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Sure You Can Mastering The Gambits Natural Conversation

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Published by Perpus Kota Semarang, 2018-10-30 19:08:11

Sure You Can Mastering The Gambits Natural Conversation

Sure You Can Mastering The Gambits Natural Conversation

Drs. Pardiyono,

the

for Natural Conversation

Ekspresi Penyantun Komunikasi untuk
Aneka Topik Percaka.pan Sehari-hari

Sure You Oonl

Pardiyono, M.Pd.

Penerbit ANDI Yogyakarta

Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation
Ekspresi Penyantun Komunikasi untuk Aneka Topik Percakapan Sehari-hari
Oleh: Pardiyono, M.Pd.

Hak Cipta © 2014 pada Penulis

Editor : lgnas
Setting : Ery H.S
Desain Cover :Krishna
Korektor : Susy Oktaviani

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.
Dilarang memperbanyak atau memindahkan sebagian atau seluruh isi buku ini dalam
bentuk apapun, baik secara elektronis maupun mekanis, termasuk memfotocopy,
merekam atau dengan sistem penyimpanan lainnya, tanpa izin tertulis dari Penulis.

Penerbit: C.V ANDI OFFSET (Penerbit ANDI)
Jl. Beo 38-40, Telp. (0274) 561881 (Hunting), Fax. (0274) 588282
Yogyakarta 55281

Percetakan: ANDI OFFSET
Jl. Beo 38-40, Telp. (0274) 561881 (Hunting), Fax. (0274) 588282
Yogyakarta 55281

Perpustakaan Nasional: Katalog dalam Terbitan (KDT)

Pardiyono

Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation
Ekspresi Penyantun Komunikasi untuk Aneka Topik Percakapan
Sehari-harif

Pardiyono; - Ed. I • - Yogyakarta: ANDI,

23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14
vi+ 82 him.; 16 x 23 Cm.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
ISBN: 978 - 979 - 29 - 4301 - 6
I. Judul
1. English- Study & Teaching

DDC'21 : 420.076

Target capaian paling penting dalam pembela-
jaran bahasa Inggris adalah kemampuan para
siswa untuk menggunakan bahasa tersebut se-
bagai sarana komunikasi lisan dan tertulis.

Sebagaimana telah diketahui, di dalam komu-
nikasi tertulis (written) kita cenderung meng-
gunakan bahasa secara formal, lugas dan tidak
menggunakan ekspresi tambahan penyantun
atau penatural. Berbeda dengan penggunaan bahasa lisan. Di dalam
konteks komunikasi lisan (spoken), penggunaan bahasa cenderung
bersifat lebih elaboratis, yaitu dengan tambahan ekspresi-ekspresi ter-
tentu, sehingga inti komunikasi atau kalimat yang diucapkan terde-
ngar menjadi lebih sopan (polite), alami (natural), ramah (friendly), dan
beradap (civilized).

Ragam ekspresi tambahan yang dipergunakan dalam konteks ko-
munikasi lisan tersebut kemudian disebut gambits. Dengan kata lain,
gambits adalah ekpresi tambahan yang berguna sebagai penyantun,
penyopan, penghalus atau penatural kalimat yang diucapkan. Gambits
berbentuk ekspresi yang ditambahkan dalam kalimat, sehingga pesan
yang disampaikan terdengar lebih santun, sopan, ramah, dan beradab.
Karena bersifat 'tambahan', gambits tidak merubah inti pesan jika tidak
dipergunakan.

Buku "Mastering the Gambits For Natural Conversation" ini telah
disusun secara praktis, sehingga mudah diperlajari dan dipraktekkan
dalam melakukan aktifitas komunikasi lisan sehari-hari. Di dalam buku
ini dipaparkan secara praktis tiga macam pengelompokkan gambits:

• Opening Gambits: Ragam ekspresi tambahan yang diperlukan
di dalam bagian awal suatu percakapan, perbicangkan, pidato,
diskusi, dll.

• Linking Gambits: Ragam ekspresi tambahan yang dipergukan
sebagai penerus atau penyambung inti percakapan atau per-
bincangan.

• Responding Gambits: Ragam eksrepsi tambahan yang dipergu-
nakan sebagai penyantun dalam memberikan response,jawab-
an atau sanggahan terhadap berbagai hal, fikiran, pendapat,
dll., yang terjadi selama percakapan atau perbicangan berlang-
sung.

Akhirnya saya mengucapkan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang
telah menggunakan buku ini, khusunya untuk para pelajar di seluruh
Indonesia. Dengan memanfaatkan buku ini, Insya Allah, penguasaan
bahasa Inggris Anda menjadi lebih baik, lebih santun dan lebih natu-
ral.

Melalui lembar pengantar ini saya ingin menitip pesan tentang konsep
kesuksesan dan keberhasilan. Satu kunci agar kita dapat menjadi lebih
baik dan berhasil dalam kehidupan ini adalah bersyukur keapa Allah
SWT. Sekalipun kita dalam kondisi sangat terjepit, tersakiti, atau tidak
memiliki, kita harus tetap bersyukur karena kita tidak mengetahui ra-
hasia dibalik kepedihan itu. Allah akan memberikan yang terbaik untuk
kita. Jika harus mengeluh itu manusiawi, nampun tidak sepantasnyalah
kita terlalu lama harus mengeluh. Karena dibaik kepedihan dipastikan
ada kenikmatan. [email protected]

Good Luck!
Do the best and Love sincerely!¥

Drs. Pardiyono, M.Pd.
(Boy Prestasi - Vitun Zaujien)

~iv Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

KATA PENGANTAR ........................................................ iii

DAFTAR lSI ...................................................................... v

1 OPENING GAMBITS........................................................ 1
Snapshot ................................................................... 1

Variety of Expressions ............................................. 2

1. Asking for Information .............................................2
2. Breaking in/Interrupting ..........................................4
3. Telephoning ................................................................8
4. Describing Actions in Order and Events in a

Sequence.................................................................... 11
5. Listing Things, Mentioning Reasons ................ 14
6. Telling the Main Thing ........................................... 16
7. Telling the Main Problem ..................................... 18
8. Telling a Surprising Fact ........................................ 20
9. Giving Surprising News/Good News................ 22
10. Telling Unpleasant Thought, Ideas, and

Opinions ..................................................................... 23
11. Telling the Truth ....................................................... 25
12. Changing the Focus of Discussion .................... 26
13. Telling Certainty....................................................... 27
14. Being Convinced .................................................... 29
15. Telling Opinions ....................................................... 31
16. Sharing Confidence............................................... 33
17. Telling the Team's Plan or Program .................. 34
18. Starting to Describe .............................................. 36

2 LINKING GAMBITS ...................................................... 39
Snapshot ................................................................. 39
Variety of Linking Expressions ............................. 40
1. Thinking of a Problem to Solve.......................... 40
2. Emphasizing the Points......................................... 42
3. Adding Points ........................................................... 43
4. Giving Reasons ......................................................... 45
5. Correcting Ourselves ............................................. 47
6. Arguing to Correct .................................................. 48
7. Using the General Truth as What People Say 50
8. Refusing Politely ...................................................... 52
9. Asking for More Explanation .............................. 53
10. Considering the Main Problem ......................... 55
11. Countering the Arguments ................................ 56
12. Generalizing and Tell the Exception ............... 58
13. Giving Illustration................................................... 59
14. Showing Hesitation ............................................... 61
15. Guessing .................................................................... 62
16. Restating/Paraphrasing ...................................... 64
17. Suggesting ............................................................... 65

3 RESPONDING GAMBITS ............................................. 69
Snapshot ................................................................. 69
Variety of Expressions ........................................... 70
1. Responding to Justify ........................................... 70
2. Being Unable to Decide ........................................ 71
3. Agreeing or Disagreeing; Strongly or Mildly 72
4. Not Being Surprised ............................................... 74
5. Being Sympathetic .................................................. 75
6. Being interviewed ................................................. 77
7. Checking Attention ................................................. 78

BIBUOGRAPHV ............................................................ 81

Ivi Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

Snapshot

Satu hal yang susah untuk dilakukan adalah bagaimana kita memulai
atau membuka suatu percakapan (conversation) lisan. Banyak di antara
kita masih kebingungan dengan apa yang harus diucapkan untuk per-
tama kalinya jika kita berada dalam satu konteks percakapan dengan
orang-orang tertentu. Terdapat dua hal utama untuk diperhatikan,
yaitu genre dan register.

Genre merujuk pada tujuan komunikasi (purpose) atau tujuan kita da-
lam suatu percakapan lisan. Apakah ingin meminta informasi, apakah
kita ingin menginterupsi, atau apakah kita ingin menunjukkan satu hal
yang penting. Sedangkan register merujuk pada siapa yang kita hada-
pi (participant) dengan kita berada dalam konteks komunikasi seperti
apa (place) dan kita harus memahami topik apa yang diperbicangkan
(field/topic). Pemahaman tentang konteks genre dan register tersebut
akan mewarnai jenis ekspresi penghalus atau penyopan mana yang
harus dipergunakan dalam berbicara.

Opening gambits sangat berguna untuk membantu kita dalam mem-
buka atau memulai percakapan agar terasa lebih sopan dan natural.

Variety of Expressions

1. Asking for Information

Bila kita ingin meminta informasi tentang hal tertentu, dipastikan
kita harus menggunakan kalimat tanya (question). Agar pertanya-
an terdengar lebih sopan dan beradab, kita perlu menggunakan
ekspresi tambahan sebagai penyantun (gambits), seperti tertera di
dalam tabel berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expression

lllilii~!~!II•JDD~~ ~~:~·~~~If, =- =~ ¥~ ~~ ~?llll;!;!, ·~~~

Can you tell me ... ? Apakah bisa beri tahu soya ... ?

Could you tell me ... ? Tolong beri tahu soya ... ?

Could I ask ... ? Apakah soya boleh bertanya ... ?

Excuse me, but I'd like to know Moat soya ingin tahu ... ?
... ?

Do you know ... ? Apakah Anda mengetahui ... ?

Do you happen to know ... ? Apakah kau kebetulan
mengetahui ... ?

b. In Context of Use

Where is the bank? Can you tell me where the bank is?
Could you tell me where Castel Hotel is?
Where is Castel Could I ask what time the banks opens?
Hotel?
Do you know where the best place for
What time does the lunch is?
bank close?

How can I get to
Solo Plaza?

Where is the best
place for lunch?

2 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

c. Context of Conversation 1

Shop Assistant: May I help you?

Castella : Yes. I'd like to buy a ballpoint pen, please. Can

you tell me how much the black one is? It

looks very nice.

Shop Assistant : It's only fifty thousand rupiahs.

Anything else?

Castella : Could you tell me which one a good writing

book is?

Shop assistant : This one is very good. But, it costs a little more

expensive.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Keisha : Excuse me. Can you tell me how I can get to Solo
Plaza?

Woman : Well, you can take the number six bus.
Keisha : Do you know when it usually comes?
Woman : I think,... mmm.. in fifteen minutes.
Keisha : Okay. Thank you.

e. Context of Conversation 3

Diva : Excuse me, office.
Policeman : Yes, how can I help you?
Diva : Could you tell where Castel Hotel is?
Policeman : Just go straight for 500 meters. You will find traffic

lights. Turn left. The hotel is on the left.
Diva : Thank you. One more thing, Sir.

Do you know what time the banks usually close
here? You know, I 'd like to open a new account.
Policeman : They usually close at three o'clock.
Diva : Thank you.

I 3Opening Gambits

f. Context of Conversation 4

Shop assistant : Can I help you?

Empira : I'd like to have the oil of my motorcycle

changed. Can you tell me which motor oil is

the best quality?

Shop assistant : Use this one. It is the best choice.

Empira : Really? Do you know what the best spark plug

is?

Shop assistant : For your type of motorcycle, use this one!

Guaranteed! Long lasting!

Empira : Thank you.

g. Context of Conversation 5

Shop assistant : Would you like some help?

Aulia : Yes. I'd like to have a bottle of shampoo. But, I

don't know which is best for my hair type. Do

you know which one is the best for my hair?

Shop assistant : Well, I think you have dry type of hair. Use this

one!

Aulia : Do you find out that this one is best used with

conditioner?

Shop assistant : Sure. After shampooing your hair, apply this

conditioner. Then, rinse your hair thoroughly.

You will find your hair very soft and shinny.

Aulia : Okay. I'll take them. Can you tell me how much

they cost?

2. Breaking in/Interrupting

Di dalam suatu konteks komunikasi lisan, kita sering berkeinginan
melakukan interupsi atau menyela permbicaraan orang lain. Jika kita
berada di dalam situasi seperti ini, kita harus dapat menggunakan
ekpresi penyantun (gambits) yang tepat, sehingga orang tidak
terganggu. Ekspresi gambits yang sangat umum dipergunakan
adalah seperti berikut ini:

4 I Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS PESAN

May I interrupt for a moment? ... Boleh soya menyela sebentar? ...

Sorry to interrupt, but ... Mao{ menyela, tetapi ...

Excuse me for interrupting, but Moat menyela sebentar, tetapi ...

...

Well, I'd like to say something if Baiklah kalau boleh soya

I may, ... kotakan, ...

Excuse me, can I add Moat bolehkah soya
something? ... menambahkan sesuatu hal? ...

Well, I'd like to comment on that Baiklah, soya akan memberikan
... tanggapan bahwa ...

b. In Context of Use

KAUMAT YANG AKAN INTERUPSI TERDENGAR LEBIH
DIINTERUPSIKAN SOP.AN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN
GAMBITS
What time does the
library usually close? Ma:i I interru12t for a moment? I'd like
to know what time the library usually
Will Mr. Zaujien come to closes.
teach today?
Sorr:i to interruJ2t. but ... Will Mr.
The meeting to discuss Zaujien come to teach today?
the vacation will be
tomorrow at 10:00. Excuse me for interru12ting, but ... Let
me tell you that the meeting to discuss
I don't agree if the the vacation will be tomorrow at 10:00.
vacation will be to some
beaches. Well, I'd like to sa:i something if I ma¥.

We should get great ... I don't really agree if the vacation
buses to rent so we will will be to some beaches.
feel comfortable during
the trip. Excuse me, can I add something? ...
We should get great buses to rent so
A tour bus is usually we will feel comfortable during the
completed with air trip.
conditioner and
comfortable seats. We will Well, I'd like to comment on that. ... A
feel comfortable during tour bus is usually completed with air
the trip to Bali Island. conditioner and comfortable seats. We
will feel comfortable during the trip to
Bali Island.

IOpening Gambits 5

-~~M~'lf ¥~NG ~-N IN'lfERUASI'lfERDENG~R EEBIH

DDN'lfERIJPSI•rt Sf)P~N DENG~rt MENGGI::Irt~-rt

Did you hear that Willgish G~MBOS ,
was hospitalized?
What TV program did you May I interrupt for a moment? Did you
watch last night? hear that Willgish was hospitalized?

Excuse me for interrupting. but ... what
TV program did you watch last night?

c. Context of Conversation 1

Diva : Did you sleep well last night? You know it was raining
whenthepowerwentoff

Keisha : Yes, I couldn't do my homework. It was dark.
Diva : I did my homework. I waited till it was on again.
Willgish : May I interrupt for a moment? I'd like to know what

time the library usually closes.
Diva : It stays open till 12:00.
Willgish : That's fine. I will return this library book.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Diva : Did you study English last night?
Aulia : Yes, I did. I did my homework. I read the lesson that

was given by Mr. Zaujien last week. You know, it is
about how to write a recount text.
Diva : Yes, I know it. Kesiha didn't do her homework. She felt
asleep. You know, it was blackout last night.
Aulia : Yes. But I waited till the power was on again.
Keihsa : Sorry to interrupt. but ... Will Mr. Zaujien come to teach
us today?
Aulia : Hahahaha...... are you afraid just because you didn't do
your homework?

e. Context of Conversation 3

Castella :I think we should go to different places for the next
school vacation.

Empira : Right. I really like beaches. I suggest going to the
beaches for the next school vacation. What do you
think?

6 I Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

Castella : So do I. I like beaches very much. I like playing water
and sand.

Nanny :Well. I'd like to say something if I may. .... I don't
really agree if the vacation will be to some beaches. I
don't like the sun burn.

Castella : But, you can take an umbrella?
Nanny : Huh... I don't really like carrying too many things

when going out.

f. Context of Conversation 4

Hana :I think the library is too noisy.
Angelina: Sure. You know, there always many students coming

into the library to borrow some books. Some other
students like doing their homework at the library
too. It makes the situation become very crowded.
Hana : Some other students like making some dirty jokes in
the library. I don't really like them.
Rima : Excuse me for interrupting, but .... Let me tell you that
the meeting to discuss the vacation will be tomorrow
at 10:00
Hana : Oh, really? It is not the day after tomorrow?
Rima : Tomorrow at 10.00.
Hana :Okay, we'll come on time.

g. Context of Conversation 5

Hana : For the school vacation, I suggest that we stay in Bali
Island for several days.

Angelina: Sure! It's better to go to a tour and travel agent.
There are usually some tour packages available.

Hana : But, we must remember. It should be not expensive.
Rima : Excuse me, can I add something? ... We should get

great buses to rent so we will feel comfortable during
the trip.
Therefore, package prices don't matter as long as we
feel comfortable.
Angelina: That's a great idea!

I 7Opening Gambits

h. Context of Conversation 6
Hana : Why should we use a tour and travel agent?
Angelina : It makes everything easy. We just go and pay for
a tour package, and then we can relax ourselves
enjoying the trip.
Hana : But, it usually costs more.
Angelina : Sure! All the tour buses that will be used are well
conditioned. We should not be worried!
Rima : Well. I'd like to comment on that. .... A tour bus
is usually completed with air conditioner and
comfortable seats. We will feel comfortable during
the trip to Bali Island.

i. Context of Conversation 7
Rima : I did my homework last night. And I had finished all
the exercises before 8:00.
Citra : Then, what did you do?
Rima : As usual, I watched TV. You know, I like watching film
very much, especially thriller.
Keisha : May I interrupt for a moment? Did you hear that
Willgish was hospitalized?
Diva : And... Excuse me for interrupting. but... what TV
program did you watch last night?

3. Telephoning

Dalam konteks komunikasi lisan maupun tertulis kita selalu mem-
pertimbangkan aspek kesopanan (politeness). Saat kita bertelepon
dengan seseorang, kita harus menjaga kesopanan dalam berbicara.
Hal ini dapat diterapkan dengan menggunakan ekspresi gambits
berikut ini:

I8 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS PESAN

Hello. I am calling about ... Hello. Soya menelepon untuk
menanyakan tentang ...

Hello. I am calling to find out ... Hello. Soya menelepon untuk
menanyakan tentang ...

Hello. I wonder if you could tell Hello. Apakah Anda dapat

me ... memberitahu soya ...

Hello. I'd like to ask about ... Hello. Soya bermaksud bertanya
tentang ...

b. In Context of Use

T'UJUAN DENGAN PERTANYAAN TERDENGAR
K.OMUNIMSJ
MI.IMAT' l.iEBlH SOPAN DENGAN

TANYA BIASA MENGGUNAUN GAMBITS

Menanyakan What time does Hello. I am calling about the
jam tutup bank the bank close? time of the bank to close. What

time does the bank close?

Menanyakan What time does Hello. I am calling to find out
jam
keberangkatan Pramex train the departure time. What time
kereta
depart? does Pramex train depart?

Menanyakan Where is Castel Hello. I wonder If y:ou could tell
lokasi
Tour and Travel ~ ... Where is Castel Tour and

located? Travel located?

Menanyakan When will the Hello. I 'd like to ask about the
kapan seminar seminar be seminar. When will the seminar
diselenggarakan held? be held?

c. Context of Conversation 1

Deva : Hello?
Divana : Hello, this is Deviana. I'm calling about the semester

test.
When will the Grammar test be given?
Deva : On Monday, at 10:00. Don't come late!
Deviana : Thank you.

I 9Opening Gambits

d. Context of Conversation 2
Rima : Hello?
Rila : Hello, Rima. I'm calling to find out the schedule of
semester test.
Rima : Anything I can help?
Rila : When will the grammar test be given?
Rima : It's on Monday at 10:00.
Come on time! I wonder why you often come late.
Rila : I will! Don't worry! Thank.

e. Context of Conversation 3
Santi : Hello.
Sari : Hello. Can I speak to Santi?
Santi : Yes, this is Santi speaking.
Sari : Hi... this is Sari, your old friend.
Santi : Oh ... Sari? How are you? It's been long time no news.
Sari : I'am fine.
Santi : Anything I can help?
Sari : You know, I'm looking for a good travel agent. I wonder
if you could tell me the best one in your city. What and
where is it located?
Santi : Yes, I know the good one. It is called Castel Tour and
Travel. It is located on Soedirman St. #66.

f. Context of Conversation 4
Willgish : Hello? Can I help you?
Indah : Yes. I wanna go to Yogyakarta. And, I wonder if you
could tell me about the train.
Willgish : Well, you should take Pramex train.
Indah : What time does it leave?
Willgish : It leaves at 8:00. But you can take the early departure
time.
It leaves at 5:00.

I10 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

g. Context of Conversation 5

Mrs. Nanny : Hello. Good morning!
Diva : Hello. This is Diva. I'd like to ask about the semi-

nar.
Mmm... When will the seminar about English
teaching be held? And where is it?
Mrs. Nanny : It will be held on Monday next week. It will be
in Castel Halt Casatel University, 41h floor, G
Building.
Diva : Thanks you, mum.
Mrs. Nanny : You're welcome.

h. Context of Conversation 6
Receptionist : Hello, Daily Castel Post. Can I help you?
You : Yea, hallo. This is Deviana Fadita.
I'm calling to ask about how to place an adver-
tisement in your paper. I'd like to sell my old
car.
Receptionist : Well, I suggest you to come to my office and
meet with marketing staff. You will get better
informed about it. Different kinds and costs of
advertisement are available.
You : Where is it located?
Receptionist : It is next to the Central Bank.

4. Describing Actions in Order and Events in a Sequence

Bila kita bemaksud menunjukkan urut-urutan suatu aktivitas atau
urut-urutan dalam melaksanakan suatu pekerjaan atau tugas
tertentu, kita dapat melakukannya dengan menggunakan ekspresi

gambits: first, first ofall, after that, next, then, finally. Selain itu, untu k

memberi penekanan terhadap hal tertentu, kita dapat menyisipkan

ekspresi: Make sure that you ...; Be careful to ...; Remember to ...;
Don't worry if ...; Don't forget to ....

l11Opening Gambits

a. Rhetorical Expressions PESAN
Pertama, ... (pertama-tama, ...)
RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS Lalu ...
First, ... (first of aII, ...) Setelah itu ...
Then ... Kemudian ...
After that ... Sebagai penutup, ...
Next ... Hati-hatilah untuk ...
Finally, ... Pastikan kamu ...
Be careful to ... Jangan cemas jika kamu ...
Make sure you .... Jangan Lupa untuk ...
Don't worry if you ...
Don't forget to ...

b. In Context of Use

TUJUAN SEMUA KALIMAT TERDENGAR LEBIH SOPAN
KOMUNIKASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN GAMBITS

Memberi Don't try to fix the machine yourself.
saran terhadap First of all, check the electricity.
peng~ una mesin
fotokopi, kare·1a Next, press the restart button once.
tiba-tiba mesi 1
tidak dapat After that, check the paper. Is there paper in
berfungsi dengan the paper-feed tray? Make sure that there is no
baik. paper jammed.

Then, check the toner level. Be careful to
replace it if it is empty.

Finally, call the engineer if the machine still
doesn't work.

Remember; don't use screwdriver or any other
metal tools.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Keisha : By the way, can you tell me how to make banana
sandwich?

Diva : Well, it simple. First, get two pieces of breads. Then,
cut up a banana into small slices. After that, spread
peanut butter over the two pieces of breads. Then,
put all the bananas into one of the pieces of bread,

12 I Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

and pour some honey over the bananas. Finally, put
the other piece of bread of top.
Remember, the honey should be good quality!
Keisha : Hmm ... It seems so simple.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Rima : Diva, your hair looks beautiful. Can you tell me how to
keep it well?

Diva :It's simple. All you need to do is to treat it regularly
applying good hair shampoo, hair conditioner and hair
vitamin.

Rima: So far, I have used regular hair shampoo. What should I
do then?

Diva : First, you wash your hair apply sufficient amount of
shampoo to your hair. Then, give gentle massage to
your scalp for 5 to 10 minute. After that, rinse your hair
thoroughly. Next, apply hair conditioner. Rub the lotion
and give gentle massage to all over your hair and then
rinse it thoroughly. Finally, apply some hair vitamin to
your hair after it is half dry.

e. Context of Conversation 3

You Excuse me, officer. Could you tell me the best way to
get to Castel Hall?

Officer: Well, it's easy!
First, go straight for 200 meters to the traffic lights.
Then, turn left. Go down for 100 meters till you find a
huge building on the left. That is Castel Hotel. After
that, look around. You'll see large building just across
from the Hotel. That's Castel Hall.

You Thank you.

f. Context of Conversation 4

Devi : Did you know what happened to me on Sunday?
Rima: What?
Devi : It was so embarrassing. I wish it will never happen to you.
Rima : Oh... Come on! Please tell me what happened.

113Opening Gambits

Devi : You know, I went out on Sunday for shopping.
Rima : What's the matter with shopping?
Devi : First, I got around the shopping plaza. Then, I bought

some clothes. After that, I bought some cosmetic pro-
ducts. Before I went home, I felt like to eat lunch. I went
to a small restaurant nearby. I ordered my lunch. After
I ate the food, I asked for the check. But, then, did you
know what happened?
Rima: What?
Devi : I found that I didn't have enough money.
Rima : Oh, my God!!
Devi : It was so embarrassing!
Rima : So, what did you do?
Devi : First I call my roommate. But he was out. Then I called
my parents at home, but no answer. Finally, I called my
uncle at home. He was very nice, and he brought me
some money.
Rima : That was lucky!

5. Listing Things, Mentioning Reasons

Jika kita bermaksud menyebutkan beberapa alasan atau beberapa
hal sekaligus, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi gambits berupa
sequence markers: first, second, third, fourth, etc. Kemudian ditam-
bah dengan the other reason, besides that, in addition, on top of
that, and finally.

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAG.A.M EKSPRESI GAMBITS PES.A.N

Firstly ...; secondly ...;third ... Pertama ...; kedua ...; ketiga ...

The other reason ... Alasan yang lain ...

In addition, ... Selain itu, ...

Besides that, ... Di samping itu, ...

On top of that, ... Puncaknya, ...

The worst thing is that ... Hal yang paling buruk adalah
bahwa ...

And finally ... Dan akhirnya ...

~14 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

b. In Context of Use

RES~N '~fiUi ~K~Nli •t:IRIAT 'l'ERDENG~R liiEBIH SOR~N
IIEEAN MENGGUIIARN BN111'1'S
I~N1fAI•N l

I came late because I got Well, frankl)l to tell )lOU, I came late

up late. because of some reasons. Firstly. I got

up late.

My motor was broken. Secondly. I forgot that my motor was
broken.

I missed the bus. Another reason, I missed the bus.

I didn't eat breakfast. Besides that I didn't eat breakfast and I
felt very hungry.

I went to a food court for Then, I went to a food court for

breakfast. breakfast.

It rained when I finished On top of that It rained when finished

my breakfast. my breakfast.

I had to wait for a half Finally. I had to wait for a half hour
hour before I left the before I left the food court.
food court.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Ivny : I find it a little difficult to speak in English. What do
you think I should do, Sir?

Mr. Vije : Nothing difficult as long as there is a will. You just
need a little more creative and consistent.

Ivny : Practically?
Mr. Vije : Firstly. you should take an afternoon class. Secondly.

find good books and good teacher. Besides that,
you need to practice more with friends outside the
classroom.
Another important thing, you need to be consistent
in learning!
Ivny : Okay, Sir. I will!

l1Opening Gambits 5

d. Context of Conversation 2
Keisha : Now tell me why you reject to go on vacation to the
beach?
Diva : For one thing. I don't like traveling. Last week, I was
to the beach with my parents. Another reason, I don't
really like beaches.
Keisha : Why?
Diva : It is always windy and hot. Besides that. sea water is
salty.
It irritates my skin. The worst thing about the beach
is that it is always crowded. I don't like to be in any
crowds.
Keisha : I see. That's okay if you don't want to join.

e. Context of Conversation 3
Rima : Did you know why Icha isn't with Dafa?
Fitri : No. What really happens to them. So far they have been
going very well.
Rima : It seems!
Fitri : So what?
Rima : They have broken up their relation. For one thing, Icha
has found that Dafa is not very reliable. Another reason,
he is not very creative. He is also not very hardworking.
He is not generous and not very sociable.
Besides that. lately Dafa seldom calls or visits her. On
top of that one day Icha found him going out with her
friend.
Fitri : Oh... My God! Well, I think it reasonable why they are
better to break up.

6. Telling the Main Thing

Apabila hendak menyebutkan hal yang paling utama, poin yang
paling penting dari suatu permasalahan, kita dapat menggunakan

ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

I16 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAM BITS PESAN
The main thing is ...
The most important thing is ... Semua pilihan ekspresi ini memiliki
The point is ... pesan yang sama:
The main point is ... "Yang paling penting adalah ..."
"Hal yang paling utama adalah ..."

b. In Context of Use

DENGAN IAEIMAT KAl.IMAT TERDENGAR LEBIH SOPAN
FORMAL DENGAN MENGGUNADN GAMBITS

You need to be a little The main thing is you need to be a little
more creative and more creative and diligent.
diligent.

You must come and do The most imJ;lortant thing is you must
your best. come and do your best.

You must dare to speak. The 12oint is you must dare to speak.

All students need to be The main 12oint is all students need to be
consistent! consistent!

c. Context of Conversation 1

Citra : I don't really understand why I always get "C" on my
grammar text. You know I have studied much.

Vije : You don't need to be so depressed just because you got
"C" in your grammar test. All friends know that you are
smart enough.

Citra : But, see what I have got?
Vije : Oh ... come on! The main point is you just need to be a

little more creative and diligent. Then, see... everything
will be okay! And the other most important thing is you
need to honest to yourself. If only you don't understand,
you must ask some friends or our teacher to help
Citra : I think you're right! I must!

l1Opening Gambits 7

d. Context of Conversation 2

Diva : How can speak English like you, Sir?
Teacher : That's not a big problem. Anyone can speak English

like me. Even, better!
Diva : I sometimes feel confused whether what I say is

correct or not grammatically.
Teacher : For one thing, you need not to be confused. Just

speak and say what you want to say. Besides that,
Mistakes can be corrected!
Diva : So, what should I do?
Teacher : Keep on using English when talking to friends. The
main point is you speak in English! Don't be afraid of
making mistakes! We do the right things as we have
done the wrong ones.
Diva : Thank you, Sir.

7. Telling the Main Problem

Dalam konteks perbicangan lisan, kita sering berdiskusi tentang
berbagai macam masalah di sekitar kita. Guru memiliki masalah
dan masing-masing siswa pun juga memiliki masalah. Dari sekian
rentetan masalah, terdapat satu masalah yang dianggap paling
penting untuk diperhatikan. Untuk menunjukkannya, kita dapat
menggunakan ekspresi gambits seperti berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions PESAN

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS Semua pilihan ekspresi ini
The main problem is ... memiliki pesan yang soma:
The trouble is ... "Masalah utamanya adalah ..."
The real problem is ... "lntinya adalah ... "
The point is ...

I18 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

b. In Context of Use IIH&UN&UPAII IMI:Aill
1 \.•" f
am111 •~sillli~ll
llASAitAilffil lmEIJDEI!.II!Si~l.' tEBIII
1'~11.11: IIIWR&KAPRiiil IDP~IIBEIIGAII lliHfEIIN~KAN~
~,DEIImAJN KAUIMAJ
GAMBill ~
~IORilAilJ ~
~ " '"
The real problem is you don't read
You don't read the books.
good books.
You need to take an extra
class in the afternoon. The point is you need to take an extra
class in the afternoon.
You don't care too
much about friends and The main problem is you don't
friendships. care too much about friends and
friendships.
My parents don't let me
go. The trouble is my parents don't let me
go.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Amel : I wonder why I always get "C" in my English test. I have
studied hard. Even, I have spent more time on studying
English lately. But how come? I get still get "C"?

Ayu : Dear... you should not complain too much. I know that
you shouldn't get "C". You deserve to get "B" or even

11~1.

The main problem is you are not very consistent. And
the other main problem is that you don't take an extra
class in the afternoon.
Amel : You mean I should be more consistent? And I should take
an extra class in the afternoon?
Ayu : Perfect!

d. Context of Conversation 2

Rima : Keisha, why haven't you registered to join the beach
tour on Sunday? You don't like beaches?

Keisha : I like beaches. I like playing water and sand at the
beach.
The problem is my parents don't let me go on Sunday.
We'll have a family meeting.

Rima :I see.

19Opening Gambits

e. Context of Conversation 3

Amel : I don't really what's wrong with me. Ayu doesn't talk to
me. She often avoids meeting with me.

Diva : You must have hurt her, but you don't realize it.
Amel : I don't know.
Dova : I feel that you are smart enough. But, the main problem

~socially you don't' really care too much about friends
and friendship.

f. Context of Conversation 4

Anita : I really envy some of my classmates.
Annisa : What's up? Anything wrong?
Anita : Nothing wrong! I just envy that my friends can speak

English fluently. How can they do that?
Annisa: Oh, that's simple! You are smart enough, I think. So,

you deserve t<;> speak fluently too. The point is you
need to take an extra class in the afternoon.

8. Telling a Surprising Fact

Bila dalam suatu percakapan kita bermaksud memberikan berita
atau kabar yang bersifat "mengejutkan" (surprising), kita dapat
menggunakan ekspresi gambit berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS PESAN

Did you know that ... Tahukah kamu bahwa ...

Do you realize that ... Sadarkah kamu bahwa ...

Believe it or not ... Percaya atau tidak ...

You may not believe it. but ... Kamu boleh tidak percaya, tetapi ...

I20 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

b. In Context of Use

DENGAN KALIMAT KALIMAT TERDEIJGAR
FORMAL LEBIH NATURAL DENGAN
MENGGUNAKAN GAMBITS
Diva dan Keisha got "/\'
in the grammar test last Did you know that Diva and Keisha
Monday. got"/\' in the grammar test last
You have made my heart Monday?
scattered.
All students didn't pass the Do you realize that you have made
mathematic test last week. my heart scattered?

Believe it or not all students didn't
pass the mathematic test last week.

All students passed the You may not believe it, but all
national exam excellently. students passed the national exam
excellently.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Rima : I know that Diva and Keisha don't study too much about
grammar. But, did you know that they got "/\' in the
grammar text last Monday?"

Citra : Oh, really? Even the night before the test, they didn't
study? Wow, that's so surprising!

d. Context of Conversation 2

Woman : Why did you do that silly thing? Do you realize that
you have made my heart scattered?

Man : I'm sorry. I'm just a human being and I did a mistake.
It was my past. Just take me as I am.

e. Context of Conversation 3

Indah: Almost all students thought that the mathematic test
last week was not so difficult. They were all sure that
they could pass the test. But ...

Ivny : But, what?
Indah : Believe it or not all students didn't pass the test.
Ivny : Are you kidding?
Indah: I'm not kidding! It's true. Our teacher told me this

morning!

IOpening Gambits 21

f. Context of Conversation 4

Ivny : What do you think of the National Exam that we had
last month?

Rima : I think most subject were difficult. I'm not sure that not
all students pass.

Ivny : So do I. I think that only a few students pass. But, ...
Rima : But what?
Ivny : You may believe it or not, all students passed the exam

excellently!
Rima : Really? That's great!

9. Giving Surprising News/Good News

Dalam kehidupan, kita sering menemukan atau menghadapi hal
baik dan buruk yang bersifat "mengejutkan" yang pantas untuk
dikabarkan kepada orang lain. Untuk memberikan "rasa kejutan"
tentang berita baik atau buruk, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi
gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions PESAN -~
::;-
RG~M EK:SeRESI G~MBili"S
Cabo tebak apa!
Guess what!
Tahukan apa!
Guess who?
Cabo tebok siopo?
I've got news for you! Tohukon siopo?

You won't believe this! Aku punyo berito bogus
untukmu!

Kou posti tok percoyo!

b. In Context of Use

,BIRill"~ DIBBARK!AN IERili"A MEII'«ilii!Uli"DN
li"ERDE..GAEfEEBIR IIA:li"UMIW
DEN'G,IN BIWINIA1 FORMAL DENIII GA:IIBil"£8 ,

~" , . ~~

~ Guess what! We don't have a
grammar test today!
We don't have a grammar test

today!

We'll have a new English We'll have a new English teacher

teacher tomorrow. Mr. Zaujien! tomorrow. Guess who? Mr. Zaujien!

22 ~ Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

BERJTA DIKABARKAN BERITA MENGEJUTKAN
DENGAN KAUMAT FORMAL TERDENGAR LEBIH NATURAL
DENGAN GAMBITS
The mathematic test is
delayed till next two weeks. I've got news for you! The
mathematic test is delayed till next
The school vacation next two weeks.
month is free of charge for all
students. You won't believe this! The school
vacation next month is free of
charge for all students.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Diva : Are you ready for the school vacation next month?
Keisha : Yes. I've got some new clothes: jeans, t-shirts, jacket, a

bag, a camera. But, I think I will just bring a little cash.
You know I have used it for the clothes.
Diva : You don't need to be worried!
Keisha : Why did you say that?
Diva : You won't believe this! The school vacation next month
is free of charge for all students.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Ivny : Well everybody, I've got news for you!
Friends : No, I don't believe it. You must be kidding!
Invy : Not this time!
Friends : So what is it?
Ivny : The mathematic test is delayed till next two weeks.
Friends : Well, that is good news for us! So far, we are not ready

yet.

10. Telling Unpleasant Thought, Ideas, and Opinions

Jika kita ingin mengungkapkan suatu perasaan yang dipastikan
orang lain yang mendengar akan merasa kecewa, kita dapat

menggunakan ekspresi gambits seperti berikut ini:

IOpening Gambits 23

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS PESAN

Actually ... Sebenarnya ... (berarti tidak benar)

To tell you the truth ... Terus terang ... (berarti selama ini
ada yang ditutup-tutupi)

To be honest ... Sejujurnya ... (berarti selama ini ada
hal yang belum dikatakan secara
jujur)

Frankly speaking, ... Bicara seujurnya, ... (berarti
selama ini ada hal yang belum
diungkapkan secara jujur)

b. In Context of Use

PERASAAN DIUNGKAPKAN PERASAAN DIUNGKAPKAN
DENGAN KALIMAT FORMAL DENGAN GAMBITS TERDENGAR

LEBIH NATURAL

I don't like junk food. Actuall¥, I don't like junk food.

My parents don't let me join To tell ~ou the truth, my parents
the vacation to Bali Island. don't let me join the vacation to
Bali Island.

I can go out with you because To be honest. I can go out with

I have made an appointment you because I have made an

with my boyfriend. appointment with my boyfriend.

I can't love you because I have Frankl~ speaking, I can't love you

loved someone. because I have loved someone.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Hani : Would you like to go to a fast food restaurant?
Ivny : I'm sorry, I can't. I am busy. I have an English class this

afternoon.
Hani : What? This afternoon? Don't you know that it's a national

holiday?
Invy : Well, actually, I just want to let you know that I don't like

junk food.

I24 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

d. Context of Conversation 2

Annisa : Why don't you join the vacation to Bali Island? Every-
one knows that Bali Island is one the most wonderful
places of interest in Indonesia?

Deva : To tell you the truth, my parents don't let me join the
vacation to Bali Island. They will be so worried about
me if I joint it.

e. Context of Conversation 3

Rima : Hello? Can I speak to lvny, please?
Ivny : Yes, this is Ivny's speaking.
Rima: Ivny, this is Rima. Would you like to go out with me

tonight? I need to get some clothes in Solo Grand Mall.
Invy : I'm sorry, I can't. I am busy.
Rima : Busy? I don't believe it!
Ivny : Hahaha... To be honest. I can't go out with you because

I have made an appointment with my boyfriend.

11. Telling the Truth

Jika kita hendak mengungkapkan kebenaran (truth) dari suatu
kondisi atau masalah tertentu, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi
gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI PESAN
GAMBITS
Kenyataan yang sebenarnya adalah ...
The truth of the matter is ... Persoalan yang sebenarnya adalah ...
The real question is ...

b. In Context of Use

KONDISI DIUNGKAPKAN KAUMAT TERDENGAR LEBIH
DENGAN KAUMAT FORMAL NATURAL DENGAN GAMBITS

Citra often comes late The truth of the matter is Citra
because she has moved into often comes late because she has
another town. moved into another town.

IOpening Gambits 25

KONDISI DJUNGKAPKAN KAI...INIA'I rtER.DENGAR. IWEBIH 1
DENGAN KAUMAT FDR.MAI.l NATURAl DERGAN GAMIDS

Some students don't spend The real question is why do the
much of their time on students don't spend much of
studying but they want to their time on studying if they want
pass the exam. to pass the exam.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Anisa : It's not fair if our teacher doesn't get angry to Citra.
Citra often comes late, but our teacher doesn't punish
her at all.

Deviana : Come on! Don't prejudice! It's not because that our
teacher does something unfair. The truth of the mat-
ter is Citra often comes late because she has moved
into another town.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Fad ita : Most students complain about the result of the test.
They were so disappointed. Most of them didn't pass
the test.
How come? Who to blame?

Deviana : It's not about to find out who to blame. The real
question is why do the students don't spend much
of their time on studying if they want to pass the
exam.

12. Changing the Focus of Discussion

Sering kali dalam suatu percakapan, kita beralih fokus dari satu
topik ke topik lainnya. Jika kita hendak melakukan ini, kita dapat
menggunakan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

MGAM EKSPR.ESI GAMIHS PESAN
Talking about ... It reminds
me about ... Berbicara tentang ... mengingatkan
aku tentang ...
By the way, ...
Omong-omong, ...

26 i Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

b. In Context of Use

IIINriiAII tMEII\tAT , IIENGAN GAMBDS tiEBIIffil

FIRIIAE ~ NATURAl]

Have you done the home By the way. have you done the home
task that was given to us task that was given to us last week?
last week?

I went out with some Talking about weekend it reminds
friends to a wonderful me about a wonderful beach. I went
beach in Yogyakarta and we out with some friends to a wonderful
spent hours playing water beach in Yogyakarta and we spent
and sand. hours playing water and sand.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Diva : I went to celebrate a friend's birthday last week. We
were 10 altogether. We had dinner in a fancy restaurant
in town.

He had steaks and some soft advocated juices.
Keisa : By the way. have you done the home task that was given

to us last week?

d. Context of Conversation 2

Rima: Do you know the best place for eating dinner in town?
Ivny : There are many good places for dinner in town. One of

them is Castel Cafe. It serves many different foods. The
atmosphere is very nice.
Citra : Talking about restaurant, it reminds me about my first
date. I used to have a date with a boyfriend. We had
lunch and it such a nice moment I would never forget.
When did you have your first date?

13. Telling Certainty

Kita mendengar atau mendapati ragam permasalahan di lingkung-
an kita. Jika kita hendak menanggapi suatu permasalahan, dan kita
bermaksud mengungkapkan seberapa besar kita merasa yakin
atau ragu terhadapnya, kita dapat mengungkapkannya dengan

ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

27Opening Gambits

a. Rhetorical Expressions PESAN
Aku curiga ...
RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS Aku cukup yakin bahwa ...
I suspect that ... Aku benar-benar yakin ...
I'm fairly certain that ... Aku yakin bahwa ...
I am pretty sure that ... Aku tidak yakin kalau ...
I'm convinced that ...
I wonder if ...

b. In Context of Use

KECURIGAAN ATAU UNGKAPAN PRADUGA
PRADUGA DIUNGKAPKAN TERDENGAR I..EBIH NATURAl.
DENGAN KAI.IMAT FORMAL DENGAN GAMBITS

Our teacher didn't to teach I suspect that our teacher didn't
yesterday because he was not to teach yesterday because he was
ready to teach us. not ready to teach us.

All students will pass the exam. I am prett:i sure that all students
will pass the exam.

The crime rate will decrease I wonder if the crime rate will
this year. decrease this year.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Icha : I didn't know why our teacher didn't come to teach us
yesterday. He is usually punctual. He comes on time and
he is never absent.

Citra : I suspect that our teacher didn't to teach yesterday
because he was not ready to teach us.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Diva : I was surprised that no student complained about the
exam last week. It seemed that they could have done
all the items.

Keisha : You are right. I am pretty sure that all students will pass
the exam.

Diva : Hopefully!

I28 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

e. Context of Conversation 3

Hani : As we have seen in TV, it happens every day robbery,
theft and any other forms of violence.

Anita : Another resource predicts that the crime decrease this
year.

Hani : How come? I wonder if the crime rate will decrease this
year.

Anita : If only all people had good jobs we could live peace-
fully.

14. Being Convinced

Apabila kita bermaksud mengungkapkan seberapa kita merasa
yakin (convinced) atau ragu-ragu (doubtful) terhadap suatu hal, kita
dapat mengungkapkannya dengan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions --~~-"Sejujurnya, aku merasa "
DG~lllf IIIIREII -~~~B~I
(berpendapat) bahwa ...
Honestly, I feel that ...
Aku sungguh percaya bahwa ...
I strongly believe that ...
I'm convinced that ... Aku yakin bahwa ...
Without a doubt I'll say that ...
Tanpa ragu-ragu aku ingin
Absolutely, I am certain that ... berkata bahwa ...

Aku benar-benar yakin bahwa ...

b. In Context of Use

Some teachers are so Honestly. I feel that some teacher_
emotional when teaching are so emotional when teaching in
in my class. my class.

All students can pass the I strongly believe that all students ca11
national exam this r. pass the national exam this year.

I will get "A:' on my I'm convinced that I will get "A:' on rr.y
grammar test next week. grammar test next week.

~Opening Gambits 29

HAL ¥ANG UNGKA.PAN MA.SAEA.H
DIUNGKAPKAN DIENGAN l'"IERDENGAR I.EBIH NATURAl.
KAI.IMAT FORMAt DINGAN GAMBITS

All students will join Without a doubt I'll say that all
the study tour to some students will join the study tour
international schools in to some international schools in
Bandung. Bandung.

More high schools will go Absolutely. I am certain that more
international in five years high schools will go international in
to come. five years to come.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Willgish : What do you think the way your teachers in your
class?

Rima : Well, honestly. I feel that some teachers are so emo-
tional when teaching in my class.

Willgish : Really? I also find such teachers in my class, too.
Rima : By the way, how do you fell about the national exam

this year?
Willgish : I strongly believe that all students can pass the

national exam this year. You know, all students have
join the extra classes at the afternoon held by STIPBI
PRESTASI.
Rima : Really? What a coincidence! I also take some after-
noon classes there, too.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Icha : Are you ready for the semester test next week?
Castella : Absolutely ready!
Icha : Do you find it difficult to pass the grammar test?
Castella : Nothing is difficult for me. You know, I have so far

been consistent in learning all the school subjects.
I'm convinced that I will get "A" on my grammar test
next week.
Icha : That's great! You're so optimistic!
Castella : I should!

30 I Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

e. Context of Conversation 3

Citra : I think a study tour is more important for students and
having school vacation.

Amel: Are they different?
Citra : When having a school vacation, students don't usually

need to study anything related to their school subjects.
On the other hand, a study tour makes the students
study many things. Therefore at the end of the tour,
they should make reports.
Amel : Do you think our all our friends will join the study tour
to Bandung next month?
Citra : Without a doubt I'll say that all students will join the
study tour to some international schools in Bandung.

15. Telling Opinions

Mengemukakan pendapat pribadi adalah sangat wajar. Bila kita
hendak mengemukakan pendapat pribadi dalam menanggapi
suatu hal atau persoalan, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi gam-
bits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions PESAN
RAGAM EK!SPRESI GAMBI'l'S
In my opinion, ... JV/enurut pendapatku, ...
From my point of view, ...
Well, personally, I'll say that ... Dari sudut pandangku, ...

I personally feel that ... Secara pribadi, aku akan katakan
bahwa ...
Not everyone will agree with
me, but personally I think that Secara pribadi, aku merasa
(berpendapat) bahwa ...
...
Aku tahu tidak semua orang akan
sependapat dengan aku, tetapi
secara pribadi aku berpendapat
bahwa ...

IOpening Gambits 31

b. In Context of Use

PENDAPAT UNGKAPAN PENDAPAT
DIUNGKAPKAN DENGAN TERDENGAR LEBIH NATURAL
KAUMAT FORMAL DENGAN GAMBITS
A father is the president of
a family. In my opinion. a father is the
A father must not do president of a family.
washing at home.
A mother with a small child From my point of view, a father must
should not work. not do washing at home.

A mother must be good at Not everyone will agree with me, but
cooking. personally I think that a mother with
a small child should not work.

Personally. I'll say that a mother must
be good at cooking.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Deviana : What is the status of the father in a family?
Fadita : In my opinion, a father is the president of a family.
Deviana : Some people say that a father is sometimes to do

washing too. Do you agree?
Deviana : From my point of view, a father must not do washing

at home.
Fadita : We often find that even a mother with a small child

still go to work. How do you feel about it?
Deviana : Not everyone will agree with me. but personally

I think that a mother with a small child should not
work.
Fadita : One more thing. Do you really agree that all mothers
must be good at cooking? Don't you see that there
are good restaurants around us now?
Deviana : Personally. I'll say that a mother must be good at
cooking.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Rima : I don't really like to have an extra class before school
hours every Wednesday. You know, I should get up too
early, and I don't get up too early. It makes me sleepy in
the classroom!

I32 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

Deva : Oh... Come on! That's not serious, I think.
Rima : No, it's serious! The worst thing is that we have the same

teachers as in our regular classes. So, what is different?
Deva : So what do you think? What do you suggest?
Rima : Not everyone will agree with me. but personally I think

that we don't need any extra classes at school. It's okay
to have some extra classes, but out of schools!

16. Sharing Confidence

Jika kita mendengar suatu kabar dan pendapat umum, dan kita
bermaksud untuk menggunakannya dalam suatu perbincangan
sebagai sarana untuk berbagi pendapat tentang suatu keyakinan
(sharing confidence) atas benar atau tidaknya suatu berita, kita
dapat menggunakan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

I've heard ... Aku telah mendengar bahwa ...
Have heard ... ?
Sudahkah kamu men ... ?
It could be wrong, but I had
heard ... lni mungkin soja salah, tapi aku
telah mendengar bahwa ...

b. In Context of Use
ail111H•••Ai1r· ·'>:~·if! 11{
· :: ·-.BW"' • • pi •• • • • •IGias·~aa pp

·--~ • ,. • ~ §ill•;Pl ::•• ~ .: . ,.,~~~~~ ~ ~~~ .. •. ·, ' . . . .... . :

We'll have a new headmaster I've heard we'll have a new

next three months. headmaster next three months.

We'll have some extra classes Have J"OU heard that we'll have
in the afternoon to have some extra classes in the afternoon
better preparation for the to have better preparation for the
national exam this year. national exam this year?

The passing grade of the It could be wrong, but I had heard
national exam is increased the passing grade of the national
into 7.0. exam is increased into 7.0.

~ 33Opening Gambits

c. Context of Conversation 1

Diva : All students are more obedient to the school rules now
than before.

Keisha : Teaching and learning process are getting better and
better, too. All students study better now.

Diva : You're right. By the way, I've heard we'll have a new
headmaster next three months.

Keisha : Yes, we'll have a new headmaster.
Diva : We hope that everything will be getting better and

better when the new headmaster has come.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Anisa : Have you heard that we'll have some extra classes in the
afternoon to have better preparation for the national
exam this year?

Imas : Yes. I really agree to have some extra classes in the
afternoon.

Anisa : But I don't really agree if the students should come
back to school in the afternoon.

Imas : So what?
Anisa : I really want to have some extra classes at a learning

center in town.
Imas : Whatever you want!

17. Telling the Team's Plan or Program

Bila kita berada di dalam sebuah tim kerja, suatu kepanitiaan, atau
sebuah grup yang sedang membicarakan suatu masalah, lalu kita
bermaksud membuat kesimpulan untuk menyatukan ide, kita da-
pat menggunakan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RASAftl Ele:SIREII GAMIJII PEIAII ~
'
~ ~,

' "~' "' ';<; - ~

We're thinking of ... Kita sedang merencanakan ...

What we have in mind is ... Apa yang kita pikirkan adalah ...

What we plan to do is ... Apa yang kita rencanakan adalah ...

34 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

b. In Context of Use DINGAN GAN!Bil'II.!EBII-t
NAl'URAL
DENGAN &.lilliNIAl'
FORMAl.! We are thinking of having a picnic to
Yogyakarta next month.
We will have a picnic to
Yogyakarta next month. What we have in mind is how to
manage the program efficiently.
How to manage the
program efficiently. What we J;llan to do is we'll visit
some interesting places there;
We'll visit some interesting temples, beaches, parks, crafts
places there; temples, centers, etc.
beaches, parks, crafts
centers, etc.

c. Context of Conversation 1
Anna : I've heard that we'll have a picnic?
Icha : You're right! I am one of the committee members.
Anna : Where to?
Icha : We are thinking of having a picnic to Yogyakarta. What
we J2lan to do is we'll visit many different places there;
temples, beaches, parks, crafts centers, etc.
Anna : That's great!
Icha : What is in our mind now is how to manage the pro-
gram efficiently.

d. Context of Conversation 2

Diva : Well, everybody... Are you all ready for the presenta-
tion next Monday?

Keisha : I think that all members in our group are ready.
Citra : What is the crucial thing to do?
Diva : We're thinking of getting the first turn. You know, the

first sight gives the greatest impression!
Rima : What is in our mind is how to be the best group in

class.
Icha : Perfect! I do agree with you all! Let's prove it!

IOpening Gambits 35

18. Starting to Describe

Agar komunikasi terdengar lebih natural, untuk mulai menjelaskan
atau memaparkan suatu hal atau suatu program, kita dapat meng-
gunakan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions -ml

•1• EK.IIJIII ~~~-~;:-~ :=:~~-- _ ;;, %~-- ~::;;;;~~_-::... --~,71 i1 "'~~~~
I : "~ ~~s3'~~= Jlffi ffi

I'm going to tell you about ... Soya akan memaparkan kepada

Anda tentang ...

What I'm going to tell you is ... Apa yang ingin soya katakan
kepada Anda adalah ...

Here, I would like to tell you Di sini, soya akan jelaskan kepada
about ... Anda tentang ...

b. In Context of Use

1111112-M BEJIMA~ DIII&AII GAIIBR'I I!!EBIN N.lURAl!

E~RIIAI!!_ ~
~
Smoking is a bad habit
that ruins our health. ~r:.,

I'm going to tell )!OU about smoking.
Smoking is a bad habit that ruins our
health.

Smoking means What I am going to tell is the danger
inviting illness. of smoking. I'd rather sa)! that smoking
means inviting illness.

The nicotine in the Here, I would like to tell )!OU about the

cigarettes that we danger of smoking. The nicotine in the

smoke ruins our lungs. cigarettes that we smoke ruins our lungs.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Teacher : Do you know why the government bans smoking in
public places? Anybody knows?

Keisha : Yes, Mum!
Teacher : Okay. Now, please come to front of the class and tell

your friends why.
Keisha : Well, everybody. I'm going to tell you why the go-

vernment bans smoking in public places. There are at
least two reasons for it. First, not all people like smok-
ing, therefore the smokers have to respect the rights

~36 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

of non smokers. Second, the smoke that comes out
of the smoker's mouth polluted the place. The bad
smell affects the non smokers. The clothes of the non
smokers can smell like tobacco.
d. Context of Conversation 2
Teacher : Diva, come to front and tell your friends about the
importance of consuming fruits regularly.
Diva :Well, boys and girls. Here. I would like to tell you why
we are recommended to consume fruits regularly.
You know, fruits are rich of different kinds of vitamins.
Vitamins are needed to protect our bodies from any
diseases, especially minor health problems such as
colds, flu, indigestions, fevers, etc.

IOpening Gambits 37

38 I Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

Snapshot

Setelah kita menggunakan ekspresi pembukaan (opening gambits)
untuk memperkenalkan topik percakapan (topic of conversation), kita
tidak terus berhenti. Kita akan meneruskan percakapan tersebut lebih
jauh dan lebih detail. Kadang-kadang di tengahjalan terjadi perubahan
topik percakapan.

Sebagaimana telah kita pahami bersama, dalam suatu konteks
percakapan sering kali tidak hanya dua orang yang terlibat di dalamnya.
Dalam suatu komunikasi lisan yang berbentuk sharing, diskusi, rapat,
atau seminar, percakapan terbentuk dengan melibatkan banyak orang
dengan banyak pikiran dan ide dengan berbagai latar belakang profesi
dan pendidikan. Hal demikian ini menjadikan konteks komunikasi
menjadi lebih variatif.

Seperti dalam konteks permainan sepak bola, begitu bola sudah mulai
ditendang oleh penjaga gawang ke tengah-tengan lapangan, maka
tidak mungkin hanya satu pemain yang akan menggiring bola masuk
ke gawang. Dia pasti akan mengoperkan bola tersebut ke teman,
dari teman bola mungkin akan dioper ke teman yang lain lagi, baru
kemudian bola mungkin akan dioperkan kembali ke dia lagi sebelum
ditendang masuk ke gawang.

Linking gambits adalah sejumlah ekspresi yang dapat dipergunakan
untuk merangkai antara hal yang sudah dibicarakan sebelumnya ke-
pada hal-hal yang akan dibicarakan selanjutnya.

Variety of Linking Expressions

1. Thinking of a Problem to Solve

Jika dalam suatu konteks percakapan kita bermaksud menyampai-
kan suatu pertimbangan umum tentang bagaimana memecahkan
suatu masalah, kita dapat memulainya dengan menggunakan eks-
presi gambits berikut:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

Dl&AlWIIl&PRESI GAIIIBDI l!iSAII ~8- ~ ~
~

In a case like this, ... Di dalam masalah seperti ini, ...

In a situation like this, ... Di dalam situasi seperti ini, ...

In this sort of situation, ... Di dalam situasi semacam ini, ...

b. In Context of Use

fiAIAmll rillE MASAI..AH YANG DIUNGIARIMN
DENGAN BAMBDS llERDENaAR,
DIUalmPMN DENGAN I..EBIB NATURAl..
IAIWIIIIAJ FQRMAI..

We need to join some In a case like this, we need to
extra classes for better join some extra classes for better
preparation. preparation.

We need to keep our body In a situation like this, we need to
warm, eat good food and keep our body warm, eat good food
consume more meat and and consume more meat and eggs.
eggs.

We should go out with In this sort of situation, we should go
raincoats and umbrellas. out with raincoats and umbrellas.

I40 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

c. Context of Conversation 1

Willgish : Oh ... it's so sad that today some friends don't come
to classes.

Rima : They have some flues, colds or coughs.
Willgish : In the cold season like this, we need to take of our

body.
We need to keep our body fit by consuming more
protein and vitamins.
Rima : In a situation like this, we need to keep our body
warm, eat good food and consume more meat and
eggs.

d. Context of Conversation 2
Ana :I've heard that there will more subjects to be include
in the national school exam this year. This make all
students have to work harder, to study more diligently.
All students need to be more consistent.
Anisa :In a case like this, we need to join some extra classes for
better preparation. We can join them in some studying
centers in town.
Ana :The afternoon's classes at school are actually good, but
they are sometimes not carried out effectively.

e. Context of Conversation 3
Invy : It rains everyday now. It's so awful if it rains in the time
when we are going to leave for school.
Amel : I often get wet when going home.
Ivny : In this sort of situation, we should go out with raincoats
and umbrellas.
Amel : Including going to school!
Ivny : Sure!

ILinking Gambits 41

2. Emphasizing the Points

Jika dalam suatu akhir diskusi kita bermaksud membuat kesimpul-
an dan memberikan suatu tekanan pada poin tertentu, kita dapat
menggunakan ekspresi gambits seperti berikut ini:

a. Rhetorical Expressions

RAGAM EKSPRESI GAMBITS PESAN

That's just the point. ltulah intinya.

But, the question is ... Tetapi, pertanyaannya adalah ...

It will raise another question ... lni akan memunculkan
pertanyaan Lain ...

This will raise another problem ... Hal ini akan memunculkan
permasalahan Lain ...

b. In Context of Use

INFORMASI DENGAN INFORMASI PENEKANAN YANG
KALIMAT FORMAL DIUNGKAPKAN DENGAN GAMBITS
TERDENGAR LEBIH NATURAL

All the members of the All the members of the group must
group must come to come to the meeting on Monday
the meeting on Monday morning at 10:00. That's just the point!
morning at 10:00.

Do all students have to But. the question is do all students

pay for the school holiday have to pay for the school holiday even

even they don't join? they don't join.

Any students who forget I really agree if any students who
doing the homework forget doing the homework should
should be punished be punished not to come into the
not to come into the classrooms. But, this will raise another
classrooms. problem.

c. Context of Conversation 1

Diva : For the presentation task next week, we need to meet
for the final discussion. We need to make a final sum-
mary.

Keisha : I don't really like that some of the members just come
to register their names and they don't work. Even for
several times, they didn't come.

I42 Sure You Can! Mastering The Gambits for Natural Conversation

Diva : All the members of the group must come to the
meeting on Monday morning at 10:00. That's just the
point!

Keisha : Those who don't come will be deleted from the list!

d. Context of Conversation 2
Rila : I'm sure that not all students will join the study tour to
Bali Island. You know, some of them get headache when
traveling by bus. They are sure to vomit making them
weak and cannot do anything.
Sari : But the questio·n is do all students have to pay for the
school holiday even they don't join.

e. Context of Conversation 3
Fadita: Have you heard that our school has launched a rule of
punishment?
Ivny :What punishment?
Fadita: Those students who forget doing their homework
cannot come into the classrooms. They should stay
outside doing their homework. It is hoped that by this,
no students will ignore doing homework.
Invy :Actually, I really agree if any students who forget doing
the homework should be punished not to come into
the classrooms. But. this will raise another problem.
The students will miss some of the lessons, which will
possibly make them become disappointed and even
frustrated.

3. Adding Points

Jika di dalam suatu diskusi atau suatu presentasi kita hendak me-
nambahkan satu pain yang tidak boleh terlupakan atau ditinggal-
kan, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi gambits berikut ini:

ILinking Gambits 43


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