The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.

Vidhi Patel - 3. PPL1OF SAFE SEX FOR TEENS ASSIGNMENT_ STI Research Template

Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Published by vidhis.patel2811, 2019-04-18 18:02:40

Hepatitis B and C

Vidhi Patel - 3. PPL1OF SAFE SEX FOR TEENS ASSIGNMENT_ STI Research Template

Safe Sex for Teens: Research WORKSHEETS NAME(S): ____​ Vidhi___________​ _____
TOPIC: _____​_STI______​ ___________
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Answer the following questions as you conduct your research. The research worksheets must
be completed and included in your final product. Remember to include which reference you
used to answer each question.

Q #1 How would you ​describe​ the STI?

STI s​ tands for sexually transmitted infection. STI can be obtained when having sexual activity. 
STI is a type of infection. Some STIs include gonorrhea and chlamydia, these infections affect 
your sexual and reproductive organs. Others include HIV, hepatitis B, and syphilis, these 
infections cause general body infections. Fun fact: STIs was once called VDs meaning venereal 
diseases. Most of the germs in the infection need a warm, moist area. Because of this, they 
infect the mouth, rectum, and sex organs such as testes, penis, vagina, and vulva.¹​   
Hepatitis B= H​ epatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver 
failure, and cancer. It can be serious if treatment is not received. Hepatitis B spreads when 
people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the 

hepatitis B virus.²​

Hepatitis C=​ Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading 

to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood.1³

References ¹​(n.d.). Sexual Health & Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Issues for Teens. Retrieved April 12, 2019, from
2(2018, November 14). Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Causes, Transmission, Treatments - WebMD. Retrieved April 14, 2019,
from h​ ttps://
3 (2018, March 6). Hepatitis C - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from


Q #2 What are some important/surprising/shocking statistics related to your STI?


General Statistics:

● Around 257 million people are living with hepatitis B virus infection  
● Hepatitis B and C affects 325 million people around the world  
● Every day 3,600 die from viral hepatitis. This is caused by liver disease, liver 

failure and liver cancer.  
● Hepatitis B in 2015 caused 887 000 deaths, mostly from complications (including 

cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). 
● 6- 10 million people are affected annually by Hepatitis 
● 400 million people globally are currently living with the disease 
● Approximately 399 000 people die each year from hepatitis C, mostly from 

cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. 
● Globally, an estimated 71 million people have chronic hepatitis C infection 
● In Africa, chronic viral hepatitis affects 70 million people (60 million with 

Hepatitis B and 10 million with Hepatitis C).   
● Women Are critical because they are transmitting the disease. There are high rates 

of mother to child transmission of Hepatitis B infection. Most of the infections are 
transmitted before the age of 5 years.4  

What p​ ercentage​ of people in the world have it? In USA, and Canada? What percentage of teens have it?

a. World 
➔ 257 million people with hepatitis B globally⁵​  
➔ 71 million people with hepatitis C globally⁵  

b. USA: 
➔ ​2.4 million people with hepatitis C in the United States(2009)⁷ 
➔ 2.2 million people with hepatitis B in the United States(2009)⁶ 

c. Canada: 

➔ was ​0.6r​ eported cases per 100,000 people living in Canada Hepatitis B⁸

➔ 461,000 people were affected by Hepatitis C(2011)⁹​  

d. Teens: 

References 5 (​ 2018, July 18). Hepatitis B - World Health Organization. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from 

6 (n.d.). Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | CDC. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from


7 "Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | CDC." ​​.

Accessed 15 Apr. 201
8 (2014, September 22). Hepatitis B - Get the Facts - Retrieved April 14, 2019, from

9(2018, January 31). Surveillance of hepatitis C - Retrieved April 14, 2019, from

Q #3 What behaviors put individuals at higher risk for getting an STI?

Having unprotected sex when your partner is infected, and he/she isn't wearing a latex 
condom significantly increases the risk of getting an STI. As well as, the Improper or 
inconsistent use of condoms can also increase your risk. Having a sexual relationship with 
multiple people can also increase your partner. The more people you have sexually active with, 
the more risk is involved. This also goes for concurrent partners and consecutive monogamous 
relationships. Having an STI in your family increases the chances of you taking hold of it. 
Some infants are born with a Sexually transmitted disease because of the mother. Abusing 
alcohol or using recreational drugs can make you more willing to do risky behaviours. Also 
sharing the same needle for drugs. Sharing the needle spreads many serious infections such as 
HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Lastly, being young increases the factor, being young is 
excellent; however, half of the STDs that are reported occur in people between the ages 15 and 
24. Lastly, men who request their doctors for prescriptions for drugs to treat erectile 
dysfunction are at high risk in receiving an STI infection. Men who request their doctors for 
prescriptions for certain drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil 
(Levitra) have higher changes in getting STIs. Make sure you are having safe sex practices if you 
ask your doctor for one of these medications above.)​ ¹⁰ 

References 10 (2017, August 18). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) - Symptoms and causes - Mayo .... Retrieved April 14, 2019,

Q #4 How is the infection ​spread​? (process of transmission)

Hepatitis B is transmitted when it gets in contact with Semen also known as cum, vaginal 
fluids, blood, and urine. Below are the other ways you can get a sexually transmitted disease.¹¹ 

7 "​ Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | CDC."​. Accessed 15 Apr. 2019.


● having vaginal, anal, or oral sex (using a​ c​ ondom​ or ​dental damd​ uring sex can help 
prevent it) 

● sharing toothbrushes and razors (blood on them can carry hepatitis B) 
● sharing needles for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc. 
● getting stuck with a needle that has the Hep B virus on it.¹¹ 

Furthermore, Hepatitis B can be passed to the babies at birth if the mother has it.  

Hepatitis B is not spread through spit,, you can't get hepatitis B by sharing food or drinks or by 
using the same spoon or for. Furthermore, it is also not spread by hugging, kissing, coughing, 
sneezing, or breastfeeding.¹¹  

Hepatitis C is transmitted when blood from an infected person with the hepatitis C virus enters 
the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected by sharing 
needles or injecting drugs. Before 1992, hepatitis C was commonly spread through blood 
transfusions and organ transplants. After that, the United States took active steps to make sure 
the infection would not spread from transfusions and organ transplants by checking the blood 
and organs.¹¹   
People can become infected with the hepatitis C virus during such activities as: 

● Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to prepare or inject drugs 
● Needlestick injuries in health care settings 
● Being born to a mother who has hepatitis C¹¹ 

Less commonly, a person can also get hepatitis C virus through 
● Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another person’s blood, 
such as razors or toothbrushes 
● Having sexual contact with a person infected with the hepatitis C virus 
● Getting a tattoo or body piercing in an unregulated setting¹¹ 

References 11 (n.d.). Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for the Public | CDC. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from

Q #5 What are the ​visible​ symptoms? Are the symptoms different for females and males?
Can someone have this infection and ​not know it​?

Hepatitis C

Acute vs Chronic hepatitis C  


There are two types of h​ epatitis C​ infections one a​ cute​ another c​ hronic​. A​ cute hepatitis C​ may 
improve ​or​ resolve without treatment. However, sadly It leads to a c​ hronic​ infection in 75 to 85 
percent of cases. The ​chronic​ form of the infection may cause long-term problems in your 
liver, including liver damage and liver cancer.​¹² 
Acute: People with acute hepatitis C virus infection usually do not have symptoms or have mild 
symptoms. When symptoms happen, they include: 

● Fever 
● Fatigue 
● Dark urine 
● Clay-colored bowel movements 
● Abdominal pain 
● Loss of appetite 
● Nausea 
● Vomiting 
● Joint pain 
● Jaundice (yellow color in the skin or eyes)​¹² ¹⁴ 

Chronic: Most people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection do not have any symptoms or 
have general, or typical symptoms such as chronic fatigue and depression. Mostly, over time 
they tend to have chronic liver disease, which is ranged from mild to severe, including cirrhosis 
(scarring of the liver) and liver cancer. Chronic liver disease happens slowly over a long period 
sometimes several decades go by, without any signs or symptoms. Chronic hepatitis C is 
usually not recognized until people make a donation or from an abnormal blood test.¹​ ² 
Hepatitis B  
Acute vs. chronic hepatitis B 

Hepatitis B infection may be either short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic). 

● Acute hepatitis B​ infection lasts less than six months. Your immune system will 
most likely be able to beat the hepatitis B infection, and your recovery time is 
usually only a few months. Most people who get hepatitis B as adults have an acute 
infection, however, later on, it becomes more severe and turns into a chronic 


● Chronic hepatitis B​ infection lasts more than six months. Your immune system can't 
fight off the infection. The infection may last a lifetime, which can lead to severe 

illnesses such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.​¹³ 

Acute: Symptoms of acute hepatitis B, if they happen, can include: 

● Fever 
● Fatigue 
● Loss of appetite 
● Nausea 
● Vomiting 
● Abdominal pain 
● Dark urine 
● Clay-colored bowel movements 
● Joint pain 
● Jaundice (yellow color in the skin or the eyes) 

Chronic Hepatitis B: 

Most individuals with chronic hepatitis B do not have any symptoms, they do not feel ill, and 
they remain symptom- free for many decades. When symptoms happen, they are similar to the 
symptoms of acute hepatitis infection, but those symptoms can be a sign of advanced liver 
disease. About 1 in 4 people who become chronically infected during their childhood and 15% 
of those who become chronically infected after childhood will die from severe liver conditions, 
such as cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver cancer. Even though the liver becomes affected 
by the disease, some people still do not have any symptoms, although some blood tests for liver 
function might show some abnormalities.​¹² 


References 12 (2018, May 22). Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public | CDC. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from
13 (2017, October 27). Hepatitis B - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from
14 (2018, May 17). Acute Hepatitis C: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and ... - Healthline. Retrieved April 14, 2019,
from ​

Q #6 What should you do if you think you have an STI?

If you think you may have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), go to your GP or local sexual 
health or genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic and get a blood test or s​ exual health check-up​. 
Go to your family doctor if you don't feel comfortable going to a clinic.¹​ ⁵ 


The only way to find out if you have an STI is to have a sexual health check-up. GPs deal with 
sexual health problems daily, DON’T BE SCARED TO GET HELP!!! 
Sexual health check-ups are easy to do. Mostly in every case, it is just a simple urine test. So 
don’t be scared. Some infections can be diagnosed on the day and treated at the time of your 
visit. Some results may take up to a week.¹⁶ 
Below are the different tests the doctors do to check if you have an STI: 

● Blood tests: can confirm the diagnosis of HIV or later stages of syphilis. 

● Urine samples: Only some STIs can be confirmed by a urine test 

● Fluid samples: If you have active genital sores, testing fluid and samples from the 

sores may be done to diagnose the type of infection/some STIs.¹⁷

References 15 (n.d.). What should I do if I think I've got an STI? - NHS. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from
16 (n.d.). Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - Better Health Channel. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from
17 (2017, August 18). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs .... Retrieved April 14, 2019, from


Q #7 How would a doctor confirm you have an STI? (testing methods)

Hepatitis B 
Hepatitis B can be determined through blood tests. Blood tests can detect whether you have 
hepatitis B virus in your body or not. Moreover, your doctor will tell you whether it's acute or 
chronic. The blood test can also determine if you're immune to the condition.¹⁸ 
Hepatitis C 
Your doctor could find whether your infect or not when he/she checks your blood and sees 
your level of specific liver enzymes is high. If that happens, he'll/she’ll follow up with other 
tests to confirm you have the disease.¹⁹ 

References 18 (2017, October 27). Hepatitis B - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from
19 (2018, December 11). Hepatitis C Diagnosis and Tests for HCV: Antibody, PCR, and More. Retrieved April 14, 2019,
from ​


Q #8 How is it t​ reated,​ ​suppressed,​ and/or c​ ured?​

Hepatitis C 
Currently, there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C, however, the treatment to evolve rapidly. Since 
2014, several new all-oral direct-acting antiviral agents have been approved for use; however, it 
lasts up to 12 weeks with few side effects and cure rates exceeding 90% for those who complete 
treatment. However, the efficacy of antiviral therapies differs by genotype to some extent. 
Some drugs and therapeutic combinations show some further improvements in therapy for 
HCV infection.²¹  
Hepatitis B 
First of all, there is a vaccine for this infection for travellers. It is proven that the vaccine is 90% 
effective, and this vaccine was routinely given to kids after 1995. Chronic hepatitis B is not 
curable, but it is treatable. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B may include Antiviral 
Medications. Several antiviral medications — including entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir 
(Viread), lamivudine(Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka)- these all can help 
fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. People with acute. People with acute 
hepatitis B( lasts less than 6 months not long lasting) does not require treatment.²⁰ 

References 20 (n.d.). Hepatitis B Treatment - Hep Mag. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from

²¹ "Hepatitis C - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic." 6 Mar. 2018,​ Accessed 15 Apr.

Q #9 What can happen if the infection is n​ ot treated?​ (long term health problems)

Hepatitis B: 
If acute hepatitis B is left untreated, it can develop into chronic (long-term) hepatitis B, which is 
more severe because it can lead to severe liver failure, liver cancer and even death. As well as, 
the infection is more difficult to manage than the acute infection. If you are diagnosed with 
acute hepatitis B, it can be treated with proper rest, fluids and liver monitoring by a trusted 
physician or specialist.21 
Hepatitis C 
If the infection is left untreated, many with the infection with hepatitis C will develop scarring 
of the liver (cirrhosis). In other severe cases, life-threatening problems such as liver failure 
(where the liver loses most or all of its functions) or liver cancer can eventually develop. Liver 
failure and liver cancer can lead to death and extreme pain.²² 



References ²¹"Hepatitis B Risks & Complications -" ​​.
Accessed 15 Apr. 2019.

22​ (n.d.). Hepatitis C symptoms & treatments - Illnesses & conditions | NHS inform. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from

Q #10 How can it be p​ revented?​ (how can you protect yourself and your partner?)

The safest and reliable way of not getting Hepatitis B by not have sex (i.e., anal, vaginal or oral). 
Vaccines are safe, effective and one of the leading ways to prevent Hepatitis B and HPV. It is 
safest to get all three doses (shots) before becoming sexually active. You should also get 
vaccinated for hepatitis B if you were not protected when you were younger. The vaccinations 
for hepatitis B lasts for 30 years; that is what studies show. If you sexually activate with many 
sex partners than decrease the number of sex partners and that will massively reduce your risk 
in getting an STD whether it's Hepatitis B or C or anything else. Furthermore, it is super 
important that before you and your partner are sexually active get tested, and that you openly 
sure your results. Do not hide anything! Mutual Monogamy means that you and your partner 
after that you will sexually be active with only them. Being in a long term Mutual Monogamy is 
a reliable way not to get an STD. However, you both must not be infected with any STD’s. 
Lastly, to prevent you and your partner from STD transmission use condoms. However, you 
need to learn the correct and consistent use of male latex condom is super useful in reducing 
STD transmission. Be sure to use a condom every time you have anal, vaginal, oral sex. 
However, before using male latex condom make sure you do not have latex allergies synthetic 
non-latex condoms can be used. However, it is critical that those condoms are known to have 
higher breakage rates than latex condoms. Lastly, Natural membrane condoms are not 
recommended for STD presentation.²³

References 23​ (n.d.). STD Prevention - CDC. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from h​ ttps://

Q #11 What should someone do if they are diagnosed with an STI? (tips for someone living with an
STI, telling your partner, etc.)

As soon as possible you should see your health care provider for treatment as quickly 
as possible after receiving a diagnosis of an STD/STI. If you do not get treated in 
time, the infection may get more severe from acute infection to a chronic infection. 
As well as, you also should notify, either yourself or with the help of the local health 
department, all recent sex partners. This is because you may have sexually 
transmitted the disease to them, or they might have sexually transmitted it to you, 
Advise them to see their health care providers and tested and if needed get treatment. 
These steps will reduce your risk of becoming re-infected, help avoid spreading the 
STD/STI to other people and decrease the likelihood that your previous sexual 
partners will develop severe complications from the STD/STI. Until the treatment 
and all symptoms vanish, you and all of your sex partners should not be sexually 
active. In the case of STDs/STIs caused by viruses with no cure, for example, HIV, 



genital herpes, or hepatitis, special care and preventive measures can help control the 
infection, limit symptoms, and help maximize health. ²⁴

References 24​ (2017, January 31). What should I do if I have been diagnosed with an STD ... - NICHD - NIH. Retrieved April 14, 2019,
from h​ ttp://

Q #12 Which source of information (website, book, magazine, etc.) would be most useful to a
teenager to use ​personally​? Why do you think so?

I would say all our good because everyone enjoys learning; differently, some prefer not opening 
a book at all. For example, most of today's generation does not go to the library for books, they 
look at websites to gain their information. A survey was conducted by the Pew Research Center 
regarding how much time Teens spend on the internet. In fact, 45% of the teens surveyed said 
that they use the internet regularly. The other 44% said they go several times every day. So, I 
would recommend these people to get their source of information from websites because they 
are on the internet for most of their day. I know many teens love sports magazines, Teen 
Vogue, Girl’s Magazines, boys Magazines etc. So, therefore, they should refer to a magazine to 
get their source of information. For people like me, who prefer books over the internet. They 
should go find credible and reliable books to gain knowledge. Lastly, for people who need to 
talk to someone like a friend, teacher, cousin, teacher, guidance, whoever it may be. In a 
nutshell, for teens who ever source you can get information from that is credible and reliable 
for you, that source will be super useful for you. There is no one way for everyone, it's what will 
work for you. ²⁵

References 25​ (2018, May 31). Pew Research Center study on teen internet use ... - Business Insider. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from


Click to View FlipBook Version