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Published by Darren Zerone, 2019-05-29 00:35:23

EBOOK1-converted

EBOOK1-converted

SIMPLE GUIDE
TO READING

PREPARED BY:
YAP SUE VERN
CHONG CHUNG KIAT
DARREN LIM YIE
RABIATUL

PREFACE

Simple Guide to Reading is an English self-learning e-book specially designed for students who
are of lower intermediate levels in the command of English Language in the reading area.
This book features:
- Interesting reading materials which is suitable for students

- Easy and understandable explanation for students` understanding

- Exercises that are close to actual exams.

- Tips and short notes for reading lesson
It is hoped that this e-book would be able to help students especially those from the lower
intermediate level to improve on their reading skills.
YAP SUE VERN

CHONG CHUNG KIAT

DARREN LIM YIE

RABIATUL

CONTENTS:

PREFACE
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
ANSWERS

Chapter 1
The Culture of Papua New Guinea

In This Chapter:

Reading Skill 1: Skimming

- Ways to master Skimming
- Benefits of Skimming
- Precautions of Skimming
- Skimming tips
- Acquiring specific facts and

information
- Exercises
- Summary

Reading Skill 1: Skimming
What is skimming?

1. Skimming is reading a text quickly to get a general idea of meaning. Skimming is a reading in order to find specific
information.

2. Skimming is very common when reading newspaper, messages and e-mail. The learners will not need to read each
and every word when skimming.

3. Through skimming the time consume will be lesser.
4. To skim prepare yourself to move rapidly through pages. Pay attention to headings, bold and Italic words as well as

bullets. Do focus on keywords, names of people, dates, places and unfamiliar words.
5. In general, follow these steps:

- Read the table of contents or chapter overview to learn the main
divisions of ideas.

- Glance through the main headings in each chapter just to see a word or
two. Read the headings of charts and tables.

- Read the entire introductory paragraph and then the first and last
sentence only of each following paragraph. For each paragraph, read
only the first few words of each sentence or to locate the main idea.

- Stop and quickly read the sentences containing keywords indicated in
boldface or italics.

- When you think you have found something significant, stop to read the
entire sentence to make sure. Then go on the same way. This is to
ensure that you don’t read the unnecessary information.

- Read chapter summaries that is provided.

Why we do Skimming?
Benefits of skimming.

Precautions:

Skimming Tips:
Types of skimming:

• Skimming allows you to read up to 1000 words.

Differences between skimming and scanning Scanning

Skimming A fast reading method that allows you to find out
specific information.
A fast reading method that allows you to have an idea
about the text without having to read it full

A text that you have never read You already know the information that you are looking
for

Focus more on the headlines, introduction or first Focus more on a date or quote where u look through
paragraph the whole text

People who skim will decide first whether they need to People who scan usually focus on the form of the words

read it full or not and they tend to use their fingers to go through the lines

in a text

AMBUA RESORT
During a pause in the activity, I glanced down the narrow path between the huts. Two men stood as if waiting to pass. The
younger man had on the blue Ambua staff shirt. When I beckoned for them to go on by, he shook his head. The small,
weathered older man standing in front of him wore very little. His skinny, naked legs rose to clumps of weeds tied front and
back. The small bilim (woven bag) slung around his shoulder and a sheathed knife on his upper body did not lend any warmth
either. Fern fronds and a few small feathers sprouted from his thick hair. He looked out of place in that upscale resort, with
its wide lawns, planted gardens and grass-roofed huts that masked inner luxury, including heated mattress pads. His bright
eyes followed our moves. Then, apparently satisfied, he turned to walk through the garden and around to the back of the
nearest hut, shadowed by the other man.

He had to be Huli. Even without the yellow face-paint and waving feathers he looked similar to those old photos. I hoped we
would see more of the Huli people.

At dinner, the lodge manager announced there would be a sing-sing the next day in Tari, the closest town. Would we like to
join the other guest. A sing-sing is any gathering at which singing and dancing occur. Traditionally the sing-sing would
precede a battle. This one was to honour a visit by the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea. He and all the provincial
governors were gathering in Tari to formalize the creation of Enga, a new province carved from a larger one. The Huli would
be the primary tribe in Enga, something they had been requesting for years.

On our schedule the next day was a hunt for a special owl down the valley beyond Tari. There was no extra time to watch
the celebrations. I wanted to do both. I waffled, disappointed by a previous “cultural experience” that did not feel genuine.
When Phil, our guide who had lived in New Guinea for several years, admitted he would love to go, I cast doubts aside and
signed up with three others from my group.

We joined four women who were on a tour that included more than birding. On the way down to the Tari Valley for the sing-
sing, they told us about their visit to the Huli Wigman School the previous day.

Boys who choose to attend the school learn the traditions and lore of the tribe during the eighteen months it takes to grow a
proper wig. They train the hair as it grows by grooming each other every day. Eventually they must use a headrest while
sleeping to maintain the form of the emerging wig. When ready, the hair is cut close to the skull and prepared as a wig for
later use.

The swelling stream of people going our direction wore regular clothes, men with shirts and pants and often another layer in
the cool air. The women usually had skirts or a wrap with a blouse, many quite colourful. Most carried bilims, the ubiquitous
bags carried by both men and women. As we approached the stadium, we saw a few people with bits of ferns or feathers in
their hair.

Exercise 1

1. What is the main idea in the first paragraph?
A. It describes about the appearance of the Ambua staff.
B. It describes about the tourist that comes to Ambua resort.
C. It describes about the appearance of Ambua staff and the Ambua resort.
D. It describes about the Ambua resort.

2. What is the main idea in the third paragraph?
A. Sing-sing is an event that involves singing only
B. Sing-sing is an event that involves singing and dancing.
C. Sing-sing is an event to honour the Chief Minister of Papua New Guinea
D. A battle would not be precede in Sing-sing

3. The main idea of paragraph four is…
A. They went to hunt for an owl down the Valley beyond Tari.
B. They joined another cultural event
C. They celebrated a celebration called Tari.
D. They went to visit Phil.

4. The main idea in paragraph six is…
A. Girls who attend school learn how to grow a wig
B. A wig grows in 16 months.
C. Boys who choose to attend the school learn how to grow a proper wig in eighteen months.
D. They sleep using a headrest.

5. What is the main idea in the seventh paragraph?
A. The man wear shirts, pants and often another layer in the cool air while the woman wears a skirt and a blouse.
B. They don’t wear colourful clothes.
C. Man don’t carry bilim.
D. They saw many people with bits of ferns or feathers in their hair.

HULI DANCERS WITH BOUNCING ASS GRASS
The term ass-grass is the local name for the green fronds attached to the back of the dancers’ waists like a bustle. The
words sound the same in pidgin, the tortured English used among the indigenous people and foreigners. Until recently, the
tribes of New Guinea stuck to their tribal valleys due to ongoing animosities with their neighbours. The resulting 800+
languages have no overlap. The violence diminished as they made the transition into the present, so pidgin emerged as a
common language for all.

As the Huli lifestyle changed, the government hoped to channel the fighting energies into a more peaceful outlet. The Huli
dances were traditionally the prelude to battled, so a dance competition was set up for them. Tribes came from all over
Papua New Guinea to vie for financial prizes. The Huli won several years in a row and the other tribes began to resent
them. Fights erupted that got increasingly bitter so the competition was changed so that all competitors received the same
amount of money.

Exercise 2.
Answer the following questions.

1. In your own words, explain what do you think this is about, before reading the whole text?
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

2. Read the whole text

3. What extra information did you get?
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

MELPA AND HULI WIGMEN
Study a 20 kina note and you’ll notice a boar’s head framed by shells. This is Papua New Guinea, where pigs are ranked
higher than children and women in the social pecking order. Indeed, a pig is more useful than a sack full of notes when
visiting the Melpa people, who live in the Wahgi Valley near Mount Hagen. In this extraordinary community, ‘big men’ (a
highly coveted status) swap swine and seashells rather than money. The primary way to achieve power is to amass wealth
and give it away in a ceremonial exchange known as moka.

Wild and remote, this area of the Western Highlands wasn’t discovered by the outside world until 1934, and as you spend a
day in a Melpa village you’ll realise that life has changed very little in the 9,000 years that it has been their home.

Sweet potatoes make up the staple diet, as they flourish in the shade of the mountains which tower 4,000m above. The men
live together in a round house, while the rectangular women’s house has stalls for the pigs. The few concessions they’ve
made to capitalism are coffee plantations and accepting tourists in exchange for money. Tourism is one of the only industries
where prices, opportunity and training are controlled entirely by this grassroots community, and it is therefore key in allowing
them to continue their traditions in the age of smartphones.

As part of Cox & Kings’ tour, you’ll also spend three nights at Ambua Lodge, an eco- friendly escape close to the Southern
Highlands’ Tari Valley, home to the flamboyant Huli Wigmen. As soon as you visit their village, you will see where the tribe
get the inspiration from for their ‘sing sing’ ceremonies. Wearing wigs of human hair studded with plumes from iridescent
birds of paradise, they sing and dance, mimicking the birds’ mating ritual.

All lodges on the trip are comfortable and serve local plates such as pork cooked in a mumu (underground oven). The open
fireplaces and 180-degree views of the Kubor Mountains from Rondon Ridge elevate it to something really special.

Exercise 3

Circle the correct answer.
1. The main idea in the first paragraph is…
A. Children and woman has a high ranking in Papua New Guinea.
B. A picture of a man framed by shells is placed on the 20 kina note.
C. Pigs is ranked higher than children and women in a special pecking order.
D. A sack full of notes is ranked higher than pigs for Melpa people.
2. The main idea in the fourth paragraph is…
A. It describes the activity done by people that travels with Cox and Kings’ tour.
B. Sing sing is the most important event for Huli tribe.
C. They will spend four nights in Ambua resort.
D. They went to the Northern Highlands’ Tari Valley.
3. The main idea of the last paragraph is …
A. The temperature of the place is 180 Degree
B. They serve pork cooked in a mumu (underground oven) and they could see a 180 degree view of Kubor
Mountain from Rondon ridge.
C. They could enjoy a 180 degree view of the Rondon ridge from the Kubor Mountain while enjoying the pork that
is served to them which is cooked in a mumu.
D. They went to Rondon ridge and Kubor Mountain.

Summary

Skimming should make your reading process simple by:

1. Reading more quickly
2. Decide whether you want to or need to read a text in detail or not.
3. Think about what you read and ask questions.

Remember! Skimming is when you read something fast just to get an idea of what is it about and not reading word
by word.

• Just skim the surface of the text to get some main detail of the text.
• You need to be quite good in reading in order to try doing skimming.

When you come across a text you could ask some questions to yourself such as:

• What is the title?
• What is this text about?
• Is there any diagram or picture that could facilitate me to find information?
Focus on the important points stated and don’t focus on words like ‘the’, ‘to’, ‘and’ also to
descriptive words like ‘very’.

Tips for skimming:

• Just glance through the reading text.
• Don’t read every word.
• Don’t read every sentence.
• Read the first and last paragraph first to get some idea.
• Focus on the title, header or diagrams provided.

Answers

Exercise 1

Exercise 2
1. Based on the title of the text, I assume that this text is about the dancers of Huli tribe and the dance is related
to grass maybe in terms of the steps.
2. Read the whole text.
3. After reading the whole text, I understand that the term ass-grass is actually a decoration for the Huli tribe
dancers and they have a dance competition where they would get financial prizes.

Exercise 3



Chapter 2

THECULTURE OF
JAPAN

IN THIS CHAPTER

Reading skill 2:Scanning
-Ways to master scanning
-Precautions of Scanning

-Scanning tips
-Acquiring specific facts and

information
- Exercises
-Summary

Reading Skill 2: Scanning

What is scanning?

1. It is a reading skill which reader read through a text quickly to
find specific fact or information. It allows you to find details in a
hurry.
2. Scanning might seem like a reading approach that yields less
information, but it is essential as first step in reading the
comprehension.
3. The popular SQ3R method is usually used in scanningwhich
consists of :
i. S- Survey
ii. Q- Question
iii. 3R- Read, Recite, Review
4. Scanning is usually used during standardized test in
attempting to gain a general idea of the argument or focus of the
text.

(Method by Francis P. Robinson)

Scanning Tips:

1. Read the Questions first to find out
what the quesition is trying to ask
before going through the text.

2. Secondly, search for the
keywords within the question.

3. Search for the information related
to the keywords within the text.

4. Go back and forth between the text
and the questions to make sure that
the information that you are looking
for is correct and related.

The Bowing Culture

Japan is well known for its well-manner, courtesy and respectful culture.
Japanese bows daily regardless of where they are and what they are doing. Bowing
has become part of their daily lives and it is widely used in all kinds of occasions. It
is believed that the bowing culture has started since the early 538-794AD with the
introduction of Chinese Buddhism. During that era, bowing was a direct reflection
of status. It brought the meaning of exposing one`s weakness to the other, and to
prove that there is no ill will towards them. However, in modern Japanese society,
bowing serves different purposes that go beyond its original intent. To begin with
this lesson there are some Do`s and Don’ts when giving a bow

Do`s:
-For man, one should bow with both hands in front of his thighs. As for woman,
both of their hands should be holding together when performing a bow.
- When bowing, the slope of your back and the back of your head should form a
straight line rather than curve. Be sure to keep your legs and hips I the same
position throughout the entire bow.

Don’ts:
- Do not do the palm`s together, hands-in-front of chest bow. It is only used
in worship situations.
- Do not bow while walking in business or formal situations even as a greeting. Stop
moving, bow and proceed to your destination.
- Do not bow while sitting on a chair. Japanese only bow when they are in a “seiza”
position, which is sitting on top of one`s own legs.
- Do not bow while speaking. Finish speaking before bowing.
-Do not bow and shake hands at the same time.
-When bowing on stairs, do not bow from a higher step than the person you are
bowing to.
- Do not bow when you are visibly angry or frustrated at someone at the moment.
- Do not put both of your hands on the sides of the butt while bowing.

Bowing itself conveys different emotions, like respect, gratitude or
remorsefulness. The angle that you bow and the length of time that you bow differs
from each occasions and the person we are meeting. The “mokurei” or rather known
as the nod-bow, which is a 10 degrees nod of the head and shoulders given to the
person who you know very well. In a very casual situation, you might not even need
to give any bow, you simply make eye contact with the person you interact with,
which is known as a non-bow. On the other hand, when you see an acquaintance of
equal business or social rank, “eshaku” a 15 to 20 degrees greeting bow will be
performed at a natural pace. This is usually performed by staff to customers in Japan.
During sports event, the sports bow are also perform with a 20 degrees bow as a sign
of respect to the opponent or the opponent team.

When you are attending a semi-formal situation and want to show moderate level of
gratitude and respect. A 30 degrees polite bow or “senrei”, this bow can only be done
while sitting in “seiza” position. The 30 to 45 degrees respect bow, otherwise also
known as “futsuurei” or “keirei” can be done in a standing or sitting position. This
bow is performed when we are interacting with someone who is higher-ranking or has
some sort of authority and power over us like bosses or in-laws. However, it is also
used in martial art like Judo, kendo, Akido and more when respect is paid to their
sensei or teacher and the opponent as well.

When we want to convey a profound respect or regret, usually reserved for
dramatic apologies or audiences with the emperor of Japan. “Saikeirei”, the 45 to 70
degrees deeply reverent bow can be perform in a standing position or a “seiza”
position by holding it for 3 seconds. And during religious occasions, like when
visiting a Shinto shrine or Japanese temple, one will usually begin with throwing in a
5 yen coin as it symbols having a good fate with the Gods, you will be able to make
an offering and ring the suzu (bell) after giving a “nirei-nihakushu” or rather known
as the worship bow which consists of 2 “keirei” bows, clap twice in the air in front of
your chest and followed by a single “saikeirei” bow.

Besides that, when it comes to apology (shazai), Japanese have their own way of
doing it. The ways are different depending on various conditions ranging from a mild
level to a very serious level. For starters, a mild apology involves a shallow bow with
the head of 10 degrees when you bump into a stranger or cause a minor inconvenience
to someone. When giving a regular “ojigi” and serious apology “long ojigi”, we will
have to bow at a 45 degrees angle. However, the time of holding the bow is different.
One tends to hold the bow for 5 seconds for regular apology and 15-20 seconds for a
serious apology.

Let`s say there is a restaurant worker who accidentally spill drinks on his or her
customers, the waiter or waitress would have to perform a 45 degrees bow over and
over again, rather known as the panic apology “perpetual ojigi”. The waiter or
waitress will have to repeat this until permission to stop is received. In Japanese
samurai or yakuza movies that we see, the begging-for-your-life bow, “dogeza” is
usually performed with one pressing their face into the ground out of shame or fear.
Last but not least, the “doge-fuse” or ultimate apology is done with one lying down
flat on the ground with pressing the whole face and body onto the ground.

So, the next time you visit Japan, you will be able to differentiate the meanings
of bow and use it appropriately which best suits the situation you are in.

(References from: The art of bowing in Japan)

Exercise:

Questions (1-5)

Inthissections,youarerequired toanswerintheblankspaceprovidedbyreferringtothe
passage “The Bowing Culture”.
In the blank spaces provided for Questions 1 to 5, write down the answers:

TRUE – Forinformation that is inthe passagethat exactly
matches the idea in the statement.

FALSE – For information that contradicts with the
information in the statement.

NOT GIVEN – For information that are not found in the
passage.

1. Bowing conveys the emotions of respect and remorseful.
()

2. The types of bow given by men and women are different from each other.
()

3. Ninja usually bow on one knee during apologizing to his or her master as

they need to be wary of approaching enemies. ( )

4. A person would have to bow at a 45 degrees angle for 5 seconds when

commit a serious mistake. ( )

5. One should practice bowing while seated on a chair when the person you

are meeting is coming as a sign of courtesy. ( )

Questions (6-10)

In this sections, you are required to fill in theblanks in the empty space provided by referring to
the passage “The Bowing Culture”.

Using NOT MORE THAN 3 WORDS, complete the summary below. Write
your answers in empty spaces 6-10 on the answer sheet

The culture of bowing was brought together with the __6.__
estimated at the early 538 AD. Bowing during that era gives a
reflection to a person`s __7.__. However, in today`s modern
era, bowing serves a different purpose from its original
intention. There are some Do`s and Don’ts when bowing to
another individual in Japan. For instance, a __8.__ should be
given instead of a curve bow. Bowing when talking, moving
or __9.__ a chair should be avoided at all cost as a sign of
respect towards the person you are meeting. Moreover, the
degrees and the durations of time we bow differs from who
are we meeting with, the formality of the events and the
situation or occasions we are in. Nevertheless, bowing also
occurs when we are apologizing to someone. The level of
mistakes we made will result in the type of bowing that will
be given. If a person had done something terribly wrong. He
or she will have to __10.__ on the dirty ground to show their
regrets and remorsefulness.

Answers:

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11. When bowing to a person, which of the following should be avoided?
i. Speaking
ii. Shaking hands
iii. Hands beside Thighs
iv. Walking and moving
A i, ii & iii only
B i ,ii & iv only
C i, iii & iv only
D ii, iii & iv only

12. Which of the following is NOT the emotions convey when bowing?
A Respect
B Regrets
C Loyalty
D Gratitude

13. When meeting the royal of Japan, which of the following bow is
suitable?
A “Saikeirei”,
B “mokurei”
C “futsuurei”
D “senrei”

14. In which occasions do we need to perform the “nirei-nihakushu”
bow? A Meeting someone who has higher authority
B Meeting Peers
C Causing trouble to someone
D Praying at the shrine

15. In what circumstances, we will not have to bow at
all? A Meeting with boss
B Meeting with in-laws
C Meeting with business partners
D Meeting with close friends

16. Students will bow to their sensei or teacher as a symbol of respect
and honour before beginning their practice for those who practiced the
following martial arts EXCEPT:
A Akido
B Taekwondo
C Judo
D Kendo

17. Which of the following are included in the worship
bow? I “Keirei” Bow
II “Doge-fusu” Bow
III “Ojigi” bow

IV “Saikeirei” bow
A I & II
B III & IV
C I & IV
D II & IV

18. Please arrange the correct sequence of giving a “nirei-
nihakushu” I clap twice
II 2 “keirei” bows
III Throwing a coin
IV single “saikeirei” bow
V ring the bell
A I, III, V, II, IV
B III, II, I, IV, V
C II, IV, III, I, V
D III, IV, I, II, V

19. The panic apology can only be stopped the waiter
when: A The waiter himself feels like it is enough
B The person ignores you
C The person asks you to stop
D The waiter has clean up the mess

20. “Dogeza” is usually perform when a person feels:
A Ashamed
B Honoured
C Panic
D Fearless

Questions (21-25)
In this sections, you are required to match the
correct answers with the sentences provided
choosing from the choices below by referring to the
passage “The Bowing Culture”.

21. Japan is famous for its baseball game, before the game starts, the players
would usually greet each other by the ___________________________.

22. Usually before a couple gets married, they have to visit each other`s in laws
and paying their respect by giving the ___________________________.

23. When Japanese bump into someone accidentally, they will apologize to the
person while also performing a __________________________ at the same time.

24. A 15-20 degrees ___________________________will be given to a person with
equal business acquaintances or social rank.

25. A ___________________________ will be perform when Japanese visits the Shrine
during New Year every year.

In Scanning
1. Always focus on hard facts.
2. Find keywords and search the related key
words in text.
3. Pay more attention to the numbers
and statistics.
4. Look in the text section by section.
5. Look for the repeated words.
6. Look for the nouns and verbs in each
sentences.
7. Look for lists.

Answer to exercise in Chapter 2:

1. TRUE
2. TRUE
3. NOT GIVEN
4. FALSE
5. FALSE
6. Chinese Buddhism
7. Status
8. Straight bow
9. Sitting on
10. Lying down flat
11. B
12. C
13. A
14. D
15. D
16. B
17. C
18. B
19. C
20. A
21. Sports bow
22. Respect bow
23. Shallow bow
24. Greeting bow
25. Worship bow

THE
CULTURE OF

CHINA

CHAPTER3

READING SKILL

03

INTENSIVE
READING

INTHISCHAPTER

INTRODUCTION TOINTENSIVEREADINGADVANTA
GESOFINTENSIVEREADINGCHARACTERISTICSO

FINTENSIVEREADING
EXERCISES
SUMMARY

What is Intensive Reading? Reading in detail with
specific learning aims and tasks (Brown, 2007)

What is the purpose of reading in detail? To get
detailed meaning, developing reading skills,
vocabulary and grammar knowledge.
When should you read in detail?

Intensive reading is usually the final step - after
reader had previewed, scanned and skimmed.

extend and helps in
sustain students’ improving
reading skills
vocabulary
growth

improve overall help in
language understanding the
sentence structure
competence
and developing
critical thinking

4 key advantages of
Intensive Reading

Characteristics of
Intensive
Reading

Read the passage carefully.

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich spiritual and
mystical history. Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual
figures of Buddhism, according to the Metropolitan Museum of
Art.

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture,
including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither
family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is
the birthplace of kung fu. This fighting technique is based on
animal movements and was created in the mid-1600s, according
to Black Belt Magazine.

Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers —
especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is
reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.

Recently, archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-
year-old tomb in China. "The murals of this tomb had diversified
motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot be found in
other tombs of the same period," a team of archaeologists wrote
in an article recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal
Chinese Archaeology. [Ancient Tomb with 'Blue Monster' Mural
Discovered in China]

(https://www.livescience.com/28823-chinese-culture.html)

Exercise 1: Identify the main idea in each
paragraph and fill in the blanks at the
column below.

Paragraph 1

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 2

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 3

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 4

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Paragpraph 5

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

“Reading intensively is

possibly the fastest way in
expanding reader’s
vocabulary.”

Read the passage carefully.

The Forbidden City in China

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich spiritual and mystical history.
Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual figures of Buddhism, according to the
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture, including the flute-like xun
and the guqin, which is in the zither family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is the birthplace of kung
fu. This fighting technique is based on animal movements and was created in the mid-
1600s, according to Black Belt Magazine.
Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers — especially during the Ming
and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.

Recently, archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb in
China. "The murals of this tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of
which cannot be found in other tombs of the same period," a team of archaeologists
wrote in an article recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese
Archaeology. [Ancient Tomb with 'Blue Monster' Mural Discovered in China]

(https://www.livescience.com/28823-chinese-culture.html)

- emperor

- supreme

_____________________________________________________

- bestowed

_____________________________________________________

- celestial

_____________________________________________________

- divine

_____________________________________________________

- forbidden

_____________________________________________________

“Intensive reading include
enhancing reading

comprehension, helping
students by understanding

sentence structure and
developing critical thinking”

Read the passage carefully.

Ancient Education in China

A good education has always been highly valued in China, as the
people believe that education ensures not only the future and
development of the individual but also the family and the country as a
whole.

Passed down from ancient times, the maxim from the Three-Character
Scripture that says 'if no proper education is given to children, their
nature will go bad' has proved to be true. The great master Confucius
taught us that 'it is a pleasure to learn something and to try it out at
intervals'. Similarly, numerous students have been convinced that
'reading books excels all other careers'. The records tell us that
Mencius' mother became an example to millions of mothers who were
keen for their children to be talented. - she moved her home three
times in order to choose a fine neighbourhood in which Mencius could
be effectively influenced.

As far back as the Shang Dynasty (16th century BC - 11th century BC),
inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells were the simple records of
teaching and learning. In the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC -
771 BC), nobles built schools to teach their children, as their offsprings
would be the officials of the future, while those who were gifted but of
poor families could but dream of approaching state affairs. The
development of education system led to a form of evaluation that
became the means by which dynastic China appointed those with
talents as officials.

In general, this process can be divided into three periods - 'chaju' and
'zhengpi' in the Han Dynasty, the 'jiupin zhongzheng' system from Han
to the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and the Imperial Examination
which survived from the Sui Dynasty (589 - 618) right through to the last
feudal dynasty Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).

https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/education/

Exercise 3: Circle the correct answer.

1.Why does education always been highly valued in China? A)
People believe that Education makes them capable of interpreting
things rightly and applying the gathered information in real-life
scenarios

B) People believe that education provides them with
knowledge about the world

C) People believe that education is an investment in human
capital, and it can have a great impact on a nation's growth and
development

D) People believe that education ensures not only the future
and development of the individual but also the family and the
country as a whole

(Paragraph 1)
2. The following statement shows the teaching passed down
from ancient times except
A) 'If no proper education is given to children, their nature will go
bad'
B) 'It is a pleasure to learn something and to try it out at
intervals'
C) ‘Education breeds confidence. Confidence breeds hope.
Hope breeds peace’

D) 'Reading books excels all other careers’
(Paragraph 2)

3. Inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells were the simple
records of teaching and learning in the Shang Dynasty (16th
century BC - 11th century BC).

A) True
B) False

4. Nobles built schools to teach their children, as their offsprings
would be the officials of the future, while those who were gifted
but of poor families could but dream of approaching state affairs
during Zhou Dynasty.

A) True
B) False

5. The development of education system led to a form of
evaluation that became the means by which dynastic China
appointed those with talents as officials.

A) True
B) False

6. China's education system fell into something of a state of
confusion due to the changes in national government.
A) True
B) False

Intensive

Reading

SUMMARY

1.To read intensively is to completely deconstruct a text, with the
goal of absorbing as much meaning from it as possible.
2. The purpose of reading in detail is to get detailed meaning,
developing reading skills, vocabulary and grammar knowledge.
3. Intensive reading is usually the final step - after reader had
previewed, scanned and skimmed.
4. There are a few activities that can be carried out when the reader
read a text intensively.
i. Identify main ideas and details
ii. Making inferences
iii. Looking at the order of information and how it affects the

message
iv. Identify words that connect an idea to another
5. There are two main characteristics of intensive reading.
i. Texts for intensive reading must be short, because the end

goal is
to understand the text down to the most minute detail.

ii. Reading intensively is possibly the fastest way in
expanding reader’s vocabulary

ANSWER

Exercise 1
Paragraph one
Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich
spiritual and mystical history.
Paragraph two

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture,
including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the
zither family.
Paragraph three

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in

China, and it is the birthplace of kung fu.
Paragraph four
Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers —
especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that
is reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.
Paragraph five

Archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a
1,400-year-old tomb in China.

ANSWER

Exercise 2
1) a male ruler or an empire
2) having the highest rank, level, or importance
3) to give something as an humour or present
4) of or from the sky or outside this world
5) connected with a god, or like a god
6) not allowed, especially by law

Exercise 3
1) D
2) C
3) A
4) B
5) A
6) A


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