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Summary of my activities and key learnings from the Fall 2019 Lone Star College Adjunct Certification Program

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Published by Robert Paterson, 2019-11-26 11:43:43

Bob Paterson ACP Program - Fall 2019

Summary of my activities and key learnings from the Fall 2019 Lone Star College Adjunct Certification Program

Adjunct Certification

Robert Paterson
Personal Training

Fall 2019

Table of Contents

What is ACP?..................................................................... 3
Syllabus Snapshot ............................................................. 4
Student Preparation Strategy ............................................ 6
BOPPS Lesson Plan........................................................ 11
Test Questions................................................................. 28
Rubric............................................................................... 30
ACP Showcase ................................................................ 32
Reflective Essay .............................................................. 40

What is the Adjunct Certification Program at Lone Star College?

Purpose: The purpose of the Adjunct Certification Program is to recognize and reward adjunct faculty who
make a commitment to the System and to provide an opportunity to enhance their teaching effectiveness.

Who can participate: Adjunct faculty who have taught at LSC for at least 2 semesters may apply. Participants
are chosen based upon recommendations from their department chair.

Course structure and objectives: The Adjunct Certification Program is structured around 5 components of
successful instruction. After successfully completing this program participants will be able to

 Plan for Learning
o Create a syllabus snapshot
o Create a lesson using the BOPPPS lesson planning moel
o Write SMART lesson objectives
o Identify the levels in Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy
o Employ effective strategies to encourage students to prepare for class

 Employ a Variety of Teaching Strategies
o Define teacher-centered, interactive, experiential, and independent learning techniques
o Locate online lesson repositories and resources
o Incorporate at least one new instructional strategy in a lesson plan
o Create questions that address various levels of Bloom's cognitive taxonomy

 Assess Effectively
o Develop an assessment strategy that aligns with the course outcomes
o Utilize various formative assessment tools that are quick, engaging, and informative
o Create effective subjective and objective tools and processes.
o Cite the principles of effective evaluation.
o Develop an assessment rubric

 Use Instructional Technology
o Explain how technology can enhance teaching and learning
o Employ at least one new instructional technology to encourage student engagement
o Locate instructional technology resources

 Foster a Positive Learning Environment
o Utilize effective strategies for dealing with various student challenges
o Employ motivational theory to structure classes that foster student motivation to learn

In order to successfully complete the program, participants must:
• Attend ALL 5 face-to-face meetings with the initial cohort and complete all on-line lessons. This occurs
over a nine week period with a time commitment of 26-30 hours.
• Actively participate in online discussion topics.
• Present a 10 minute overview of a completely new lesson
• Complete a reflective essay
• Compile and submit an electronic portfolio of all completed assignments
• Score a minimum of 80% on all required elements of the course


FALL 2019 FITTC-2103702 5001

SYLLABUS (abbreviated)

See D2L for full Syllabus

09/09/2019 thru 12/09/2019

You will learn through a hands on experience:
Assessing Client Fitness, Creating Client Specific Exercise
Programs, Flexibility Training, Cardiorespiratory Training,
Core Training, Balance Training, Plyometric Training,
Speed/Agility/Quickness Training, Resistance Training,
Exercise Modalities, Exercise Mechanics, Chronic Condi-
tions, Special Populations, Tips on Sitting for the National
Certification Exam, The Business of Personal Training, Le-
gal Aspects of Personal Training, Fitness Apps, Finding
Your Perfect Job and Much More.


Bob Paterson

BA DePauw University

MS Northern Illinois University

NASM Certified Personal Trainer

ACE Certified Group Fitness Instructor Learn/Internalize/Apply
FAI Certified Functional Aging Specialist 25% Classroom
713.899.7189 [email protected] 75% Fitness Center

Your 13 Week Adventure to Become
an Amazing Personal Trainer based
On the National Academy of Sports
Medicine, NASM, Optimum Performance
Training Model.


...will have read ALL assign-
ments before class.
We will use class time and
fitness center time to clarity,
internalize and apply.



INSTRUCTOR:  Bob Paterson 
NOTE:  PT classes are 3 hours per class which includes classroom time and fitnes
classroom.  Remaining time, if available, will be spent in additional Q&A or prac
STUDENT PREP MOTIVATION  Due before class session: 

 Read Ch 6 Pages 133 to 144, Posture Movement Assessments in 

 Print from D2L, review and bring to next class these 2 reference 
guides:  Postural Assessment Solutions & Overhead Squat Solutions 

 D2L Discussion:  Each student posts an image in D2L illustrating a  
postural imbalance.  Each student comments on the images posted 
by 3 different classmates with the following:  Identify the distortion, 
identify one of the associated lengthened muscles, identify one of the 
associated shortened muscles, include a recommended stretch and a 
recommended strengthening exercise for the distortion.  Value = 50 
participation points for posting an image and commenting on 3 other 
student images. 

BRIDGE:  1st use of NEW TECHNOLOGY.  Show “VintagePosture.mp4”  video at t
1st: Man in suite – most important part of your appearance is your posture.  2nd:
improve posture.  Video was created in Vibby and then captured with Snagit as 
Ask class after video: 
BLOOM QUESTION (KNOWLEDGE):  What postural distortions and syndromes di
BLOOM QUESTION (COMPREHENSION):  What did the dressed‐up women, Eliza
describe what she said in NASM terms as Personal Trainers?   
Comment to class:  Posture is an indicator of muscle imbalances and specific exe
postural assessment, identify imbalances, the muscles involved and exercise pro
reference 1930 video. 
Estimated time:  10 minutes 


sture & Movement Assessments with Corrective Exercise) 
ss center time.  With a 15‐minute break, this is a 160‐minute lesson in the 

 NASM Textbook 
 D2L Content:  Postural Assessment Solutions & Overhead Squat 
Solutions Table reference guides 

the beginning of the class.  Video contains 3 clips on posture from the 1930’s.  
:  Adralene – Posture is your problem.  3rd:  Elizabeth Arden on exercises to 
 MP4 video since Vibby player is not supported on all  browsers at LSC. 

id you see with Adalene when she was looking in the mirror? 
abeth Arden, say the two things one can do to improve posture?   How do we 

ercises can correct those imbalances.  Today we are learning how perform a 
ograms to correct them.  And as you have seen, these principals are not new – 

Bob Paterson – Personal Training 
Use as a Pre‐Assessment Activity 
Source questions and categories are listed below. 
Postural Assessment Jeopardy using the web application 
Game found at 





5 categories 5 questions per category 
Words of Wisdom 
The language of the human movement system. 
What is the ability of the nervous & muscular systems to communicate properly producing optimal 
movement?  Neuromuscular Efficiency. 
Arthrokinetics is another word for.  Joint Motion. 
Proper posture helps the body produce high levels of ___________ strength.  Functional. 
The human movement system is also called.  The Kinetic Chain. 
Proper posture ensures that the body is aligned at the proper ___________ relationships.  Length‐
Ready or Not? 
Get ready for postural assessments 
What are the two types of postural assessments?  Static and Dynamic. 
How should the feet be positioned for postural assessments?  Shoulder width apart with toes forward. 
What views are observed during a static postural assessment?  Posterior, Lateral and Anterior. 
What views are observed during an Overhead Squat Assessment?  Anterior and Posterior. 

True or false – it is best for your client to wear running shoes for a postural assessment.  False – no 
shoes are best. 
Do You See What I See? 
Identify the distortion with the posture you observe. 
A forward head is associated with which syndrome?  Upper Crossed 
Adducted and internally rotated knees is associated with which syndrome?  Pronation Distortion 
An arched lower back is associated with which syndrome?  Lower Crossed 
Flat feet is associated with which syndrome?  Pronation Distortion 
Rounded shoulders is associated with which syndrome?  Upper Crossed 
The long and short of it 
Which muscles are lengthened and which muscles are shortened based on the observed static posture? 
Shortened biceps femoris and lengthened hip external rotators are associated with which syndrome?  
Pronation Distortion 
Shortened calf muscles and lengthened internal oblique muscles are associated with which syndrome?  
Lower Crossed 
Shortened upper trapezius and lengthened rhomboids are associated with which syndrome?  Upper 
Which two syndromes included shortened gastrocnemius and shortened soleus muscles?  Pronation 
Distortion and Lower Crossed 
Which two syndromes included shortened hip flexor complex muscles?  Pronation Distortion and Lower 
The Repair Shop 
Exercises to correct postural distortions from the NASM OHS solutions table. 
Name one of the three flexibility exercises to correct excessive lean forward.  Calf Stretch or Hip Flexor 
Stretch or Ball Abdominal Stretch 
Name one of the three flexibility exercises to correct feet turning out.  Calf stretch or Hamstring Stretch 
or Standing TFL Stretch 
Name one of the three strengthening exercises for a lower back that rounds.  Floor cobra or ball cobra 
or ball back extension 
Name one of the three strengthening exercises for arms falling forward.  Floor cobra or ball cobra or 
squat to row 

Name the flexibility exercise to correct heels rising.  Soleus Stretch 

COURSE STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVE:  Describe individualized one‐on‐one e


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  By the end of this lesson, students will be able to 

1. Perform hands‐on postural assessments using systematic observations. 

2. Identify client‐specific kinetic chain postural imbalances.  (BLOOM: ANA

3. Select appropriate stretching and strengthening exercises to correct pos

PRE‐ASSESSMENT:  2nd use of NEW TECHNOLGY ‐ Go to Postural Assessment Jeo

an online Jeopardy like game with questions related to postural distortions, mus

read the chapter on postural assessment and reviewed the two handouts, Postu

this lesson.  The large amount of technical information in the reading assignmen

class as reference sources.  Students will work in teams of 2‐3 based on class siz

This team‐based game was selected for students to collaborate and work with e

tool to determine what learners know, to identify knowledge gaps to adjust the


Categories of questions:  5 topics 5 questions per topic 

1. Words of Wisdom ‐ The language of the human movement system. 

2. Ready or Not? ‐ Get ready for postural assessments. 

3. Do You See What I See? ‐ Identify the distortion with the posture you ob

4. The long and short of it ‐ Which muscles are lengthened and which mus

5. The Repair Shop ‐ Exercises to correct postural distortions from the NAS


Estimated time:  15 minutes 


Time  Instructor Activities  Learner Activit


10 min  Present the role of the Personal Trainer and the  Ask the class a

why of performing postural assessments.   BLOOM QUEST


Ask the class fo


about good po


exercise programs . 

stural imbalances using the solutions reference tables (BLOOM:  SYNTHESIS). 
opardy at  (Game PIN: N/A).  This is 
scles involved and corrective exercises for distortions.  Students should have 
ural Assessment Solutions & Overhead Squat Solutions Table, before coming to 
nt is challenging to internalize so the handouts will be used throughout the 
ze during the Participatory Learning time and during the hands‐on components.  
each other’s combined knowledge.  PlayFractile serves as the Pre‐Assessment 
e lesson, for students to assess their own strengths and areas for improvement.  

scles are shortened based on the observed static posture? 
SM OHS solutions table. 

ties  Lesson Materials 

and record on whiteboard:  Slides 1‐4 
TION (KNOWLEDGE):  What is good 

or discussion: 
TION (COMPREHENSION):  Why do we care 

10 min  Review postural distortion syndromes and kinetic  Ask students to
checkpoints, the impact on the body and why  center. 
30 min  assessments are important for Personal Trainers in  Ask students to
15 min  programming client fitness “needs” vs client  provided them
30 min  “goals”  As students to
15 min  postural assess
  Present setting up the client for the OHS  Ask the class fo
assessment.  BLOOM QUEST
Introduce video on setting up the OHS assessment.  fitness centers
postural assess
BREAK  Experience bas
Present OHS assessment observations for  class into team
dysfunctions.  turns as a clien
Introduce video on observing kinetic checkpoints  evaluating sett
for  postural dysfunctions.   Ask the class fo
Introduce the Assessments Worksheet.  BLOOM QUEST
the challenges
Corrective exercise selection.  Review the Postural  assessment. 
Assessment Solutions & Overhead Squat Solutions   
Table reference guides  Experience bas
into teams of 2
  as a client, as a
identifying OH
Ask the class fo
challenging in 
and what could
Experience bas
students.  Ask 
Probable Over
Muscles,  a  Fle
Exercise for kn
rises using the
Squat Solution

o stand if they are members of a fitness  Slides 5‐11 

o remain standing if the fitness center  Slide 13 
m a free PT session.  Video link: How to set up the 
o remain standing if the PT performed a  overhead squat assessment 
sment.  (10 min video) 
or discussion: 
TION (ANALYSIS) Why do you think so few 
s and personal trainers do not perform 
sed hands‐on teaching strategy:  Divide 
ms of 2‐3 students.  Each student will take 
nt, as a PT and as an observer practicing and 
ting up the client for the OHS assessment.   
or discussion: 
TION (APPLICATION)  What do you think are 
s in setting up a client for an OHS 

sed hands‐on teach strategy:  Divide class   
2‐3 students.  Each student will take turns  Slides 14‐16 
a PT and as an observer practicing and  Assessments Worksheet 
HS postural dysfunctions .  Video link:  Observing the kinetic 
or discussion:  checkpoints for postural 
TION (ANALYSIS)  What did you find  dysfunctions 
 doing the OHS assessment with your client 
d you do to make it easier to perform?  (13 min video) 
sed hands‐on teach strategy:  BLOOM 
THESIS) Divide class into teams of 2‐3  Postural Assessment Solutions & 
 each team ‐ In your group, identify the  Overhead Squat Solutions Table 
ractive Muscles, Probable Underactive  reference guides 
exibility Exercise and a Strengthening 
nees turning inward, head forward, and heel 
e Postural Assessment Solutions & Overhead 
ns Table reference guides. 

POST‐ASSEMENT:  CAT = Memory Matrix ‐ Assessing Knowledge, Recall, and Un
Students complete the “What do you know” matrix with two sections:  Kinetic C
Rationale for using this CAT:  This is a hands‐on lesson where students observe e
students have read and studied and internalize the distortions, impacted muscle
this CAT is for the student to recall what they have learned and for the instructo
Personal Training activity.  Students should first complete the matrix without re
Estimated time:  10 minutes 
Summary: Putting it all together, slide 17, which summarizes the process and ac
Tell the class “Jessica, my client, doesn’t want to me to conduct a postural asses
Caribbean cruise.” I tell her “Sure, that’s fine. Most Personal Trainers never do a
Ask 2 final questions: 
BLOOM QUESTION (SYNTHESIS) Is there anything wrong with my action plan wit
BLOOM QUESTION (EVALUATION) What alternative plan could you propose to J
Remaining time in class for Q&A discussion or additional team practice. 
Estimated time:  15 minutes (or until end of class period) 

Checkpoints and Syndrome Solutions This is a post lesson assessment. 
each other for postural distortions.  The lesson is intended to take what the 
es and remediations through a kinesthetic learning process.  The purpose of 
or to determine if additional learning activities are required for this core 
eference guides and then take again with reference guides 

ctions for Postural Assessments.    
ssment for postural imbalances. She just wants to tone up for her January 
an assessment anyhow and I can help you tone up.” 

th Jessica?  If so, what? 
Jessica that still meets her goal of toning up for the cruise? 

Overhead Squat Solutions Table • CES | | 800.460.6276

View Checkpoint Compensation Probable Overactive Probable Underactive Example Flexibility Exercise Example Strengthening
Foot Foot Turns Out Muscles Muscles (SMR & Static) Exercise

Soleus Med. Gastrocnemius Calf Stretch Single-leg Balance Reach
Lat. Gastrocnemius Med. Hamstring Hamstring Stretch
Bicep Femoris (short head) Standing TFL Stretch Lateral Tube Walking
Tensor Fascia Latae Gluteus Medius/Maximus Ball Squat
Gracilis Adductor Stretch w/Abduction
Anterior Knee Moves Inward Adductor Complex Popliteus Hamstring Stretch
L-P-H-C Bicep Femoris (short head) Ball Bridge w/Abduction
Moves Outward Gluteus Medius/Maximus TFL Stretch
Tensor Fascia Latae Vastus Medialis Oblique (VMO) Calf Stretch Ball Squat w/Adduction
Excessive Vastus Lateralis Ball Bridge w/Adduction
Forward Lean Med. Hamstring Piriformis Stretch,
Lat. Gastrocnemius Med. Gastrocnemius Hamstring Stretch Ball Squat
Low Back Arches
Piriformis, Adductor Complex TFL Stretch Ball Squat
Biceps Femoris Med. Hamstring Floor Bridge
Tensor Fascia Latae Gluteus Maximus Calf Stretch Ball Bridge
Gluteus Minimus/ Medius Hip Flexor Stretch
Anterior Tibialis Floor Cobra
Soleus Gluteus Maximus Ball Abdominal Ball Cobra
Gastrocnemius Erector Spinae Stretch Ball Back Extension
Hip Flexor Complex
Abdominal Complex (rectus Gluteus Maximus Hip Flexor Stretch Floor Cobra
abdominus, external oblique) Hamstrings Latissimus Dorsi Stretch Ball Cobra
Erector Spinae Stretch Squat to Row
Hip Flexor Complex Intrinsic Core Stabilizers
Erector Spinae (transverse abdominis, Hamstring Stretch Tuck chin, keeping head in
Latissimus Dorsi multifidus, internal oblique, Adductor Magnus Stretch neutral position during all
transversospinalis, pelvic floor
Lateral Low Back Rounds Hamstrings Ball Abdominal Stretch exercises
Adductor Magnus muscles) Floor Cobra
Rectus Abdominus Latissumus Dorsi Stretch Ball Cobra
External Obliques Gluteus Maximus Pec Stretch
Erector Spinae Single-Leg Balance Reach
Posterior Upper Body Arms Fall Forward Latissumus Dorsi Intrinsic Core Stabilizers SMR Thoracic Spine Single-leg Medial Calf Raise
Pectoralis Major/ Minor (transverse abdominis,
Forward Head multifidus, internal oblique, Levator Scapula Stretch Single-leg Balance Reach
(pushing/pulling Teres Major pelvic floor muscles, Sternocleidomastoid Stretch Single-leg Squat
Coracobrachialis transversospinalis) Gluteus Medius
assessment) Scalene Stretch (same side)
Shoulder Levator Scapula Mid/Lower Trapezius Adductor Complex
Elevation Sternocleidomastoid Rhomboids Upper Trapezius Stretch (opposite side)
Rotator Cuff Sternocleidomastoid Stretch
(pushing/pulling Scalenes
assessment) Posterior Deltoid Levator Scapulae Stretch
Upper Trapezius
Foot Foot Flattens Sternocleidomastoid Levator Deep Cervical Flexors Peroneal Stretch
Calf Stretch
Heel Rises Scapulae Mid/lower Trapezius
Rhomboids Hamstring Stretch
Peroneals Rotator Cuff Standing TFL Stretch
Lat. Gastrocnemius
Bicep Femoris (short head) Anterior Tibialis Soleus Stretch
Tensor Fascia Latae Posterior Tibialis
Med. Gastrocnemius Adductor Stretch
Soleus Gluteus Medius (same side)

L-P-H-C Asymmetrical Adductor Complex Anterior Tibialis Tensor Fascia Latae Stretch
Weight Shift Tensor Fascia Latae Piriformis Stretch
Gluteus Medius Hamstring Stretch
(same side) (same side) (opposite side)
Bicep Femoris Adductor Complex
Gluteus Medius (opposite side)
(opposite side)

Postural Assessment Solutions


Pronation Distortion Syndrome Lower Crossed Syndrome Upper Crossed Syndrome

Shortened Muscles Lengthened Shortened Muscles Lengthened Shortened Muscles Lengthened
Muscles Muscles Muscles
Gastrocnemius Upper trapezius
Soleus Anterior tibialis Gastrocnemius Anterior tibialis Levator scapulae Deep cervical flexors
Posterior tibialis Sternocleidomastoid Serratus anterior
Peroneals Vastus medialis Soleus Posterior tibialis Rhomboids
Adductors Scalenes Middle trapezius
Iliotibial head Gluteus Hip flexor complex Gluteus maximus Latissimus dorsi Lower trapezius
Hip flexor complex medius/maximus Teres minor
Biceps femoris (short Adductors Gluteus medius Teres major Infraspinatus
Hip external rotators Subscapularis
head) Latissimus dorsi Transversus abdominis Pectoralis major /

Erector spinae Internal oblique minor


View Kinetic Chain Compensation Probable Overactive Probable Underactive
Checkpoint Excessive forward lean Muscles Muscles
LPHC Low back arches Anterior tibialis
Arms fall forward Gastrocnemius Gluteus maximus
Lateral Hip flexor complex
Turn out Abdominal complex Erector spinae
Upper body
Hip flexor complex Gluteus maximus
Feet Erector spinae Hamstring complex
Knees Latissimus dorsi Intrinsic core stabilizers

Latissimus dorsi Middle / lower trapezius

Teres major Rhomboids

Pectoralis major / minor Rotator cuff

Soleus Medial gastrocnemius
Lateral gastrocnemius Medial hamstring complex
Biceps femoris (short head)
Anterior Sartorius
Move inward Adductor complex
Biceps femoris (short head) Gluteus medius/maximus
Tensor fasciae latae (TFL) Vastus medialis oblique (VMO)

Vastus lateralis


View Kinetic Chain Compensation Probable Overactive Probable Underactive
Checkpoint Moves inward Muscles Muscles

Anterior Knee Adductor complex Gluteus medius/maximus
Biceps femoris (short head) Vastus medialis oblique (VMO)
Tensor fasciae latae (TFL)

Vastus lateralis

Static Postural Assessment

Name ________________________________________ Date __________

Anterior View

Kinetic Chain Checkpoint Observations
Foot / Ankle
Head / Neck

Posterior View

Kinetic Chain Checkpoint Observations
Foot / Ankle
Head / Neck

Lateral View

Kinetic Chain Checkpoint Observations
Foot / Ankle
Head and Neck

Evidence of Postural Distortion Syndrome?
Lower Crossed _________ Upper Crossed _________ Pronation Distortion _________

Shortened Muscles __________________________________________________________________

Lengthened Muscles _________________________________________________________________

Dynamic Postural Assessment

Name ________________________________________ Date __________

Overhead Squat

View Kinetic Chain Observation Notes
Anterior Checkpoint Left Right
Foot / Ankle Feet turn out? Left Right
Knees move:
In? Out?
Lateral LPHC Excessive forward lean?
Low back arches?

Arms fall forward?

Single-Leg Squat

View Kinetic Chain Observation Notes
Anterior Checkpoint Knees move: Left Right

Knee In? Out? Notes
Push Pull
Pushing / Pulling Observation Push Pull
Low back arches? Push Pull
View Kinetic Chain Shoulders elevate?
Checkpoint Head moves forward?


Lateral Shoulder

Head / Neck

To determine which muscles are overactive or underactive, compare your observations to the
downloadable Postural Assessment Solutions chart that accompanies this assessment template.

Overactive Muscles


Underactive Muscles




Kinetic Checkpoints

 What do you see in the kinetic checkpoints for your clients in each of the three most common
distortion syndromes?

 Fill in the open blanks with what you observe for the kinetic checkpoints and syndromes.
 Put N.A. in the cells where the kinetic checkpoint is not associated with a particular syndrome.

HEAD Turned In N.A.
SHOULDERS Anterior Tilt
N.A N.A. Forward Head

Syndrome Solutions
 Fill in the empty cells below based on what is contained in the other cells.

DISTORTION Feet Turned In Pelvis Ant. Tilt Arms Fall Forward
TIGHT MUSCLE Peroneals Hip Flexor Complex
LONG MUSCLE Anterior Tibialis Gluteus Maximus Posterior Deltoid
STRETCH Calf Stretch Lat. Dorsi Stretch
STRENGH Ball Squat Squat to Row


Adralene – Your Posture is Your Problem!

Hands-on Posture Assessments with
Corrective Exercises


As a Personal Trainer You will…

Observe your client’s static and in-motion
posture to determine critical fitness needs

to build effective and personalized corrective
exercise programs.





By the end of class, you will be able to:
• Perform hands-on postural assessments using

systematic observations.
• Identify client-specific kinetic chain postural imbalances.
• Select appropriate stretching and strengthening

exercises to correct postural imbalances using NASM
solutions reference tables.



• Proper posture ensures that the muscles
of the body are optimally aligned.

• Optimal alignment allows the
nervous system to properly
recruit all muscles in all
planes of motion.

• What is good posture?
• Why do we care about good





Improper Posture Leads to

A condition in which the lengths of muscles are altered at a joint.

Alteration resulting in Alteration resulting in
tight or shortened weak or lengthened
muscles muscles

Poor Posture Sets the Body up

For a series a traumas known as postural distortion patterns.



Most Common Postural
Distortions Include

• Pronation Distortion Syndrome

• Lower Crossed Syndrome

• Upper Crossed Syndrome

Video – The Static Postural Assessment:


Pronation Distortion Syndrome

– Feet

• Flattened or externally rotated.

– Knees

• Adducted and internally rotated.

– Tight or shortened muscles

• Gastrocnemius, soleus,
peroneals, adductors, iliotibial
band (IT band), hip flexors, and
biceps femoris (short head).

– Weak or lengthened muscles

• Anterior and posterior tibialis,
vastus medialis (VMO), gluteus
maximus and medius, and hip
external rotators.



Pronation Distortion Syndrome

– Feet

• Flattened or externally rotated.

– Knees

• Adducted and internally rotated.

– Tight or shortened muscles

• Gastrocnemius, soleus,
peroneals, adductors, iliotibial
band (IT band), hip flexors, and
biceps femoris (short head).

– Weak or lengthened muscles

• Anterior and posterior tibialis,
vastus medialis (VMO), gluteus
maximus and medius, and hip
external rotators.

Lower Crossed Syndrome

– Anterior pelvic tilt
– Tight or shortened

• Gastrocnemius, soleus, hip
flexors, adductors, latissimus
dorsi, and erector spinae.

– Weak or lengthened

• Gluteus maximus and
medius, anterior tibialis,
posterior tibialis, transvers
abdominis, and internal



Upper Crossed Syndrome

– Shoulders

• Protracted (rounded)

– Head

• Forward

– Tight or shortened

• Latissimus dorsi, pectoralis
major and minor, upper
trapezius, scalenes, teres major,
subscapularis, levator scapulae,
and sternocleidomastoid

– Weak or lengthened

• Serratus anterior, rhomboids,
rhomboids, mid/lower trapezius
and deep cervical flexors,

Movement Observations

• Dynamic postural observations are the
quickest way to gain an overall impression
of a client’s functional status.

• Should relate to basic functions such as
squatting, pushing, pulling, and balancing.

• Can also be incorporated as a first
workout for your client.




Preparing your Client for
Movement Observations

• Prepare the client

– Feet shoulder-width apart and pointed straight

– Foot and ankle complex in a neutral position.

– Neutral LPHC

– Shoulders back and down:

Arms forward, then 90 degree bend in transverse
plane, arms rotated up in frontal plane and then
down to their sides.

– Have client raise his or her arms overhead, with
elbow fully extended with the upper arm bisecting
the ears.

• Video: How to set up the overhead squat assessment

Overhead Squat Assessment

• Instruct your client to assume a comfortable,
controllable squat position or sitting down in chair

• Have the client repeat the movement 3-5 times.
• Observe in lateral and anterior views.
• Video: Observing the kinetic checkpoints for postural




Anterior View
Movement Observations

– Foot turns out
– Knees move inward or outward


Lateral View
Movement Observations

• Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex vs.
– Excessive forward lean
– Low back arches

• Shoulder complex
– Arms fall forward




Putting it all together…



Robert Paterson
Personal Training - FITTC 2103702 – 5001

Question 1: Multiple Choice
Blooms = Application

(Note – Classified this multiple choice question as application since students know what muscles are
involved in the syndrome and know which muscles are activated during exercises but have not been
given any instruction linking the distortion with a specific corrective exercise.)
Which corrective exercise would be the most effective to use with your client who has knees turning
inward seen in the Pronation Distortion Syndrome?
A. Ball Bridge
B. Ball Cobra
C. Ball Squat w/Abduction
D. Sitting Ball Curls

Question 2: Multiple Choice
Blooms = Knowledge

Which muscle group is most likely tight in this client?
A. Gluteus Maximus
B. Hamstrings
C. Pectorals
D. Soleus

Question 3: Fill in the blank
Blooms = Knowledge

Rounded shoulders is a postural distortion often seen in the ________________ Syndrome which is
caused by a shortened ______________ muscle.

Question 4: Short Essay
Blooms = Evaluation

What 3 to 5 key points can you make to explain to your client or to fitness center management why
postural assessments are essential to fitness programming?

Bob Paterson Personal Training
1st of 3 Client Programming Activities
Client Fitness Programming Assignment #1 Rubric

Background – Students will create 3 client fitness programs through
conducting a fitness assessment on live clients. By this time in the c
and students have reviewed programming examples of 5 theoretical

You have now:

 Conducted your first client assessment
 Identified the three common postural imbalances
 Learned specific corrective exercises for postural imbalances
 Reviewed the 5 performance levels of the NASM OPT model
 Learned the specific acute variables for Flexibility, Cardiorespirat

based on a client’s level within the 5 levels.

The purpose of this assignment is:

 To evaluate your comprehension and application of personal train
 Based on the NASM OPT model
 By creating a rationale based initial fitness program (weekly work
 For the client you assessed
 Based on your client’s goals (personal objectives)
 Considering your client’s physical or medical limitations
 Based on your client’s needs (as determined though the formal fi
 Provide your client recommended activities using the standard O



hout the semester. This is the first program they will create after
class, all the major personal training concepts have been covered
l clients.

tory, Core, Balance, Resistance, Plyometric, and SAQ training

ning concepts learned this semester
kout routine)

itness assessment)
OPT Programming Template.

Client Fitness Programming Excellent

Assignment #1 3 points each

Exercise Selection Provides Provide 3 or more exercises in

client appropriate number of each of the exercise categories

exercises in each program with a pacing guide for the

category Warm Up, Core- client to complete routine within

Balance-Plyometric, SAQ, 45 minutes, a brig explanation

Resistance, Cool-Down based for the client explaining muscle

on clients NASM OPT level groups impacted and a 30-day

Informs clients of the purpose progression goal for each

of each exercise selected along exercise.

with 30-day performance goals

Corrective Exercises Includes 2 or more stretch and

Includes stretch and 2 or more strengthening

strengthening exercises exercises from the NASM CES

provided for the client based on guide for the client to choose

postural assessment findings from to include in the workout

and the NASM CES matrix. routine. Provides

documentation correlating

postural distortion with

impacted muscles and

exercises chosen for muscle


Acute Variables Uses NASM Identify and document the

OPT model parameters for fitness phase of the client,

reps, sets, intensity, tempo, provide all acute variables for

volume, rest interval, each exercise based on the

frequency, and duration based OPT model parameters.

on where the client within the 5 Provide regressions and

fitness phases. progressions for each exercise

to the client.

Exercise Mechanics Provide client exercise

Provides client concise mechanics in written form with

exercise mechanics cuing tips along with links to

explanations or links to online online videos to perform the

resources. exercises correctly.


Overall Assessment: 9-12 = Excellent 6-8 = Satisfactory 0-5 =

Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
2 points each 0 points

Provide at least 1 warmup, 1 Providing less than 7
cool down and 1 resistance programmed exercises, not
exercise for each of the 4 major including warmup and cool
muscle groups providing client down exercises. Failure to
pacing for a 45-minute workout. provide pacing to the client for
a 45-minute workout.

Includes 1 stretch and 1 Does not provide client
strengthening exercise from the exercises related to postural
NASM CES guide for the client imbalance or choses exercises
to include in the workout that are not appropriate for the
routine that is appropriate for postural imbalance according
the postural distortion. to the NASM CES guide.

Identify and document the Not providing all acute
fitness phase of the client, variables for all exercises.
provide all acute variables for Choosing acute variables that
each exercise based on the do not match the client’s fitness
OPT model parameters. phase.

Provide client exercise Does not provide exercise
mechanics in written form. mechanics to the client.

= Unsatisfactory


Bob Paterson
CE ‐ Personal Training FITTC 2103702 
Fall 2019

• Adraline – Your posture is your problem!
• Hands‐on Posture & Movement 

Assessments with Corrective Exercise.

Student Preparation Strategy

Goal – Familiarity Recognizing Distortions & Using References

Motivate Students Before this Session

• Read 11 Pages ‐ Posture Movement Assessments in NASM Textbook.
• Print from D2L Two One Page Reference Guides.
• Post in D2L an Image of a Postural Distortion.
• Comment on 3 Other Students Images:  Identify the Distortion, 

Muscles Involved & Corrective Exercises Using the Reference Guides.
• 50 Participation Points for Posting & Comments.




Vintage & Humorous 
Video Clips on Posture

Posture & Corrective Exercise 
are as Important Today as is 
was for Elizabeth Arden in 

Technology: Created in Vibby 
from YouTube Clips & 
Captured with Snagit as MP4 



• (KNOWLEDGE):  What postural distortions and syndromes did you see 
with Adalene when she was looking in the mirror?

• (COMPREHENSION):  What did the dressed‐up women, Elizabeth 
Arden, say the two things one can do to improve posture?   How do we 
describe what she said in NASM terms as Personal Trainers? 




Course Student Learning Objective  

Describe individualized one‐on‐one exercise programs.

Lesson Learning Objectives  

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
1) Perform hands‐on postural assessments using systematic 

observations. (ANALYZING).
2) Identify client‐specific kinetic chain postural imbalances.  

3) Select appropriate stretching and strengthening exercises to correct 

postural imbalances using the solutions reference tables (SYNTHESIS).


Team Based Postural Assessment Jeopardy 

• Team Based Collaboration Like 
the Lesson.

• Covers Key Concepts from 
Preclass Preparation Activities.

• Provides Teacher & Student 
Understanding of Prior 
Knowledge through a Fun 



BOPPS – PRE‐ASSESSMENT 1. Words of Wisdom ‐ Language of the 
human movement system.

2. Ready or Not? ‐ Get ready for 
postural assessments.

3. Do You See What I See? ‐ Identify the 
distortion with what you see.

4. The long & short of it ‐ Which 
muscles are lengthened & which 
muscles are shortened?

5. The Repair Shop – Corrective 
exercises from the NASM OHS 
solutions table.

Technology: Created with PlayFractile.


PT role and Importance of postural assessments.  Slides.

• Class discussion recorded on whiteboard: BLOOM KNOWLEDGE ‐ What is good 

• Class discussion: BLOOM COMPREHENSION ‐ Why do we care about good posture?

Distortions, impacts on the body, client fitness needs vs client goals  

• Ask students to stand if they are members of a fitness center, remain standing if the 
fitness center provided them a free PT session, remain standing if the PT performed 
a postural assessment.

• Class Discussion: BLOOM ANALYSIS ‐ Why do you think so fitness centers and 
personal trainers do not perform postural assessments?




Preparing clients ‐ VIDEO
Setting up the OHS assessment. 

• Experience based hands‐on teaching 
strategy:  Divide class into teams of 2‐3 
students.  Each student will take turns 
as a client, as a PT and as an observer 
practicing and evaluating setting up the 
client for the OHS assessment.  

• Class Discussion:  BLOOM APPLICATION 
What do you think are the challenges in 
setting up a client for an OHS 


Observing clients ‐ VIDEO
Observing kinetic checkpoints

• Introduce the Assessments Worksheet. 
• Experience based hands‐on teach strategy:  

Divide class into teams of 2‐3 students.  Each 
student will take turns as a client, as a PT and as 
an observer practicing and identifying OHS 
postural dysfunctions .
• Class Discussion:  BLOOM ANALYSIS ‐ What did 
you find challenging in doing the OHS 
assessment with your client and what could you 
do to make it easier to perform?




Selecting corrective exercises.

• Review the Postural Assessment Solutions & 
Overhead Squat Solutions Table reference guides 

• Experience based hands‐on teach strategy:  
teams of 2‐3 students.  Ask each team ‐ In your 
group, identify the Probable Overactive Muscles, 
Probable Underactive Muscles,  Flexibility 
Exercise, Strengthening Exercise for knees turning 
inward, head forward, and heel rises using the 
Postural Assessment Solutions & Overhead Squat 
Solutions Table reference guides.


What do you know?  CAT Memory Matrix
Assessing Knowledge, Recall, and Understanding

• Students recall what they 
have learned.

• Students & the instructor 
determine if additional 
learning activities are 
required for this core 
Personal Training activity. 

• First complete the matrix 
without reference guides and 
then with reference guides.




Pulling it all together slide shows progression of lesson’s content:


Jessica, my client, doesn’t want to me to conduct a postural 
assessment for postural imbalances. She just wants to tone up for her 
January Caribbean cruise.  I tell her “Sure, that’s fine. Most Personal 
Trainers never do an assessment anyhow and I can help you tone up.”

BLOOM SYNTHESIS ‐ Is there anything wrong with my action plan 
with Jessica?  If so, what?

BLOOM EVALUATION ‐ What alternative plan could you propose to 
Jessica that still meets her goal of toning up for the cruise?



Reflections of My ACP 

• Educating is not lecturing.
• Teaching can be fun and engaging for 

both the student and teacher.
• Motivating is motivating.
• Build a community with your students.
• BOPPS, BLOOMs, Tech and other tools 

keep students and teachers vibrant.
• Adjuncts are fun people.
• Is awesome an overused term if I use it 

to describe our teacher?


Robert Paterson
Adjunct Faculty – CE – Personal Training
Lone Star College – CyFair Campus
Fall 2019

Value - Knowledge - Insights Gained

Education, when I was in college working on my BA in Chemistry and later my MS in
Computer Science, was done the old fashioned way: read your book, come to class for
a lecture, scribbled a bunch of notes and take tests to show your knowledge with maybe
a hands-on lab or two thrown into the mix. Lessons didn’t seem to have a beginning or
an end but just a continuum of information dumped. One topic may have been
completed in a class or the topic was carried on to the next class session. It was sort of
like watching a movie on Netflix, pause it and come back the next day for the rest of it.
That’s the model I knew before the ACP, Adjunct Certification Program. Most classes
were boring, but I learned how to get through successfully. I passed my classes,
received my degrees and got a decent job right out of college but my knowledge recall
faded quickly.

Thirty years later, I decided to get my Personal Training certification and then an
opportunity to teach popped up. The adjunct teaching Personal Training to students
that want to become personal trainers had to cut down the number of hours teaching. I
was asked to pick up her classes. She gave me her lecture slides. Really a nice thing
to do since she had spent years developing them. All I had to do was go to class,
present the slides, answer a few questions and make sure students were taking their
online tests. But it wasn’t easy. Students didn’t read the textbook, the slides weren’t
my own, so it was hard to present them, and most students spent most of the class time
snapping pics of the slides instead of listening to me. I didn’t feel what I was doing
worked and the students weren’t learning important concepts. I was sure they were just
taking the online tests with their books open at home.

After a few weeks of stumbling through the slides, I made some big changes. I tossed
the other adjunct’s slides and created my own. I set aside class time for discussion and
hands-on activities. The class was better than when I started and improved for the next
three semesters, but I was still dissatisfied. I didn’t see students engaged like I wanted
them to be and I didn’t see the enthusiasm in students that I had for Personal Training.

I saw the email for the Adjunct Certification Program. It looked interesting especially
since there was a nice stipend at the end: attend a few classroom sessions, do a few
assignments and get paid for it. With time on my hands, why wouldn’t I sign up. Heck, I
might even learn a few things.

Eight weeks after starting the class – well, I have a hard time describing how amazingly
valuable and exciting I am about what I have learned and how this is going to make me
a better educator.

My background is not in teaching so leading a class the same way I was taught is all
that I knew. The BOPPS format has brought organization with a purpose to what I
teach and I how I deliver lessons. The framework allows me to crystallize my class
objectives and outcomes. Instead of rambling on with information slides, I now have a
tool that keeps me focused. I define what I want the students to learn and this approach
puts me on a measurable path to deliver content with purpose and intent.

Now that I have a well thought out plan for lessons with BOPPS, I also have learned
creative ways to motivate students to read and prepare for class that I did not have
before with effective Student Preparation Strategies. I have the tools now with Pre and
Post Assessments to measure what students know at both the beginning and the end of
the lesson. Plus, the assessments provide students a way to measure their
understanding. Teaching is not just about the teacher making a fact dump and hoping
that the student picks it up – it’s about evaluating the effectiveness of the lesson with
learning strategies allowing the teacher to modify the process to meet the intent of the
lesson. This is new knowledge to me.

Finally, I had no idea about the broad range of technical tools available to engage
students in learning. You hear about how people get lost in Facebook or web searches
for hours not realizing where the time went. For me, it’s exploring all the technical tools
and how I can use them in my own lessons. I am old enough to remember the Sears
toy catalog when I was a kid. My parents would tell me to circle what I wanted for
Christmas in the catalog. Hours later I probably circled thousands of dollars of toys. It
was hard to decide what I really wanted. I am doing the same with the technical tools –
hours of playing and trying to find the few I need for the next few classes. It’s terrific to
have so many choices available to me.

With a group of 12 cohorts, I was able to see a wide range of tools and techniques,
more than I would been able to see on my own, which I am going to incorporate in my
own teaching strategies.

Testing methods

Incorporating the Knowledge I have Gained in my Classroom

Here are examples of what I have already been incorporating in the classroom:

 Rewriting lesson plans using the BOPPS methodology.
 Controversial statements to begin class discussions.
 Moved in classroom questions to higher levels in BLOOMS taxonomy.
 Created bridges to begin all lessons which are usually amusing vintage videos

related to lesson topics.
 Built Kahoot games for preassessment activities.
 Built Playfactile games for post-assessment activities.

 Used foggiest point technique the 3rd to the last classroom session. Topics read in
the textbook exceed the time we have in the classroom. I am using foggiest point as
a way for students to tell me what they want to go over in the last few classes that
we covered quickly not at all in the classroom.

 Creating CATS for summary assessments.
 Rewritten online quizzes to be more effective in assessing knowledge.
 Incorporating strategies to community in the classroom.
 Using the what’s due feature in D2L for students to clearly know what is expected.
 Using the remind app to create stronger real time communications with students.

This Program has Made Me a More Effective Instructor

This is just the beginning. So far, the program has made ma a more effective instructor:

 Creating purposeful lessons instead of fact lectures.
 Integrating tools that motivate students to read, internalize and participate in class.
 Creating an environment of higher-level learning through Blooms taxonomy.
 Measuring the effectiveness of my lessons with CATS evaluations.
 Incorporating technology which energizes the learning process.
 Building more effective tests.

Suggestions for Further Professional Development Opportunities

 It would be valuable to have a quarterly reunion of our ACD class to see what each
of us has been doing to incorporate and expand what we have learned this

 Include in the reunion an overview of the other educational opportunities we should
consider being offered to adjuncts at LSC.

 I used to just delete the developmental opportunities announcements. Now I am
going make sure I read them and participate. What a wonderful opportunity for the
adjuncts and LSC to create an effective learning environment for our students.

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