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Group 3_e-journal_Insights to why construction accidents continue to recur in Malaysian

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Published by nurizatihadirah98, 2022-07-13 01:15:26

Group 3_e-journal_Insights to why construction accidents continue to recur in Malaysian

Group 3_e-journal_Insights to why construction accidents continue to recur in Malaysian

Project Management


July 20

Author GROUP 3






Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying
Bachelor’s in Quantity Surveying
Class AP224 5E

Prepared for:
Pn Suzana C.Alih




Characteristic of
Construction Site


Total Number of
Construction Accident
in Malaysia


Types of Accident
Happen in Construction


Examples Of
Accidents Happened
in Malaysia


The Factors of Why
Construction Accidents
Continue to Recur


Stages that Most Occur
Accident in
Construction site


Who is Responsible in
Preventing Accident
Occurring in
Construction Site


The Roles of Construction
Management & Construction
project Management in Preventing
Accident in Construction Site


Effect to Project
Life Cycle


Procedure Needs to
Implement to
Preventing Accident







I n engineering, construction is a method that involves

assembling structure and infrastructure using a detailed plan and
different materials. Other than materials, design and use case
influence the type of construction site that a project adopts.

So, what happens on a construction site?

A construction site is an area or piece of land on which construction
works are being carried out.

A construction site will include a secure perimeter to restrict
unauthorized access, site access control points, office and welfare
accommodation for personnel from the main contractor and other firms
involved in the project team, and storage areas for construction materials,
machinery, and construction equipment.

There are multiple and varied challenges a single construction site
encounters, all related to the environmental conditions, regulations, and
type of structure placed. In a nutshell, that is the reason why construction
site is well known with 3D Term which are Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult


D I RTY As we all know, there’s a lot of dirty work involved in construction. Dust
is flying constantly, building materials are being moved from place to
place, and items are being sawed, hammered and molded at a rapid pace. Naturally, this
creates a great deal of waste. Cleaning on a construction site is as important a task as any
in the duration of a project.

DANGEROUSConstruction sites are dangerous places of work because

of the nature of work that is performed on it, and the kind
of equipment that is used there. Construction projects use a lot of specialized equipment.
The equipment used depends on the type and scope of work in the project. Without
equipment, building structures would be a tedious and risky endeavour. In addition,
construction often involves working at height, inside and outside of buildings. Working
from roofs, scaffolds, ladders and stairways always comes with risks. Many accidents
occur in construction sites, and employers need to take necessary precautions to curb
the risks in construction sites

DIFF ICU LT Without a good management of site, the problems may occur
in terms of mobilization of transportation, storage of material,
preservation site condition from any pollution etc. The proper site planning after obtain
site possession is main important key to running the construction work smoothly.
Construction sites need to comply with the relevant building regulations as these
regulations govern the extent of a construction site. The construction industry is
widespread and diverse and involves a wide range of trades, long and often unsocial
working hours, and many risks. The beginning process to start the project until get the
approval of CCC involved so much step taken, requirement, need to keep in touch with a
different professional etc.




By Anisah Somadi

E ven though the construction industry Data from a number of industrialized
countries show that construction
is classified as the top three major workers are 3 to 4 times more likely
economic sectors, the rate of fatalities is than other workers to die from
very high due to the nature of the industry accidents at work. In the developing
and the hazards involved during the time world, the risks associated with
of construction (Jaafar et al., 2017). In construction work may be 3 to 6
addition, the construction industry times greater (source: International
continues to rank among the most Labour Organization, ILO).
dangerous industry worldwide in terms
of occupational safety and health (OSH)
(Wasilkiewicz et al., 2016) due to the
unique nature of the process involved
(Hashem et al., 2013).

Services Agriculture


Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing



By Anisah Somadi

source: International Labour Organization, ILO

A s of December 2020, there were a total of 206 construction accidents recorded in

Malaysia. The number of occupational accidents in construction in Malaysia was lower
than the previous year due to several construction projects being put on hold due to the
COVID-19 pandemic.

According to Guo et al. (2019), most construction companies surveyed were still at
the beginning stages of safety policy implementation in their report on ‘Construction
Safety Benchmarking.' They were not even close to behaving in a way that would be called
an "ultimate safety programme guided by" a safety culture.

In Malaysia, the building industry has a weak safety record. The number of people
injured or killed in building projects has risen over the last five years. The authority
overlooked many safety issues in construction projects due to its ignorance. This is due to
the authorities' primary concern of completing as many activities as possible in order to
make up for the country's lost time. Another factor contributing to the lack of safety in the
Malaysian construction industry is that most construction workers are foreign nationals
from other countries, so the government faces little pressure from the local community to
fix the issue (Chen et al., 2017).


Construction sites aren’t exactly

known as safe havens. Workers

are often handling dangerous

tools, machines, and equipment,

standing up on high surfaces,

having to walk around debris,

and many other frightening

scenarios. With all of these

potential hazards, it’s no

wonder so many people are

injured and killed on

construction sites each year.



By Anisah Somadi

Nur Nadia Adila Abdul Halim et al. (2020)

sources: construction fatalities data investigated by DOSH in the year 2013 to 2018

1Falling from height

From the analysis shows that falling from height has the highest
occurrence in this period of four years with 63 fatalities or 43%.
This is in agreement with previous studies that falls from height
are found to be the leading cause of fatalities in the construction
industry in many parts of the world (Chi et al., 2014).

Example Case:
• The victim fell while walking on wooden plank sheading towards

the adjacent scaffold (Penang, Sept 2016).
• The victim fell from the 11th floor as he was performing air-

conditioner installation (Johor, June 2016).
• Victim died due to falling from height at a height of 33 feet. He

was working on the mobile scaffold during the time (Kuala
Lumpur, May 2016)
• The victim fell from 12th floor to 6th floor as he was carrying
plastering job on the walls (Pahang, March 2016)
• The victim was working on the roof at a height of 7.7 meters. The victim fell as he stepped on broken
roofs (Sarawak, Jan 2016).
• Victim died of falling from the height of 64 meters. During the incident, he was on the way down to
lower floor by taking shortcut. He used scaffold instead of stairs provided (Johor, Sept 2015).


2Struck by (object, vehicles, building structure)

Amounting to 49 or 34% cases of in the period of study.

Example case

Due to a breakage of the wire rope of a tower crane causing the hook block

to fall and strike the victim (Kuala Lumpur, Oct 2016)

2 tonne bucket filled with sand was lifted by tower crane. During the

process, suddenly bucket fell down and struck the victim under (Kuala

Lumpur, Oct 2016)

The incident took place as the dismantling support formwork job is

underway. Six workers including victim were assigned for that task (Oct


3Caught in between

11 cases and a percentage of 7%. Caught in between is
classified among five attributable cause of fatalities accident by
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
(Choudhry & Fang, 2008).
Example case:

4Others • During the incident, victim tried to move the forklift
using lorry loader. Unfortunately, he was caught
between forklift and lorry due to strong pull from the
lorry loader's boom (Sarawak, Sept 2015).

Other causes such as fall into opening, drowning, fire, explosion and
exposure to harmful substances recorded the total of 11 cases (8%),
electrocution 7 cases (5%) and environmental factor 4 cases (3%).
Example case:
• 2 victims died as they played inside the construction site. They fell into

the pad footing containing water.
• The incident took place as victim was repairing the leaking water pipe

in the reservoir. He was drowned due to water that rapidly increased
• Victim suffered from electrocution as he was in contact with the mixer

lorry's body. The lorry turned into conductor as its body touched the
power lines.
• Victim was buried due to a landslide as he was installing formwork
boards on the trench wall



KUALA LUMPUR - One worker from In earlier accidents this year (2021),
Bangladesh died and two workers were part of a structure in a new building for
slightly injured when metal scaffolding at a power utility Tenaga Nasional in Kuala
light rail transit (LRT) construction site Lumpur collapsed on Jan 9 killing a
collapsed on Thursday (July 29). Bangladeshi worker; while on March 23
three workers were killed when a crane
The collapse occurred in Bandar Bukit toppled on the Sungai Besi-Ulu Kelang
Tinggi in Klang district in Selangor, and was Elevated Highway construction site.
the fifth industrial site accident in Malaysia
this year (2021), with the authorities Meanwhile, on June 17 a section of
promising tighter checks to prevent future the LRT 3 construction collapsed near Meru
mishaps after each incident. in Klang with no injuries reported; while two
workers were injured on June 19 when a
The remains of the Bangladeshi who section of scaffolding collapse along the
was trapped under the debris at the site of Damansara-Shah Alam Elevated Highway.
the LRT Phase 3 project were recovered at
around 4pm on Thursday, according to the
Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department, as
quoted by The Star daily.



KUALA LUMPUR: Two construction workers at around 5.58pm after it was hit by a trailer
were killed while another two are believed to carrying heavy machinery.
be seriously injured after a crane fell on top
of a car at a construction site of a highway at In the previous incident involving the
Puncak Banyan, Persiaran Alam Damai here. factory van, two women were killed while
another three people were seriously injured.
The driver of the car - a Malaysian -
was severely injured while two construction Following the previous incident,
workers fell 120 feet from the construction Projek Lintasan Sungai Besi-Ulu Klang Sdn.
site and died at the scene. Bhd confirmed that the trailer that impacted
scaffolding belonging to the SUKE
This is the second incident involving construction site was a private vehicle and
the Sungai Besi-Ulu Kelang Elevated was not involved in or affiliated with the
Expressway (SUKE) this year, as five people construction of the highway in any way.
were trapped in a factory van travelling on
the MRR2 Highway near Bandar Tasik
Selatan on March 3 when a portion of a
bridge under construction fell on it





By Izati Hadirah

C onstruction accidents keep recur in Malaysian construction project from the small

accidents to the very serious accidents from time to time. Every year, the number of
accidents happened in construction projects keep increasing. Besides, construction
industry was listed as one of the riskiest and most dangerous job in Malaysia from 2013
to 2016 (Ayob et al. 2018). Hence, why the accidents in Malaysian construction project
keep recuring? Here are a few significant factors why construction accidents continue to
recur in Malaysian construction projects.

1Unsafe Work Environment

A study made stated that the majority of workers are exposed
to risks that could ever endanger their lives such as hazardous
atmospheric conditions (toxic airborne materials, chemical spills),
unsafe scaffolding and electrical hazard. The dangerous work
environment at the construction site is one of the significant factors
why construction accidents continue to recur in Malaysian
construction projects. If the responsible parties failed to make
improvement on the dangerous and unsafe construction site, a new
accident will keep happening in the construction projects.

2Poor and Ineffective Management

Non-compliance with safety regulation that has
been stated by the authority could also lead to fatal and
serious accidents in construction projects. Other than
that, lack of supervision and poor inspection programs
from responsible parties at construction site also could
resulting to more accidents happen frequently.


3Lack of Awareness about Occupational Health and Safety

Most employers and employees were not concerned with the
health and safety issues at the at construction site. Such workplaces
pay very little attention to health and safety issues, the majority of
tasks are performed manually and dangerously, occupational risk
exposure is very high and record-keeping is of poor quality when
measured. Besides, lack of safety and health regulation and poor
implementation of risk management practices by the construction
industry (Ayob et al. 2018) and lack of safety policy is one of the
important factors of recuring accident in construction project.

4Unsafe Method

Unsafe method of works also could contribute to
construction accidents to keep recur in construction
projects. As an example, the incorrect work procedure and
failed to obey work procedure at the construction site
could lead to an accidents and injury happened to the
workers. Apart from that, operating equipment without
safety devices (Othman et al., 2018) also could be
dangerous and can cause accidents at the construction

5Worker’s Negligence

Careless and recklessness of the workers in
construction site also one of the factors why construction
accidents continue to recur in Malaysian construction
projects. Most workers fail to wear or use proper PPE, which
can result in injuries or even death on the job (Othman et
al., 2018). Besides, a lot of unauthorized of servicing and
maintaining of moving equipment happened in the
construction project that can lead to an accident happened.
Other than that, a lot of workers being in an authorized
place that could be dangerous to them, for example the
workers smoking in areas that is not allowed.



By Haikal Hamdan

1Excavation Work

Every construction project must include excavation work
since it serves as the basis for practically every structure,
including houses, buildings, roads, and reservoirs. However, it
also exposes employees to harmful risks. In fact, excavation
and trenching labour has a greater fatality rate (112 percent)
than regular construction work, according to the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Trench collapses are
to blame for a lot of accidents and fatalities in the construction
industry. Example, of accidents are falls in trenches, falling load
from above and wet weather conditions.

2Chemical Uses in Construction Site.

Many settings found on construction sites contain
chemical risks. Chemicals utilized in the construction process,
chemicals kept on-site, and chemicals that might be present in
the soil or water at the construction site are just a few of the
sources of these dangers. Chemical risks can expose people to
a range of health impacts, from minor eye and skin irritation to
more serious ones like cancer. There are several chemical risks
that can be lethal. Construction employees should be aware of
any potential risks they may encounter at work and take
precautions to keep themselves safe. Many goods used on
building sites contain chemicals. During construction, workers
may be exposed to hazardous chemicals. These include spray
paints, lead, asbestos, silica, and carbon monoxide. This
chemical can lead to workers health such as headache,
collapse, and lung cancer.


3Mobilization of Plant and Equipment.

Even while it should go without saying that workers should
never put themselves in danger by standing between a piece of
heavy machinery and an immovable object, this is not often the
case. Accidents classified as "caught in/between" occur when a
worker's body part gets trapped, squished, compressed, squeezed,
or pinched between two or more items. Examples include
equipment rollovers, getting trapped between fixed things, such a
wall, and large pieces of heavy equipment, cave-ins or falling
materials, body parts getting stuck in the moving sections of an
unsecured piece of machinery and more.

During Roof Installation.

Commercial or residential, roofing is a very dangerous
profession. Workers must frequently bend down, kneel, lift large
objects, and work at heights that are hazardous—often in
sweltering heat. Common reason for fatalities among construction
workers is being struck by falling objects. Debris, building supplies,
ladders, pieces of scaffolding, bricks, and mortar, among other
tools and materials, can fall onto unaware roofers and cause
fatalities or life-altering injuries if they are not secured. Roofers
are frequently required to work in temperatures over 90 degrees
for extended periods of time throughout the summer, which puts
them at risk for acute dehydration and other heat-related

5Demolition at the Construction site.

Beyond what most people would think, extreme precision
is needed when demolishing buildings. Demolition appears
straightforward to the public all you have to do is blow the
building up or tear it down. However, in practice, demolition is
highly technical and fraught with uncertainty. Compromising the
structural soundness of the building's surviving parts or nearby
structures, the remaining half of the structure is not in conformity
with municipal and state laws and releasing potentially harmful
substances, such as asbestos, lead, silica, or other chemicals or
heavy metals. As the results many injuries will occur to the worker
such as being hit by falling object, electrocution, falling of
scaffolding and toxic exposure.



By Huzaifah Tana’em

I n construction project, Construction Project

Management and Construction Management are
responsible to monitor the project progression
and to ensure any foreseeable accident in the
construction site can be prevented.

The Difference Between Construction
Management and Construction Project

Construction Project Manager is a broad
field that involves supervising all parts of a project,
from the initial design to the final product. In
construction, construction project managers oversee
the entire process of new building projects.

Construction Manager is responsible to the
observe the process of a building project.
Construction managers are professionals who
supervise the construction stage of a new project.



By Huzaifah Tana’em

Construction Manager

Typical supervisory functions include
planning and allocating work, making decisions,
monitoring performance and compliance,
providing leadership and building teamwork,
and ensuring workforce involvement

Construction Project Manager

Through educating and increasing all
workers awareness about the safety policies
and maintaining the cleanliness of construction
site as the contributed to higher degree of


Parties that Hold Major Roles in
Managing Safety in Construction


The parties that hold major roles in
ensuring safety in construction site is
Health and Safety management, as
they ensure worker following the
certified OSHA standards during the
project development.




By Alia Syafika

1Cost Overrun

If any accident occurs in construction site
and the contractors or organization needs to pay
compensation cost to the employee and it will
effected the cost for the project

2Reputation of The Organization

The reputation of the organization where
the contractor company will be having bad
experience and if the contractor attending another
bidding it will effect on it reputation

3Banning from Tendering by Government


When there is an accident in the
construction area it becomes an issue to the
public and some parties will take it seriously
because the person in charge and who will be
responsible for the accident is the contractor
himself. And if such an incidence happens, the
contractor company will probably be prohibited by
the authority from participating in the tender for


4Construction Delays

If any accident occurs in construction site
it will effect the time to complete the
construction just because of lack of workforce.
And the process for the organization to hired
others workforce to proceed the project will be

5Losing The Confidence Among


Employee assume that the organization
does not care about the safety of the workforce
who is working for the organization.





Top 5 Basic Tips for Preventing
Accidents on Construction Site

Guidelines: UiTM Shah Alam



By Khairul Muazzam

There is so many accident happened at
construction site in Malaysia involving workers
on construction sites and the general public. The
attitude of contractors who do not pay attention
to safety aspects at construction sites is the main
cause of frequent accidents in the area.
Director General of the Department of
Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia (DOSH)
Datuk Mohtar Musri said despite the inspections,
they failed to comply with the safety procedures
that have been set.

Did you know that 90% of accidents are caused
by unsafe acts?
Implementing safety procedures can help
prevent such an accident. Many of the risks can
be mitigated with solid behavioral, cultural, and
technological strategy.


1Induction & Training

Giving worker safety training to perform job
tasks or for compliance purposes. Training can
cover many topics like how to keep workers safe
while working at heights, with electricity, on
scaffolding and more. this can be helpful to remind
employees or workers about safety at site
construction and to all construction staff.

2Safety Gear (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment is equipment
worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards.
Examples include items such as gloves, foot and eye
protection, protective hearing protection (earplugs,
muffs), hard hats and respirators. These injuries and
illnesses may result from contact with chemical,
radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other
workplace hazards.

3Safety Sign & Warning

Employers have a responsibility to warn
employees, contractors, temporary employees, and
visitors about hazards that exist in the workplace.
One of the easiest ways to accomplish this is to use
and follow established safety sign and marking


4Safe Work Manual & Technique

The employer must ensure and prepare A safe
work manual or method statement handling is a
document that sets out the construction work
activities to be carried out at a workplace, the
hazards arising from these activities and the
measures to be put in place to control the risks
before commencement the work.

Construction work is messy. Slips and trips might not
seem like a major problem compared to other high-
risk work happening on the site, but don't be fooled.
According to HSE statistics, slips and trips accounted
for 30% of specified major injuries on construction
sites (2016/17 – 2018/19).

Remember to keep your work area tidy throughout
your shift to reduce the number of slip and trip
hazards. Pay particular attention to areas such as
access and escape routes.

One tool does not fit all. Using the correct tool for
the job will get it done quicker, and most
importantly, safer. Visually check equipment is in
good condition and safe to use before you start.

5Roles & Responsibility Clearly Described

Roles and responsibilities are clearly explained
to all construction workers so that they are aware of
the responsibilities for safety that need to be
implemented and prohibitions that are not allowed.
such as restricted areas with high-risk construction
without any permission or such as at confined space
that only certain and related construction workers
can enter the area with complete PPE requirements.



In summary, the construction site is a dangerous place and accidents
frequently happen on the construction site. Plenty of the worst accidents happened
in Malaysia construction sites and caused serious injuries as well as death. A lot of
factors must be considered why construction accidents continue to recur in
Malaysia's construction industry from the nature of site, health and safety
implementation and the site management itself.

Besides, site accidents can happen anytime at the construction site, hence
extra care must be applied to avoid accidents to continue to recur in the
construction projects. In addition, the accidents at the construction site also can
affect the project duration and schedule and may cost extra time and money as
well. An action must be taken to prevent the accidents in the construction projects
to recur to keep the construction site safe and sound.



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