The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Published by hudarafiah31, 2019-06-10 23:35:40


Untitled document (1)


















So, what exactly is blood? Blood is a fluid
substance that primarily serves to carry oxygen

and nutrients to tissues while shuttling away
metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide. Blood is

composed of cells, water, proteins, hormones,
glucose, fats, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.


Blood is needed every two seconds.About one
in seven people entering a hospital needs
blood. ​Every day, blood is needed to save
lives. For example, blood is needed for

surgeries, accident victims, treating patient
with leukimia, hemophiliacs, cancers and



1. A chance to Save the Human Lives:

-By giving our blood to others who are in need, can save a life. You saved not only one
person life but also a life of many who depends on that person. This attitude in a people
grows like a chain reaction. And everybody on the globe is now connected in this
chaining process.

- Many individuals who need blood such as:

1. many women with complications of pregnancy, ectopic and haemorrhage
before, during or after childbirth;

2. children with severe anaemia often resulting from malaria or malnutrition;
3. people with severe trauma following man-made and natural disasters
4. People undergo complex and medical surgeries
5. Accident victims
6. A bleeding disorder, hemophilia or ​thrombocytopenia​.
7. With cancers, leukemia

​ ​ 2. K​ eep up Healthy Heart & Liver:

-I​ ron plays an important role in our body, iron is an important component of
hemoglobin. It helps to the red blood cells to carry oxygen from lungs to the whole
body. So doctors prefer to take iron rich food. Intake of iron-rich food is not a
problem, the problem is taking too much of iron-rich food. The body uses sufficient
amount of iron.The remaining iron substance deposited in heart, liver, and pancreas.
. Because of this heart and liver problems are coming. So, donating blood iron levels
are decreased and it helps to reduce heart and liver problems.

3.​Restoration of Blood Cells:

-​During a regular blood donation, we can give around 470 ml of whole blood. This occupies

nearly 8 or 9 percent of the average blood volume of an adult person Soon after the regeneration
of blood process will starts. Within 24 to 48 hours lost volume will regenerate. (it depends upon
fluid intakes)

- And within 8 or 9 weeks lost cells are regenerated by stem cells. This process takes place in
bone marrow. With the newly generated blood cells, a person energy levels and activity goes up,
your body stays healthy and work more efficiently.

4​ . ​Weight reduction:

-​By donating blood once we can burn nearly 600 calories. This weight reduction comes without

any exercise or anything.

- It is different from daily exercises because of blood donation is not a regular activity. It is better
to donate blood once per quarter year.

-these days many are prone to heart attack due to heavyweight. Even though we can burn less
amount of calories through blood donation it is better than nothing.

​ 5.​Increased Life Span with blood donation:

-After achieving health benefits definitely, your lifespan
will increase.We know that there are many blood banks
running in urban areas on regular basis, but on this
special day, many organizations and volunteers come
forward to organize camps in rural areas also. So, if you
observe any such camps near your residence, you can
donate and make this day happy to you and others..



You are aged between 18 and 65.

* In some countries national legislation permits 16–17 year-olds to
donate provided that they fulfil the physical and hematological criteria
required and that appropriate consent is obtained.

* In some countries, regular donors over the age of 65 may be accepted
at the discretion of the responsible physician. The upper age limit in
some countries are 60.


You weigh at least 50 kg.

* In some countries, donors of whole blood donations should weigh at
least 45 kg to donate 350 ml ± 10% .


You must be in good health at the time you donate.

You cannot donate if you have a cold, flu, sore throat, cold sore, stomach
bug or any other infection.

If you have recently had a tattoo or body piercing you cannot donate for
6 months from the date of the procedure. If the body piercing was
performed by a registered health professional and any inflammation has
settled completely, you can donate blood after 12 hours.

If you have visited the dentist for a minor procedure you must wait 24
hours before donating; for major work wait a month.

In order to donate blood, a woman must have a hemoglobin level of at least 12.5
g/dL, and a man must have a hemoglobin level of at least 13.0 g/dL. For all donors,
the hemoglobin level can be no greater than 20 g/dL.




1. ​Giving Blood vs. Going to the Gym

For those of you reading this article and expecting to hear that
you can cancel your gym membership, you’re going to be
disappointed, but there are some unexpected links between
blood donation and weight loss, among other health bonus

Believe it or not, donating blood increases you calorie burn! It is
estimated that one pint of donated blood results in about 650
calories burned(source from University Of California,San Diego).Of
course it’s not a sustainable weight loss plan, but it’s an added
bonus if you happen to be trying to lose weight. Lose a little weight
while saving lives… not bad.

Everything that happens within the body, related to metabolism,
comes along with some level of calorie-burning. Obviously, every
action requires energy, including the production of billions of new red
blood cells. Replacing one pint of blood burns approximately 650
calories, which is equivalent to about one hour of cardio – not bad!

So, donating once every two months earns you the same as a
one-hour workout, which doesn’t seem that impressive (s​ ee above:
don’t give up your gym membership)​ . That being said, the real
weight-loss benefits of blood donation are a bit more complex.

Some people have compared donating blood to changing the oil in
your car, which is a fair description. New blood cells are better at
holding and transporting oxygen than old blood cells that are wearing
down, which gives your muscles and metabolism a helpful boost.
When your body is more oxygenated, your energy levels increase,
and your body naturally burns more calories during its daily activities.

It may not be equivalent to a daily workout, but regularly donating
blood can help your body run more efficiently and aid in your
weight-loss efforts!

Can HIV be transmitted through 
blood transfusions? 

Yes but this is very rare. In the unlikely event that a person who is
HIV-positive donates blood products that are not tested, the person who
receives the blood product is likely to develop an HIV infection too.

If you’re thinking about donating blood but are not sure about your
HIV status, you can request an HIV test in advance of donating at
your local clinic.

In order to prevent this, international health regulations require all blood
products, such as organs or tissues, to be screened for a number of viral or
bacterial contaminations before they are used.

During the screening process any blood products which contain HIV,
hepatitis B​, h​ epatitis C,​ or ​syphilis​ will be disposed of.

This means that the t​ ransmission of HIV​ through blood products is very
rare, but examples have occurred in some low-income countries which lack
the equipment to test all blood.


● In most places in the world the risk of getting HIV from a blood
transfusion is very low.

● International health guidelines state that all blood products must
be tested for viruses such as HIV, and in most countries
rigorous testing procedures are put in place.

● In rare cases where blood or blood products, such as a donated
organ or tissue, have not been tested, HIV may be transmitted if
the donation has come from an HIV-positive individual.

● You have the right to ask your healthcare professional if a blood
product has been tested for HIV or not.

● You cannot get HIV from donating blood as new, sterile and
disposable needles are used.

Rewards and Incentives for 
Blood Donation Work 

Contrary to popular belief, offering a reward for 
blood donations isn’t such a bad idea. 


When a natural disaster strikes, whether it’s a historically tragic tornado, a 
super storm, or a rash of exceptionally bad wild fires, there is plenty and more 
the unaffected can do to help the victims. One thing most able-bodied adults 

can do to help is d​ onate blood.​ But while blood donation seems simple, there 
often isn’t enough donated blood to go around during a crisis. 

Three economists are now suggesting a fix for blood banks left high and 
dry—offer incentives for donation. While giving a reward for a blood donation 

seems obvious, it hasn’t been common practice during the past 40 years.   

The thinking goes that blood donations will be of the highest quality if they 
come from volunteers, not if the donations have been incentivized. But that’s 

not the case, say the economists in a recently published policy article in 

“Blood supply shortages are a major health problem in developed countries 
and even more severe in lower-income regions,” said study author Nicola 
Lacetera, Ph.D., of the University of Toronto, in an interview with Healthline​. 

Because donations have long been simply that, ​donations,​ Lacetera wondered 
what might kick-start the flow of blood to areas that need it most. 

“[There are] several contexts where individuals might respond to multiple 
motivations, intrinsic and extrinsic, and in investigating how these different 
motivations interplay. The case of blood donations is a relevant one,” Lacetera 




How is my privacy protected when my 
donor information, blood, and blood 

samples are used in research?  

*Strict security measures are in place to protect your privacy.  
* Researchers will not be given any information that would allow them to 
identify you.  

* Only select, authorized blood center personnel will have access to your 
personally identifiable health information, or identifiable blood, and blood 

* Unless required by law, your personally identifiable health information will 
not be shared with others. 


Blood Lies: Gay Men Who Lie to Donate 


Some gay men are lying to circumvent the ban on donating blood

When Jeffrey started donating blood in 1988, it wasn’t exactly for altruistic reasons.

Jeffrey wasn’t sexually active when he started donating, but that changed in 1992 when
he came out to his family. As he began to explore his sexuality, he also continued to
donate blood. He remembers a question on a donor form asking if he had ever had sex
with another man at any time since 1977.

At 46, Jeffrey has continued to donate, often through workplace blood drives. He
chooses to lie on the questionnaire because he infrequently has sex, and always
uses condoms when he does. He knows his HIV status is negative, so there’s no risk
of passing on any diseases. And the collected blood is supposed to be tested for
HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne diseases, meaning there are plenty of other
safeguards to ensure safety of the supply.

“I decided the question was irrelevant and I lied
on the form because it was none of their

Blood donor history forms typically ask a range of questions, including how a person
is feeling on that particular day, if they have taken aspirin or blood-thinners, the last
time they donated blood, their history of travel outside of the United States, and their
sexual behaviors over the past year. The answers are then used to help collection
centers weed out donors who, in the FDA’s view, pose a safety risk to the blood

“Although we are not aware of any laws that specifically make it illegal to untruthfully
answer questions about sexual behavior, we rely on the honesty of our donors to
help protect our donors and the safety of our blood supply,” Toll added. “Any donor
who is less than truthful in their responses to the health history questions cannot be
properly evaluated, may not be eligible to donate, and could put him or herself or a
recipient at risk.”

“The FDA still, in 2016, believe that gay and
bisexual men’s blood is inherently diseased.”

But ​some argue​ that the FDA’s recommendations still single out gay and
bisexual men for disparate treatment. It is something that is not borne out by
the science surrounding HIV.

The Best Foods to Eat 
Before Donating Blood 


Donating blood is a relatively safe way to help people with serious medical 
conditions. Donating blood can lead to some side effects, though, like 
fatigue or anemia. Eating and drinking the right things before and after 
donating can help reduce your risk for side effects. 

Read on to learn what you should eat and drink before donating blood, 
plus learn tips for things you can do after you donate. 

What to eat and drink 

If you’re donating blood, it’s important to stay hydrated before and after 
you donate. That’s because about half of your blood is made of water. It’s 

also good to increase your iron intake because you lose iron when you 
donate. Low iron levels can cause symptoms of fatigue. 


Iron is an important mineral your body uses to make hemoglobin. 
Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen from your lungs to the rest 

of your body. 

Eating a well-balanced diet with plenty of iron-rich foods can help you 
store extra iron. If you don’t have enough iron stored away to make up for 

the iron you lose when donating blood, you can develop ​iron deficiency 

There are two different types of iron found in foods: heme iron and 
nonheme iron. Heme iron is more easily absorbed, so it boosts your iron 
levels more effectively. Your body absorbs up to ​30 percent​ of heme iron 

and only 2​ to 10 percent​ of nonheme iron. 

Before you donate blood, consider increasing your intake of iron-rich 
foods. This can help increase the iron stores in your body and reduce your 

risk for iron deficiency anemia. 

Foods rich in heme iron include: 

● Meats,likebeef, lamb, ham, pork, veal, and dried beef. 
● Poultry, such as chicken and turkey. 

● Fish and shellfish, like tuna, shrimp, clams, haddock, and mackerel. 
● Organs, such as liver. 
● Egg.   




Foods rich in nonheme iron include: 
● Vegetables, such asspinach, sweet potatoes, peas, broccoli, string 
beans, beet greens, dandelion greens, collards, kale, and chard. 
● Breads and cereals, includingenriched white bread, enriched cereal, 
whole-wheat bread, enriched pasta, wheat, bran cereals, cornmeal, 
oats, rye bread, and enriched rice. 
● Beans, including tofu, kidney, garbanzo, white, dried peas, dried beans, 
and lentils. 

Vitamin C 

Although heme iron will raise your iron levels more effectively, vitamin C 
can help your body better absorb ​plant-based iron,​ or nonheme iron. 

Many fruits are a good source of vitamin C. Fruits high in this vitamin 

● cantaloupe 
● citrus fruits and juices 

● kiwi fruit 


Around half of the blood you donate is made of water. This means you’ll 
want to be fully hydrated. When you lose fluids during the blood donation 
process, your blood pressure can drop, leading to dizziness. The A​ merican 
Red Cross​ recommends drinking an extra 16 ounces, or 2 cups, of water 

before donating blood. Other nonalcoholic beverages are fine, too. 

This extra fluid is in addition to the r​ ecommended 72 to 104 ounces​ (9 to 
13 cups) you should drink each day. 



What to avoid 

Certain foods and beverages can have a negative effect on your blood. 
Before donating blood, try to avoid the following: 


Alcoholic beverages lead to dehydration. Try to avoid drinking alcohol 24 
hours before giving blood. If you do drink alcohol, make sure to 
compensate by drinking extra water. 


Fatty foods 

Foods high in fat, such as french fries or ice cream, can affect the tests 
that are run on your blood. If your donation can’t be tested for infectious 
diseases, then it can’t be used for transfusion. So, skip the doughnuts on 

donation day. 


Iron blockers 

Certain foods and beverages can affect your body’s ability to absorb iron. 
You don’t have to avoid these foods completely, but avoid eating them at 
the same time you consume iron-rich foods or iron supplements. Foods 

that reduce iron absorption include: 

● coffee and tea 
● high-calcium foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt 

● red wine 
● chocolate 


If you’re donating blood platelets — which is a different process than 
donating whole, or regular, blood — your system must be aspirin-free for 

48 hours prior to donation. 

(Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a ​medication​ used to treat ​pain​, f​ ever​,

or ​inflammation.​ ​[4])​  



What Are The Top 10 Excuses For Not
Donating Blood?


Often times, the hardest part about deciding to donate blood is overcoming the fear of the 
needle stick. Many people actually decide to donate to help get over their fear of needles. 

The actual drawing process should cause very little, if any, discomfort. The finger prick 
during the preliminary interview process (required to test your iron level) is usually the only 

slight discomfort encountered by a blood donor. 


40% of the US population is eligible to donate blood, yet less than 5% of those eligible 

actually do. Blood centers 

nationwide typically run into blood shortages at various times throughout the year. 


In our region alone, over 450 units of blood are needed each day by transfusion patients 
in area hospitals. Blood is perishable – whole blood can be stored safely for 42 days, 
while platelets (which are used to treat cancer patients and burn victims) have a 

shelf-life of only 5 days! Therefore, it is vitally important to maintain a steady stream of 

blood donors, in order to ensure the safety and availability of the blood supply for all of 



Blood centers often run short of type O, A and B blood, but shortages of all types occur 
during the summer and winter holidays. If all eligible donors gave at least twice a year, it 
would help prevent blood shortages .E​ very type of blood is needed daily to meet 
patient needs. If you have a common blood type, there are many patients who 
need it, so it is in high demand. If you have a less common blood type, there are 

fewer donors available to give it, so it is in short supply. 



Many health conditions do not prevent people from donating blood, and the deferral criteria 
for blood donors is constantly changing, which means that if you were turned down for 

donation in the past, you may now be eligible to donate. ​Click here​ for our general eligibility 




Donating blood is safer today than it has ever been before. Blood centers follow five layers 
of safety procedures: 

1. Careful blood donor eligibility standards 
2. An individual screening process 

3. Laboratory testing of all blood samples 
4. Confidential exclusion of all ineligible donations 

5. Donor record checks 

During the actual donation process, all donors are given a mini-medical check-up, and asked 
a series of questions to ensure that they are eligible to donate for our community blood 

supply. All questions asked during this process are required by the Food & Drug 
Administration (FDA). 

All equipment used in the blood donation process is sterile and disposable (used only once). 
The needle and all related equipment are disposed of in a specially marked biohazard 

container immediately following the donation. Therefore, there is no chance of contracting 
AIDS or any other disease by donating blood. 


Blood makes up about seven percent (7%) of your body’s weight, and the average adult has 
approximately two pints of blood for every 25 pounds of body weight. The body is 
constantly manufacturing blood. After your whole blood donation, you will not be eligible to 
donate for 56 days (or eight weeks), during which time your body will completely replenish 
the blood you have so generously donated. You can give platelets every two weeks, up to 24 
times per year, plasma every four weeks, and automated red cells every 112 days. 




The minimum hematocrit (iron) level to donate blood is 12.5 for females and 13.0 for males. 
If you are deferred for low hemoglobin, your collections specialist can review ways in which 

to increase your iron level. In many cases, your iron level can be increased significantly by 
some simple changes to your diet. 



Immediately after your blood donation, you will also be asked to spend a few moments in 
our canteen area, where you will be served refreshments, cookies and other snacks. This will 
help replenish some of the sugar and liquids in your body, and help us to ensure that you are 
feeling well after your donation.D​ onating blood should not adversely affect a healthy 
adult because your body has plenty of blood. You will donate less than one pint, 

and your body, which constantly makes new blood, will replace the donated 

volume within 24 hours. Most people continue their usual activities after 


I am too busy. 

The entire process takes about an hour, and the actual blood 
donation time is only 7-10 minutes. If you stop to think that an hour 
of your time could mean a lifetime for a premature baby, someone 
with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, or someone who's had an 
accident, you might decide that you can make the time to give the 

gift of life. 




Blood banking is a medical logistic activity. It attempts to bring the potentially
life-saving benefits of transfusion to the patients who need them by making blood

components available, safe, effective and cheap1​ ​. Blood banks try to maximize
delivering getting blood from the right donors to the right patients in a timely
manner. The easiest way to assure the timely availability of blood is to have an

appropriate inventory on the shelf at all times.

Storage conditions relate largely to the maintenance of temperature from
the time of collection, through processing, testing and labelling and
transportation, up to the point of issue for transfusion into a patient. This is
known as ‘cold chain management’.


Anticoagulant-preservatives used for blood collection vary in composition;
main aim: is to prevent clotting and then to provide nutrients to maintain
red cell viability and functionality throughout storage.

Composition of anticoagulant-preservatives

● Sodium citrate​ is a calcium-chelating (binding) agent that interferes with
the calcium-dependent steps in the clotting cascade and prevents

● Dextrose​ supports the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – see
explanation below – by glycolysis and in this way provides nutrients that
are required by the red cells.

● Citric acid​ is used in conjunction with sodium citrate and dextrose to make

the anticoagulant solution called acid citrate dextrose (ACD). This was one
of the earliest anticoagulants used for blood collection and storage. The
acidic pH does not maintain 2,3 BPG levels (see explanation below) and it
is no longer commonly used, as better solutions are now available.

● Sodium phosphate,​ when used in conjunction with citric acid, sodium
citrate and dextrose, comprise the anticoagulant citrate phosphate
dextrose (CPD), which is in common use in conjunction with red cell
additive systems (see explanation in succeeding discussions). CPD has a
more alkaline pH and maintains 2,3 BPG levels better than ACD.
● CPD to which adenine (A) is ​added, becomes CPDA-1 (the ‘1’ signifies the
formula used) and impr​ oves the synthesis of ATP. CPDA-1 is usually used
when the collected donation is to be stored as whole blood.

Volume of anticoagulant

The volume of anticoagulant required to prevent clotting and preserve red
cells is dependent on the volume of blood taken from the donor. Some
collection bags are designed for the collection of 500 mL blood and contain

70 mL anticoagulant. If smaller quantities of blood are to be drawn, then the
volume of anticoagulant is reduced proportionately.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Metabolism of ATP provides energy for red cells. Energy-rich compounds
(such as glucose or dextrose) are absorbed into the cells, and are
metabolized by enzymes to release their potential energy by a process
called glycolysis. This energy is stored in a form that the cells can utilize,
known as ATP. During component shelf life, ATP levels drop, but when
ATP-reduced red cells are transfused, ATP is regenerated and normal
energy metabolism restored.

2,3 biphosphoglycerate (2,3 BPG)

2,3 BPG affects the ability of haemoglobin to release bound oxygen. When
2,3 BPG levels drop during storage (they fall to zero in about 2 weeks), the
affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen increases proportionately. Therefore,
when transfused, these cells cannot readily release oxygen to the tissues
where it is required. However, once in circulation, stored red cells
regenerate 2,3 BPG and normal function is restored within 24 hours.

Red cell additive solutions

Red cell concentrates that are prepared from whole blood donations
collected into CPD are suspended in additive solution for improved storage

and shelf life. S​ ee Section 11: Blood processing:​ red cell concentrate, buffy
coat removed, in additive solution, for more detail.

When plasma is removed after the centrifugation of whole blood donations,
most of the anticoagulant and nutrients in CPD are removed along with it.
At this stage, blood has been effectively anticoagulated so the presence of
CPD is no longer required by the red cell concentrate remaining in the
primary collection bag. However, the red cells need nutrients to survive,
and should also be suspended in sufficient fluid to allow for normal flow
characteristics. This is achieved by the use of additive solutions.

Additive solutions (AS) vary in composition depending on the supplier. The
typical composition of an additive solution is as follows:

● Saline is the fluid in which the red cells are suspended to provide the
desired flow rate conditions.

● Glucose (or dextrose) provides the basic nutrients for glycolysis.
● Adenine and mannitol assist in the process of ATP generation.

When an additive system is used then the blood donation is collected in
CPD, which has no adenine. The unit is processed within 24 hours of
collection and the adenine is added with the red cell additive solution.

Volume of additive

The volume of additive solution required to preserve red cells during
storage varies according to the volume of the whole blood donation.

Redcells from a donation of 500 mL require about 111 mL of additive
solution, whereas 450 mL donations need 100 mL.

Storage lesion

Changes that alter the physiological properties occur in collected blood
over time, and this is known as storage lesion.

● Coagulation factor activity (including factor VIII) deteriorates very rapidly in
whole blood, particularly after the first 24 hours of storage and is not a
suitable product to treat haemostatic disorders.

● Platelets in whole blood lose viability and functionality very quickly and are
not a suitable source for treatment of patients requiring platelet therapy.

● The red cells increase their affinity for oxygen and lose some viability.
● Leucocytes deteriorate with the release of leucocyte proteases.
● Microaggregates form.
● Potassium is released from the red cells.


Red cells 

Blood is an excellent culture medium for bacterial growth; therefore it is stored in approved
refrigerators at 2-6°C, where it has a shelf life of 35 days from donation. There are legal
requirements for temperature regulation and alarm systems for storage of blood. The hospital
has approved Blood Bank refrigerators located in the Blood Issue room in Pathology and in
the store room in Theatres.
Blood must never be stored in domestic or other refrigerators. Blood should be removed, one
unit at a time, from the Blood Bank refrigerator only when a transfusion is due to commence
within 30 minutes. Transfusion must be completed within 4 hours of removing the pack from
the Blood Bank refrigerator to avoid the risk of bacterial growth.
Bacterial contamination of blood products may be the single largest cause of death from
transfusion accidents. If a unit of blood has been out of the refrigerator for more than 30
minutes and there is no prospect of its imminent transfusion, the Blood Bank must be
informed and the unit marked as "Unsafe to Transfuse." The unit is then to be brought
directly to a member of staff in the Blood Bank for safe disposal.

For further help, contact the laboratory on Ext.:7894 or on bleep 234 during the out of hours
/on call period (8pm to 9am.)

Collection of the wrong blood from storage locations is one of the most common causes of
serious transfusion accidents. Staff responsible for removing blood from approved Blood
Bank refrigerators must carefully check the patient's identification details against appropriate

Red cells will be available for collection in the Blood Issue room refrigerator.

Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) 

Plasma is usually stored frozen, at −18 ºC for a year or at −65 ºC for seven years. Once
thawed, it can be kept at 1–6 ºC for 5 days. Under these conditions, bacterial contamination
has not been a problem. Kinin activation occurs during liquid storage to a variable degree

 and can cause hypotension in some patients2​ 8.​

Fresh frozen plasma is stored in approved freezers at less than -30°C. It is thawed just before
use (a process which takes up to 30 minutes) and once thawed, must be infused within 24
hours if kept at 4°C (or 4 hours if kept at room temperature).

FFP will be available for collection in the Blood Issue room refrigerator.​. If such units are
frozen within 8 hours of collection, they can be called fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and if
longer than 8 hours but less than 24 hours, they are called frozen plasma (FP). Thawed
FFP can be kept in the refrigerator as FFP for up to 24 hours, but either FFP or FP can be

kept thawed as thawed PLASMA (TP) for up to 5 days.


NOTE - A therapeutic dose of cryoprecipitate is generally a pool of 5 units; this is typically 
issued as a single bag containing all of the individual units pooled together. The pool size and 
the number of units required for a therapeutic dose are determined by the blood supplier and 

available inventory may vary. 

Cryoprecipitate is stored in approved freezers at less than -30°C. It is thawed just before use
(a process which takes up to 20 minutes) and once thawed, must be stored at room
temperature and infused within 4 hours

. C​ ryoprecipitate is stored in the Blood Bank freezer at a temp of ≤18°C until thawing. 
After thawing, it should be maintained at room temperature (​ 20 - 24°C)​. It should never 

be refrigerated or placed in a blood cooler. 

● Frozen Cryoprecipitate - The shelf life is 1 year from the date of collection. 
● Single units expire 6 hours from time of thawing. 
● The expiration date is located on the unit(​ s)​. 

Cryoprecipitate will be available for collection in the Blood Transfusion laboratory


Stocks of platelets are not kept in the hospital Blood Bank but ordered from the National
Blood Service (NBS) for specific patients as required. They are kept in the Blood Transfusion
laboratory under special storage conditions which preserve their clinical effectiveness and
have a shelf-life of only 5 days from donation because of the risk of bacterial contamination .

.​Platelets are stored in large flat bags with as high surface to volume ratio and on agitators
to facilitate oxygen diffusion. Off agitation for more than 24 hours, the bag contents
become hypoxic and metabolism shifts to anerobic glycolysis so that the contents become
acidotic and the platelets loose function​25​. Platelets are stored at room temperature, 20–24
ºC, because below 18 ºC, their lipid bilayer membrane undergoes a phase change which
allows the aggregation of surface glycoproteins2​ 6.​ Such cold-damaged platelets work well in
in vitro​ physiologic tests, but are removed rapidly from the circulation after reinfusion​27.​

Platelets are generally stored in the plasma in which they are collected. This reduces
handling of the platelets but increases the prevalence of complications of plasma exposure,
immunologic transfusion reactions and hypotension from kinin exposure​28​. Platelet
additive solutions have been developed which reduce the complications of plasma exposure
and allow the plasma to be diverted to other uses, but the platelets can be damaged by the
additional handling​29.​

All platelets are stored at room temperature (​ 20-24ºC)​ with gentle agitation until 
issue.​Platelets must NOT be refrigerated. They are issued as an adult or paediatric

"therapeutic dose" and must be transfused immediately after collection from the Blood Issue
Room. Rh Negative pre-menopausal women should receive Rh (D) Negative platelets
whenever available.
Platelets will be available for collection in the Blood Transfusion laboratory.

Human Albumin Solution 

Available as 4.5%(500mls) or 20%(50/100ml) solutions. HAS is normally stored at room
temperature and in the dark (check individual product specifications). It must not be left on

window sills or in direct sunlight. Each transfusion must be completed within 3 hours.
It is essential that all blood products can be traced to the patient receiving them - failure to
complete documentation can have severe medico-legal consequences in the event of viral

transmission or other adverse reactions.
HAS will be available for collection in the Blood Transfusion laboratory.

Anti-D Immunoglobulin 

Available as 250 IU or 500 IU solutions. Anti-D immunoglobulin for Rh (D) prophylaxis is
available from the Blood Transfusion laboratory for any Rh(D) Negative woman who has had

a potentially sensitising episode, in accordance with current national guidelines.
Prophylactic Anti-D must be administered within 72 hours of a sensitising event.
Anti-D is also available for prophylaxis of any sensitising event; 250 IU is given when less
than 20 weeks' gestation, 500 IU is given when greater than 20 weeks' gestation provided that
the feto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) is less than 4mL. If the FMH is greater than 4mL, an
appropriate dose is calculated by blood transfusion staff using the results from the Kleihauer

test; and is issued by the Blood Transfusion laboratory.

Routine Antenatal Anti-D Prophylaxis: 

1500 IU D-Gam anti-D is offered to all RH(D) Negative pregnant women at 28 weeks’ gestation.
The 28 week blood grouping sample should be taken prior to the administration of
prophylactic Anti-D to prevent interference with the antibody screen.

Please bear in mind that:

● Rh(D) Negative women should still be given a dose of anti-D if they have a further
sensitising episode.

● Anti-D prophylaxis is inappropriate for women who have formed immune anti-D.
Anti-D will be available for collection in the Blood Transfusion laboratory





10. “I’M TOO BUSY.”

If you, a family member, a co-worker, a neighbor or a friend were in need of a blood 
transfusion, would you want to hear this excuse? Donating blood is safe and easy, and takes 

less than an hour. A single blood donation can help as many as three different people! In 
what other activity can so little time do so much? 


Click to View FlipBook Version