: +1 202-729-7686

Jl. Sempur Kaler No. 7 Bogor
Telephone: +62 251-382-805
.acsimile: +62 251-317-926
Email: [email protected]

10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002 USA
Telephone: +1 202-729-7600
.acsimile: +1 202-729-7610

Global .orest Watch/.orest Watch Indonesia

More than 20 million hectares of forest have the margins of logging concessions, along their local resources. Longstanding problems of
been cleared since 1985, but the majority of roads, and even in national parks has greatly unclear land tenure rights are the root cause of
this land has not been put to productive accelerated since 1997, but reliable national- many such conflicts. The government is no
alternative uses. scale estimates of forest clearance by forest longer willing to protect corporate interests as it
pioneers have not been made. once did, but neither does it appear to have any
• Nearly 9 million ha of land, much of it natural coordinated plan for dealing with the problem.
forest, has been allocated for development as • Large-scale plantation owners have turned to
industrial timber plantations. This land has the use of fire as a cheap and easy means of • Since 1999, Indonesia’s principal aid donors
already been cleared or will be cleared soon. clearing forest for further planting. Deliberate have coordinated their assistance through a
Yet only about 2 million ha have actually been fire-setting, in combination with unusually dry consortium called the Consultative Group on
planted with fast-growing species, mostly conditions caused by El Niño events, has led to Indonesia (CGI), chaired by the World Bank.
Acacia mangium, to produce pulpwood. The uncontrolled wildfires of unprecedented extent Improved forest management has been declared
implication: 7 million ha of former forest land and intensity. More than 5 million ha of forest a priority, and the Government of Indonesia has
are lying idle. burned in 1994 and another 4.6 million ha committed to a 12-point plan of policy reform.
burned in 1997-98. Some of this land is regen- But continuing political turmoil seems likely to
• Nearly 7 million ha of forest had been approved erating as scrubby forest, some has been undermine these efforts. In April 2001, the
for conversion to estate crop plantations by the colonized by small-scale farmers, but there has then-Forestry Minister acknowledged many
end of 1997, and this land has almost certainly been little systematic effort to restore forest failures, saying that Indonesia should not have
been cleared. But the area actually converted to cover or establish productive agriculture. agreed to “such unrealistic targets.” As one
oil palm plantations since 1985 is about 2.6 example, the government imposed a morato-
million hectares, while new plantations of other The Indonesian government is facing rium on further conversion of natural forest in
estate crops probably account for another 1-1.5 mounting pressure domestically and May 2000, but the ban is widely disregarded in
million ha. The implication: 3 million ha of internationally to take action, but progress is the provinces.
former forest land are lying idle. slow and not all policy reforms in process are
necessarily good news for forests. • Indonesia is moving rapidly toward a new
• No accurate estimates are available for the area system of “regional autonomy,” but the provin-
of forest cleared by small-scale farmers since • In the freer political atmosphere that followed cial and district governments that will benefit
1985, but a plausible estimate in 1990 sug- the fall of President Suharto in 1998, environ- from decentralization are largely without the
gested that shifting cultivators might be respon- mental activists have demanded greater ac- capacities or funds needed to govern effectively.
sible for about 20 percent of forest loss. This countability from both the government and the Raising short-term revenue will be a top
would translate to clearance of about 4 million private sector. Access to official information has priority and, as a result, intensified exploitation
ha between 1985 and 1997. improved, but efforts to prevent the worst of forest resources is already occurring in many
abuses of corporate power have met with regions.
• The transmigration program that relocated limited success.
people from densely populated Java to the outer
islands was responsible for about 2 million ha • Numerous forest-dependent communities,
of forest clearance between the 1960s and the sensing the weakening of central power, have
program’s end in 1999. In addition, illegal erupted violently against logging and plantation
migration and settlement by pioneer farmers at operations that they consider to be plundering


between 1985 and 1997. For purposes of this mangrove forest area at 3.5 million ha, implying a “Official” and “Actual” .orest Cover
analysis, Global Forest Watch adopted simple loss of 750,000 ha in just 3 years. However,
elevation thresholds to define the three forest types: accurate assessment of recent mangrove losses is Annex 2, Table 1 presents the World Bank’s esti-
lowland forest below 300 m, submontane or upland almost impossible; it can only be stated that their mate of the area of land officially defined as Perma-
forest at 300-1,000 m, and montane forest at above destruction continues. nent Forest Status (114 million ha) and contrasts it
1,000 m. These thresholds are lower than those with an estimate of land that was actually forested
adopted in the RePPProT, and are comparable with 2.2 .orest Condition Today in 1997 (98 million ha). It appears that actual forests
those used by Holmes in his analysis of lowland cover only 86 percent of the land defined as “forest”
forest loss (Holmes, 2000). Official .orest .unction and Use in Indonesia.

Estimates of Indonesia’s mangrove forest area are Virtually all forests in Indonesia are state-owned, Another study provides more detail on actual forest
notoriously unreliable and outdated. According to and administratively defined forest lands are quite cover within the various categories of permanent
the World Mangrove Atlas, the most reliable accurately mapped by the government in terms of forest status (Fox, Wasson, and Applegate, 2000). It
estimate dates from 1993, when the country’s their intended function and use. The Ministry of provides somewhat different estimates of the total
mangroves are believed to have covered approxi- Forestry is responsible for land under Permanent area under Permanent Forest Status (109 million ha)
mately 4.25 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997:54- Forest Status, that is, land that has been allocated and forest cover (89 million ha) but arrives at a
58). This estimate was based on the 1985 for use as conservation forest, protection forest, comparable estimate of 82 percent for the amount
RePPProT survey, updated with maps provided to limited production forest or production forest. (See of Permanent Forest Status land actually covered by
the World Conservation Monitoring Centre by the Glossary for explanation of these terms.) However, forest. In every category, actual forest cover is
Asian Wetlands Bureau. However, other estimates these administrative definitions of forest land use do smaller than the area officially allocated to that
for the mid-1980s are as low as 3.8 million ha or not correspond with actual tree cover. Thus the category, with the greatest shortfall found in protec-
even 2.2 million ha. The Indonesian government extent and condition of Indonesia’s remaining forests tion forest (forest maintained for soil and water
reports that some 1 million ha of mangroves were are difficult to establish from official statistics. protection). (See Figure 2.5.)
lost between 1969 and 1980 alone, owing prima-
rily to conversion to rice fields, aquaculture, and The Ministry of Forestry is in the process of In 1997, the Ministry of Forestry revised the land
other agricultural uses (BAPPENAS, 1993). preparing updated maps of land under Permanent area under Permanent Forest Status, with the result
Continuing losses can be attributed to the develop- Forest Status as well as maps of vegetative cover that it decreased, possibly by as much as 20 million
ment of shrimp ponds, logging activities, and local within conservation and protection forests. Offi- ha. (See Table 2.5 and note.) All categories of forest
exploitation for fuelwood and building materials. cials from the Ministry indicated that this new function were also revised: the areas allocated for
Conversion to shrimp ponds is especially prevalent information would be made available for publica- protection forest and conservation forest increased,
in East Java, Sulawesi, and Sumatra. Production of tion by Forest Watch Indonesia but, unfortunately, as did the area slated for timber production. The
woodchips and pulp from mangroves is also the data were not provided. In their absence, the areas allocated for limited production and for
increasing; chip mills have been built in Sumatra most recent information remains that available conversion to nonforest uses decreased. These
and Kalimantan, and a major mill has been built in from the Ministry of Forestry Strategic Plan 2001- changes are not purely administrative; the area of
Bintuni Bay, Irian Jaya, formerly one of the largest 2005 and the data compiled by the World Bank conversion forest decreased in large part because it
and most pristine mangrove areas in the world. (Holmes, 2000). has already been converted. (Note, however, that the
The National Forest Inventory of 1996 estimates latest unpublished revision of Permanent Forest
Status land increases the area of forest land allo-


FWI Sumatra the company was heavily criticized by the 3.3 Timber Extraction: Illegal
Rainforest Foundation and WALHI, Indonesia’s
base camp, blockading the company’s logging road, largest national environmental organization. The Logging
and seizing the heavy equipment, making it impos- company’s concession in Riau province, Sumatra, is
sible for the loggers to operate.11 inhabited by the highly endangered Sumatran tiger, Dependence on Illegal Supply
and Diamond Raya is accused of failing to take any
Indonesia has been developing a system for certify- protective measures or to conduct environmental Illegal logging is widespread and systematic in
ing well-managed logging concessions since the impact studies of its operations. Illegal logging is many parts of Indonesia and, in 2000, appeared to
mid-1990s but, until early 1999, not one logging also allegedly rampant inside the concession.12 be the source of 50–70 percent of the country’s
company was ready to be certified. In April 1999, wood supply. An analysis that year by the Ministry
the Diamond Raya Timber Company was awarded a The number and total area of concessions have of Forestry officially stated what has been common
“bronze medal,” the lowest level of certification, by declined since the mid-1990s, and concessions are knowledge for some time:
LEI, the Indonesian Ecolabelling Institute. The providing a smaller share of the country’s timber
company failed to pass a subsequent Joint Certifica- supply than formerly. However, nearly half of Illegal logging has come to constitute a well-
tion Protocol agreed by LEI and the Forest Steward- Indonesia’s remaining tropical forests are still under organized criminal enterprise with strong
ship Council (FSC) but was again awarded a bronze logging licenses and are either degraded or at risk of backing and a network that is so extensive, well
medal by LEI in April 2001. However, in July 2001, degradation unless current practices are changed. established and strong that it is bold enough to
An additional threat is posed by the new regional resist, threaten, and in fact physically tyrannize
autonomy policy, which gives local authorities forestry law enforcement authorities. …Illegal
much greater power to grant logging concessions. cutting occurs in concession areas, unallocated
(See Chapter 5.) After many years of seeing logging forest areas, expired concessions, state forestry
revenues captured by the central government, local concessions, areas of forest slated for conver-
authorities are eager to exploit forest resources for sion, and in conservation areas and protected
local benefit. Without strong institutional frame- forests.
works and responsible planning, forests are being
logged even more intensively for the sake of short- Indeed, illegal logging is increasing in conser-
term gain. vation areas, since these areas have better
timber potential than production areas. The
actors in illegal logging are: (a) laborers from
communities in the forest areas and also many
who are brought there from other areas; (b)
investors, including traders, concession holders,
or holders of legal timber cutting permits (IPK),
and buyers of illegal timber from processing
industries; and (c) government officials (both
civilian and military), law enforcement person-
nel, and certain legislators.13


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