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Published by Banthita Maungchon, 2019-07-31 23:40:57



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1.4 ‡ªµ¤¦¡o¼ œÊº “µœ„µ¦ž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á—· 1-5
1.5 ª·›„¸ µ¦‹´—nŠ„¨¤»n „­p 1-8
1.6 „µ¦ÂŠn „¨n»¤­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ž¦³Á£šÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 1-10
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(Material Safety Data Sheet: MSDS) 2-1
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˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.2 Áž¦¥¸ Áš¸¥¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦‹—´ nŠ„¨»n¤­µ¦ÅªÅ¢…°Š¥»Ã¦žÂ¨³°Á¤¦„· µ 1-7
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.3 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š‡nµ LEL ¨³ UEL …°ŠÂ„­p ®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.4 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š‡µn Flash Point …°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ 1-8
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.5 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥µn Š‡µn Auto-Ignition Temperature …°ŠÂ„­p ®¦º°
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.6 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š‡µn Vapor Density …°ŠÂ„­p ®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š 1-9
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…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ 2-3
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Ĝ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC
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T-Classification „´ ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ 2-12
˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.3 ­—Š¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦ÄoÁš‡œ‡· žj°Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á—· ˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ
…°Š IEC ¨³ NEC 4-18
˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.4 ˜´ªÂšœŸ¼¦o ´ ¦°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ (Standard Agencies) 5-4
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 2.5 ­—Š­´ ¨„´ ¬–­r µÎ ®¦´¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj ž¦³Á£šž°j Š„œ´

„µ¦³Á·—˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 500
˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.6 ­—Š­´¨„´ ¬–r­Îµ®¦´¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj ž¦³Á£šž°j Š„´œ

„µ¦³Á·—˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 505
˜µ¦µŠš¸É 2.7 ­—Š­´ ¨„´ ¬–­r 宦´ ¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj ž¦³Á£šž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦

¦³Á·—˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ CENELEC
˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 4.1 ˜ª´ °¥nµŠ¨„´ ¬–³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµœ—· žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á—·
˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 5.1 ‡nµ¡¨Š´ Šµœš‹¸É —» ˜—· Ţŗo

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ ­µ¦´ 3

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­µ¦´¦ž¼ 1-2
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­®¦“´ °Á¤¦·„µ 2-5
¦ž¼ š¸É 1.2­—Š°Š‡žr ¦³„° 3 °¥µn Šš¸šÉ εĮoÁ„·—„µ¦‹—» ˜·—Å¢ 2-6
¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 2.1 Flameproof Type “d” Protection 2-7
¦¼žš¸É 2.2 Intrinsic Safety Type “ia” Protection 2-7
¦¼žšÉ¸ 2.3 Pressurized Type “p” Protection 2-8
¦ž¼ š¸É 2.4 Increased Safety Type “e” Protection 2-8
¦¼žšÉ¸ 2.5 Oil Immersion Type "o" Protection 3-1
¦ž¼ š¸É 2.6 Explosive Atmosphere
¦¼žšÉ¸ 2.7 Encapsulation Type "m" Protection 3-3
¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 2.8 Nonincendive Type “n” Protection
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¦¼žš¸É 4.1 ­—Š¦³Å¢¢µj š¤¸É ¸‡ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ ‹µ„„µ¦‹—» ¦³Á—· °¥µn ŠÂš‹o ¦Š· 4-2

¦¼žš¸É 4.2 ­—Š¨„´ ¬–³­µ¥Á‡Á¨· œ·— MI (Mineral Insulated Metal Sheathed Cable) 4-4

¦ž¼ š¸É 4.3 ­—Š¨´„¬–³„µ¦žd—Ÿœ¹„šn°¦o°¥­µ¥Â¨³˜°n Á…oµ°ž» „¦–r 4-5

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¦¼žšÉ¸ 4.6 „µ¦Á—·œ­µ¥Å¢¢µj £µ¥Äœ¡œÊº š°¸É œ´ ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£ššÉ¸ 1 ˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ°Á¤¦„· µÁ®œ°º 4-13

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 4.7 „µ¦˜—· ˜Ê´Š°»ž„¦–…r o°˜n°Ž¨¸ (Sealing fitting) 4-14

¦¼žšÉ¸ 4.8 „µ¦˜—· ˜Ê´Š Sealing fitting ¦³®ªnµŠ¡ºœÊ š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥Â¨³Å¤°n œ´ ˜¦µ¥ 4-14

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 4.9 „µ¦Á—·œšn°¦°o ¥­µ¥Ã—¥Å¤¤n ¸„µ¦˜°n š°n Ÿnµœ­™µœš°¸É ´œ˜¦µ¥ 4-15

¦ž¼ š¸É 4.10 „µ¦˜—· ˜ŠÊ´ ­µ¥Å¢Äœž¦³Áš«Äœ„¨¤»n ¥»Ã¦ž 4-15

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 4.11 „µ¦˜—· ˜´ŠÊ ­µ¥Å¢Äœž¦³Áš«°Š´ „§¬ 4-16

¦ž¼ š¸É 4.12 …°o ˜°n Á‡Á·¨ 4-17

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¦ž¼ š¸É 5.3 ­—Š„µ¦šµÎ Grounding Ä®oª´˜™š» ʊ´ ­°ŠÅ¤¤n ž¸ ¦³‹»Å¢¢jµ­™˜· 5-5
¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 5.4 ­—Š„µ¦ Bonding Á¡°Éº šÎµÄ®«o „´ ¥År ¢¢µj …°Š¡ºœÊ Ÿ·ª˜µn ŠÇ¤‡¸ µn Ášµn „´œ 5-6
¦¼žšÉ¸ 5.5 ­—Š„µ¦˜°n „¦µª—šr ™É¸ Š´ ¦¦‹»­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Â¨³šn°œÎµ­µ¦Á¡ºÉ°ž°j Š„´œ
¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 5.6 ­—Š Heavy Duty Clamp with Tungsten Carbide Contact Á®¤µ³šÉ¸ 5-7
¦¼žšÉ¸ 5.7 ­—Š Medium Duty Clamp Á®¤µ³š‹É¸ ³Äo„´ ™Š´ Stainless Steel 5-8
¦¼žš¸É 5.8 ­—Š Medium Duty Cast Aluminum Clamp Á®¤µ³š¸‹É ³Äo„´ 5-8

¦¼žšÉ¸ 5.9 ­—Š Clamp Á®¤µ³š¸É‹³Ä­o µÎ ®¦´‡¸™»Š Type ‘C’ big bag

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ ­µ¦´ 5

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤n¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ŠÊ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

­µ¦´ ¦ž¼ (˜n°) ®œoµ

¦ž¼ š¸É 5.10 ­—Š C-Clamp Á®¤µ³š‹¸É ³Äšo µÎ Bonding ¦³®ªµn Š™Š´ ¦¦‹„» ´ 5-9
ǦŠÃ¨®³Â„ŠÉ¹ ™µª¦ 5-9
¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 5.11 ­—Š Pipe Clamp Á®¤µ³š‹É¸ ³Äo„´ š°n 讳Á¡ºÉ°šÎµ Bonding ¨³ 5-10
Grounding „¹ŠÉ ™µª¦
¦¼žšÉ¸ 5.12 ­—Š Screw down Clamp Á®¤µ³š‹É¸ ³Ä˜o °n „¦µª—r„´Ã‡¦ŠÃ¨®³Äœ 5-11
Šµœ˜nµŠÇ „¹ÉŠ™µª¦

¦ž¼ š¸É 5.13 °»ž„¦–r­µ¥š¸Éč­o µÎ ®¦´ „µ¦˜°n ‡¸ £µœ³š¤É¸ ¸„µ¦™µn ¥Áš­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Á¡É°º
Ä®žo ¦³‹š» ¸ÁÉ „—· …œÊ¹ ¦³®ªnµŠ„µ¦™nµ¥Áš™„¼ œÎµ¨Š­¼n—œ·

¦ž¼ š¸É 5.14 „µ¦˜°n  µ„¨³˜°n ¨Š—·œ…°Š“µœ¦°Š¦´ £µœ³¦¦‹»­µ¦ÅªÅ¢…–³ššÉ¸ µÎ
„µ¦ÂŠn ¦¦‹Á» ¡°Éº šµÎ Ä®žo ¦³‹Å» ¢¢jµ­™˜· šÉÁ¸ „—· …¹Êœ…–³šÎµ„µ¦™µn ¥ÁšÅ®¨
¨Š­¼—n ·œ

¦¼žš¸É 5.15 „µ¦˜°n  µ„¦³®ªµn Š£µœ³¦¦‹­» µ¦ÅªÅ¢

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ ­µ¦´ 6

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤¼n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡Êœº šÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¸É¤Å¸ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

šš¸É 1
‡ªµ¤¦o¼¡Êºœ“µœ…°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ¡ºÊœš¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1

1.1 ®¨´„„µ¦Â¨³Á®˜Ÿ» ¨Äœ„µ¦ÂŠn ž¦³Á£š¡Êœº š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 1.1 ­—ŠÁ®˜„» µ¦–¦r ³Á·—šÉ¸Ã¦ŠŠµœ Phillips Petroleum Ĝž¦³Áš«­®¦“´ °Á¤¦„· µ

Ĝ˜oœ«˜ª¦¦¬ 1900 Ážœ} ¥‡» šÉ°¸ »˜­µ®„¦¦¤…¥µ¥˜´ª°¥nµŠ¤µ„¨³Á¦É¤· ¤¸„µ¦Äo¤µ˜¦“µœ
„µ¦°°„Â¨³„µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Å¢¢jµ…°Š North American Codes ×¥š¸É¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC
(National Electric Code) čo­Îµ®¦´ž¦³Áš«­®¦´“°Á¤¦·„µÂ¨³¤µ˜¦“µœ CEC (Canadian
Electric Code) čo­Îµ®¦´ž¦³Áš«Â‡œµ—µ ĜnªŠÁª¨µÁ—¸¥ª„´œ­™µ´œ¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š¥»Ã¦ž‡º°
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) „È™¼„„n°˜Ê´Š…¹Êœš¸Éž¦³Áš«­ª·˜ÁŽ°¦r¨œ—r
­®£µ¡¥»Ã¦ž œ°„‹µ„œ¸Êž¦³Áš«Äœ­®£µ¡¥»Ã¦ž¥´Š¦nª¤„´œ­¦oµŠ¤µ˜¦“µœÁ¡ºÉ°ÄoĜž¦³Áš«
­¤µ·„×¥ÁŒ¡µ³‡º° CENELEC (European Electrotechnical Committee for
Standardization) Ž¹ÉŠÁœ°Êº ®µÃ—¥¦ª¤Â¨oªÁ®¤°º œ„´¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š IEC

„µ¦„εÁœ·—¦™¥œ˜r¨³Á‡¦Éº°Š·œÄœ˜oœš«ª¦¦¬š¸É 1920 ­¦oµŠ‡ªµ¤˜o°Š„µ¦ÄoÁºÊ°Á¡¨·Š
‡»–£µ¡—¸°¥nµŠ¤µ„ Å°¦³Á®¥‹µ„„p­ÃŽ¨¸œ¤¸‡»–­¤´˜·šÉ¸‹»—˜·—ŢŗoŠnµ¥ šÎµÄ®o˜o°Šžj°Š„´œ
„µ¦­žµ¦r„‹µ„¦³Å¢¢jµÅ¤nÄ®o°¥n¼Äœ¦·Áª–š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥ ¡ºÊœ—´Š„¨nµª‹¹Š™¼„„ε®œ—Áž}œ “Extra
Hazardous Location” —´Šœ´ÊœÃ¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤šÉ¸­¦oµŠ…¹ÊœÄ®¤n‹³˜o°Š°°„¦³Å¢¢jµÄ®o
Áž}œž¦³Á£š Explosion proof Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸Éš¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Ĝže ‡.«.1931 ¤µ˜¦“µœ
NEC „ȝnŠ¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ °°„Áž}œ Class I ­Îµ®¦´Â„p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥ Class II ­Îµ®¦´ i»œš¸É‹»—

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-1

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¼¤n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ÊŠ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡œÊº šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜·—Ţŗo ¨³ Class III ­Îµ®¦´Á­oœÄ¥šÉ¸‹»—˜·—Ţŗo ˜n°¤µÄœže ‡.«.1935 „Ȥ¸„µ¦ÂnŠ„¨»n¤Â„p­
¨³Å°¦³Á®¥Äœ Class I °°„Áž}œ„¨»n¤ A, B, C ¨³ D ˜µ¤‡»–­¤´˜· 3 ž¦³„µ¦ ‡º° (1) ‡ªµ¤
—´œ‹µ„„µ¦¦³Á·— (Explosive Pressure) (2) „µ¦…¥µ¥˜´ª…°ŠÁž¨ªÅ¢ (Flame Transmission)
¨³ (3) °–» ®£¼¤·„µ¦‹»—¦³Á—· (Ignition Temperature)

Ĝže ‡.«.1956 œª‡·—Á¦Éº°Š‡ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥Ã—¥Âšo‹¦·Š (Intrinsic Safety) Á„·—…ʹœÂ¨³
„ε®œ—°¥n¼˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š North American Codes ¨³ÄœnªŠÁª¨µÁ—¸¥ª„´œ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤
…°Š°Á¤¦·„µÁ®œº°…¥µ¥˜´ªÁ¡·É¤¤µ„…¹Êœ „µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Å¢¢jµÂ Explosion proof šÊ´Š®¤—Äœ
¡ÊºœšÉ¸š¸É¤¸­µ¦°´œ˜¦µ¥‹³šÎµÄ®o¤¸‡nµÄo‹nµ¥­¼Š¤µ„ —´Šœ´Êœ¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š NEC ‹¹ŠÅ—o„ε®œ—¡ºÊœšÉ¸
°´œ˜¦µ¥Äœ “Division 2” Ž¹ÉŠ®¤µ¥™¹Š¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥š¸É¥°¤Ä®očo°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµšÉ¸¤¸¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦
žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—šÉ¸˜É優nµÅ—o ×¥¤¸ÁŠºÉ°œÅ…‡º° Áž}œ¦·Áª–šÉ¸¤¸„µ¦‹´—Á„ȝ®¦º°Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Ž¹ÉŠ‹³
¤Ã¸ °„µ­¦´ªÉ Å®¨…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢­¼n ¦¦¥µ„µ«Äœ­£µª³Å¤nž„˜·Ášnµœ´œÊ Ánœ „µ¦Á„·—°»´˜·Á®˜»¦³®ªnµŠ
„µ¦šµÎ Šµœ ®¦°º „µ¦Á„·—¦°¥Â˜„¦oµª…°Š™Š´ ¦¦‹» Áž}œ˜œo

1.2 ¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦‹´—Šn ¡Êœº š¸°É œ´ ˜¦µ¥…°Š¥Ã» ¦žÂ¨³°Á¤¦·„µÁ®œº°

¡ºœÊ šÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥™„¼ ‹—´ Šn ž¦³Á£š˜µ¤‡–» ­¤´˜…· °Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢šÉ¸°µ‹¤Ä¸ o®¦°º Á„ȝ¦´„¬µ°¥n¼
Ĝ¡ºÊœšÉ¸œÊ´œÇ „p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥š¸Éžœ°¥n¼Äœ¦¦¥µ„µ«‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—­nªœŸ­¤…°ŠÁºÊ°Á¡¨·ŠÂ¨³
°°„Ž·Á‹œš¸ÉÁ®¤µ³­¤ (Ignitable Concentration) šÉ¸‹³‹»—˜·—Ţŗo ‡ª¦®¨¸„Á¨É¸¥Š„µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š
¦³Å¢¢jµÄœ¦·Áª–¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ ˜n™oµÅ¤n­µ¤µ¦™®¨¸„Á¨¸É¥ŠÅ—oĜšµŠž’·´˜· Ÿ¼o°°„
¤„¸ µ¦‹´—nŠž¦³Á£šÅªo˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.1 Áž¦¸¥Áš¥¸ ¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦‹—´ Šn ž¦³Á£š…°Š¡œºÊ šÉš¸ ¤É¸ ­¸ µ¦ÅªÅ¢…°Š¥»Ã¦žÂ¨³

°Á¤¦„· µ

¤µ˜¦“µœ ¤Â¸ „p­ÅªÅ¢ ¤Â¸ „p­ÅªÅ¢ ¤¸Â„­p ŪŢ

°¥Án¼ žœ} ž¦³‹Îµ °¥Ä¼n œ­£µª³ž„˜· °¥n¼Äœ­£µª³Å¤žn „˜·

IEC / CENELEC Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2

NEC 500 Class I: Division 1 Class I: Division 2

NEC 505 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2

š¤É¸ µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC, NEC ¨³ CENELEC

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-2

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡n¼¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œºÊ š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.2 Áž¦¥¸ Áš¸¥¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦‹—´ nŠ„¨n¤» ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢…°Š¥Ã» ¦žÂ¨³°Á¤¦·„µ

Typical ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 500

Material ¨³ CENELEC ¨³ CEC

Acetylene Group IIC Class I / Group A

Hydrogen Group IIC Class I / Group B

Ethylene Group IIB Class I / Group C

Propane Group IIA Class I / Group D

Methane Group I Gaseous Mines

Metal Dust - Class II / Group E

Coal Dust - Class II / Group F

Grain Dust - Class II / Group G

Fibers - Class III

š¤¸É µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC, CENELEC, NEC ¨³ CEC

1.3 ‡ªµ¤®¤µ¥…°Š¡ºÊœš°É¸ œ´ ˜¦µ¥ (Definition of Hazardous Locations)

Zone 0 Location (Class I: Division 1) ‡º° ¡ÊºœšÉ¸š¸É¤¸Â„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥Ÿ­¤°¥n¼Äœ¦¦¥µ„µ«
—oª¥‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœÁ®¤µ³­¤Äœ„µ¦‹»—˜·—Ţŗo°¥n¼Áž}œž¦³‹Îµ®¦º°Áž}œnªŠÁª¨µœµœ ˜´ª°¥nµŠ
¡ºÊœš¨¸É ´„¬–³œ‹¸Ê ³¡Å—o Ánœ

x £µ¥Äœ™Š´ ¦¦‹­» µ¦ÅªÅ¢

x ¡œÊº š¸ÉĄ¨o°n ŠÁž—d …°Š™´Š¦¦‹»š°É¸ µ‹šÎµÄ®Âo „­p ®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥¦É´ª„¦³‹µ¥°°„¤µ­¼n£µ¥œ°„

¡ºÊœš¸ÉĜ Zone 0 ‹³¤¸Ã°„µ­­¼Šš¸É‹³¤¸‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°ŠÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦°´œ˜¦µ¥Á„·œ„ªnµ 100%
…°Š‡nµ Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) …°Š­µ¦œ´ÊœÄœ£µª³ž„˜· ¤µ„„ªnµ 1,000 ´ÉªÃ¤Š˜n°že
°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµšÉ¸ÄoĜ¡ºÊœšÉ¸ Zone 0 ¤´„‹³Áž}œÁ‡¦Éº°Š¤º°ª´—˜nµŠÇ Ánœ Á‡¦Éº°Š¤º°ª´—¦³—´
…°ŠÁ®¨ª ¨³ Á‡¦ºÉ°Š¤º°ª´—°»–®£¼¤· Áž}œ˜oœ °»ž„¦–rÁ‡¦Éº°Šª´——´Š„¨nµª‹³˜o°ŠÁž}œž¦³Á£š
Intrinsically Safe Ášnµœ´Êœ Á¡¦µ³°»ž„¦–rž¦³Á£šœÊ¸‹³Äo„ε¨´ŠÅ¢¢jµÄœ¦³—´˜Îɵ¤µ„ šÎµÄ®oÁ¤ºÉ°¤¸
„µ¦Á„·—¨´—ªŠ‹¦Äœ°»ž„¦–rÁ‡¦Éº°Š¤º°ª´—Á®¨nµœÊ¸ ¡¨´ŠŠµœ‡ªµ¤¦o°œš¸ÉÁ„·—…¹Êœ‹³Å¤n¤µ„¡°Ä®o„p­
®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥ÅªÅ¢Á„—· „µ¦‹—» ˜—· Ţŗo

Zone 1 Location (Class I: Division 1) ‡º° ¡ºÊœšÉ¸šÉ¸¤¸Â„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥Ÿ­¤°¥¼nĜ¦¦¥µ„µ«
—ªo ¥‡ªµ¤Á…¤o …oœÁ®¤µ³­¤Äœ„µ¦‹—» ˜·—ŢŗÄo œ¦³®ªnµŠš¸É¤¸„¦³ªœ„µ¦šÎµŠµœž„˜·, nªŠÁª¨µšÉ¸

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-3

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡n¼¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

¤¸„µ¦Žn°¤Îµ¦»Š, ¦³®ªnµŠš¸É¤¸‡ªµ¤Ÿ·—¡¨µ—Äœ„¦³ªœ„µ¦šÎµŠµœ„È‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨…°Š
­µ¦ÅªÅ¢…ʹœÅ—o ¦ª¤š´ÊŠ¡ºÊœš¸É°¥¼n˜—· „´¡Êœº šÄ¸É œ Zone 0 —oª¥ ˜ª´ °¥µn Š…°Š¡ÊºœšÄɸ œÃŽœœÊ¸ ‡º°

x ¦Á· ª–¦°°n ŠÁžd—…°Š™´Š¦¦‹»
x ¦Á· ª–¦° Safety Valve ¨³¦·Áª–Ä„¨„o ´ Seal …°Š Pump ®¦°º Compressor
x ‹—» ™µn ¥Áš­µ¦ÅªÅ¢
x ¦Á· ª–šÉ¸¤¸„µ¦™µn ¥¦¦‹Â» „­p
x ¦Á· ª–šÉ¸¤„¸ µ¦Ä­o µ¦˜ª´ šµÎ ¨³¨µ¥ (Solvent)
x ¦Á· ª–š¤É¸ „¸ µ¦¡nœÁ‡¨º°­¸
x ®o°Šš¸É¤„¸ µ¦Ä­o µ¦ÅªÅ¢ŽŠ¹É Ťn¤¸„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«šÁɸ ®¤µ³­¤
¡ºÊœš¸ÉĜ Zone 1 ‹³¤¸Ã°„µ­šÉ¸‹³¤¸‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°ŠÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦°´œ˜¦µ¥Á„·œ„ªnµ 100%
…°Š‡nµ Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) …°Š­µ¦œÊ´œÄœ£µª³ž„˜· ¦³®ªnµŠ 10 ™¹Š 1,000 É´ªÃ¤Š

Zone 2 Location (Class I: Division 2) ‡º° ¡ÊºœšÉ¸šÉ¸¤¸Â„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥Ÿ­¤°¥¼nĜ¦¦¥µ„µ«
—oª¥‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœÁ®¤µ³­¤Äœ„µ¦‹»—˜·—ŢŗoĜnªŠÁª¨µ­´ÊœÇ ˜´ª°¥nµŠ…°Š¡ºÊœš¸ÉĜ¨´„¬–³œÊ¸

x ¡ºœÊ š¸šÉ É­¸ µ¤µ¦™Á„—· „µ¦¦ªÉ´ Å®¨…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Áœ°ºÉ Š‹µ„¤¸„µ¦Á„·—°» ˜´ ·Á®˜»
x ¡œÊº šÁ¸É „ȝ™´Š¦¦‹»­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Â¨³°µ‹Á„—· ¤¦¸ °¥Â˜„¦oµª…°Š™´Š¦¦‹»
x ¡ºÊœšÉ¸š¸É¤¸„µ¦Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ ˜n„¦³ªœ„µ¦šÎµŠµœš»„…Ê´œ˜°œ˜µ¤ž„˜·‹³Å¤n¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥

x ¡Êºœš¸Éš¸É¤¸šn°œÎµÂ„p­®¦º°­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Â¨³°µ‹Á„·—„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨ÁœºÉ°Š‹µ„‡ªµ¤„¡¦n°Š…°Š

…°o ˜°n ¨³ªµ¨rª
x ¡ºœÊ šÉ¸š¸É°¥n˜¼ ·—„´ ¡ºÊœš¸ÄÉ œ Zone 1
¡ÊºœšÉ¸Äœ Zone 2 ‹³¤¸Ã°„µ­šÉ¸‹³¤¸‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°ŠÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦°´œ˜¦µ¥Á„·œ„ªnµ 100%
…°Š‡nµ Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) …°Š­µ¦œœ´Ê Ĝ£µª³ž„˜· œ°o ¥„ªnµ 10 ´ÉªÃ¤Š˜°n že

¡ÊºœšÉ¸š¸É¤¸„µ¦Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ ŽÉ¹Š°µ‹¤¸„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨Áž}œµŠ‡¦Ê´Š ‹´—ªnµÁž}œ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥Äœ
Zone 1 ˜Án ¤Éº°¤¸„µ¦˜—· ˜´ÊŠ¦³¦³µ¥°µ„µ«°¥nµŠÁ®¤µ³­¤ ‹³nª¥Ä®­o µ¤µ¦™¨—…°Á…˜…°Š
¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥Äœ Zone 1 Ä®o‡¨Š ×¥¡Êºœš¸ÉµŠ­nªœŽÉ¹ŠÁ—·¤Áž}œ Zone 1 ‹³„¨µ¥Áž}œ¡ÊºœšÉ¸Äœ
Zone 2 Áœº°É Š‹µ„¤Å¸ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¨—œ°o ¥¨Š

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-4

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼¤n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ÊŠ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡Êœº šÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

1.4 ‡ªµ¤¦o¡¼ œºÊ “µœ„µ¦ž°j Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á—· (Basics of Explosion Protection)

¤µ„¤µ¥šÉ´ªÃ¨„ ®¨µ¥Á®˜»„µ¦–r¤¸‡ªµ¤¦»œÂ¦Š‹œšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦µ—Á‹È¨o¤˜µ¥®¦º°‡ªµ¤
Á­¸¥®µ¥°¥nµŠ¤µ„ ‡ªµ¤Á…oµÄ‹Äœ„µ¦Äo¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦žj°Š„´œÄœ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥°µ‹¤¸‡ªµ¤
Ÿ·—¡¨µ—Å—o‹µ„„µ¦˜¸‡ªµ¤šÉ¸Ÿ·—Åž‹µ„Á‹˜œµ…°Š…o°„ε®œ—Äœ¤µ˜¦“µœ Ÿ¼o¤¸®œoµš¸É°°„
˜—· ˜Š´Ê ¦³ž°j Š„´œ‹µÎ œªœ¤µ„‹³Äo‡ªµ¤¦o¼ ¨³ž¦³­„µ¦–­r ªn œ˜ª´ Ĝ¡·‹µ¦–µ

¦¼žš¸É 1.2 ­—Š°Š‡žr ¦³„° 3 °¥µn Ššš¸É µÎ Ä®oÁ„—· „µ¦‹—» ˜·—Å¢

¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ (Hazardous Area) ‡º° ¦·Áª–š¸É¤¸Ã°„µ­‹³Á„·—‹µ„°»´˜·Á®˜»…°Š„µ¦
¦³Á·—®¦º°Å¢Å®¤o…¹ÊœÅ—oŠnµ¥ ×¥­£µª³š¸É‹³Á„·—Á®˜»—´Š„¨nµª‹³˜o°Š¤¸°Š‡rž¦³„°¦nª¤ 3 °¥nµŠ
1. ¤¸­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœž¦·¤µ–¤µ„¡°šÉ¸‹³‹»—˜·—Ţŗo (Flammable Material in Ignitable

2. ¤¸°°„Ž·Á‹œÄœž¦·¤µ–š¸ÉÁ¡¸¥Š¡°Ä®oÁ„·—„µ¦ÁŸµÅ®¤o (Ĝ°µ„µ«ž„˜·‹³¤¸°°„Ž·Á‹œž¦³¤µ–

3. ¤¸Â®¨nŠ‹»—˜·—Å¢ (Ignition Source) šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—¡¨´ŠŠµœ‡ªµ¤¦o°œš¸É¤µ„¡°„´­nªœŸ­¤…°Š

ÁºÊ°Á¡¨·ŠÂ¨³°µ„µ« Ž¹ÉŠ„µ¦‹»—˜·—Å¢œ¸Ê­µ¤µ¦™Á„·—Å—o‹µ„­µÁ®˜»˜nµŠÇ Ánœ Áž¨ªÅ¢, „µ¦
­žµ¦r„…°Š°ž» „¦–År ¢¢jµ, ‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼Š­³­¤, ¨³„µ¦™nµ¥Ášž¦³‹»‹µ„Å¢¢jµ­™˜· ¥r Áž}œ˜oœ

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-5

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡¼n¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œºÊ šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

­¼Š¤µ„ Ž¹ÉŠ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢°µ‹°¥¼nĜ¦¼ž…°Š „p­ (Gas) ®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥ (Vapor) ÁœºÉ°Š‹µ„Á¦µÅ¤n
­µ¤µ¦™®¨¸„Á¨¸É¥Š„µ¦Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Å—o ‹¹Š‹ÎµÁž}œ˜o°Š¡¥µ¥µ¤Å¤nÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦¦É´ªÅ®¨…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢­¼n
¦¦¥µ„µ«‹œÁ„·—­£µª³š¸É‹³Á„·—¦³Á·—Å—o °¥nµŠÅ¦„Șµ¤ÄœµŠ¡ÊºœšÉ¸‹³¤¸„µ¦Äo®¦º°™nµ¥Áš­µ¦
ŪŢ°¥¼nÁž}œž¦³‹Îµ „µ¦žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—‹³šÎµÅ—o×¥„µ¦­¦oµŠ¦³¦³µ¥°µ„µ«
(Ventilation) °¥µn ŠÁ®¤µ³­¤ ¨³¤¸„µ¦žj°Š„œ´ ŤnÄ®o¤Â¸ ®¨nŠ„µÎ Áœ·—„µ¦‹—» ˜·—Å¢…¹ÊœÅ—o

­µ¦Â˜¨n ³œ—· ¤‡¸ –» ­¤˜´ ·Äœ„µ¦‹—» ˜—· Å¢˜µn Š„œ´ —´Šœ´Êœ „µ¦¤¸°°„Ž·Á‹œ „µ¦‹»—˜·—Å¢
¨³­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ ¦nª¤„´œ„È°µ‹‹³Å¤nšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦¦³Á·—®¦º°Å¢Å®¤o…¹ÊœÅ—o ‡»–­¤´˜·š¸É­Îµ‡´…°Š
­µ¦ÅªÅ¢š¸ÉžœÁžg°œÄœ°µ„µ«Â¨³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—­£µ¡¦¦¥µ„µ«šÉ¸‹»—˜·—Ţŗo (Explosive
Atmosphere) ¤¸ 5 ž¦³„µ¦ ‡°º
1. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) ‡°º ž¦·¤µ–Áž°¦rÁŽÈœ˜r…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…´Êœ˜Éεš¸ÉŸ­¤„´

°µ„µ« ‹œÁ„·—Ážœ} ­ªn œŸ­¤šÉÁ¸ ®¤µ³­¤šÉ¸‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦¦³Á·—Å—o (Explosive mixture) ™oµ
¤¸ž¦¤· µ–Áž°¦Ár Žœ˜r…°ŠÂ„p­ÅªÅ¢Á‹º°žœÄœ°µ„µ«Á…o¤…oœœo°¥„ªnµœ¸Ê‹³Å¤nÁ¡¸¥Š¡°Ä®o‹»—˜·—

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.3 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥µn Š‡nµ LEL ¨³ UEL …°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

Flammable Limits IEC NEC
Percent by Volume
°ºÉ ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

LEL UEL Group Group

Acetaldehyde 4.0 60.0 IIB C

Acetic Acid 4.0 19.9 IIA D

Acetic Anhydride 2.7 10.3 IIA D

Acetone 2.5 13.0 IIA D

Acetone Cyanohydrin 2.2 12.0 IIA D

Acetonitrite 3.0 16.0 IIA D

Acetylene 2.5 100.0 IIC A

š¤¸É µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

2. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) ‡°º ž¦¤· µ–Áž°¦rÁŽÈœ˜r…°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥¤µ„š¸É­»—š¸ÉŸ­¤
„´°µ„µ« ‹œÁ„·—Áž}œ­nªœŸ­¤š¸ÉÁ®¤µ³­¤šÉ¸‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦¦³Á·—Å—o (Explosive mixture)

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-6

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼n¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œÊº šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

3. Flash Point ‡º° ‡nµ°»–®£¼¤·˜Îɵ­»—š¸ÉšÎµÄ®o­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœ­£µ¡…°ŠÁ®¨ª Á„·—„µ¦¦³Á®¥‹œ
„¨µ¥Áž}œÅ°¦³Á®¥Äœž¦·¤µ–Á¡¸¥Š¡°Ä®Áo „—· „µ¦‹—» ˜·—ŢŗÁo ®œ°º …°ŠÁ®¨ªœÊ´œ …°ŠÁ®¨ªš¸É
¤¸‡nµ Flash Point ˜Îɵ„ªnµ 37.8O C (100O F) ‹³Á¦¸¥„ªnµ “Flammable Liquid” ­nªœ
…°ŠÁ®¨ªš¸É¤¸‡nµ Flash Point ­¼Š„ªnµ 37.8O C (100O F) ‹³Á¦¸¥„ªnµ “Combustible Liquid”
™oµÁ¦µ‹´—Á„ȝ®¦º°Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœ¡ºÊœšÉ¸š¸É¤¸°»–®£¼¤·˜É優nµ‡nµ Flash Point „È‹³Å¤nšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—
­£µ¡…°Š¡œÊº šÉ°¸ ´œ˜¦µ¥…Êœ¹ ŗo

˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.4 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥nµŠ‡nµ Flash Point …°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

°Éº ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Flash Point Temperature IEC NEC
O F O C Group Group

Acetaldehyde -38.0 -39.0 IIB C
Acetic Acid 103.0 39.0 IIA D
Acetic Anhydride 120.0 49.0 IIA D
Acetone -4.0 -20.0 IIC A

Acetone Cyanohydrin 165.0 74.0

Acetonitrite 42.0 6.0

Acetylene °¥Än¼ œ­£µ¡Â„­p Á­¤°

šÉ¤¸ µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

4. Auto-Ignition Temperature ‡º° °»–®£¼¤·˜Îɵš¸É­»—š¸ÉšÎµÄ®o„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Ž¹ÉŠ
Ÿ­¤°¥¼nĜ¦¦¥µ„µ«‹³Á„·—¨»„˜·—ŢŗoÁ°ŠÃ—¥Å¤n‹ÎµÁž}œ˜o°Š¤¸ž¦³„µ¥Å¢ Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸Éš¸É¤¸„µ¦
¦É´ªÅ®¨…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ ™oµ¤¸„µ¦ÄoŠµœÁ‡¦Éº°Š‹´„¦„¨®¦º°°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµ
ŽÉ¹ŠšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼ŠšÉ¸­nªœÄ—­nªœ®œÉ¹Š(Hot Spot) ×¥‡ªµ¤¦o°œš¸ÉÁ„·—…ʹœœÊ¸¤¸°»–®£¼¤·
­¼Š„ªµn ‡nµ Auto-Ignition Temperature …°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥œÊ´œÇ °µ‹‹³šÎµÄ®o­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœ
¦¦¥µ„µ«Á„—· „µ¦¨„» ˜—· Å¢…¹ÊœÁ°ŠÅ—o

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-7

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¼n¤°º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.5 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥µn Š‡µn Auto-Ignition Temperature …°ŠÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š

º°É ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Auto-Ignition Temperature IEC NEC
O F O C Group Group

Acetaldehyde 347.0 75.0 IIB C
464.0 IIA D
Acetic Acid 867.0 316.0 IIA D
465.0 IIA D
Acetic Anhydride 600.0 688.0 IIA D
524.0 IIA D
Acetone 869.0 305.0 IIC A

Acetone Cyanohydrin 1270.0

Acetonitrite 975.0

Acetylene 531.0

š¤¸É µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

5. Vapor Density ‡º° ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœnœ…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Á¤Éº°Áš¸¥„´°µ„µ«
™oµ‡nµ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœnœ…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¤µ„„ªnµ 1.0 ­—Šªnµ „p­®¦º°Å°œÊ¸®œ´„„ªnµ°µ„µ«
Á¤Éº°Á„·—¤¸„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨ „p­®¦º°Å°œÊ¸‹³¨°¥°¥¼nĜ¦³—´˜Îɵ ˜n™oµ‡nµ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœnœ…°ŠÂ„p­
®¦º°Å°œo°¥„ªnµ 1.0 ­—ŠªnµÂ„p­®¦º°Å°œ·—œ¸ÊÁµ„ªnµ°µ„µ« Á¤ºÉ°Á„·—¤¸„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨ „p­
®¦º°Å°œÊ‹¸ ³¨°¥…Êœ¹ ­Š¼

˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.6 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥nµŠ‡nµ Vapor Density …°ŠÂ„­p ®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢
Á¤º°É Áž¦¸¥Áš¥¸ „´‡µn ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœœn …°Š°µ„µ«

°Éº ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Vapor Density IEC NEC
[ Air density = 1.0 ] Group Group

Acetaldehyde 1.5 IIB C
Acetic Acid 2.1 IIA D
Acetic Anhydride 3.5 IIA D
Acetone 2.0 IIA D
Acetone Cyanohydrin 2.9 IIA D
Acetonitrite 1.4 IIA D
Acetylene 0.9 IIC A
šÉ¸¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-8

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šµÎ ‡¤n¼ °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

1.5 ª·›¸„µ¦‹´—nŠ„¨»n¤Â„­p (Gas Grouping)

„p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥Â˜n¨³œ·—‹³¤¸‡»–­¤´˜·š¸É˜„˜nµŠ„´œ Á¦µ‹¹ŠÅ¤n­µ¤µ¦™°°„
°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµÁ¡Éº°Äožj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—­Îµ®¦´Â„p­Â˜n¨³œ·—Å—o ª·›¸„µ¦š¸É—¸š¸É­»—ÄœšµŠž’·´˜·„È
‡º°„µ¦ÂŠn „¨»n¤Â„p­ÅªÅ¢˜µ¤¨„´ ¬–³šÉ¸­Îµ‡´ 2 ž¦³„µ¦ ‡º°
1. Minimum Ignition Current (MIC) ‡°º ‡µn „¦³Â­Å¢¢µj œo°¥š­¸É »—šÉ¸‹³šµÎ Ä®Áo „—· ­žµ¦r„‹œÁ„·—

„µ¦¨»„˜·—Å¢…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥ ‹µ„„µ¦š—­°Äœ®o°Šš—¨°Š ™oµÂ„p­œ·—®œÉ¹Š¤¸‡nµ
MIC œo°¥ ­—ŠªnµÂ„p­œÊ´œ­µ¤µ¦™˜·—ŢŗoŠnµ¥ —´Šœ´Êœ„µ¦Á¨º°„čo°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµšÉ¸Äo
„¦³Â­Å¢¢jµ˜É優nµ‡nµ MIC Á¡Éº°˜·—˜Ê´ŠÄœ¦·Áª–šÉ¸¤¸Â„p­œÊ¸Á‹º°žœÄœ¦¦¥µ„µ«‹³nª¥
žj°Š„´œ„µ¦Á„·—ž¦³„µ¥Å¢š¸É¤¸‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼Š‹œÁ„·—„µ¦‹»—¦³Á·—…¹ÊœÅ—o ¤o‹³Á„·—‡ªµ¤
„¡¦n°ŠÄœªŠ‹¦Å¢¢jµ„˜È µ¤
2. Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG) ‡º° ‡nµ‡ªµ¤„ªoµŠ…°Šn°ŠÁžd—¤µ„šÉ¸­»—š¸É‹³
n°ŠÁžd—œ´ÊœÅž­n¼£µ¥œ°„šÉ¸¤¸Â„p­œ·—Á—¸¥ª„´œÁ‹º°žœ°¥n¼ ™oµÂ„p­œ·—Ä—¤¸‡nµ MESG ¤µ„
­—Šªnµ­µ¤µ¦™Á¨º°„čo°»ž„¦–ržj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·— (Explosion proof) ®¦º° °»ž„¦–ržj°Š„´œ
Å¢ (Flameproof) š¸É¤¸‡nµ MESG œo°¥„ªnµÅ—o ÁœÉº°Š‹µ„¥·ÉŠn°ŠÁžd—‡¨ŠÁšnµÅ¦ „È‹³¤¸
ð„µ­œo°¥¨Šš¸ÉÁž¨ªÅ¢‹µ„„µ¦¦³Á—· £µ¥ÄœÁ‡¦°Éº Š®n°®o¤» ‹³Âš¦„°°„­¼£n µ¥œ°„

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.7 ­—Š˜´ª°¥nµŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Á¦¸¥Š¨Îµ—´˜µ¤°´œ˜¦µ¥…°Š

Typical Gas

Group MESG (mm.) MIC (mA) Group MESG (rel.) MIC (rel.)

Acetylene A 0.25 60 IIC < 0.5 > 0.8

Hydrogen B 0.28 75 IIC < 0.5 > 0.8

Ethylene C 0.65 108 IIB 0.5 - 0.9 0.45 - 0.8

Propane D 0.97 146 IIA > 0.9 < 0.45

®¤µ¥Á®˜» ‡nµ rel. ®¤µ¥™¹Š ‡nµ­¤´ ¡´š›r (Relative Value) Á¤ºÉ°Áž¦¸¥Áš¥¸ „´‡nµ…°ŠÂ„p­¤¸Á›œ

MESG (rel.) < 1.0 ®¤µ¥™Š¹ Áž¨ªÅ¢…°ŠÂ„p­œÊŸ¸ µn œn°ŠÂ‡Å—Šo nµ¥„ªnµ…°ŠÂ„­p ¤¸Á›œ

MIC (rel.) < 1.0 ®¤µ¥™Š¹ č„o ¦³Â­Å¢¢jµÄœ„µ¦‹—» ¦³Á—· „p­œœ¸Ê °o ¥„ªµn …°ŠÂ„p­¤¸Á›œ

š¸É¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC ¨³ IEC

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 1-9

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¤¼n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

‹µ„˜µ¦µŠš¸É 1.7 ‹³Á®Èœªnµ „p­ Acetylene ¨³ Hydrogen Áž}œÂ„p­š¸É¤¸°´œ˜¦µ¥­¼Š¤µ„ Á¡¦µ³
Á¤Éº°¤¸„µ¦‹»—˜·—ިoªÁž¨ªÅ¢­µ¤µ¦™¨»„¨µ¤Ÿnµœn°ŠÁžd—‡Ç °°„­n¼£µ¥œ°„Å—o—¸„ªnµ ¨³
‹»—˜—· ŢŗoŠµn ¥„ªµn ץč„o ¦³Â­Å¢¢jµÄœ„µ¦‹—» ˜·—Å¢Á¡¥¸ ŠÁ¨„È œo°¥Ášnµœœ´Ê

˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC ‹³¤¸„µ¦‹´—„¨¤»n „­p (Gas) ¨³Å°¦³Á®¥ (Vapor) ŗo—´ŠœÊ¸
Group A: ‡º°Â„p­ Acetylene
Group B: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ šÉ¸¤¸‡nµ MESG Ratio ŤnÁ„·œ 0.45 ®¦º°¤¸‡nµ MIC
Ratio ŤÁn „·œ 0.4
Group C: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ šÉ¸¤¸‡nµ MESG Ratio ¤µ„„ªnµ 0.45 ˜nŤnÁ„·œ
0.75 ®¦°º ¤‡¸ nµ MIC Ratio ¤µ„„ªnµ 0.4 ˜Ån ¤nÁ„œ· 0.8
Group D: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ šÉ¸¤¸‡nµ MESG Ratio ¤µ„„ªnµ 0.75 ®¦º°¤¸‡nµ
MIC Ratio ¤µ„„ªµn 0.8

˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ‹³¤¸„µ¦‹—´ „¨n»¤Â„­p (Gas) ¨³Å°¦³Á®¥ (Vapor) ŗo—Š´ œÊ¸
Group IIC: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ š¸É¤¸‡nµ MESG ŤnÁ„·œ 0.50 ¤¤. ®¦º°¤¸‡nµ MIC
Ratio ŤnÁ„œ· 0.45
Group IIB: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ š¸É¤¸‡nµ MESG ¤µ„„ªnµ 0.50 ¤¤. ˜nŤnÁ„·œ
0.90 ¤¤. ®¦º°¤‡¸ µn MIC Ratio ¤µ„„ªµn 0.45 ˜Ån ¤nÁ„·œ 0.8
Group IIA: ‡º° „p­Â¨³Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ šÉ¸¤¸‡nµ MESG ¤µ„„ªnµ 0.90 ¤¤. ®¦º°¤¸‡nµ
MIC Ratio ¤µ„„ªµn 0.8

1.6 „µ¦ÂnŠ„¨¤n» ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ž¦³Á£šÂ„­p ®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 1.8 „µ¦ÂnŠ„¨n»¤­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ž¦³Á£šÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥

Éº°­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ „¨n¤» ˜µ¤„µ¦ °–» ®£¤¼ ·‹—» %LFL %UFL „¨n¤» ˜µ¤„µ¦
‹µÎ œ„Ážœ} ¦³Á—· (oC) ‹µÎ œ„Áž}œ
ž¦³Á£š- ž¦³Á£š-Μ

Acetaldehyde D 175 4.0 60.0 IIA

Acetic Acid D 464 4.0 19.9 IIA

Acetone D 465 2.5 12.8 IIA

Acetonitrile D 524 3.0 16.0 IIA

Acetylene A 305 2.5 99.9 IIC

Acrolein (Inhibited) B 235 2.8 31.0 IIB

Acrylonitrile D 481 3.0 17.0 IIB

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°Éº ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ „¨¤»n ˜µ¤„µ¦ °–» ®£¤¼ ‹· »— %LFL %UFL „¨¤n» ˜µ¤„µ¦
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Ammonia D 498 15.0 28.0 IIA

Benzene D 498 1.2 7.8 IIA

1, 3-Butadiene B 420 2.0 12.0 IIB

1-Butano 1 D 343 1.4 11.2 IIA

2-Butano 1 D 405 1.7 9.8 IIA

n-Butyl Acetate D 421 1.7 7.6 IIA

Crotonaldehyde C 232 2.1 15.5 IIB

Cumene D 424 0.9 6.5 IIA

Cyclohexane D 245 1.3 8.0 IIA

Cyclohexanol D 300 - - IIA

Cyclohexanone D 245 1.1 9.4 IIA

Cycloprpoane D 503 2.4 10.4 IIB

p-Cymene D 436 0.7 5.6 IIA

o-Dichlorobenzene D 647 2.2 9.2 IIA

1, 2- D 460 5.6 12.8 IIA


Diethylamine C 312 1.8 10.1 IIA

Diethylaminoethanol C 320 - - IIA

Diethyl Ether C 160 1.9 36.0 IIB

Dimethylamine C 400 2.8 14.4 IIA

1, 4-Dioxane C 180 2.0 22.0 IIB

Ethane D 472 3.0 12.5 IIA

Ethanol D 363 3.3 19.0 IIA

Ethylene C 450 2.7 36.0 IIB

Ethylene Oxide B 429 3.0 99.9 IIB

Ethyl Acrylate D 372 1.4 14.0 IIA


Ethyl Formate D 455 2.8 16.0 IIA

n-Heptane D 204 1.0 6.7 IIA

n-Hexane D 225 1.1 7.5 IIA

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Hydrogen B 520 4.0 75.0 IIC

Hydrogen Cyanide C 538 5.6 40.0 IIB

Kerosene D 210 0.7 5.0 IIA

Methane D 630 5.0 15.0 IIA

Methanol D 385 6.0 36.0 IIA

Methyl Acetate D 454 3.1 16.0 IIB

Methyl Methacrylate D 422 1.7 8.2 IIA

Methylamine D 430 4.9 20.7 IIA

Monoethanolamine D 410 - - IIA

Naphtha (Coal Tar) D 277 - - IIA

Naphtha D 288 1.1 5.9 IIA


Nitroethane C 414 3.4 0.0 IIA

Nitromethane C 418 7.3 0.0 IIA

n-Nonane D 205 0.8 2.9 IIA

Nonyl Alcohol D 0 0.8 6.1 IIA

n-Octane D 206 1.0 6.5 IIA

n-Octyl Alcohol D 0 0.0 0.0 IIA

1-Pentanol D 300 1.2 10.0 IIA

1-Propanol D 143 2.2 13.7 IIA

Pyridine D 482 1.8 12.4 IIA

Styrene D 490 0.9 6.8 IIA

Tetrahydrofuran C 321 2.0 11.8 IIB

Toluene D 480 1.1 7.1 IIA

Triethylamine C 249 1.2 8.0 IIA

Vinyl Acetate D 402 2.6 13.4 IIA

Xylene D 464 0.9 7.0 IIA

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˜ª´ °¥nµŠ…°Š MSDS (°³ŽÃ¸ ˜œ)

Material Safety Data Sheet

1. Identification of Substance

Product Name: Acetone ºÉ°­µ¦Á‡¤¸ °³Ž¸Ã˜œ
Application: Solvent

Supplier: SwanTek

Address: Mintsfeet Road South, Kendal, Cumbria, LA9 6ND

Contact: Tel: 01539 722247 Fax: 01539 740067

E-mail: [email protected] Web:

Emergency health and safety information is available on line at

2. Composition/Information on Ingredients

Acetone (alternative names: 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone)

Chemical family name: Aliphatic ketone

CAS No.: 67-64-1

EINECS No.: 200-662-2 ‡–» ­¤˜´ Á· ž}œ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¤µ„

3. Hazards Identification

Physical/Chemical hazards: Highly flammable
Human health hazards: Irritating to eyes. Repeated exposure may cause skin
dryness or cracking. Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. May cause
respiratory tract irritation.
Effects and symptoms:
Eyes: Causes eye irritation.
Skin: Prolonged or repeated contact can defat the skin and lead to irritation
and/or dermatitis.
Inhalation: Inhalation causes headaches, dizziness, drowsiness and nausea and
may lead to unconsciousness. May cause respiratory tract irritation. Symptoms
similar to alcohol intoxication.
Ingestion: Ingestion may cause gastro-intestinal irritation and diarrhoea. Causes
mild irritation of the mouth, throat and oesophagus. Ingestion may cause nausea,
weakness and central nervous system effects.

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4. First Aid Measures

Inhalation: Remove from exposure. Never give anything by mouth to an
unconscious person. Obtain medical attention immediately.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.
Eye Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with a copious amount of
water for at least 15 minutes. Obtain medical attention immediately.
Skin Contact: Immediately wash exposed skin with soap and water. Remove
contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before re-use. Clean shoes
thoroughly before re-use. Get medical attention if irritation develops.

5. Fire Fighting Measures °–» ®£¼¤˜· Éε­—» š¸ÉÁ„—· „µ¦¦³Á®¥‹œ­µ¤µ¦™‹»—˜—·

Flash point: -20C (-4F) CC Ţŗo ‡°º - 20 OC ¨³¨„» ˜·—ŢŗoÁ°ŠšÉ¸ 465 OC

Autoignition temperature: 465C (869F)

Extinguishing media: In case of fire use water spray (fog), foam, dry chemical, or


Hazardous decomposition products: Carbon oxides (CO, CO2).

Unusual fire/explosion hazards: This material is combustible/flammable and is

sensitive to fire, heat and static discharge. Highly flammable liquid and vapour.

Vapour may cause flash fire. Vapours may accumulate in low or confined areas,

travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Runoff to

sewer may create fire or explosion hazard.

Special fire fighting procedures: Do not fight fire when it reaches material.

Withdraw from fire and let it burn. Promptly isolate the scene by removing all

persons from the vicinity of the incident if there is a fire. First move people out of

line of sight of scene and away from windows. Cool closed containers exposed to

fire with water.

Protection of fire fighters: Fire fighters should wear self contained positive

pressure breathing apparatus (SCBA) and full turnout gear.

6. Accidental Release Measures

Large spill or leak: Immediately contact emergency personnel. Eliminate all
ignition sources. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use suitable protective
equipment (Section 8). Follow all fire fighting procedures (Section 5). Do not
touch or walk through spilled material. If emergency personnel unavailable,
contain spilled material. For small spills add absorbent (soil may be used in the
absence of other suitable materials) and use a non-sparking or explosion proof
means to transfer material to a sealed, appropriate container for disposal. For
large spills, dyke spilled material or otherwise contain material to ensure runoff
does not reach a waterway. Place spilled material in an appropriate container for
disposal. Minimize contact of spilled material with soils to prevent runoff to
surface waterways. See Section 13 for waste disposal information.
Personal protection - large spill: Splash goggles, full suit, boots, gloves. A self
contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product.
Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient. Consult a specialist before
handling this product.

7. Handling and Storage

Handling: Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Avoid contact with eyes.

Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Keep away from heat,

sparks and flame. To avoid fire or explosion, dissipate static electricity during

transfer by earthing and bonding containers and equipment before transferring

material. Use explosing proof electrical (ventilation, lighting and material

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handling) equipment. Wash thoroughly after handling.
Storage: Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well
ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use.
Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Store in original container.

8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

Engineering measures: Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls
to keep the airborne concentrations of vapours below their respective threshold
limit values. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are close to the
workstation location. Wash hands after handling compounds and before eating,
smoking, using the lavatory and at the end of the day.
Occupational exposure limits: STEL: 1500ppm (15 min). TWA 500ppm (8h).
Personal protection:
Respiratory system: Use only with adequate ventilation. Do not breathe vapour or
mist. If ventilation is inadequate use certified respirator that will protect against
organic vapour.
Skin and body: Avoid contact with skin. Wear clothing and footwear that cannot
be penetrated by chemicals or oil.
Hands: Wear gloves that cannot be penetrated by chemicals or oil.
Eyes: Avoid contact with eyes. Wear chemical splash googles.

9. Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical state Liquid „µ¦°›·µ¥‡nµ˜nµŠÇ š¸É°nµœÅ—o
- ­µ¦œÊ¸¤¸ ªn Š„µ¦˜·—Å¢˜Š´Ê ˜n 2.6%
Colour Clear colourless
(LEL) ™¹Š 13% (UEL)
Odour Pungent - ‡nµ‡ªµ¤—œ´ Å° …°Š­µ¦šÉ¦¸ ³Á®¥

Boiling point 56 C ¨³¨°¥°¥n¼Äœ°µ„µ« ­—Š™¹Š
„µ¦¢jŠ» „¦³‹µ¥…°Š­µ¦Á¤Éº°Á„·—
Melting point -95 C „µ¦¦ª´É Å®¨
- ‡nµ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœnœ­´¤¡´š›r =2
Explosion limits 2.6% to 13% ­—Šªµn ­µ¦œÊ®¸ œ´„„ªµn °µ„µ«
Á¤°Éº ¦Éª´ Å®¨‹³¨°¥˜µÎÉ ¨Š
Solubility in water Easily soluble in cold water

Partition coefficient (log Pow) -0.24

Vapour pressure 24.7 kPa at 20 C

Density 0.79 g/cmц

Auto-flammability 465 C

Relative vapour density (air=1) 2

Evaporation rate 9.46 (compared to Butyl Acetate)

10. Stability and Reactivity

Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Avoid exposure to water or
moisture. Product is highly reactive with oxidising agents. Hazardous
polymerisation will not occur.

11. Toxicological Information

Acute toxicity: 1700-1070 mg/kg (rat). LC50 > 6700 mg/l 4h (rat). LD50 >
15688 mg/kg (rabbit).
Chronic toxicity:
Carcinogenic effects: No component of this product at a level greater than 0.1%
is identified as a carcinogen by ACGIH, the International Agency for Research of
Cancer (IARC) or the European Commission (EC). Classified A4 (Not classifiable
for humans or animals) by ACGIH (Acetone).
Other effects: No component of this product at a level greater than 0.1% is

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classified by established regulatory criteria as a mutagen, a reproductive toxin,
teratogenic or embryotoxic.

12. Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity: Practically non-toxic to aquatic organisms. LC50 >
5500 mg/l 96h (fish). EC50 > 10022 mg/l (daphnia).
Persistence potential: This product is readily biodegradable.
BOD5 is 38-56% ThOD. BOD20 is 76-84% ThOD.
Mobility: This product is likely to volatise rapidly into the air
because of its high vapour pressure. This product may move with surface or
groundwater flows because it is 100% water soluble. The product is poorly
absorbed onto soils or sediments.
Bioaccumulative potential: This product is not expected to bioaccumulate through
food chains in the environment.

13. Disposal Considerations

Product disposal: Dispose of in accordance with all applicable national and local
regulations. Avoid contact of spilled material and runoff with soil and surface
waterways. Consult an environmental professional to determine if regulations
would classify spilled or contaiminated material as hazardous waste. Use only
approved transporters, recyclers, treatment, storage or disposal facilities.
Container disposal: Labels should not be removed from containers until they have
been cleaned. Empty containers may contain harmful, flammable/combustible or
explosive residue or vapours. Do not cut, grind, drill, weld, reuse or dispose of
containers unless adequate precautions are taken against these hazards. Do not
incinerate closed containers.

14. Transport Information

UK Transport Information: UK Transport Emergency Action Code: 3(Y)E. UK
Transport Class No. 3.
UN No: 1090
Proper shipping name: Acetone
ADR/RID Substance Identification No: 1090
ADR/RID Class: 3
ADR/RID Item No: 3(b)
ADR/RID Hazard Identification No: 33
IMDG Packing group: II
IMDG Class: 3.1
IMDG Marine pollutant: No
IMDG Ems No: 3-06
IMDG MFAG table no: 300
IATA Packaging Group: II
IATA Class: 3
Tremcard No. TEC(R): 30

15. Regulatory Information

Labelling Information: Highly flammable. Irritant. 1-17
EINECS No: 2006622
EC Annex No: 606-001-00-8
EC Annex 1 Classification: Highly flammable, Irritant
TSCA Listing: Yes
AICS/NICNAS Listing: Yes
DSL/NDSL (Canadian ) Listing: DSL listed

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INCI name: Acetone
Risk Phrases: R11: Highly flammable.
R36: Irritating to eyes.
R66: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R67: Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
Safety Phrases: S2: Keep out of reach of children.
S24: Avoid contact with skin.
S46: If swallowed seek medical advice immediately and show this container or
S51: Use only in well ventilated areas.

16. Other Information

Issue Date: 21 January 2005

The responsibility to ensure safe working conditions within the workplace remains
with the user. The information contained within this Safety Data Sheet (SDS) is
given as a guide to the precautions required to maintain a safe work

This product is for professional use only. Not for sale or resale to the general
public. This product is sold for the application or applications stated on this SDS.
Use for other applications may give rise to risks not covered by the information
on this SDS. The physical and chemical properties on this SDS are typical
properties, not a specification.

All information and instructions provided in this SDS are based on SwanTek
current scientific and technical knowledge at the date indicated on the present
SDS. SwanTek shall not be held responsible for any defect in the product covered
by the SDS, should the existence of such defect not be detectable considering the
current state of scientific and technical knowledge. Please report any errors to
[email protected]

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ššÉ¸ 2
®¨„´ „µ¦…°Š°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµœ—· ž°j Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á—·

2.1 ­µÁ®˜»š¸°É µ‹šÎµÄ®oÁ„—· „µ¦‹—» ¦³Á·— (Ignition Source)

Ĝ„µ¦°°„¦³žj°Š„œ´ „µ¦‹—» ¦³Á·—£µ¥Äœ¦·Áª–šÉ¸¤¸„µ¦Äo®¦º°‹´—Á„ȝ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢
œÊ´œ Ÿ¼o°°„‹³˜o°Š¡¥µ¥µ¤®¨¸„Á¨É¸¥Š„µ¦Á„·—¦¦¥µ„µ«š¸É¤¸­µ¦ÅªÅ¢žœÁžg°œ¤µ„Á¡¸¥Š¡°
Ä®oÁ„·—„µ¦‹»—˜·—Ţŗo °¥nµŠÅ¦„Șµ¤ ¥´Š¤¸„¦³ªœ„µ¦Ÿ¨·˜®¦º°ŠµœÎµ¦»Š¦´„¬µšÉ¸Å¤n­µ¤µ¦™
®¨¸„Á¨É¸¥Š­£µ¡¦¦¥µ„µ«—´Š„¨nµªÅ—o —´ŠœÊ´œ‹¹Š˜o°Š¡¥µ¥µ¤žj°Š„´œ¤·Ä®oÁ„·—„µ¦‹»—¦³Á·—Äœ
­™µœš¸œÉ ʜ´ ŽŠÉ¹ ­É·Ššš¸É µÎ Ä®oÁ„·—„µ¦‹—» ¦³Á·—š¸­É µÎ ‡´ ¤¸—´ŠœÊ¸

x Áž¨ªÅ¢: Open Flame
x ¡ºÊœŸ·ªšÉ¤¸ ¸‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­Š¼ : Hot Surfaces
x „µ¦°µ¦„r ¨³„µ¦­žµ¦r„…°Š°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢µj : Electrical Arcs and Sparks
x „µ¦™nµ¥Ášž¦³‹»…°ŠÅ¢¢jµ­™·˜¦³®ªnµŠª´˜™»š¸É¤¸‡ªµ¤˜nµŠ«´„¥rÅ¢¢jµ: Electrostatic

x „µ¦Á„·—¢jµŸnµ ®¦º°„µ¦™nµ¥Ášž¦³‹»Å¢¢jµ‹µ„ ¦¦¥µ„µ« ¨Š­¼n¡ºÊœ—·œ: Lightning

(Atmospheric Discharge)
x „µ¦Á„·—„µ¦Á­¸¥—­¸…°ŠÁ‡¦ºÉ°Š‹´„¦„¨ ®¦º°„µ¦„¦³š°¥nµŠ¦»œÂ¦Š…°ŠÃ¨®³:

Mechanical Friction or Impact Sparks
x „µ¦Á„—· ‡¨ºÉœÂ¤Án ®¨„È Å¢¢µj šÉ¤¸ ¸‡ªµ¤Á…o¤­¼Š: Electromagnetic Radiation
x „µ¦Á„—· ‡¨œºÉ °´¨˜¦oµÃŽœ·„š¤É¸ ¸¡¨Š´ Šµœ­¼Š: Ultrasonic
x ‡¨Éœº ¡¨Š´ Šµœ„¦³Âš„°¥nµŠ¦»œÂ¦Š: Shock Waves (Adiabatic Compression)
x „µ¦ÂŸn‡¨Éœº ¡¨´ŠŠµœ‹µ„ž’„· ·¦¥· µ„µ¦Â¥„˜´ª…°ŠÅ°°°œ: Ionizing Radiation
x „µ¦ÂŸ‡n ¨Éœº ­Šš¤É¸ ¸‡ªµ¤Á…o¤­Š¼ : Optical Radiation
x ž’·„¦· ¥· µÁ‡¤¸°¥µn Š¦œ» ¦ŠÂ¨³Á„·—¡¨Š´ Šµœ‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­Š¼ : Chemical Reaction

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-1

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤¼n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¸¤É ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

2.2 Áš‡œ·‡¡ºÊœ“µœÄœ„µ¦žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·— (Technical Principle of Explosion

Temperature Classification

°ž» „¦–rÁ‡¦Éº°ŠÄoÅ¢¢jµÂ˜¨n ³œ·—‹³¤¦¸ ³—´ °–» ®£¼¤·­¼Š…¹œÊ ŤÁn šnµ„œ´ Á¤ºÉ°ÄŠo µœ˜µ¤ž„˜·
™oµ„µ¦ÄoŠµœ°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµœ´ÊœÇ šµÎ Ä®oÁ„·—‡ªµ¤¦°o œ­Š¼ ‹œ™Š¹ ¦³—´°»–®£¤¼ š· ¸ÅÉ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦
ŪŢ­µ¤µ¦™¨„» ˜—· ŢŗÁo °Š (Auto-Ignition Temperature) °µ‹Ážœ} ­µÁ®˜Ä» ®Áo „—· Á¡¨·ŠÅ®¤o
—´Šœ´Êœ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC ¨³ IEC ¦ª¤šŠ´Ê ¤µ˜¦“µœ°ÉºœÇ ‹Š¹ ¤„¸ µ¦ÂnŠ¦³—´°»–®£¤¼ ·­Š¼ ­—» š¸É°µ‹
Á„·—…¹Êœœ¡ºœÊ Ÿª· …°Š­ÉŠ· ®°n ®¤»o (Enclosure) °»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµÄœ…–³ÄoŠµœ˜µ¤ž„˜· ŽŠÉ¹ Á¦¥¸ „ªnµ
Temperature Class (T Class) Á¡É°º Ä®¤o œÉ´ ċŗoªnµ°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµœÊ´œ‹³Å¤šn εĮÁo „·—‡ªµ¤¦°o œ­¼Š
‹œÂ„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢šŸ¸É ­¤°¥Ä¼n œ¦¦¥µ„µ«¨„» ˜·—ŢŗÁo °Š —Š´ œœÊ´ Á¤º°É š¦µªnµ­µ¦
ŪŢšÄ¸É o¤‡¸ nµ Auto-ignition Temperature Ášµn ė „‹È ³˜°o ŠÁ¨º°„¦³—´ T class …°Š°ž» „¦–r
Å¢¢jµÄ®¤o ‡¸ nµ˜É優nµ‡nµ Auto-Ignition Temperature …°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœ¡Êœº šÉ¸˜·—˜ŠÊ´ °ž» „¦–œr Ê´œ

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.1 ­—Š¦®­´ ¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š Temperature Classification Ĝ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

¦³—´ °–» ®£¼¤­· Š¼ ­—» ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC

450O C T1 T1

300O C T2 T2

280O C T2A

260O C T2B

230O C T2C

215O C T2D

200O C T3 T3

180O C T3A

165O C T3B

160O C T3C

135O C T4 T4

120O C T4A

100O C T5 T5

85O C T6 T6

šÉ¸¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ NEC

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-2

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡n¤¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.2 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š„µ¦Ä°o ž» „¦–År ¢¢jµ˜µ¤¦®´­¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š T-Classification

­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Ignition T-Class IEC group
Temperature (O C)

Acetaldehyde 140 T4 IIA

Acetic Acid 485 T1 IIA

Acetic Anhydride 330 T2 IIA

Acetone 540 T1 IIA

Acetylene 305 T2 IIC

Ammonia 630 T1 IIA

Benzene 220 T3 IIA

Carbon Disulfide 95 T6 IIC

Diesel 220 – 300 T3 IIA

Ethane 515 T1 IIA

Ethylalchohol 425 T2 IIA

Ethylene 425 T2 IIB

Hydrogen 560 T1 IIC

Methane 595 T1 IIA

Methanol 455 T1 IIA

Naphthalene 520 T1 IIA

Propane 470 T1 IIA

Toluene 535 T1 IIA
š¸É¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC

‹µ„˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.2 ™oµÁ¨º°„čo°»ž„¦–r˜n°­µ¥Å¢¢jµ (Terminal Box) š¸É¤¸¦³—´¤µ˜¦“µœ
¦³—´š¸É—¸š¸É­»—‡º° T6 °»ž„¦–rœÊ´œ°µ‹š—­°¤µÂ¨oªªnµ°»–®£¼¤·­¼Š­»—Äœ„µ¦ÄoŠµœž¦³¤µ–
80O C šÉ°¸ –» ®£¼¤Â· ª—¨°o ¤ 40 O C „µ¦Á¨º°„Œœªœ…°Š­µ¥Å¢š˜É¸ n°°¥¼„n ‹È ³˜o°Š¤‡¸ ªµ¤Á®¤µ³­¤
—oª¥ Ánœ Œœªœ…°Š­µ¥Å¢šÉ¸Áž}œ PVC ‹³­µ¤µ¦™šœ‡ªµ¤¦o°œÅ—oÁ¡¸¥Š 70 O C ÁšnµœÊ´œ‹¹ŠÅ¤n
Á®¤µ³­¤š¸‹É ³œµÎ ¤µÄoŠµœ

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-3

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡¼n¤°º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡œºÊ š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

2.3 ¤µ˜¦“µœ°»ž„¦–rž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á—· (Explosion proof Protection)

žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—Á„·—‹µ„Âœª‡·—¡ºÊœ“µœšÉ¸ªnµ „µ¦Á„·—Á¡¨·ŠÅ®¤o‹³˜o°Š¤¸°Š‡rž¦³„° 3 °¥nµŠ
‡º°­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ž¦·¤µ–¤µ„¡° °°„Ž·Á‹œ ¨³Â®¨nŠ‹»—˜·—Å¢ —´Šœ´Êœª·›¸„µ¦žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—‹¹ŠÄo
œª‡—· ¡œÊº “µœÄœ„µ¦ž°j Š„œ´ ŤnÄ®oÁ„·—‡ªµ¤¦°o œ­Š¼ š¸ÉŸª· Á‡¦ºÉ°Š®n°®o»¤®¦º°Á„·—ž¦³„µ¥Å¢Å—o ˜n

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.3 ­—Š¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦ÄÁo š‡œ‡· ž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á·—˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š IEC ¨³ NEC

Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦ž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á—· ¦®´­¤µ˜¦“µœ ¡œºÊ š¸°É ´œ˜¦µ¥šÉĸ Åo —o
¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC

Flameproof d Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 1 ®¦°º 2

Intrinsically Safe ia Zone 0, 1 ¨³ 2 Division 1 ®¦º° 2
Intrinsically Safe
ib Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 2

Purge or Pressurization p Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 1 ®¦°º 2

Increased Safety e Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 2

Immersed in Oil o Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 2

Filled with Poder / Sand q Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 2

Encapsulated / Molding m Zone 1 ¨³ 2 Division 2

Non-Sparking / Nonincendive n Zone 2 Division 2

š¸É¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC ¨³ IEC

Flameproof Type “d” Protection

¦ž¼ š¸É 2.1 Flameproof Type “d” Protection

…°Š°»ž„¦–År —®o µ„¤¸Â„p­®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥Âš¦„Á…oµÅž£µ¥ÄœÂ¨³¤ž¸ ¦³„µ¥Å¢Á„—· …¹Êœ ˜‡n ªµ¤—´œ

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-4

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡n¼¤°º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œºÊ šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

š¸ÁÉ „·—…œÊ¹ ‹µ„„µ¦¦³Á—· ‹³Å¤n­µ¤µ¦™šÎµ‡ªµ¤Á­¸¥®µ¥„´Áž¨º°„®»o¤°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµ‹œšÎµÄ®oÁž¨ª
Å¢…¥µ¥°°„­¼n£µ¥œ°„Å—o Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœÊ¸¤´„čo„´°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµš¸É¤´„šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—
°µ¦r„®¦º°­žµ¦r„ ¦ª¤š´ÊŠÁ„·—‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼Š…–³šÉ¸¤¸„µ¦ÄoŠµœ˜µ¤ž„˜· Ánœ ¤°Á˜°¦r, ǤŢ,
­ª˜· ‡r ª‡¤» , Á˜oµ¦´ ¨³ Á˜µo Á­¥¸  Ážœ} ˜œo

Intrinsic Safety Type “ia” Protection

‹œ„¦³š´ÉŠŸ¨…°Š„µ¦Á„·—¨´—ªŠ‹¦£µ¥Äœ°»ž„¦–r—´Š„¨nµª™¹Š 2 ‹»—ÄœÁª¨µÁ—¸¥ª„´œÂ¨oª‹³Å¤n
„°n Ä®oÁ„·—¡¨Š´ Šµœ‡ªµ¤¦°o œ¤µ„Á¡¥¸ Š¡°Ä®o„­p ®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Á„—· ‹»—˜—· Ţŗo

¦ž¼ š¸É 2.2 Intrinsic Safety Type “ia” ¨³ “ib” Protection

Intrinsic Safety Type “ib” Protection

‹œ„¦³š´ÉŠŸ¨…°Š„µ¦Á„·—¨´—ªŠ‹¦£µ¥Äœ°»ž„¦–r—´Š„¨nµªÁ¡¸¥Š 1 ‹»—„È‹³Å¤n„n°Ä®oÁ„·—¡¨´ŠŠµœ
‡ªµ¤¦°o œ¤µ„Á¡¥¸ Š¡°Ä®Âo „p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Á„·—‹—» ˜—· Ţŗo

Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂ Intrinsic Safety ¤´„čo„´ Thermocouple, Transducer,
Transmitter, Proximity Switch, Flow Detector, ¨³ Level Sensor Áž}œ˜oœ ªŠ‹¦Å¢¢jµšÉ¸Áž}œ
 Intrinsically Safe ¤„´ ‹³ž¦³„°—ªo ¥ 3 ­ªn œ ‡°º

(1) °»ž„¦–r˜¦ª‹ª´— (Sensor ®¦º° Instrument)
(2) °»ž„¦–‹r ε„´—¡¨Š´ Šµœ (Energy-limiting Device) µŠ‡¦Ê´ŠÁ¦¸¥„ªnµ “Barrier”
(3) ­µ¥Å¢¢µj šÉ¤¸ ¸„µ¦ž°j Š„´œ‡ªµ¤Á­¸¥®µ¥‹µ„„µ¦„¦³Âš„šµŠ„¨Å—o

Á‡¦°Éº Š¤°º šÄ¸É Áo ž}œ Barrier œ‹¸Ê ³šÎµ®œoµšÉ‹¸ µÎ „´—„¦³Â­Å¢¢jµ®¦°º ¦Š—œ´ Å¢¢µj š¸œÉ ¥· ¤Äo
„œ´ šÉª´ Ş ‡°º čo Resistor nª¥¨—„¦³Â­¨—´ ªŠ‹¦, čo Zener Diode ªn ¥‹µÎ „´—¦Š—´œÅ¢¢jµÁ„·œ
¨³Äo Fuse nª¥˜—´ ªŠ‹¦š¸ÁÉ „—· „¦³Â­¨—´ ªŠ‹¦Å¢¢jµ

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-5

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼n¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ŠÊ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡Êºœš¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

Pressurized Type “p” Protection

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 2.3 Pressurized Type “p” Protection

®n°®o¤» Á¡°Éº ŨnÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢°°„œ°„Á‡¦Éº°Š®°n ®o»¤ ¡¦°o ¤„´¦´„¬µ¦³—´‡ªµ¤—´œ°µ„µ«
Á…oµ¤µÄœÁ‡¦°Éº Š®°n ®¤o» š¤É¸ ¸­ªn œž¦³„°ªŠ‹¦Å¢¢µj ŽÉŠ¹ °µ‹Á„·—„µ¦­žµ¦r„Å—o ×¥ž„˜·‹³°°„
Ä®¤o ‡¸ ªµ¤—´œ°µ„µ«Â˜„˜µn Šž¦³¤µ–„´œ 0.5 mbar ®¦º° 50 Pa ĜµŠ„¦–¸°µ‹‹³Äo„p­ÁŒÉº°¥
°´—Á…oµÅžÄœÁž¨º°„®»o¤°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµÂšœš¸É‹³Äo°µ„µ«ŽÉ¹Š¤¸°°„Ž·Á‹œŸ­¤°¥¼nž¦³¤µ– 21%
Á¡ºÉ°žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—Å—o—¸¤µ„…¹Êœ „p­ÁŒºÉ°¥š¸Éčo Ánœ „p­ÅœÃ˜¦Á‹œ Á¡¦µ³Å¤nÁž}œ°´œ˜¦µ¥
¨³¤°¸ ¥n¼Äœ°µ„µ«šª´É Ş

Increased Safety Type “e” Protection

¦ž¼ š¸É 2.4 Increased Safety Type “e” Protection

Á„·—°µ¦r„ ®¦º°­žµ¦r„…¹ÊœÅ—o œ°„‹µ„¤¸°»´˜·Á®˜»Á„·—…¹Êœ —´ŠœÊ´œ„µ¦Á¡·É¤¦³žj°Š„´œÁ®˜»Å¤nž„˜·
šÉ¸°µ‹Á„·—…ʹœÅ—o‹¹ŠÁž}œª·›¸„µ¦®œÉ¹ŠŽ¹ÉŠ‹³Å¤nž¨n°¥Ä®o¤¸‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼ŠÁ„·—…ʹœšÉ¸°»ž„¦–rœ´ÊœÇ Áš‡œ·‡
„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœÊ¸œ·¥¤Äo„´°»ž„¦–r„µ¦˜n°­µ¥Å¢, ¦³Â­Š­ªnµŠ, ¤°Á˜°¦r, ¨³Á‡¦Éº°Š¤º°ª´—
Áž}œ˜oœ Ĝ„¦–¸…°Š„¨n°Š˜n°­µ¥Å¢ œª‡·—…°Š„µ¦žj°Š„´œ­µ¤µ¦™šÎµÅ—o×¥ Ťn°°„Ä®o¤¸
„µ¦˜n°­µ¥®œµÂœnœÁ„·œÅž£µ¥Äœ„¨n°Š˜n°­µ¥Á—¸¥ª, Á¨º°„čo°»ž„¦–r˜n°­µ¥š¸É¤É´œ‡ŠÅ¤n®¨»—
Šnµ¥, čoŒœªœÅ¢¢jµšÉ¸šœ‡ªµ¤¦o°œ­¼ŠÅ—o, ¨³®¨¸„Á¨É¸¥Š„µ¦˜n°­µ¥Å¢š¸ÉœÎµ„¦³Â­Å¢¢jµ¤µ„Ç
¤µÅªÄo œ„¨°n Š˜°n ­µ¥Á—¸¥ª„´œ

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-6

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡¼¤n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤Å¸ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

Oil Immersion Type “o” Protection

¦¼žš¸É 2.5 Oil Immersion Type “o” Protection
®¦º°­žµ¦r„n°¥‡¦Ê´ŠÂ¨³°µ‹‹³¦»œÂ¦Š—oª¥ ¨ŠÅžÄœ Mineral Oil Á¡ºÉ°Å¤nÄ®o‡ªµ¤¦o°œš¸ÉÁ„·—‹µ„
ž¦³„µ¥Å¢­´¤Ÿ´­„´ÁÊº°Á¡¨·ŠÃ—¥˜¦Š œ°„‹µ„œ¸ÊœÊε¤´œš¸ÉčonŽ¹ÉŠ¤¸„µ¦®¤»œÁª¸¥œ¥´Šnª¥šÎµ
®œoµšÉ¸¦³µ¥‡ªµ¤¦o°œÄœ¦·Áª–šÉ¸Á„·—°µ¦r‡—oª¥ °¥nµŠÅ¦„Șµ¤Á¤Éº°Á„·—„µ¦°µ¦r„ ‹³šÎµÄ®o¤¸
œÎʵ¤´œµŠ­nªœÁ„·—ž’·„·¦·¥µÁ‡¤¸Â¨³Å—o„p­ Hydrogen ¨³ Acetylene °°„¤µ œ°„‹µ„œÊ¸®µ„
Á„—· „µ¦¨´—ªŠ‹¦°¥µn Š¦»œÂ¦ŠœÊε¤´œœÊ¸„È‹µ„˜·—ި³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—Á¡¨·ŠÅ®¤oŗo ª·›¸„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœÊ¸
‹¹ŠÅ¤nœ·¥¤ÄoĜ¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥Á¡¦µ³¤¸‡ªµ¤Á­¸É¥Š­¼Š Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœÊ¸œ·¥¤Äo„´ ­ª·˜r
Á„¸¥¦r ¨³®¤o°Âž¨ŠÅ¢¢µj …œµ—Ä®n Ážœ} ˜oœ

Powder Filled Type “q” Protection

¦¼žšÉ¸ 2.6 Explosive Atmosphere

Å¢¢µj ­nªœš¸É¤„¸ µ¦°µ¦„r ®¦°º ­žµ¦r„ Á¡Éº°ž°j Š„´œÅ¤Än ®‡o ªµ¤¦o°œšÁɸ „·—‹µ„ž¦³„µ¥Å¢­´¤Ÿ´­„´Å°
¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Å—o×¥˜¦Š Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœ¸Êœ·¥¤Äo„´°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµš¸ÉŤn¤¸­nªœš¸É
Á‡¨°Éº œš¸É Áœn ‡µžµŽ·Á˜°¦r ¨³®¤o°Âž¨Š…œµ—Á¨È„ Ážœ} ˜œo

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-7

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡n¤¼ °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ŠÊ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

Encapsulation Type “m” Protection

¦ž¼ š¸É 2.7 Encapsulation Type “m” Protection
­´¤Ÿ´­„´‡ªµ¤¦o°œš¸ÉÁ„·—…ʹœÅ—o×¥˜¦Š Œœªœžd—„Ê´œ„µ¦°µ¦r„š¸Éœ·¥¤Äo ‡º° Epoxy Resin,
Thermoplastic, thermosetting ¨³ Elastrometic Material Áž}œ˜oœ Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœ¸Ê
¤´„čo°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ánœ Solenoid Valve, Rapid Starter, Resistor, Capacitor, Optoisolator
¨³ Diode Ážœ} ˜œo
Nonincendive Type “n” Protection

¦¼žš¸É 2.8 Nonincendive Type “n” Protection

Á„·—°µ¦r„®¦º°­žµ¦r„š¸É¦»œÂ¦Š ¦ª¤šÊ´Š‹³Å¤nÁ„·—‡ªµ¤¦o°œšÉ¸Áž¨º°„®o»¤°»ž„¦–r­¼Š‹œ­µ¤µ¦™šÎµ
Ä®oÁ„·—„µ¦‹»—˜·—Ţŗo ץčoÁ‡¦Éº°Š®n°®o»¤š¸Éžd—­œ·š‹œ i»œ œÎʵ¨³Â„p­Å¤n­µ¤µ¦™ŸnµœÁ…oµ°°„
ŗo˜µ¤Á„–”r„µ¦š—­° Áš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œÂœÊ¸¥´Š°µ‹™¼„nŠÁž}œª·›¸„µ¦žj°Š„´œÅ—o°¸„ 3
œ·— —Š´ œÊ¸

x Non-Sparking “nA” ‡º° °»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµœ·—š‹¸É ³Å¤n¤¸„µ¦­žµ¦r„Á„—· …œÊ¹

x Hermetically Sealed “nC” ‡º° °»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµœ·—šÉ¸¤¸Áž¨º°„®»o¤žd—­œ·š‹œÅ¤n¤¸°µ„µ«Á…oµ
ŗÁo ¨¥

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-8

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡¤n¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œÊº šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

x Restricted Breathing “nR” ‡º° °»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµœ·—šÉ¸‹³‹Îµ„´—°µ„µ«Å¤nÄ®oÁ…oµ®¦º°°°„‹µ„
Áž¨º°„®»o¤Å—o šÎµÄ®o£µ¥ÄœÁž¨º°„®o»¤­nªœ…°Š°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµš¸É°µ‹Á„·—­žµ¦r„Ťn¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥
¤µ„¡°š‹É¸ ³Á„—· ˜·—Ţŗo

2.4 „µ¦¦´¦°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ°»ž„¦–žr °j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á·—

¤µ˜¦“µœªnµÅ—o°°„Á¡Éº°žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·——oª¥ª·›¸˜nµŠÇ ˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ°¥nµŠ™¼„˜o°Š Ž¹ÉŠŸ¼ošÉ¸
‹³­µ¤µ¦™Ä®o¦„· µ¦š—­°Â¨³Ä®o„µ¦¦´¦°Š ¤¸—Š´ œ¸Ê

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.4 ˜´ªÂšœŸ¦¼o ´¦°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ (Standard Agencies)

ž¦³Áš« Ÿ¼o¤¸°Îµœµ‹Äœ„µ¦¦´¦°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ

Australia Quality Assurance Services

Australia Safety in Mines Testing and Research Station (SIMTARS)

Austria Technishe Uberwachung Verein Product Services (TUV)

Brazil Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL)

Canada Canada Standards Association (CSA)

Czech Republic Fyzikalne Technicky Zkusebni Ustav (FTZU)

Denmark DEMKO

Finland Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)

France Institut National de I’Environnement Industriel et des Risques
France (INERIS)
Laboratorie Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE)

Germany Forschungsgesellshaft fur Angewandte Systemsichereit und
Germany Arbeitsmedizin mbH (FSA)
DMT-Gesellshaft fur forschung und Prufung mbH
Germany Fachstelle fur Sicherheit elektrischer Betriebsmttel
Germany Bergbau-Versuchsstrecke (BVS)
Institut fur Sicherheitstechnik GmbH Institut an der
Bergakademie Freiberg (IBExU)
Technishe Uberwachung Verein (TUV)

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-9

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼¤n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡Êœº š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

ž¦³Áš« Ÿ¤¼o °¸ µÎ œµ‹Äœ„µ¦¦´¦°Š¤µ˜¦“µœ

Germany Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstilt (PTB)

Hungary Hungarian Testing Authority for Explosion-proof Electrical
Italy Apparatus (BKI)
Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI)

Japan The Technical Institution of Industrial Safety (TIIS)

Luxemburg Service de I’Energie de I’Etat Luxembourgeois

Netherlands Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen (KEMA)

Norway NEMKO

Poland Glowny Institut Gornictwa Kopalnia Doswiadczalna “BARBARA”

Republic Korea Korea Industrial Safety Corp. (KISCO)

Republic of South African Bureau of Standards (SABS)
South Africa Insemex Petrosani Equipment Ex. Certification Service

Russia Test Centre for Explosion-proof Electrical Apparatus (VNIIEF)

Slovakia Elektrotechnicky Vyskummy a Projektovy Ustav (EVPU)

Slovenia Mr Igor Likar Slovenian of Quality and Metrology (SIQ)

Spain Laboratorio Official Jose Maria Madariage (LOM)

Sweden Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP)

Switzerland Eidgenossisches Starkstrominspektorat (ESTI)

Ukraine Test and Certification Ventre for Explosion-proof and frame-
proof Electrical Apparatus (ISZVE)

United Kingdom Electrical Equipment Certification Services (EECS)

United Kingdom SIRA Certification Services (SCS)

United States Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM)

United States Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL)

Yugoslavia Savezno Ministarstvoza Razvoj, Naukui Zivotnu Sredinu
Savezni Zavodza Standardizaciju (SZS)

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-10

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡¤n¼ °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œºÊ š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

2.5 ­´¨„´ ¬–…r °Š¤µ˜¦“µœ°»ž„¦–žr °j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á·— (Certification Code)

°»ž„¦–År ¢¢µj šÉ¸­µ¤µ¦™ÄÄo œŠµœ˜·—˜´ÊŠÄœ¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥‹³˜o°Š™¼„°°„Ä®oÁ®¤µ³­¤
Ĝ„µ¦ÄoŠµœÄœÂ˜n¨³ž¦³Á£š…°Š¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ Ž¹ÉŠŸo¼Ÿ¨·˜‹³Â­—Š­´¨´„¬–ršÉ¸Å—o¦´„µ¦¦´¦°Š
˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ„µ¦°°„Á¡°Éº Šn °„‡–» ­¤´˜˜· µn ŠÇ ˜µ¤˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.5 - 2.7

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.5 ­—Š­´ ¨„´ ¬–r­µÎ ®¦´ ¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj ž¦³Á£šž°j Š„´œ„µ¦³Á·—
˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 500

Permitted Class Permitted Division Permitted Group Temperature Class

Class I: Gas Division 1 Group A T1: 450 OC

Division 2 Group B T2: 300 OC

Group C T2A: 280 OC

Group D T2B: 260 OC

T2C: 230 OC

T2D: 215 OC

T3: 200 OC

T3A: 180 OC

T3B: 165 OC

T3C: 160 OC

T4: 135 OC

T4A: 120 OC

T5: 100 OC

T6: 85 OC

˜ª´ °¥nµŠ­´ ¨„´ ¬–r: Class I, Div 1, Group B, C, D, T4

š¤É¸ µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-11

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼n¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡Êœº šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥š¤¸É Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜µ¦µŠšÉ¸ 2.6 ­—Š­´ ¨„´ ¬–­r µÎ ®¦´¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–År ¢¢jµž¦³Á£šž°j Š„´œ„µ¦³Á—·
˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC 505

Permitted Class Permitted AEx Protection Method Temperature
Gas Group
Class I: Gas Zone 0 e: Increased Safety Group IIC T1: 450 OC
Group IIB + H2 T2: 300 OC
Zone 1 d: Flameproof Group IIB T3: 200 OC
Group IIA T4: 135 OC
Zone 2 m: Encapsulation Group I T5: 100 OC

nA: Nonsparking T6: 85 OC

nR: Restricted Breathing

nC: Hermetically Seal

[ia]: Intrinsically Safe

[ib]: Intrinsically Safe

˜´ª°¥nµŠ­´ ¨„´ ¬–:r Class I, Zone 1, AEx d [ia] IIC T4

š¤¸É µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ NEC

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-12

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤n¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜µ¦µŠš¸É 2.7 ­—Š­´¨´„¬–­r µÎ ®¦´ ¤µ˜¦“µœ°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµž¦³Á£šžj°Š„´œ„µ¦³Á·—
˜µ¤¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ CENELEC

Standard Protection Method Gas Group Temperature Class
Ex: IEC e: Increased Safety Group IIC T1: 450 OC
EEx: CENELEC Group IIB T2: 300 OC
d: Flameproof Group IIA T3: 200 OC
m: Encapsulation T4: 135 OC
p: Pressurized T5: 100 OC
q: Powder-Filled T6: 85 OC
o: Oil Immersion

n: Nonincendive

ia: Intrinsically Safe

ib: Intrinsically Safe

s: Special Protection

me: Encapsulation and Increased


˜ª´ °¥nµŠ­´¨„´ ¬–r IEC: Ex d IIC T5
˜´ª°¥nµŠ­´¨„´ ¬–r CENELEC: EEx d IIC T5
š¸É¤µ : ¤µ˜¦“µœ IEC ¨³ CENELEC

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-13

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šµÎ ‡¤n¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜Š´Ê ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

˜ª´ °¥µn ŠšÉ¸ 1 把µœÂ®nŠ®œÉ¹Š¤¸„µ¦Äo­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Äœž¦·¤µ–¤µ„®¨µ¥œ·— ‡º° Acetone
(°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—Å¢ 465oC, temp-class T1, „¨n»¤­µ¦ IIA ®¦º° D), Ammonia (°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—
Å¢ 498oC, temp-class T1, „¨n¤» ­µ¦ IIA ®¦º° D), Kerosene (°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—Å¢ 210oC, temp-
class T3, „¨n»¤­µ¦ IIA ®¦º° D), 3-Butadiene (°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—Å¢ 420oC, temp-class T2, „¨»n¤
­µ¦ IIB ®¦º° B) ¨³ Methyl Acetate (°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—Å¢ 454oC, temp-class T1, „¨»n¤­µ¦ IIB
®¦º° D) Ä®o¡‹· µ¦–µÁ¨º°„°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj ž¦³Á£šž°j Š„œ´ „µ¦¦³Á·—

ª·›š¸ µÎ ‹³Á®Èœªnµ­µ¦š¸É¤¸°»–®£¼¤·‹»—˜·—Å¢˜Îɵ­»—‡º° Kerosene —´ŠœÊ´œ‹¹ŠÁ¨º°„°»ž„¦–¸Å¢¢jµš¸É¤¸
¦³—´°»–®£¼¤·š¸ÉŸ·ª¦³—´ T3 (®¦º°˜Îɵ„ªnµ) ¨³Á¤ºÉ°¡·‹µ¦–µ„µ¦‹´—„¨n»¤­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¡ªnµ­µ¦
3-Butadiene °¥¼nĜ„¨»n¤ B šÉ¸¤¸°´œ˜¦µ¥¤µ„„ªnµ­µ¦°ºÉœ (‹³Á¨º°„čo°»ž„¦–ršÉ¸žj°Š„´œ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢
„¨»n¤šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥¤µ„„ªnµÅ—o) ­Îµ®¦´¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 š¸É 1 (Class I, Division 1)
—´Šœ´ÊœÁš‡œ·‡„µ¦žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·—šÉ¸ÄoŗoĜ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥š¸ÉčoĜ¡ÊºœšÉ¸Å—o ‡º° ia, d ®¦º° p
(Á¨°º „čoÁš‡œ·‡ÂÄ—®œÉ¹Š®¦º°¦nª¤„´œ„Èŗo) —´ŠœÊ´œ °»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢jµš¸ÉÁ¨º°„čo‹³¤¸­´¨´„¬–r
ŗo®¨µ¥Â Áœn

x ˜ª´ °¥µn Š­´¨„´ ¬–r CENELEC: EEx ia IIB T3
x ˜ª´ °¥µn Š­´¨„´ ¬–r IEC: Ex de IIB T2
x ˜´ª°¥nµŠ­´¨´„¬–r NEC 500: Class I, Div 1, Group A,B,C,D, T3
x ˜ª´ °¥µn Š­´ ¨´„¬–r NEC 505: Class I, Zone 1, AEx p IIB T2B

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 2-14

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¼n¤°º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡œÊº š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤Å¸ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

šš¸É 3
„µ¦ž¦´ž¦»Š­£µ¡„µ¦šÎµŠµœÄœ¡Êœº š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥

‡ªµ¤‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¤µ„‹œšÎµÄ®o­µ¤µ¦™‹»—˜·—Ţŗo —´ŠœÊ´œª·›¸„µ¦¨—­£µ¡…°Š
¡ÊºœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥°¥nµŠŠnµ¥Ç „ȇº°„µ¦nª¥¦³µ¥Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢°°„Åž­¼n¡ºÊœš¸É£µ¥œ°„Äœ
¦·Áª–„ªoµŠš¸ÉŤn¤¸„·‹„¦¦¤Ä—Ç š¸É‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦‹»—¦³Á·—Å—o ˜n™oµ„µ¦¦³µ¥Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š
­µ¦°´œ˜¦µ¥œ´ÊœšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—‡ªµ¤Á—º°—¦o°œ®¦º°Á„·—°´œ˜¦µ¥Äœ¡Êºœš¸É…oµŠÁ‡¸¥Š „È‹³˜o°Š¤¸„¦¦¤ª·›¸
„µ¦Îµ´—­µ¦°œ´ ˜¦µ¥Á­¸¥„°n œ

‹µ„šÉŸ —o„¨nµª¤µÂ¨ªo Ĝ˜°œ˜œo ªµn ‡ªµ¤®œµÂœœn ®¦°º œÊ宜„´ …°ŠÂ„­p ®¦°º Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š
­µ¦Â˜¨n ³œ·—ŤnÁšnµ„´œ „p­š¸ÉÁµ„ªnµ°µ„µ«‹³¨°¥­n¼š¸É­¼Š ­nªœÂ„p­šÉ¸¤¸œÊ宜´„¤µ„„ªnµ°µ„µ«
‹³¨°¥­¼šn ¸É˜Éε —Š´ œ´Êœ„µ¦°°„¦³¦³µ¥°µ„µ«‹³˜°o Š‡µÎ œŠ¹ ™Š¹ Á¦Éº°Šœ¸ÊÁž}œ­Îµ‡´

¦¼žšÉ¸ 3.1 ­—Š„µ¦¢Šj» „¦³‹µ¥…°ŠÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦š¤¸É œ¸ µÎÊ ®œ´„˜nµŠ„´œ

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-1

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤n¼ º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡œºÊ š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

3.1 „µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«

„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«™º°Áž}œž{‹‹´¥­Îµ‡´š¸ÉšÎµÄ®o¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 ¨—¦³—´‡ªµ¤
Á­É¸¥Š¨Š ®¦º°„¨µ¥Áž}œ¡Êºœš¸Éž„˜·šÉ¸Å¤n¤¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ ¨³¥´ŠšÎµÄ®o¨—‡nµÄo‹nµ¥Äœ„µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š¦³
Å¢¢jµ ¨³°»ž„¦–rÅ¢¢µj °„¸ —ªo ¥

„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ« (Ventilation) ¤¸ 2  ‡°º
1. „µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Ã—¥ª›· ¸›¦¦¤µ˜· (Natural Ventilation) ‹³Áž}œ„µ¦¦³µ¥ ™nµ¥ÁšÂ„p­

¤µnª¥ ŽÉ¹Š„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«œ·—œÊ¸‹³Å—oŸ¨—¸„Șn°Á¤ºÉ°¤¸„µ¦Á‡¨ºÉ°œÅ®ª…°Š°µ„µ«Ã—¥¨¤¡´—
¨³/®¦º°„µ¦Áž¨É¸¥œÂž¨Š°»–®£¼¤·…°Š°µ„µ« °¥nµŠÁnœ°µ‡µ¦š¸ÉÁžd—ènŠ„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Ã—¥
ª·›¸›¦¦¤µ˜·­µ¤µ¦™¨—¦³—´„µ¦„¦³‹µ¥…°ŠÂ„p­®¦º°Å°¦³Á®¥Å—o°¥nµŠÁ¡¸¥Š¡° ˜n™oµ£µ¥Äœ
°µ‡µ¦‹³˜o°Š¤„¸ µ¦Ážd—ŸœŠ´ ¨³/®¦°º ®¨´Š‡µÄ®°o µ„µ«Å®¨ŸnµœÅ—o°¥nµŠ­³—ª„

2. „µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Ã—¥ª·›¸„¨ (Artificial Ventilation) Ž¹ÉŠ‹³Áž}œ„µ¦Á‡¨ºÉ°œÅ®ª…°Š°µ„µ«
ץč°o »ž„¦–r Áœn ¡´—¨¤¦³µ¥°µ„µ« ŽÉ¹ŠÁ®¤µ³„´„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«£µ¥Äœ°µ‡µ¦®¦º°¡ºÊœš¸É
žd— œ°„‹µ„œ¸Ê¥´Š­µ¤µ¦™Äoª·›¸œÊ¸„´¡ºÊœšÉ¸„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Ã—¥ª·›¸›¦¦¤µ˜·¤¸°»ž­¦¦‡®¦º°„µ¦
¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Ã—¥›¦¦¤µ˜·Å¤Án ¡¸¥Š¡°

3.2 „µ¦‡Îµœª–„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«…°Š®°o Š

„µ¦™nµ¥Áš°µ„µ«Ä®o°¥n¼—oµœ˜¦Š…oµ¤„´œ Á¡ºÉ°Ä®o°µ„µ«¦·­»š›Í·‹µ„£µ¥œ°„Á…oµÂšœš¸É°µ„µ«š¸É¤¸
Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Å—o°¥nµŠ¤¸ž¦³­·š›·£µ¡ ĜšµŠž’·´˜·®o°ŠšÉ¸˜o°Š„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«°µ‹¤¸
Ÿœ´Š˜·—„´¡ºÊœšÉ¸Ã¨nŠÁ¡¸¥Š—oµœÁ—¸¥ª „µ¦°°„‹¹Š˜o°ŠÄošn°¨¤Â¨³¡´—¨¤—¼—°µ„µ«nª¥œÎµ
°µ„µ«­³°µ—‹µ„£µ¥œ°„¤µ°¥¼n—oµœ˜¦Š…oµ¤„´n°ŠšµŠ¦³µ¥°µ„µ« ®¦º°‹³Äo¡´—¨¤—¼—
°µ„µ«£µ¥Äœ®o°ŠŽÉ¹Š¤¸­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Ÿnµœšn°¨¤¦³µ¥­n¼¡ºÊœšÉ¸Ã¨nŠ—oµœœ°„„Èŗo °¥nµŠÅ¦„Șµ¤ª·›¸„µ¦
šŠ´Ê ­°ŠÂ‹³˜°o Š¦³ªŠ´ ¤Ä· ®o°µ„µ«šÉ¸¦³µ¥°°„­£¼n µ¥œ°„™¼„—¼—„¨´Á…oµ¤µ£µ¥Äœ®o°Š°¸„

Ĝ„µ¦‡Îµœª–č­o ˜¼ ¦
ž¦¤· µ–¨¤ (¨.¢˜» /œµš)¸ = ž¦¤· µ˜¦®°o Š (¨.¢»˜) x °˜´ ¦µ„µ¦™nµ¥Áš°µ„µ«˜n°´ÉªÃ¤Š x 1/60

˜ª´ °¥µn Š„µ¦‡Îµœª–
®°o ŠŸ­¤­¸¤¸…œµ—®°o Š„ªµo Š 10 ¢˜» ¥µª 12 ¢»˜ ­¼Š 8 ¢»˜ ×¥„µÎ ®œ—Ä®o¤¸°´˜¦µ„µ¦™nµ¥Áš

°µ„µ«Ášnµ„´ 5 Ášnµ…°Šž¦¤· µ˜¦®°o Š˜n°Éª´ äŠ Ä®o®µ°˜´ ¦µ‡ªµ¤Á¦Èª¨¤Á¡É°º čoĜŠµœœ¸Ê

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-2

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤¼n º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

ª·›š¸ ε = „ªoµŠ x ¥µª x ­¼Š
ž¦·¤µ˜¦…°Š®°o Š

= 10 x 12 x 8

= 960 ¨.¢˜»
‹µ„­˜¼ ¦„µ¦‡Îµœª–
ž¦·¤µ–¨¤š¸˜É o°Š„µ¦ = 960 x 5 x 1/60

= 80 ¨.¢»˜/œµš¸
—´ŠœÊœ´ Á¨°º „¡—´ ¨¤š¸ÉÄ®žo ¦·¤µ–¨¤Äœ°´˜¦µ°¥nµŠœo°¥ 80 ¨.¢˜» /œµš¸

3.3 „µ¦‹´—˜µÎ ®œŠn ¦³¦³µ¥°µ„µ«

¦ž¼ š¸É 3.2 ­—Š„µ¦‹—´ ªµŠ˜µÎ ®œnŠÁ‡¦Éº°Š¦³µ¥°µ„µ«­Îµ®¦´ ¡ºœÊ šÉ°¸ œ´ ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-3

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šÎµ‡¼¤n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ÊŠ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡ÊºœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 (Class I) šÉ¸‡¦°‡¨»¤¡ºÊœš¸É£µ¥Äœ°µ‡µ¦¦·Áª–„¦³ªœ„µ¦
Ÿ¨·˜Â¨³‹´—Á„ȝŸ¨·˜£´–”r ­µ¤µ¦™ž¦´ž¦»Š¨—…œµ—¡ºÊœšÉ¸Â¨³¦³—´‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°ŠÅ°¦³Á®¥
ŪިŠÅ—o Á¡Éº°Ä®oÁ„·—‡ªµ¤ž¦³®¥´—„µ¦˜·—˜´ÊŠ°»ž„¦–ršœ„µ¦¦³Á·—œ·—šÉ¸¤¸¦µ‡µÂ¡ŠÅ—o ×¥
ª›· ¸„µ¦˜nµŠÇ —´ŠœÊ¸

3.4 „µ¦šÎµŠµœÂªŠ‹¦žd— (Closed Circuit Operation)

¦³—´‡ªµ¤Á­¸É¥Š…°Š¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£ššÉ¸ 1 š¸É 1 (Class I Division 1) ­µ¤µ¦™
¨—¦³—´¨ŠÁž}œ¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 šÉ¸ 2 (Class I Division 2) ×¥„µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š
„¦³ªœ„µ¦Ÿ¨·˜ÂªŠ‹¦žd— Ánœ „µ¦Äo™´Š¦¦‹»­µ¦šÉ¸¤¸ µžd—¤·—·—ŤnÄ®oÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦
¦´ÉªÅ®¨Å—o čšo °n œµÎ ­µ¦Â¨³ªµ¨ªr Ážd—/žd— ×¥°µ‹Äož¤{€ Á¡É°º ­¼­µ¦ÅžÄoĜ¡ºÊœš¸É°œºÉ Ç —´Š¦¼žš¸É 3.3

…o°—…¸ °ŠÂœÊ¸ ‡º° ¤¸‡ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥­¼Š ˜n˜o°Š¨Šš»œ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ °»ž„¦–rÁ¡¤·É Á˜¤· Ĝªn ŠÂ¦„
‡°n œ…oµŠ­Š¼

Solvents Solvents

„n°œž¦´ ž¦Š» ®¨Š´ ž¦´ž¦»Š

¦¼žšÉ¸ 3.3 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š„µ¦¨—¦³—´ ‡ªµ¤Á­¥É¸ Š…°Š¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 ×¥„µ¦šµÎ ŠµœÂ

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-4

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šµÎ ‡¤¼n °º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜´ŠÊ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢jµ Ĝ¡œºÊ š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

3.5 ®o°Š‡ªµ¤—œ´ °µ„µ«­Š¼ (Pressurized Room)

„µ¦˜·—˜Ê´Š°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj šœ„µ¦¦³Á·— (Explosion Proof) ¤‡¸ µn čo‹nµ¥­¼ŠÂ¨³°µ‹Å¤n
¤¸‡ªµ¤­³—ª„Äœ„µ¦šÎµŠµœ œ°„‹µ„œÊ¸„µ¦šÎµŠµœÄœ¦¦¥µ„µ«šÉ¸¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¥´Š
Áž}œŸ¨Á­¸¥˜n°­…» £µ¡…°ŠŸo¼ž’·´˜·Šµœ°¸„—oª¥ Ž¹ÉŠ­µ¤µ¦™Â„oŅž¦´ž¦»Š­£µ¡¡ºÊœš¸É„µ¦šÎµŠµœ
ŗo °µ„µ«­³°µ—µŠ­nªœ‹³Å®¨°°„œ°„®o°ŠÅ—o ˜nÁ¤ºÉ°‡ªµ¤—´œÄœ®o°Š¨—¨Š‹³˜o°Š—¼—
—´Š¦¼žš¸É 3.4

Solvents Solvents

„°n œž¦´ ž¦»Š ®¨Š´ ž¦´ ž¦Š»

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 3.4 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥nµŠ„µ¦¨—¦³—´ ‡ªµ¤Á­É¸¥Š…°Š¡œºÊ š¸°É ´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£ššÉ¸ 1 ®o°Š‡ªµ¤

3.6 Ä„o µp ŽÁŒÉ°º ¥ (Inert Gas)

‹µ„‡ªµ¤¦o¼¡ºÊœ“µœ„µ¦žj°Š„´œ„µ¦¦³Á·— ™oµ­µ¤µ¦™žj°Š„´œ¤·Ä®o°Š‡rž¦³„°„µ¦Á„·—
„µ¦‹»—˜·—Å¢°¥¼n‡¦šÊ´Š 3 °¥nµŠ „È‹³šÎµÄ®oÁ„·—­£µ¡¡ºÊœš¸Éž¨°—£´¥Å—o ª·›¸„µ¦®œÉ¹Šš¸Éčo¨—
ž¦·¤µ–°°„Ž·Á‹œÄœ¡Êºœš¸ÉšÉ¸¤¸­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ „ȇº°„µ¦Äo„pµŽÁŒÉº°¥ (Inert Gas) ž¨n°¥Á…oµ¤µÄœ¡ºÊœš¸É
žd—£µ¥Äœ®o°Š Á¡Éº°šÎµÄ®oÁ‹º°‹µŠ­nªœŸ­¤…°Š°°„Ž·Á‹œÄœ°µ„µ«¨Š‹œ°¥¼nĜ¦³—´š¸Éž¨°—£´¥
ž„˜Ã· —¥šÉª´ ޤ´„čo„µp ŽÅœÃ˜¦Á‹œ ®¦°º „µp Ž‡µ¦r°œÅ—°°„ÅŽ—r

­Îµœ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£¥´ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-5

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šÎµ‡n¼¤°º „µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œÊº šÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

…o°Á­¸¥…°ŠÂœ¸Ê ‡º° „µ¦‡ª‡»¤¦³—´‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°Š„pµŽÁŒºÉ°¥£µ¥Äœ®o°ŠÂ¨³¤¸
‡nµÄo‹nµ¥…°Šš´ÊŠ¦³¦³­¼Š„ªnµ„µ¦Äo®o°Š‡ªµ¤—´œ­¼Š ¨³„µ¦¨—­´—­nªœ…°Š°°„Ž·Á‹œÄœ
°µ„µ«šÎµÄ®oÁž}œ°´œ˜¦µ¥˜n°Ÿ¼ož’·´˜·Šµœ£µ¥Äœ®o°Š—oª¥ —´Šœ´Êœ‡ª¦ÄoĜ®o°Š‡ª‡»¤š¸ÉŤn¤¸

Solvents Solvents

„n°œž¦´ž¦»Š ®¨Š´ ž¦´ ž¦»Š

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 3.5 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥µn Š„µ¦Á‹°º ‹µŠ°°„Ž·Á‹œÄœ¦¦¥µ„µ«Ã—¥Äo„µp ŽÁŒ°Éº ¥

3.7 „µ¦——¼ ‹µ„®¨Šn š¸¤É µ (Suction at Source)

ª·›¸œÊ¸‹³Äo¡´—¨¤—¼—°µ„µ«š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ Ą¨o‹»—šÉ¸¤¸„µ¦Äo­µ¦Â¨³Á„·—„µ¦
¦´ÉªÅ®¨°¥nµŠÁ…o¤…oœ ¨oªž¨n°¥Ÿnµœ­¼n£µ¥œ°„ץčošn°°µ„µ« (Air Duct) Ş¥´Š¡ÊºœšÉ¸Ã¨nŠšÉ¸Å¤n¤¸
„‹· „¦¦¤„µ¦šÎµŠµœš¸­É µ¤µ¦™šÎµÄ®oÁ„—· „µ¦‹»—˜—· Ţŗo ª·›¸„µ¦œÊ‹¸ ³nª¥¨—„µ¦¢j»Š„¦³‹µ¥Å°¦³Á®¥
…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢ ×¥„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«š´œš¸š¸ÉÁ„·—„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨ šÎµÄ®o…°Á…˜¡ÊºœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥Â‡¨Š —´Š
¦¼žšÉ¸ 3.6



„n°œž¦´ž¦Š» ®¨´Šž¦´ž¦»Š

¦ž¼ š¸É 3.6 ­—Š˜´ª°¥µn Š„µ¦—¼—‹µ„®¨nŠšÉ¸¤µ

­Îµœ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-6

ǦŠ„µ¦‹´—šµÎ ‡¼¤n º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡œÊº š¸É°œ´ ˜¦µ¥š¤É¸ Ÿ °¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

3.8 ¦¼žÂ„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Á¡°ºÉ ¨—¡ÊºœšÉ°¸ ´œ˜¦µ¥‹µ„Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

Ĝ®o°Šš¸ÉčoÁž}œ­™µœšÉ¸Á„ȝ­µ¦ÅªÅ¢Ã—¥Äo™´Š¦¦‹»žd—­œ·š °µ‹¤¸„µ¦¦´ÉªÅ®¨…°Š­µ¦
ŪŢŗo˜nŤn¤µ„œ´„ ‹´—°¥n¼Äœ¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥ž¦³Á£šš¸É 1 šÉ¸ 2 (Class I Division 2) ™oµ¤¸
„µ¦Ä¦o ³¦³µ¥°µ„µ«šÉ¸Á®¤µ³­¤„È‹³nª¥¨—‡ªµ¤Á…o¤…oœ…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢­n¼¦³—´š¸ÉŤn­µ¤µ¦™
‹»—˜·—Ţŗo šÎµÄ®o®o°Š—´Š„¨nµªÅ¤n‹´—°¥n¼Äœ¡ºÊœšÉ¸°´œ˜¦µ¥ ¨³Å¤n‹ÎµÁž}œ˜o°ŠÄo°»ž„¦–ržj°Š„´œ

Closed drums of solvents Closed drums of solvents

„n°œž¦´ ž¦Š» ®¨Š´ ž¦´ ž¦»Š

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 3.7 ­—Š˜ª´ °¥nµŠ…°Šª›· ¸„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Á¡Éº°ªn ¥¨—¡Êºœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥

¦ž¼ š¸É 3.8 ­—Š„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Äœ„¦–š¸ ɸۦ³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¨°¥­nš¼ ­É¸ Š¼

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-7

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¼n¤º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°»ž„¦–År ¢¢µj Ĝ¡Êœº š¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥šÉ¤¸ ¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

¦¼žš¸É 3.9 ­—Š„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«Äœ„¦–š¸ ¸ÉÅ°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢¨°¥­š¼n ˜É¸ ÎµÉ Â¨³„µ¦ÂŠn ¡ºÊœš¸É
‹´—Á„È Â¥„‹µ„­™µœšÄɸ ­o µ¦ÅªÅ¢ªn ¥¨—¡œÊº š°¸É ´œ˜¦µ¥ÄœÃŽœ 1 ¨Š

¦ž¼ šÉ¸ 3.10 ­—Š„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«°¥µn ŠÁ®¤µ³­¤‹³šµÎ Ä®Ÿo ¼žo ’· ˜´ Š· µœÅ¤˜n °o Š­—¼ —¤
­µ¦°œ´ ˜¦µ¥

­µÎ œ„´ Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°˜» ­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-8

ǦŠ„µ¦‹—´ šµÎ ‡¤¼n º°„µ¦˜¦ª‹­° ˜·—˜ŠÊ´ ¦³Â¨³°ž» „¦–rÅ¢¢µj Ĝ¡ºÊœš¸É°´œ˜¦µ¥š¸É¤¸Å°¦³Á®¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢

¦¼žšÉ¸ 3.11 ­—Š„µ¦ÄŸo œŠ´ ž°j Š„´œ„µ¦¢»Šj „¦³‹µ¥…°Š­µ¦ÅªÅ¢šµÎ Ä®o„µ¦¦³µ¥°µ„µ«¤¸
ž¦³­š· ›·£µ¡¤µ„¥Š·É …ʹœ

­µÎ œ´„Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥‡¸ ªµ¤ž¨°—£´¥ „¦¤Ã¦ŠŠµœ°»˜­µ®„¦¦¤ 3-9

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