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Published by kuchien, 2019-11-29 23:04:24








Name No. Matrix Programme

Ku Chien Lung D20182085040 AT12


LECTURER: Profesor Dr. Amir Hasan bin Dawi

DATE SENT: 30 November 2019 0000000000000

Chapter 1

What is Education of Sociology?

Sociology is field of study that investigates the social behaviour of man. Therefore, it
explores the human processes of interaction and their results . For examples, social

institutions, groups, collectives and their relationships, as well as the study of individual
behaviour is explained by the existence of these social patterns.

Education, on the other hand, includes any experience that trains, disciplines, and shapes the

mental and physical potentials of the maturing person.

Durkheim (1961) defined education as ‘the action exercised by the older generations upon
those who are not yet ready for social life. Its object is to awaken and develop in the child

those physical, intellectual and moral states which are required of him both by his society as a
whole and by the milieu for which he is specially destined.’


1. The functionalist theory
This particular theory focuses on the ways that universal education serves the need of

society. Firstly, functionalists see education in its manifest role, which is conveying basic

knowledge and skills to the next generation.
2. The conflict theory

Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and
preserving the power of those who dominate society. Conflict theorists examine the same

functions of education as functionalists. Functionalists see education as a beneficial

contribution to an ordered society; however, conflict theorists see the educational system
as perpetuating the status quo by dulling the lower classes into being obedient workers.

3. The symbolic interactionist theory
Symbolic interactionists limit their analysis of education to what they directly observe

happening in the classroom. They focus on how teacher expectations influence student

performance, perceptions, and attitudes.

Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson conducted the landmark study for this approach in

1968. First, they examined a group of students with standard IQ tests. The researchers
then identified a number of students who they said would likely show a sharp increase in

abilities over the coming year. They informed the teachers of the results, and asked them
to watch and see if this increase did occur. When the researchers repeated the IQ tests at

the end of the year, the students identified by the researchers did indeed show higher IQ


Background of Sociologists that formed the theory of education

1. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Auguste, born in Montpellier, France, was a mechanical engineer and the father of

sociology. Despite being born into a Catholic family of royalist, Comte rebelled against

this background and upon entering the Ecole Polytechnique, became involved in the
republican cause in politics.

The later years of his life spent in the development of a godless religion, one that retained

the institutional trappings of the Catholicism he had repudiated in his younger days. It is
through this endeavour he had founded the society positiviste, one devoted to the

promulgation of the “cult of humanity.”

2. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Durkheim was a French thinker of eminence, meaning he was a professor of philosophy.

What’s interesting is that he was a sociologist by choice, yet a scientist by way of

approach. He was a social scientist, who believed that by his scientific approach he had
discovered that society holds everything within, like a source of higher values.

3. Max Weber (1864-1920)

Weber belonged to the German historical and idealist, in which he was a just, economist
and even a politician. Given of his background, it had allowed him to have a deep insight

in the affairs of man. He is concerned with meaning that men have given to life, for he

sought to understand “the total attitude of individuals or groups”.

4. Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Marx was born on May 5, 1818 and died on March 14, 1883. He was a German
economist, philosopher and revolutionist whose writings form the basis of the body of

ideas known as Marxism. With help of Friedrich Engels he produced much of the theory
of modern socialism and communism. Even to this day, his writings on economics and

sociology are still influential in academic circles and even among those who do not share

his political views.

Basis of social education in managing and teaching in a classroom

Good classroom management implies more than just eliciting student to cooperate in

maintaining order. Rather, it implies that worthwhile learning activities engaging to students
are taking place continuously in the classroom. In a well-managed classroom, the teacher

prepares a physical environment suitable for learning, develops rules of conduct, maintains
student attention and participation in group lessons, and monitors student assignments and

progress toward the desired learning outcomes. The procedures for attaining these goals


i. establishing clear expectations at the beginning of the school year
ii. beginning and ending class periods smoothly

iii. making effective transitions between activities
iv. maintaining the flow of activities by stimulating involvement

v. attending to the needs of individual students.

In a learning community based on social constructivist theory, the teacher acts as a
collaborator in the production of knowledge within the classroom. The premise is that when

teachers help students construct knowledge through social interaction, classroom discourse
will deepen through more reflective discussion. The learning community teacher asks

divergent questions meant to stimulate thought and help students develop an understanding of

powerful ideas that anchor different networks of knowledge. Students in turn strive to make
sense of what they are learning by relating it to both prior knowledge and the understandings

of other students.

Classrooms based on social constructivism are person-centered environments that promote
active, participatory, and connected learning. Especially in social studies classrooms, teachers

and students collaborate to develop rules, often formalizing them into a classroom

constitution. Discipline emanates mostly from the self as teachers and students share
leadership roles. The spirit is one of collegiality: helping, sharing, working together, listening,

and supporting in a caring manner. The goal is for members to feel valued, personally
connected to one another, and committed to everyone’s growth and learning.


Upon going through this chapter, I found myself quite interested at the subject as sociology is

the study of behaviour, meaning how they react…how they proceed throughout the
day…these are all very human behaviours and to integrate these concepts into teaching is

very intriguing as even human behaviour is taken into consideration when education is

Anyway, there are also various theories, including functionalist theory, conflict theory and

the symbolic interactionist theory. These very theories provide good insight into teaching
with the consideration of behaviour. This is because humans are complex beings, whether

they are young or old, they all have their own thoughts and actions. Students are no different

and is the reason why various theories have been constructed to help aid in the process of
education within a classroom. Of course, these theories aren’t formed out of thin air as

various sociologists such as Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx have helped in forming these
particular theories.

It can also be seen that the basis of social education in managing and teaching in a classroom

is founded in engaging with the students continuously within the classroom whether it be
preparing before the lesson begins or after the class is over. There is a need to set some

ground rules within the class so that order can be maintained, yet enough leeway that students
would not feel constricted or stressed out by such rules. In short, sociology which is the

behaviour of individuals have a lot of relation with education itself.

Chapter 2

Educational Interaction

Interaction between teacher and students are needed in the classroom activities taking
communicative approach as it will maintain communication to occur in the classroom. Not

only does it help with the teaching, but the learning process to run smoothly.

Ellis (1990) stated that interaction is meaning-focused and carried out to facilitate the
exchange of information and prevent communication breakdowns. Moreover, Brown (2015)

stated that interaction is the basis of L2 learning, through which learners are engaged both in

enhancing their own communicative abilities and in socially, constructing their identities
through collaboration and negotiation. This is because classroom interaction is needed

because by interacting other learners and the teacher, learners will increase their language
skill and social skill. It is an important role of the teacher to make the teaching and learning

process by designing the plan well.

Learning by Interaction

"Interacting" within the absorbing, doing, interaction, reflection framework means interacting

with others, rather than interacting with a object. For example, discussing a problem with
others rather than operating a forklift.

Although students can learn by reading and listening, real depth of understanding happens

when the learner expresses the new learning herself, either through discussions or writings.

That is, the learner needs to encode the learning themselves, rather than simply receive what
others have encoded. Verbalizing is a powerful concept (Marzano, 1998). This is one of the

reasons that interacting with others can be such a powerful learning tool because students are
not only get the benefit of verbalizing, but also receiving immediate feedback.

The physicist Freeman Dyson wrote that when writing, he closes the door, but when doing

science, he leaves it open and as quoted: "up to a point you welcome being interrupted
because it is only by interacting with other people that you get anything interesting done."

These interactions are often useful in creating the ‘aha’ moment, as it joined one's knowledge

with another bit of knowledge, information, or data. Knowledge is not normally created out
of nothing, rather one gains knowledge by being able to connect two or more pieces of data,

information, or knowledge together. Thus knowledge is a process of understanding by


Types of learning by interaction

1. Learner-Teacher

The learner-teacher interaction allows the teacher to help the learner to understand the

course’s concepts, identify difficulties and stimulate critical thinking. If necessary, the
teacher will adjust his pedagogical approach. In online training, it is essential that both parties

are perfectly comfortable with the technological environment and the communications tools
that allow them to interact

2. Learner-Learner

With the growing popularity of active pedagogy, the learner-learner interaction is

increasingly valued over time. It has been shown that social interaction promotes learning and
has a positive impact on motivation, on the feeling of connection with peers, on the

performance in the workplace and the general satisfaction of learners

In the context of online learning, where everyone spends their time most often alone in front
of their screen, the learner-learner interaction is of great benefit. Fortunately, online training

now has tools that can make the interaction between learners more attractive and useful,
whether it is for exchanging ideas, collaborating, launching initiatives, or helping one another.

3. Teacher-Teacher

The teacher-teacher interaction is essential for the development of the profession, as a whole.

In the context of the digital revolution in which education and the role of the teacher are to be
transformed, the dialogue between the actors in the field is more necessary than ever.

Moreover, we now enter an age where collaboration becomes a fundamental value.

Also, the new means of communication have the advantage of eliminating borders and
allowing exchange at low cost and without having to travel, with a considerably larger

community. They also enable the design of original and effective interactive activities to
stimulate collegiality and create team projects.

4. Learner-Content

When the learners are actively engaged with the content or learning material, and they

assimilate it, then we can speak of a learner-content interaction. The objectives of this
interaction have been defined as follows according to Turoff, Hiltz and Balasubramanian

(1994): forming degrees of agreement or disagreement with the material; seeking or reaching
an understanding of the material; relating it to what one already knows; realizing confusions

and lack of understandings that need further pursuit.

Every solution, every tool available in online training offers unique opportunities to enhance
the way the learners perceive the content and interact with it.

5. Teacher-Content

In traditional higher education, teacher-content interaction occurs both when the teacher
prepares a course and when he or she engages in research activities. At the rate at which

knowledge is advancing, today’s teacher must also be up to speed with the latest research, on

a regular basis. They are required to guide the learners through this sea of information that is
now accessible to us and to develop their critical thinking about this overflow of content.

With online learning, teacher-content interaction is transformed by the development of new

ways to present the subject. The need to adapt the content of traditional courses to the
particularities and tools of eLearning has created a new intermediary in the teacher-content

interaction: the instructional designers. Their intervention on the content and its presentation
are essential to creating a learner commitment to the content of the online course, in other

words, to allow meaningful learner-content interaction.

6. Content-content

As explained in an article named Intelligent Adaptive Learning: Everyone’s Training, thanks
to advances in artificial intelligence (AI), research on adaptive hypermedia and the rise of big

data, personalized training is moving into second gear with intelligent adaptive learning.

This new form of online learning makes it possible to generate in real time, for each learner,
the learning path that is most likely to help he or she achieve his/her objectives. It is not only

the content of the course that can be adapted intelligently for each learner, but also its

presentation as well as navigation.

Concept of Sociology of Education

Modern sociology of education borrows and utilizes concepts from sociological theory,

philosophy, economics, political theory, social anthropology, psychoanalysis and psychology.
It is often argued that the traditional conceptual framework in sociology of education owes

much to the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. It is also clear that the work of the
American sociologist Talcott Parsons has figured significantly in the traditional theoretical

framework. Nevertheless, Parsons' work has had some influence in sociology of education as

Sociology of education is concerned with the family, the education system, the economy and

the policy, and with relations between them. It is concerned with social institutions and with

the socialization process with which they are involved. There is a specific concern with the
interrelated issues of the socialization of human individuals and the selection and allocation

of individuals within the role-structure of adult society; what Parsons calls a 'dual problem'.
British sociology of education is concerned with the social class differentials in the

conditions of socialization and educational opportunity, and with the social class differentials
in educational achievement.

The concept of culture appears in sociology of education as a concept within theories of

socialization. The socialization process is conceived of as the process of the construction of
the consciousness of the human subject through its internalization of culture. Theories of

socialization purport to be theories of the subject. The concept of the process of socialization

presupposes that the concept of the subject is designated certain attributes. It invests the
concept of the subject with the capacity for cognition necessary for recognition, without

which the socialization process cannot work. The problem is immediately dire; the
sociological theory of socialization purports to be the theory of the construction of the

consciousness and capacities of consciousness of human subjects, yet in order for such a

theory to work it must of necessity presuppose such capacities in the human subject.


Within the context of education, interaction is an essential element needed as it not only

engages the students, but also teaches them language skills and communication skills. It is

only through interaction will the students be able to understand what is being thought as they

engaged with the teacher in a back and forth manner until they are satisfied.

Learning by interaction is not limited to merely one type, but various kinds as each one of
them are needed for teachers to adapt to particular teaching environments, Whether the

interaction are between students and teachers, students and contents or even teachers and
teachers, all of these are needed in order to have an effective teaching environment for

students to grow,

All in all, sociology of education concerns the socialization process among humans. This is
because the it is only through interaction, speaking, talking, listening that students are able to

learn more effectively. This is why this matter is something a teacher needs to take note of

before going to a classroom for lessons as the interaction is very much an essential part in
cultivating the students’ potential.

Chapter 3

Educational Management of students

Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a
group combines both human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategize and

implement structures to execute an education system. This particular system is made out of
an ecosystem of professionals within the educational institutions such as government

ministries as it is consisted of principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative

personnel and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance.

Strategy for educational management

1. Teacher centered

The teacher controls the learning and educational process, and also give directions on the

thoughts and engagement of the students. As an example, writing down notes, doing
exercises and questions are all given by the teacher.

2. Resource centered

Teachers use materials such as books, building blocks, drawing materials, scientific
equipment, computers dan others for continuing their lessons. The learning materials are

arranged according to the current plans. In this type of teaching, the teacher’s role is to be
a guiding mentor.

3. Student centered
Students take a bit of responsibility of what is being taught and how it is being conveyed.

Students are encourage to involves themselves actively in activities whether it be group

discussions or individual ones. The lesson is carried out by individual or small groups and
is not taught to the entire class at once.

Teaching Principle

1. Induction set
Short activities done to attract the interests of students

2. Delivery

Learning activities are done step by step according to the current achievement of the

students, the time and also the resources.
3. Finisher

Grading, strengthening the information and the conclusion

Educational Management in class with Different Culture

A teacher that is able to manage their education is known as a manager. The characteristics of

an effective educational manager includes:-

1. Apprehensive and aware of their surroundings
2. Systematic in planning and accessing

3. Patient in facing behavioural students of different backgrounds
4. Smart in managing time

5. Can look far ahead
6. Ready to change and is flexible

7. Able to communicate with others effectively

Stages of Educational Management

1. Before the Educational Process

As a teacher facing students of different culture, a teacher has to be ready before the

teaching session even begins as preparation before the educational process involves
planning usage of lessons through the daily lesson plan in several aspects, such as clear

learning steps and materials for an effective lesson.

2. During the Educational Process
The choosing of an accurate teaching strategy is capable of conveying the information

and implementation of lessons to be more effective especially in terms of activities that
have active interaction between students of different culture and background.

3. After the Educational Process
After the lesson, a teacher has to be able to recognize the effective of the lesson. The

assessment of their achievement is a process that involves activities that collect data about

strategy, activities, results and the impact of the lessons. This is done so that the teacher is

able to react according so that the next lesson would be improved upon.
According to D. Stufflebeam’s book titled Educational Evaluation and Decision Making,

he believes that definition of assessment as a process that is definitive, receive and
convey useful information so that considerations can be made. Gay (1985) is on the mind

that assessment is a systematic process of gathering analysing data in order to determine

whether or not the set objective is met.

School Management

According to Sharpe (1989) The school is a unique organization and is not represented

anywhere else in the world. This uniqueness requires managers that are both skilled and
knowledgeable that are not possessed by other organization managers.

The features of a school organization includes:-

1. The school and its system is a human organization, meaning the human resource and goal
are all related to the individuals

2. Aim of a group of humans, which means the students and teenager are in a developing

period in terms of mentality, physically, emotionally and socially.
3. The main goal of the school is related to education as education is related with learning,

development and building up of character.
4. Humans are role models or important assets to a country

According to Abd Rahim Abd Rashid (2001), the management of the school needs to be

creative and innovative in order to build a school organization that is dynamic, which is full
of new knowledge, scientific culture, spreading of informational technology and the building

up of the potential of mankind. Thus, a school is the slowest kind of institution to change,
conservative and maintains its traditions that are not relevant to the current times if Senge

(200) is to be believed. Hence, a strategic management in school in very important to realize

an effective school.


Educational management is another important matter when it comes to education. Of course,

a teacher cannot just simply go into the class and teach whatever they had in their mind as
more often than not, the lesson that was supposed to be taught would be forgotten as the

teacher mindless go through their lessons. A teacher is expected to manage their lessons
accordingly, planning, strategizing in order to have an education system in which they are

able to more easily manage their students and their current progress.

Thus, the stages of educational management include before, during and after the educational
process. What surprised me more was about the stage after the educational process as a

teacher would reflect back on their lesson, collecting their data so that they would be able to

improve their lessons according to what they had just done. This is especially great as this
would only serve to continually improve the lessons, which is something I had never

considered before.

In conclusion, educational management is an important aspect that needs to be expected of a

teacher in their profession. Planning and managing an educational system should be

encouraged for a teacher as they helped facilitate ease into their lesson plans so that the
lessons within class can run smoothly.

Chapter 4

Organizational Leadership

According to Adeoye Mayowa (2009), leadership is the ability to evaluate and or forecast a
long term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of said strategy.

An organization is defined as the necessary combination of human efforts, material

equipment brought together in a systematic and effective correlation to accomplish the
desired results.

If you combine the two, then it is known as organizational leadership. Organizational

leadership is a field of business management that specifically relates to meeting the
challenges and goals brought by the organization a whole. Organizational leaders often rise to

top administrative and executive positions of their organizations because of their abilities to
manage the present while looking toward the future.

Organizational leadership implies an understanding both the strengths and weaknesses of the

company’s workforce, business plan and day-to-day operations. Organizational leaders use

their skills and knowledge to manage and strengthen the components of an organization by
implementing change, confronting problems and creating a positive and productive


School Organization

School organization comes under the scope of school management, but it deals with the

overall policy framing and ensuring the smooth functioning of the school. However, the
school organization is about the actual organization of resources, events, personnel of a

school. In a school, different people are assigned duties and are made responsible for the

same. Not just that, the coordination between different personnel is needed to ensure that the
organization of the activities of the school is done properly.

In short, school organization means an organization of different types of activities of a school,

organization of material resources of a school, organization of a school personnel and
organization of ideas and principles into school system which includes building relationships,

creating conducive climate for work at the school.

Of course, school organization is important. This is because it is necessary to ensure smooth

proceedings of the school, as well as to avoid under and over utilization of the resources of a
school. It is also important to make best use of the capabilities of the school personnel

because if they are allotted the work depending upon their area of expertise, interest,
experience they are more than likely to deliver work at the best of their abilities. Besides that,

it is necessary to save time, increase clarity and efficiency of work as there is clarity of duties

to be performed and responsibilities to be held on the part of the school personnel.

Primary School Leadership

1. Autocratic

The principal has complete command and control over the teaching staff, which mean the
leader cannot be questioned in terms of getting things done because the principal is the one

who settle things. The advantage of this style is that it leads to speedy decision-making and

greater productivity under the principal’s supervision. On the other hand, the drawback to this
is that it would lead to greater teacher absenteeism and turnover.

2. Democratic

The principal invites and encourages the teaching staff to play an important role in decision-
making process, though the ultimate decision-making power rests with the leader. The

principal guides the teachers on what to perform and how to perform, while the teachers

communicate to the leader their experience and the suggestions if any. The advantages of this
leadership style are that it leads to satisfied, motivated and more skilled teachers but the

drawback is that it is time-consuming since it requires everyone’s input on a particular


3. Laissez Faire

The principal trusts their employees to perform the job themselves, meaning the principal

merely concentrates on the intellectual aspect of his work and does not focus on the
management side of it. This particular style is only effective when the teachers are skilled,

loyal, experienced and intellectual.

4. Contingency

This approach helps with the principal to adopt the best management style according the

context of the situation. This approach helps to understand that management activity depends
on the circumstances as the principal create their own styles and management approach The

advantage of this is that it is dynamic in nature, which allows it to change depending on
situations. However, this approach has a disadvantage, which is it is reactive in nature,

meaning the principal is not the one to initiate the process as the principal is the one that acts
according to the situation.

Teacher Leadership

Teacher leadership is the process by which teachers work collaboratively with other faculty,
staff, and community members to improve teaching practices so that the learning

environment can be enriched and lead to higher achieving classrooms.

Teacher leaders have the skills necessary to lead school and district-wide initiatives and

projects such as new technology implementation, or professional learning community
facilitation. Teacher leaders may stay in the classroom where their passion is, and where they

feel they can make the greatest impact. However, many expand their careers into roles that
are key to facilitating improvements in instruction, student outcomes, and peer development.

Of course, a teacher requires to have a particular set of skills and characteristics in order to

have a successful leadership, some of them being which:-:

1. Understanding of changing state standards and standards’ aligned curriculum

Teachers must have a solid understanding of their changing state standards, and a desire to

use that knowledge to implement quality curricula that challenges students, while maintaining

high test scores. The changes to state standards are a controversial topic in the education
system right now, and it takes a skilled teacher to comprehend the standards and work within

the system to impact student learning.

2. Ability to turn research into action

Teacher leaders need to analyze data and create actionable plans that help students and a

school excel. This skill helps teachers look beyond test scores, and use the statistical
information to find areas for improvement.

3. Desire to support faculty

A teacher leader has the desire to help other faculty members become the most effective
teachers possible. By designing and hosting professional development opportunities, teacher

leaders motivate others to set and achieve high standards in their classrooms.

4. Foster technology-based collaboration

Teacher leaders utilize technology to foster partnerships with colleagues in their school and
among other teachers in their network. Ideas can be shared without geographical limitations,

in real time, so all teachers can benefit from new and useful practices.

5. Promoting Equity

Teacher leaders have the ability to identify and address problems that may be disadvantaging
specific groups of students. By exploring a school’s policies, structures, and practices, a

leader can identify barriers to promote equitable access to a high quality education for every


This chapter in particular talks more about an organization leader, or in this case, the
principal. While a teacher manages classrooms or students, the principal is the one who

manages the entire school, from the most strenuous task to the smallest matters. Whenever
the matter concerns the school then the principal is the one who holds responsibility for it.

Concerning the type of leaderships that are out there, each organizational leader have their

style for managing, whether it be autocratic, democratic or even Laissez Faire. They each

have their particular advantages and disadvantages, so there is no ideal way of leading the
school. Still, it is up to organizational leader to consider what their best option is when

managing a school.

All in all, the principal, or even the teacher for the matter must have a particular set of skills

and characteristics in order to have a successful leadership so that the school may be run

Chapter 5

Student Management

Student management is one of more important aspects in school administration. This is
because student management is related to ways of developing students to become individuals

that are of quality and has potential to bring real change to the country in multiple aspects.
Other than that, student management is done systematically because it is capable of reaching

the targeted objective. The task for managing the matters relating to the student is given to

the Assistant teacher of general affairs for the matters in aspects of discipline, co-curriculum,
curriculum and others as well through their position as assistant, planner and counsellor so

that the matter of student management can be eased.

Student Management oversees everything so that the planning and management goes through
smoothly in order to create a good learning environment. Not only that, student management

is also able to build a good culture between the students and teacher. Lastly, various
organizations are also able to cooperate together in order to develop students that has good


Student Record Management

Managing the student records is one of the responsibilities of a teacher, that being all

activities that are done by the students should be recorded so that the teacher is able to

manage the students responsibly. One of aspects of the record includes taking care of proof
and information of the student in the form of a record. There are a few things to consider

when making record such as this, which is the purpose, aspect, and also practical

considerations. The student record that is made has to be protected and cared for so that the
contained information is able to tell the teacher of the background of every one of the


However, this record also include recording in the classroom, which includes the marks and

the progress that has been made by every student. There is also a special record that is related

to homework that has to be done. Through this, the teacher is able to set the scope of the
work based on the progress record of the class. Not only that, this record is also able to help

teacher realise a need for extra material so that the teacher is able to provide even more

information on the areas that might be lacking.

Student Readiness to Learn

Student readiness to learn is a condition where an individual is ready and willing to learn of a

topic with the intention of gaining new knowledge. According to Brunner(1966), whatever
information that is relayed to the children will be effective especially during the developing

period. This readiness is related to the developing period of intellect such as thinking,

analysing. For one to be willing to learn depends on the personality of the students such as
desires, emotions and interests. Every individual has a different of emotion even when they

are in the same situation. The difference occurs due to interaction, social activities and the
lifestyles that are different for every student. Thus, an implementation strategy has been in

order to ready the student for learning such interesting induction sets, planning teaching
activities and learning that based on ability.

Student Motivation

Of course, like any other individuals students too also need motivation in their education.
This is because motivation is a way to attract their interest in order for them to reach a

particular goal. The desire to know will change their behaviour into wanting to know more,

create and design. Personality is built from understanding, emotion and action, whereas hope
is a subjective prediction that runs parallel with a cognitive mind.


On the topic of student management, I believe this one to be especially hard as often more
than not, there will be a lot different complications that occur when a teacher is the one

managing the students. This is because each student is an individual with a different

background from another and thus, requires different ways of managing for each one.

Of course, I believe that a teacher should be able to stand up to the task. One of they way a

teacher can do that is by managing a student record, a particular item that records each and

every one of a student’s progress in class so that the teacher can keep track of their

achievements and engagement in class.

The students’ readiness to learn also plays a factor into it as well, for the teacher needs to be
the one who initiate and spark the students’ interest at the lesson at hand so that the lessen can

run smoothly. All in all, student record management is no less important in the aspect of
education management.

Chapter 6

Classroom Management

Classroom management is the process of ensuring that classroom lessons go smoothly
without any sort of disruptive behaviour from the students. This implies the prevention of

disruptive behaviour pre-emptively, as well as effectively responding to it after it happens.
This is crucial because it supports proper usage of curriculum development while growing

teaching practices as they are put to use. From the student's perspective, effective classroom

management involves clear communication of behavioural and academic expectations as well
as a cooperative learning environment.

The Importance of Classroom Management

Every teacher must realize that good classroom management is important as it is needed for
achieving optimal learning. As such, there several positive results that come from it, such as:-

1. Effective Teaching

A disorganized classroom without routines and expectations makes it difficult for the teacher

to do their job. Students don't know what to do, so they might get off task or cause
disruptions. When the teacher is constantly redirecting students or handling behaviour

problems, the teacher loses crucial teaching time. Classroom management strategies help
create an organized classroom environment that's conducive to teaching as kids know the

expectations in different types of learning situations. For example, students would know that

when working in small groups, they talk in quiet voices and take turns talking since they each
have a specific job within the group.

2. Efficient Use of Time

Taking time before school starts to create routines and procedures saves you time in the long
run. When the students know what to do, it becomes a natural part of the routine. For

example, a teacher has no need to tell the students what to do after a few weeks. The students

know they get their planners out, write in homework assignments and gather all of their
materials at the end of the day. When the students are trained to do each of their parts, the

teacher does not spend as much instructing them and could use the time to teach more.

3. Consistency

A teacher with strong classroom management skills creates consistency for their students.

The students know what to expect every day when it comes to the routine activities. The
students may fare better when you're gone if you have set expectations for everyday tasks as

they know how the classroom runs so they are able to help the substitute run the classroom.
For example, if the kids know they're supposed to enter the room and start working on a math

problem on the board, a substitute doesn't have to spend his time corralling the kids or trying
to keep them occupied while everyone arrives. You can also create consistency throughout

the school by aligning your management strategies with the school wide standards. If your

school focuses on respect and responsibility, incorporate them into your classroom
management techniques. The students will hear those words throughout the school and know

that the expectations are the same anywhere in the building.

4. Fewer Behaviour Problems

The main goal of classroom management is to reduce misbehaviour in the classroom.

Effective classroom management gives the students little time to misbehave but to the fact

that the expectations are clearly explained, the students know what they need to do.
Transitions in particular are easier to control when a teacher has strong classroom

management skills. The expectations for behaviours that are part of a classroom management
plan give students boundaries, as well as consequences.

Classroom Management Skills

In order to have an effective classroom management, a teacher is required to have a few

essential skills so that an efficient learning environment can be created, which are:-

1. Establishing expectations

2. Giving instructions
3. Waiting and scanning

4. Cueing with parallel acknowledgement

5. Body language encouraging
6. Descriptive encouring

7. Selective attending

8. Redirecting to the learning

9. Giving a choice
10. Following through

Strategies of Classroom Management

The strategies that teachers can use are for enhancing pro-social student behaviour and

academic engagement so that an orderly environment can be established. Of course, there are

a variety of strategies a teacher can use in order to have a ideally managed classroom.

1. Model Ideal behaviour
This model effectively teaches student how to act in different situations. For example, a

way to model certain behaviours is by holding a mock conversation with an admin, with
another teacher in front of the class. Thus, when conversing, the teacher must use polite

language, maintain eye contact with one another, while letting the other speak
uninterrupted while the phone is kept in the pockets.

2. Let students help establish guidelines
A teacher can encourage all students to help you build classroom rules, as you’ll generate

more buy-in than just telling them what they’re not allowed to do.

For example, during the start of the year, the teacher and initiate a discussion by asking
students what they believe should and shouldn’t fly. This may seem like it is set to fail,

but it also depends of the nature of your students but one might be shocked at the
strictness of some proposed rules. Regardless, having a discussion should lead to

mutually understood and respected expectations.

3. Encourage Initiative

In order to promote growth mind-set, a teacher has to inject variety into their lessons, by
allowing students to work ahead and deliver short presentations to share take-away points.

Almost undeniably, there will be a few students that are all too eager to do so. The
teacher can simply ask the students if they’d like to get ahead from time-to-time. For

example, if the teacher is reading a specific chapter in a textbook, propose that the

students read the following one too. When they deliver their subsequent presentations to

preview the next chapter on the teacher’s behalf, the teacher might find that other students
want a bit more work as well.

4. Addressing bad behaviour quickly

A teacher has to avoid hesitation when addressing bad behaviour, especially when a

student breaks a documented rule. This is because acting sooner than later will help
ensure that negative feelings, whether between students or student and a student won’t

fester. Failure to act can result in more poor behaviour, leading to avoidable complicated


Classroom management is a type of management that a teacher must possessed to ensure
that their class can run smoothly without disruptions. In theory, teachers usually expect

students to quietly go along with whatever lesson they are imparting but reality is often
unlike what is seen. This is why a teacher have to plan accordingly in order to prevent it

from even happening in the first place.

The importance of classroom management cannot be overstated as not only would a good

classroom management allow room for effective teaching, but also prevents problems
from popping up and also allows an efficient use of time, not wasting the teacher’s time

in exerting their effort to correct student behaviour.

Therefore, a teacher must possess a particular set of skill and prepare a variety of

strategies so that they will be able proceed with their lessons smoothly and without

Chapter 7

Resource Management

Strategic resource management is a critical factor in school improvement as effective leaders
are able to embrace uncertain, complex and challenging contexts and work with others to

seek creative and innovative solutions while ensuring integrity. They respond strategically to
opportunities in the external environment for the benefit of the school community.

Effective leaders ensure that operational issues, such as resource allocation and accountability

requirements, serve the overarching strategic vision of the school community. Learning is

supported by the effective use of school, system and community expertise and resources
through contextual decision-making and planning.

By effectively managing risk, using data and making well informed and intentional
resourcing decisions, leaders are able to enhance the impact of their School Strategic Plans.

Resourcing strategically means securing and effectively allocating resources to support

instructional priorities, including support for students facing disadvantage and use of Equity
Funding. Effective leaders determine what teaching expertise and resources are needed to

achieve student learning goals and source and allocate them accordingly.

Resource-based Learning

According to Beswick 1977, resource-based learning is as stated:“…involves the reuse of

available assets to support varied learning needs”. Resource-based learning is an approach to

pedagogy which actively involves students, teachers and resource providers in the application
of a range of resources, in terms of both human and non-human in the learning process. Not

only that, it is claimed that this approach provides a flexible structure to learning to the point
that the learner can develop as a learner according to their varied interests, experiences,

learning styles, needs and ability levels. This particular approach focuses on the resources
available to the learners and how the learners interact with these resources. This leads to an

interest in the uses of technology to support and develop a learning environment.

Role and Function of Resource-based Learning

For resource-based learning, media specialists play a very important as they are the ones who
begin and the acquisition of curriculum-supported materials. Supporting them however are

the teachers, as they are the ones who act as coaches, facilitators as their students and
sampling and manipulating information in multiple formats.

The function of resource-based learning is to encourage learning on a topic through
interaction with multiple resources. Not only that, it also encourages in-depth focus on a topic

which will drive students to seek more relevant information so that a product of higher
quality could be produced. Besides that, the particular type of learning is also to promote the

development of thinking skills such as problem-solving, reasoning, and critical evaluation

through information handling and independent research. Last but not least, it also improves
research skills and fosters self-confidence in finding information by integration library skills

as part of a subject curriculum.

Implementation of Resource-based Learning
Constructionism, Learning by design, and Project Based Learning can easily be used as

models for implementing resource-based learning in the classroom. Resource-based learning

begins with clearly identified instructional goals as the teacher and media specialist decide on
acceptable student-generated products. So, they divide the teaching responsibilities and

gather varied resources. A timeline is created and the media centre, computer lab, guest
speakers and other resources are booked. Rubrics are designed and the students begin their

quests. The teacher, often with input from the media specialist, evaluates the student

produced artifacts. Finally, both the teacher and media specialist assess the success of the
instruction itself, making adjustments for future implementations of the unit.

These are the steps in implementing a resource-based learning unit:-
1. Identify the goal or goals.

2. Determine acceptable student produced artifacts including, but not limited to timelines,

electronic slideshows, dramatic readings, videos, debates, postcards, reports, diaries,
hierarchal web-based documents, or poster-board presentations.

3. Collaborate with the media specialist to plan the unit so that responsibilities can be

4. Select resources in a variety of formats which can include diaries, original documents,
newspaper articles, magazine articles, games, poems, reference books, nonfiction books,

experts, videos, museums, maps, charts, the Internet, works of art, plays, CD-ROMs,

musical compositions, costumes, exhibits, PowerPoint presentations and field trips. This
list is neither exhaustive nor static but it is a dynamic list that will grow and change as

new technologies emerge. The idea is to enlist a multitude of quality resources that will
help students gather information, create knowledge and increase understanding and skill

(Thompson & Henley, 2000).

5. Create a timeline for implementation of the unit.
6. Schedule the media center, computer lab, guest speakers and field trips, if applicable.

7. Create rubrics used to evaluate student artifacts.
8. Evaluate student products using rubrics.

9. Collaboratively evaluate the effectiveness of the unit and revise appropriately


To me, resource management is a challenge for any teacher as they need to know how to

utilize their resources well whether it be allocating or even requirements. This is certainly not

an easy thing to do but as a teacher, one must be able to execute this smoothly as well,

Resource-based learning is a way for teacher to make use of whatever materials or equipment
that are within the confines of the school to aid in their teaching plans so that the students can

be more engaged with the lesson at hand. This implementation is crucial as the methods of
teaching within this style is very flexible and almost without limits, allowing a lot of freedom

with how teachers want to conduct their lessons.

In short, resource management is one of the more important aspects in education management
and should absolutely not be overlooked when planning lessons.

Chapter 8

Strategies for Building a Productive and Positive Learning Environment

Step 1 - Make learning relevant

The more relevant a topic or subject is to students' own success and happiness; the more

engaged they'll become in the learning process. On a whole, teaching any sort of subject, it is
best for a teacher to find ways to adapt the lesson or lecture to the interests of students. It's

also helpful to discover the interests, talents, and learning styles of each student if possible.

As resources permit, adjust teaching methods and strategies to meet the needs of students on
an individual basis and you'll see students become more attentive and engaged.

Step 2 - Develop a Code of Conduct

If students don't have a clear and agreed upon understanding of positive and negative
behaviours, it's difficult to create a positive learning environment in the classroom and at

school. The first step to establishing a code of conduct is to ask students how they like being

treated. From this question students should be able to make up a list of behaviours they
believe are respectful, kind, fair, and appropriate. At this point, together students and teacher

should be able to agree that treating others the way we each want to be treated is the best
code of conduct, and should set the stage for appropriate classroom behaviours.

Step 3 - Employ a Positive Actions Curriculum

Children hail from diverse family, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. All these

influences, and others, shape students' perspective of what's appropriate, and what is not. It's
important that students are taught positive behaviours in a consistent and systematic way at

school and in the classroom. Developing a Positive Action curriculum is one of the most
effective ways to teach and instil in students positive behaviours.

Step 4 - Help Students Develop Intrinsic Motivation

Feeling good about themselves is an intrinsic motivator to students–especially elementary age

students–and positive actions help children feel good about themselves First, actions are
always preceded by thoughts. Second, actions and behaviours are typically consistent with

thoughts. Third, feelings, children experience about themselves, are based in large part by

their actions. Helping students learn that by changing a negative thought to a positive they

can produce positive actions, and that positive actions will help them feel good about
themselves is a powerful intrinsic motivator.

Step 5 - Reinforce Positive Behaviours

Recognizing and reinforcing positive behaviours is one of the most effective ways to produce
positive actions in students, strengthen intrinsic motivation, and create a productive and

positive learning environment. Certificates, stickers, toy prizes, tickets, tokens and other

reward systems are great ways to recognize students and reinforce positive behaviour and
achievement in the classroom. However, it's also important to help student make the

connection between positive behaviour and the good feeling it produces. As students make

that connection between positive behaviour and good feelings, and continue producing
positive actions, they'll feel good about themselves, the intrinsic motivation is strengthened,

and students will continue producing more positive actions and exhibiting positive behaviors.

Step 6 - Always Respond With Positivity

Positivity is a key component a positive learning environment. Interacting with students in a

positive manner, exhibiting positive behaviours, and maintaining a positive attitude is one of

the most important steps for creating a positive learning environment and producing
successful students. Regardless of the situation or circumstance, there is always a way to

respond to and interact with students in a positive way. Teaching students how to
communicate and interact with each other in a positive manner is also key to fostering a

positive learning environment in the classroom. Positivity is one of the most powerful agents
of change for establishing and maintaining a positive learning environment at school and in

the classroom.

Elements of a physical classroom

1. Positive asset-based relationships are visible among all in the classroom

The importance of our relationship with students cannot be overstated as it begins with

getting to know them and building trusting relationships. An important goal from the very
beginning of our work with students should be identifying their strengths and qualities, in

the form of values and assets, and reflecting them back to students. Gathering information

about students is a good way to build and strengthen our relationships and personalize our

interactions with them. One example of this relationship-building practice is greeting
individual students as they enter the classroom.

2. Students have voice and choice in matters that pertain to them
Students living in adverse conditions are more likely to experience a loss of control and

feelings of powerlessness. Classroom environments that promote empowerment do so by

providing many opportunities for students to build their confidence and capacity to speak
up, address issues, take risks, and make decisions about what works for them. Welcoming

students’ voice and choice helps them to be involved in decisions that impact their
learning. Asking a small group of students to suggest solutions to a challenging situation

that affects them directly, is just one example of how educators can bring in student voice

to our classrooms.
3. Lessons are made relevant by connecting the curriculum to students’ lives

It is essential to develop lessons that meaningfully connect to students’ experiences and
encourage them to become emotionally invested in learning. For example, linking literary

characters and literature to students’ personal, cultural, social, and world experiences can
validate students’ strengths and interests. Further, characters and their actions can be

discussed at great length to help students learn what others have done to overcome

4. The classroom physical environment responds to students’ learning preferences

A classroom is a haven for many students living with adversity. It is also a place that is
conducive to learning because it takes into consideration students’ needs and preferences.

For instance, students should have input in the arrangement and design of their classroom

including desks and wall space to facilitate collaboration, discussion, and individual work.
This type of environment fosters a sense of belonging and of feeling valued, competent,

and safe.
5. Routines and practices have a predictable rhythm

Classroom activities that use routines and rituals are critical for alleviating the

unpredictable nature of living with adversity. They help students to reclaim normalcy and
control by supporting a downshift from a fearful state to a calmer and more positive one.

An example is a routine opening meeting to describe the day’s schedule and discuss how
students will transition from one activity to another.

Classroom Interaction

To practice critical thinking, students need to participate in the discourse of the discipline to

think, speak, and be listened to as they participate in the discipline's particular mode of
inquiry. Students are expected to develop competency and become critical thinkers in

classroom that provides opportunities for intensive, structured interaction among students.
The interaction between the teacher and the students is an essential part of teaching and

learning process.

Classroom interaction stimulates the student involvement in the classroom. It fuels student
motivation and help the students see the relevance of teachers' topic. It increases participation

as all students are involved. The interaction can be between the teacher and the students. This

form of classroom interaction teaches the students to respect their superiors. They are given a
chance to air their opinion in the class.

Classroom interaction also other method like role playing, conversation, reading around, and
questions and answer. Reading aloud includes a situation whereby one person read while

others listen.

Role playing is whereby the students take on given role and act out on scene with other. This

allows students to demonstrate creativity and knowledge and help them to outside the
constraints of classroom.

In conversation, the students in a class discuss a given topic. A conversation can involve the
whole class or among small groups of students in the class. In question and answer method,

the teacher or student poses a question to assess the learner. The student may pose a question

to the teacher meant to obtain more or new information.


The environment, or in this classroom is an important factor to consider when teachers are

conducting a lesson. This is because the slightest error could give the impression to the
students that something is ‘off’ on a most subconscious level, and thus would focus more on

identifying the problem within the classroom and less on the lesson.

Thus, a teacher has to ensure that the classroom they are teaching in is always in a pristine

condition and not just that, but responding and interacting with the students via positive
behaviour so that the students may feel ‘rewarded’ for paying attention in class.

While the physical aspect of the classroom is important, the interaction within the classroom

cannot be simply tossed away as well as the interactions are the one that would lead well to
good and productive education to be taken place.

Chapter 9

Behaviour Management
Behaviour management is a whole school approach in creating an environment to promote

positive behaviour and reduce opportunities for poor behaviour. Behaviour management is
also about responding to poor behaviour in a way that not only allows students to take

responsibility for their behaviour but also provides them with an opportunity to learn and

change. This particular type of management recognises that sometimes there are underlying
causes for poor student behaviour, like lack of supervision and parental guidance, family and

relationship problems, peer pressure, illness and death amongst family members, drug and
alcohol abuse and economic hardship that students need help to deal with. A whole school

approach to behaviour management includes student-centred school rules, fair discipline

processes, classroom management, strategies to work with parents and community, praise and
reward systems, participation, effective school management, counselling and support

and professionally trained teachers.

Rules and discipline of students
School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. This is

because rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and

bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This
study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of

school. Here the focus is on school rules and students’ reasoning about these rules. Five
categories of school rules have been constructed during the analysis, which are

1. relational rules

2. structuring rules
3. protecting rules

4. personal rules
5. etiquette rules.

The findings show that the students’ reasoning about rules varies across the rule categories.

The perception of reasonable meaning behind a rule seems to be significant to students’
acceptance of the rule. According to the students, relational rules are the most important in

school as students also value protecting and structuring rules as important because of the
meaning giving to them. Etiquette rules are valued as the least important or even unnecessary

by the students.

School discipline relates to the actions taken by a teacher or the school organization towards

a student when the student's behaviour disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a
rule created by the teacher or the school system. Discipline can guide the children's behaviour

or set limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around

School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline.
These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, timekeeping, social

conduct, and work ethic. The term "discipline" is applied to the punishment that is the
consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain

behaviours or attitudes that are seen as harmful or against school policies, educational norms,

and school traditions. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are
emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority


Management of deviant behaviour

Deviance is generally defined as any behaviour that does not conform to the established rules

of a group of individuals or the society at large (Idris 2016). At this stage, an adolescent finds

it difficult to conform to the norms of the society. As such, deviant behaviours are actions
which conflict with the societal norms (Hirschi 1995). Goode (2007) further stated that

behaviour that is deviant in one society may not be in another. Many researchers have
identified some causes of deviant behaviour among in-school adolescents, which are:-

1. Environement

The environment in which adolescents live can influence them, especially when there is lack

of parental guidance. The school is a major and important environment where a child
develops during the formative years. When parents do not consistently react to the undesired

behaviour of an adolescent, the child might continue to engage in more deviant behaviours in
the school (Suleimen 2011).

2. Academic Performance

Poor academic performance also predisposes youth to deviant behaviours. Olawale (2001)

emphasized that behavioural problems are common among children of lower intelligence.

Babatunde (2016) also noted that some children resort to antisocial behaviour due to their

inability to cope with the academic rigours of the school as home is an agent of socialization.

Because of these factors, deviant behaviour in the classroom increases the stress level of
teachers and at the same time changes the classroom dynamics. The use of the psychological

principles in which deviant behaviours are managed in schools as this approach is based on
some systematic application psychological principles. Behavioural modification can simply

be defined as the systematic application of principles derived from learning theories and
experience in psychology (Asonibare 2016). The techniques are used in extinguishing

unwanted behaviour and at the same time helping to increase existing positive behaviours.

Some of these techniques include:-

1. Premack Principles
Also known as “grandma’s rule”, this is when the counsellor uses preferred behaviour to

reinforce less preferred activity.
2. Token Economy

This is when positive behaviour is reinforced with an exchange for goals.
3. Contracting

Behaviour contract is a negotiated agreement between two parties. In signing this contract,

the counsellor states clearly the purpose of the contract (Alao 2000). The rewardis carried out
immediately the counsellor observes the positive change.


Behaviour management is needed as students tend to act out of order and in doing so, would

usually lead to disruption or even complete halt to lessons. Thus, teachers need to possess a

particular set of skills to ensure that this is prevented from happening.

A good teacher must also able to recognize that students with behavioural problems usually

have their own problems that need to be consider, and have the possibility of simply lashing

it out at school. As the mentor, the teacher has to be the one to be understanding and help
them correct these behaviours so that the students themselves can realize their own mistakes.

Thus, behaviour management is needed in order to ensure the class not only run smoothly,

but also to maintain a certain sense of discipline and order within the class.

Chapter 10

Management of Student Advisory

The concept of advising is to help someone in term of personality and education that is
associated to the student from all ages. According to Zuraidah, the concept of giving advice is

also a strategy to resolve problems without thinking of the individual’s feelings The purpose
is to help students take control of their own life and make their own choices so they take

responsibility of the consequences of their actions. In short, advices are given to student in

order for them to make choices according to the situation. In the context of education
however, advisory is the whole preparation of activities in order to help students that are

facing challenges in reaching success in their studies.


Counselling is designed to facilitate student achievement, improve student behaviour and

attendance, and help students develop socially. Mental health professionals with master’s

degrees or beyond, school counsellors both provide counselling and serve an educational role
in and around schools. Many schools have full-time counsellors on staff in order to support

students who are experiencing personal or academic challenges, help students choose careers

and plan for college, and intervene when students face behavioural, physical, or mental health

School counsellors are primarily for facilitating career development. Not only that, the duties
of a school counsellor include:-

1. Providing instruction on psychological and social issues

The job of a school counsellor to sometimes make the students aware of social issues,

such as bullying or even them providing a seminar on study skills.
2. Vocational guidance

It is to help students prepare for their future career choice
3. Counselling

A school counsellor often needs to help student in many social aspects, whether it be
conflicts with their peers, or even arguments with the student’s teacher or parents.

4. Early intervention

School counsellors provide referrals, recommendations and educations to parents about
their child’s mental health.

5. Special needs services

It is for students to integrate into classroom while the counsellors oversee programs that
address requirements for students with special needs or learning difficulties.


An advisory is a regularly scheduled period of time, usually during the school day when
teachers meet with small groups of students for the purpose of advising them on academic,

social, or future-planning issues. Not just that, other adults and staff members, such as

guidance counsellors or social workers, can even act as advisors or participate in an advisory
program. Advisories may be casual and loosely organized in some schools, or they might

follow a prescribed curriculum and clear set of routines determined by school leaders,
teachers, and students. Advisories ranged from daily to multiples times during a week or even

once a month. Advisory periods tend to be shorter than a typical class, perhaps as 20 or 30
minutes long, and they are often used as an alternative to more traditional homeroom periods.

The general purpose of an advisory period or advisory program is to ensure that at least one

adult in the school is getting to know each student well, making sure their learning needs are

being met, and encouraging them to make good academic choices and plan for their future.
Advisories are designed to develop stronger adult-student relationships and a stronger sense

of belonging and community among students.

Depending on the priorities and structure of the program, students may receive guidance on a

wide range of topics during an advisory period, including course selection, future planning,

study skills, social problems, and outside-of-school learning opportunities. In addition to one-
on-one conversations with a designated advisor, students may also participate in group

discussions or team-building exercises intended to build stronger peer relationships and teach
students the value of collaboration, constructive feedback, and healthy peer interactions.


The concept of mentoring is found used in almost every forum of learning. In academics,

mentor is often used synonymously with faculty adviser. The most basic difference between
mentoring and advising is more than advising; mentoring is a personal, as well as,

professional relationship. An adviser might or might not be a mentor, depending on the

quality of the relationship. A mentoring relationship develops over an extended period,
during which a student's needs and the nature of the relationship tend to change. A mentor

will try to be aware of these changes and vary the degree and type of attention, help, advice,
information, and encouragement that he or she provides.

The Council of Graduate Schools (1995) cites Morris Zelditch's useful summary of a mentor's

multiple roles, which is as quoted: "Mentors are advisors, people with career experience
willing to share their knowledge; supporters, people who give emotional and moral

encouragement; tutors, people who give specific feedback on one's performance; masters, in

the sense of employers to whom one is apprenticed; sponsors, sources of information about
and aid in obtaining opportunities; models, of identity, of the kind of person one should be to

be an academic."

In a nutshell, an effective mentoring relationship is characterized by mutual respect, trust,
understanding, and empathy. Good mentors are able to share life experiences and wisdom, as

well as technical expertise. They are good listeners, good observers, and good problem-
solvers. They make an effort to know, accept, and respect the goals and interests of a student.

In the end, they establish an environment in which the student's accomplishment is limited

only by the extent of his or her talent.

The Counselling Process

The counselling process is a planned, structured dialogue between a counsellor and a student.

It is a cooperative process in which a trained professional helps a person called the client to
identify sources of difficulties that the student is experiencing. With both of them working

together, they would develop ways to deal with and overcome the problems.

There are five steps in the counselling process, which are as such:-

1. Relationship Building
This step involves building a relationship and focuses on engaging the student to explore

issues that affect them. This particular step is important because the client will be reading
the verbal and non-verbal messages so that they can make inferences from their

counsellor during their first meeting.

2. Problem Assessment

While the counsellor and the client are in the process of establishing a relationship, this
process begins as it involves the collection and classification of information about the

client’s life situation and reasons for seeking counselling.
3. Goal Setting

A goal is set so that the client will want to achieve the results that come from it at the end

of the counselling. This is important because it gives direction to the counselling so that
they never go off track.

4. Counselling Intervention
This approach attempts to initiate activities that would help alter their behaviour.

5. Evaluation, termination or referral

After evaluation, the termination of the counselling process has to be conducted with
sensitivity when dealing with students.


Student Advisory management is a type of management that can help students with their own

lives without personally interfering with it. In my opinion, I think this is wonderful matter as

I believe a teacher should also act as ‘guiding light’ to the students who are either lost or do
not know what they should do.

When advisory is planned, it might be weekly, monthly or even bi-monthly but each time it

occurs, the teacher should take it seriously and try their best to help and resolve the students’
problems. Not just that, the teacher would also be able to recognize the educational problems

that the student might be currently facing.

Teachers are mentors, and as such, they should be willing to share their knowledge with their
students so that the students will be able to gain some practical knowledge out from it. Thus,

management of student management is needed for the well-being of the student’s mental and
physical health.

Chapter 11


According to Amir (2002), culture refers to the characteristics or result of behaviour learnt

from a group of individuals within a social environment. Not just that, Bourdieu (1990) states
that culture is a social process where culture and social structure are always related to one


The definition of many cultures is that it is a single system of trust and behaviour that

recognizes and respects the existence of variety in a single organization, as well as
acknowledging and appreciating the difference in sociology. This encourages and accepts

their continuous contributions in the context of inclusive culture within an organization.

Melting Pot Theory

The melting pot theory has been used to describe societies that are formed by an assortment

of immigrant culture that eventually produce new hybrid social and cultural forms. This
particular theory states that like metals melted together at great heat, the melting together of

several cultures will produce a new compound, one that has great strength and other
combined advantages. In the context of education, it can be stated in several aspects, which


1. Anglo Conformity

This theory believes that a society is made up of individuals with religious background,
ethnicity language and culture in one dominant container. It also looks into the individual

within society from a hierarchy-sort of view, which are the majorities and the minorities.
It is clear to see that this particular theory does not hold to the principle of democracy.

2. Ethnic Synthesis
A society that is made up of individuals from different background are melded together to

be formed in one continue and would then create a new container by inserting a portion of

the elements of culture that is possessed from each individual in the society.

3. Cultural Pluralism

A society that is made from individuals from different races have their own religious
background, ethnicity, language and culture. They all have their right to express the

identity of their culture democratically. This particular theory does not throw away
specific cultures, including the culture of the minority groups.

Multicultural Education

According to Banks, multicultural education is an idea, an educational reform movement and
a process. This idea in particular is to seek out and create equal educational opportunities for

all students, including those from different racial, ethnic and social-class groups. As such,

multicultural education aims to create equal educational opportunites for all students by
changing the total school environment in order for it to reflect the diverse and groups within a


The Dimensions of Multicultural Education

In this particular education, there are five dimensions to it, which are:-

1. Content integration
This deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of

culture and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within their

subject area.
2. The Knowledge Construction Process

This describes how teachers help students to understand, investigate and determine how

the biases, frames of reference and perspective within a discipline influence the way in
which knowledge is constructed within it.

3. Equity Pedagogy
This dimension exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that facilitate the

academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural and social-class groups.
4. Prejudice Reduction

This dimension describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to

develop positive attitude toward different racial, ethnic and cultural groups.

5. An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure

This dimension is only made when the culture and organization of the school are
transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to

experience equality and equal status.

The Importance of Understanding Multiculture for a Teacher

A teacher is responsible for cultivating unity within the students. This is because when there

is an understanding towards multiculture, only then will the teachers be able to utilise the
elements of culture to the students in their lessons. In the context of professionalism in

teaching, it is only when there is an understanding of multiple culture will the teacher will be

even more ready to face and handle students from different culture.

Characteristics of an Effective Teacher for Multicultural Education

According to Banks (1989), a teacher must be sensitive to the behaviour of various students
from different backgrounds. Not only that, the teacher have to be sensitive towards the

possibility of creating controversy when teaching in class. Najeemah (200&) states that a

teacher must not takes sides and have an open mind when interacting with students. A teacher
must also be honest and appreciate alternative cultures to their own.


Upon looking at Malaysia, it is clear that it is a country consisting of multiple cultures. As
such, students are also from different cultures as well. This chapter is needed to provide ways

and context and how teachers should conduct themselves when multicultural education is
considered within their lesson plans.

A teacher should be the one to not merely just pass on superficial knowledge, but also

promote and strengthen unity among the students so that discrimination do not occur within
the environment of the school.

Therefore, management of multicultural education is especially important considering that

Malaysia is a country filled to the brim with a variety of cultures and ethnicity.

Chapter 12

Effort Management

Effort management is needed for processes that focus on activities instead of other areas like
project management especially if new activities are integrated into the process. In the

academic field, effort management is used to improve the educational achievement of
learners. A study revealed that it facilitates motivational regulation strategies and is directly

linked to the improvement of students' GPA.

Recovery Education

Recovery education is the process by which individuals explore, assimilate and create the
knowledge required for recovery to occur in their own lives or in the lives of those they

support or provide services to and in the local communities that sustain individuals in
recovery. Recovery education takes a strength and adult education-based approach which

offers the choice to engage in learning opportunities. According to the National Recovery

Education Working Group (2017), it is underpinned by the values of self-direction, personal
experience, ownership, diversity, and hopefulness.

Recovery education offers a way of working where the expertise of service users, family
members, supporters and service providers are accepted, valued and utilised to ensure better

recovery outcomes for all. Recovery education provides a safe space where people can

explore and discuss recovery. Recovery education is underpinned by the values of self-
direction, personal experience, ownership, diversity and hopefulness. Through co-production,

the process of designing, delivering and participating in recovery education will be

strengthened. Recovery education can be delivered across a range of venues and settings
within the mental health services and in the community.


In school enrichment aims to take the basic curriculum subjects and expand them, looking at
them in more depth or from a different perspective. Many schools offer enrichment through

school trips, science days or book weeks. Teachers may also encourage children to do their

own research into a subject by reading additional books or working on the internet. Some

schools are able to offer separate sessions with tutors or other teachers to allow children to
explore subjects in different ways. In short, enrichment happens when teachers push their

students to take that natural curiosity to the next step independently.

Types of Intelligence

According to the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, these are the list

of multiple intelligence, which are:-

1. Naturalist Intelligence

Naturalist intelligence designates the human ability to discern among living things as well as
sensitivity to other features of the natural world. Not only that, this ability was clearly of

value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers as it continues to be crucial
in may roles of society. It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the

naturalist intelligences, which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars, sneakers,

kinds of makeup, and the like.

2. Musical Intelligence

Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. This

intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, as demonstrated
by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist, and sensitive listeners. Interestingly, there is

often an affective connection between music and the emotions; and mathematical and musical

intelligences may share common thinking processes. Young adults with this kind of
intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite aware of

sounds others may miss.

3. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider propositions

and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It enables us to perceive

relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought; sequential reasoning
skills; and inductive and deductive thinking patterns. Logical intelligence is usually well

developed in mathematicians, scientists, and detectives. Due to this, many of individuals with

lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories, and relationships. They are

drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.

4. Existential Intelligence

Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning

of life, why we die, and how did we get here.

5. Interpersonal Intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It
involves effective verbal and nonverbal communication, the ability to note distinctions

among others, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the ability to
entertain multiple perspectives. For example, teachers, social workers, actors, and politicians

all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are leaders
among their peers, are good at communicating, and seem to understand others’ feelings and


6. Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence

Bodily kinaesthetic intelligence is the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of
physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills

through mind–body union. Athletes, dancers, surgeons, and crafts people exhibit well-
developed bodily kinaesthetic intelligence.

7. Linguistic Intelligence

Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to express and

appreciate complex meanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and
meaning of words and to apply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use of language.

Linguistic intelligence is the most widely shared human competence and is evident in poets,

novelists, journalists, and effective public speakers. Young adults with this kind of
intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles.

8. Intra-personal Intelligence

Intra-personal intelligence is the capacity to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and
feelings, and to use such knowledge in planning and steering the direction one’s life. Intra-

personal intelligence involves not only an appreciation of the self, but also of the human

condition. It is evident in psychologist, spiritual leaders, and philosophers. These young

adults may be shy. They are very aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated.

9. Spatial Intelligence

Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. Core capacities include mental

imagery, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic and artistic skills, and an active
imagination. Sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence.

Young adults with this kind of intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles,

or spend free time drawing or daydreaming.

Special Needs

Special Needs Education is education for students with disabilities, in consideration of their

individual educational needs, which aims at full development of their capabilities and at their
independence and social participation. Special Needs Education is carried out in various

forms, including in resource rooms, in special classes and in special schools named “Schools

for Special Needs Education”

Schools for Special Needs Education are schools for children with comparatively severe

disabilities. Those schools comprise four levels of departments, namely, kindergarten,
elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary departments. In Schools for Special Needs

Education, children learn by special curriculum, as they are being surrounded by rich number

of teachers and various facilities and equipment which meet the needs of those children.
Therefore, the expense per student in Schools for Special Needs Education is about 10 times

as that in regular schools.

Special Needs Education is provided also in regular schools. Special classes are small classes
for children with comparatively mild disabilities that may be established in regular

elementary and lower secondary schools. It may also be established as a branch class in a
hospital for sick children.


Effort management is another task that a teacher should undertake, as it is the management of

activities for students so that they may improve in the academic field. Of course, this is not
the easiest task but as a teacher, they should be able to exert a lot of effort to ensure the

success of their own students in school.

Of course, a teacher cannot just merely look at their students from an academic sense of view,

but also try and explore their potential in order fields as well, because each and every

individuals are different, with their own strengths and weaknesses. This is no different for the
students as they all have better understanding in fields other than education.

All in all, effort management is something that is needed to be done to ensure the success and

explore the potential of the students more clearly and from a different point of view.

Chapter 13

School Environment

The physical environment of school buildings and school grounds is a key factor in the
overall health and safety of students, staff, and visitors. School buildings and grounds must

be designed and maintained to be free of health and safety hazards, and to promote learning.
Not only that, studies have shown that student achievement can be affected either positively

or negatively by the school environment. Policies and protocols must be in place to ensure

food protection, sanitation, safe water supply, healthy air quality, good lighting, safe
playgrounds, violence prevention, and emergency response, among other issues that relate to

the physical environment of schools.

Relationship between the school and the community

Community is a part of the society and education is the counterpart of both one another. On

the other hand, school is the social institution where consciously designed learning

experiences are provided with the objectives of achieving social aim at large, over a period of
time. School is also defined as a subsystem of the larger system of the society. It has to

functionally coordinate with its immediate environment, the community in which it is

The community is meant to employ a wider grouping of people located within fairly

recognizable boundaries, and related to each other by socio-economic and civic activities
which produce oneness among them sufficient to develop a recognizable identity as a group.

The main group and agents involved in the dynamics of the relationship between school and

community arc, such as school administration, teachers, non-teaching staff, students and
parents, governing bodies and school board.

Beyond immediate proximity with the schools are the local political authorities,
governmental bodies and political parties as well as other public, social and cultural

institutions. Parents are always in a constant touch with the school and are proper channel of

the procedure which is the part of the community.

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