ELECTIVE CLASS PERFORMANCE https://www.bit.ly/Garuda Nusantara
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CHRISTIAN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Maria Cendhika Wening Galih, S.Ds.
& Bertha Karyahastana, S.Ars.
Albertus Ronny Rizal A.O.A.P., S.Pd.,
COMMITTEE Melinda R. Buck, B.A., & Agustinus Dias
Dra. Herwati, M.Psi. &
Suparto, S.Pd., M.S.
Eva Zahora, S.Si., M.M.
Petra Acitya CJHS Student Council & Student
Ministry, Devina Alianto, S.Pd., M.Pd., Ratri Herda
Ferdiani Theofil, S.Pd., Antonius Deni, S.Pd., N.
Noventa Retno Prahastuti, S.S., & Bertha
love God, have noble characters & be full of wisdom
TEACHERS & STAFF 2021/2022 01
PETRA ACITYA CHRISTIAN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL OFFICIAL NEWSLETTER ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022 TABLE OF
00 NEW 00
GlanceAT ACITYANS FantaCsERiITA
You only need to focus on People work better when
BREAKTHROUGH #2: FORWARD
one little step forward. they know what the goal is
You don't need to conquer and why. It is important that
the entire mountain right
now. You don't need to people look forward to
have everything figured out coming to work in the
today. The only possible morning and enjoy working.
way to climb a mountain is Elon Musk
by climbing it one step at a
Don't think about the peak,
don't worry about what
may come later. Instead, Not that I have already
Soren Kierkegaardfocus on the one little step
in front of you. obtained this or am already
The rest will come when it's Life can only be
perfect, but I press on to
make it my own, because
time. For now, it's just one understood backwards;
Christ Jesus has made me his
little step. but it must be lived
own. Brothers, I do not
forwards. consider that I have made it
Nikki Banas my own. But one thing I do:
forgetting what lies behind
Jim Carrey and straining forward to
what lies ahead, I press on
forward-quotes toward the goal for the prize
of the upward call of God in
oving_forward Christ Jesus.
ward If you aren't in the
moment, you are either
Philippianslooking forward to
uncertainty, or back to
pain and regret. 3:12-14 ESV
/ˈfôrwərd/ : onward so as to make progress
The online learning environment has opened many opportunities for Petra Acitya’s students to join
national and international competitions from home. There were many competitions held between
January and June 2022 by various institutions such as PPPK Petra, some well-known public and
private senior high schools, and other associations like Singapore Dance Alliance and Lembaga
Kompetisi Indonesia. In the second semester, there were more than twelve competitions that the
Acityans participated in.
This year, the Acityans joined many mathematics competitions. One of the young Acityans who
loves to challenge his passion for Math is Albert Wibisono. Even though he is only 12 years old, he
has joined many national and international mathematical competitions since elementary school.
This semester, he achieved two silver medals. The first medal he got was in January when he joined
the Guangdong Hong Kong Macao Greater Bay Area Mathematical Olympiad (Big Bei Bay) Heat
Round. This month, he won his second medal when he joined the Hong Kong International
Mathematical Olympiad (HKIMO) Heat Round. Another successful student was Victoria Annika, a
7th-grade student, who got second place in the National SempoaYes Best Student Competition.
Other Acityans who are very passionate about Math include Brandon Mitchel, who got a gold medal
in the World Mathematics Invitational Preliminary Round in March and Jason Aldrich, an 8th-grade
student, who won two national mathematics competitions. The first one from the Santa Maria
Mathematics and Science Competition in January 2022. The second one from the SMAN 5
Mathematics and Science Competition in May 2022.
ASpeaking of the SMAN 5 competitions, Petra Acitya Christian Junior High School has a special
story from the event. The well-known competition was planned to be held at the end of March.
However, due to several conditions, the committee decided to postpone the preliminary round
until April. Even though the schedule was messy, it did not pour cold water on the 26 Acityans’
enthusiasm in preparing for the competitions. Petra Acitya Christian Junior High School teachers
had regular meetings with the students to train them before the day. Finally, on April 17th, four
Acityans made Petra Acitya very proud by achieving several awards. Charlene Elisabeth got first
place for the Social Studies Competition and Achilles Satrya got second for the Indonesian
Language Competition. Then, Jason Aldrich and Reiko Tanara got third place in the Mathematics
and Science Competition. At the end of the day, Petra Acitya Junior High School were the Grand
Champions of the SMAN 5 Competition.
Petra Acitya Christian Junior High School students have also participated in non-academic
competitions. This year Michelle Glassiella from grade 8 achieved two silver medals in
international ballet competitions, which include the Asia Open Dance Championship and the
International Youth Arts Festival. Then Jessica Ishi won the first prize in the Petra Junior Chef
Competition. This year Petra Acitya Christian Junior High School has been blessed with many
accomplishments in both academic and non-academic competitions.
Reflecting on all the blessings that God has given to Petra Acitya, we found out that hard work
beats talent when talent doesn’t work hard (Tim Notke). All the students who won the
competitions were not just merely lucky. They prepared well for the
competitions, did their best during the competitions, and surrendered all
the results to God after the competitions. Thus, we sincerely hope that
this can be a focus for all of us to work hard to achieve what we dream of.
Soli Deo Gloria!
First Winner Nation Star Academy Minecraft Building Design Competition April 2022 National
Second Winner SMAN 5 Surabaya Olimpiade Bahasa Indonesia
Achilles Satrya P. VII-2
November 2021 Thailand International Mathematical Olympiad Heat Round Thailand Gold Medalist
January 2022 Big Bei Bay Mathematical Olympiad Heat Round Big Bei Bay Silver Medalist
Hong Kong International Mathematics Olympiad Heat Round Silver Medalist
June 2022 HKIMO
Third Winner Kemendikbudristek Pesta Paduan Suara Gerejawi Nasional XIII June 2022 National
Aldila Evelyn P. VIII-2
National April 2022 Minecraft Building Design Competition Nation Star Academy First Winner
VII-3 Axel Timothy K.
Gold Medalist World Mathematics Invitational Preliminary Around 2022 March 2022 WMI Foundation
Brandon Mitchel T. VII-6
National May 2022 National Korean Speech Competition Korean Cultural Center Indonesia Special Award
VIII-3 Carmel Melosa A.
ACITYANS Charlene Elisabeth VIII-2
GlanATceA Silver Medalist LKI National History Olympiad
Bronze Medalist English Patreon Advance Olympiad
Gold Medalist Biology Insight Olympiad
Platinum Medalist EF Speech Competition
First Winner SanMarFest Debate Competition January 2022
Third Winner Lomba IPU S2LC SMAN 5 April 2022
Lomba IPU Competition 9 SMAN 9 February 2022
VIII-2 Daniel Ricardo M.
Lomba IPU YLLCSMANSA 2022 Second Winner
STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENTS Eirene Efralia P. VIII-2
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
First Winner Story Telling SMAKTRA5 Competition
06 Third Winner Story Telling TV Berkat Competition
VII-4 Faith Athalia G.
PPPK Petra Mask Design Compettition Third Winner
Maprada Solo Dance Competition Favorite Winner
VIII-1 Felicia Austin K.
NSA FAF Solo Dance Competition Second Winner The price of success
is hard work,
Felix Widjaja VIII-4
dedication to the job
Third Winner P4BC Trick Shot Challenge at hand, and the
VII-1 Freya Victoria A. determination that
whether we win or
EF Speech Competition Gold Medalist lose, we have applied
the best of ourselves
Jason Aldrich C. VIII-2 to the task at hand.
Merit Award Global Business Mathematics Olympiad Vince Lombardi
Third Winner Maprada Photography Competition
F4ST Mathematic Competition
Second Winner SanMarFest Math-Physics Competition
Third Winner S2LC Math-Physics SMAN 5 Competition April 2022
Second Winner June 2022
Gold Medalist Lomba IPU YLLCSMANSA 2022 July 2022
EF Speech Competition
VIII-1 Johnathan Wijaya
SanMarFest Debate Competition First Winner
Keilany Yuta A. VII-3
First Winner Nation Star Academy Minecraft Building Design Competition April 2022 National
September 2021 Get The Beat Asia Singapore Second Winner & Double Platinum Award
Singapore Silver Medalist
January 2022 Youth Arts Festival Cambodia
June 2022 International Dance Competition
Favorite Award SMA Kristen Petra 1 A1EPIC Poster Design Competition VIII-2 Michelle Glassiella
November 2021 National
Raphaniel Misha A. VIII-3
National April 2022 S2LC Math-Physics SMAN 5 Competition SMAN 5 Surabaya Third Winner
Mouse Pad Design Competition Humas PPPK Petra Third Winner
PPPK Petra April 2022
VII-1 Reiko Alexa T.
First Winner SMA Santa Maria Debate Competition January 2022 Province
Second Winner SMAN 1 Gresik Lomba IPU YLLCSMANSA 2022 June 2022 Province
Theophilus F. T. VIII-1 07
TO BE CONTINUED ON PAGE 11
March 10, 1997 MARIA
Informatics Engineering GALIH, S.Ds.
All I can do is work
hard! That's the
story of my life!
MICHAEL August 19, 1999
May 21, 1987 of the Arts Surakarta
A strong woman knows
Electrical Engineering what she wants, and works toward
her dream despite whatever given
St. Louis Vocational
circumstances she is in.
Il successo inizia
con un sogno, accompagnato
da un duro lavoro.
Sukses berawal dari Mimpi
disertai dengan kerja Keras.
July 14, 1999
Each flower has
its own blooming
time. Everyone has a
different time of
CLHIE AR. SIUSGTIAONTPO,HS.PEd.R
February 9, 2000
Believe you can
July 15, 1997
09 Yes, my soul, find rest
in God; my hope
comes from him.
SELVIA PUTRI PHAEMNUNDGRKAAS,ASD.PIdB..
KUMALASARI, S.Pd., M.Pd. April 12, 1997
March 9, 1993 Mathematic Education
Indonesian Language Whatever you are,
be a good one.
decide to do, make
sure it makes
K. PUTRI, S.Pd.
April 26, 1998
Rejoice always !
(1 Thessalonians 5:16)
National April 2022 Sempoa Intermediate 4 National Best Student Competition Sempoa Yes Second Winner
VII-6 Victori Annika B.
Silver Medal SMAK St Louis 1 Solo Vocal St Louis HOT Agustus 2021 National
Honorable Mention EF Surabaya English Speech Competition Category A July 2022 Province
Violetta Jacqueline VII-3
PPPK Petra April 2022 Petra Junior Chef Competition Season 8 Humas PPPK Petra First Winner
VIII-3 Jessica Ishi
“You never change your life until you ACITYANS
step out of your comfort zone; GlaAnTcAe
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
change begins at the end of your comfort zone.”
― Roy T. Bennett
What was your vision?
I wanted to learn to be a good leader who could be a light in the darkness
Why did you want to join the Student Council?
Because I wanted to create a school which is known for its students’
spirituality, discipline, and achievements in academic and non-academic fields
What did you learn while being a leader?
While being a leader, I learned to work with my friends as a team in joy and sorrow. I
learn how to manage time so that everything goes according to plan.
Do you have any unfinished mission? what are they?
I have finished my missions as a leader in the student council, but I have a lot of
ideas in my mind that I couldn’t execute because of a lack of time and opportunity.
What is your motivational quote?
JASON ALDRICH C.Life doesn't always go according to plan. Sometimes heading to a new direction can be
scary, until you realize you headed to a new and exciting destination. -Susan Gale
What was your vision?
Creating a productive, innovative, and creative young generation in academic and non-
academic fields. Also, building good relations between school members.
Why did you want to join the Student Council?
I wanted to learn more about teamwork, problem-solving, and be able to adapt
quickly to different ways of working in organizational activities. Also, contributing to
school events is one of my priorities.
What did you learn while being a leader?
I learned to understand the differences in working methods and opinions of other members.
I also learned to resolve problems quickly and serve school members fairly and patiently.
Do you have any unfinished mission? what are they?
Yes, I have some. One of them is creating a social media account for Petra Acitya's Student
Council so that our activities can be seen more by students from other schools.
What is your motivational quote? FELICIA AUSTIN
Giving the best of you is a must. Something good is waiting in front of you.
Why did you want to join the Student Council?
Because being a part of the Student Council was one of my goals when entering
junior high school. I wanted a new challenge and to become a great leader.
What was your vision?
My goal was to make Acitya students become creative, active, and innovative.
What did you learn while being a leader?
I learned to manage my team members, and to be more patient and understanding
12 Do you have any unfinished mission? what are they?
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, some of my plans couldn’t be executed. I wanted to make
the Student Council a fun and exciting place where we can be open with each other.
What is your motivational quote?
It does not matter how long it takes you to go as long as you do not stop.
Never give up because there will definitely be results waiting for you.
Why did you want to continue your ministry on Servimore as a leader?
Because I wanted students in Acitya to have better
behaviors, attitudes, and traits. And I also wanted
students to have a good relationship with God.
After two years serving here, what was your biggest challenge? Why?
The biggest challenge for me during the past two years
was to unite people in the organization with all the
different ideas, characteristics and attitudes.
Is there any difference in what you have learned during the first year and the
second year? What differences did you learn during the first and second year?
During the first year, I only learned to improve my leadership skills, but
during the second year, I also learned to appreciate other people's
ideas and manage my time better than the previous year.
What message would you want to share with your younger
brothers and sisters in Acitya?
Instead of regretting something you do not do,
just do it even though you might regret it later.
What was your vision?
My vision is to help students in need.
Why did you want to join the Servimore student ministry?
I joined the student council to help the school and to help other students in need.
What did you learn while being a leader?
What I learned from being a leader is that I learn to be better at leading a team.
Do you have any unfinished mission? what are they?
Currently, I do not have any unfinished plans.
What is your motivational quote?
“Take it one step at a time and you’ll find your way.”
Army D., S.Kom.
drh. Ellen W. 7.5
It's a lot of fun
Proud to be a part of Acitya. In
and joy when doing every
Acitya I can explore my knowledge
more, and I am happy because the
activity at Acitya. My colleagues
and students can learn more
facilities here are excellent and
knowledge and technology so
complete so the learning process is
that we can make excellent and
very fun. creative works.
A. Deni, S.Pd. Octaviana, S.Pd.
I’m so happy
7.4 to be able to teach at Acitya
7.6 I’m honored to be a part of
because of the comfortable
Acitya, the place that gives me
many opportunities to improve
environment and co-workers who
my creativity and become an
innovative person as well as a
help each other. Moreover, I can
14 grow and develop together with my
colleagues and also with the
students of Acitya.
N. Noventa, S.S. 7.1Suzan N., S.Pd.
7.4 I’m so glad to join Acitya Junior
It's really amazing to be a part
High School because the facilities
of Petra Acitya; meeting cool
are awesome and the learning
process is so fun. That can make
and kind colleagues and
the students more creative and
students, and learning a lot
innovative. from them to be more creative
7.2 Ruth M., S.Pd.
I am so glad that I can
be a part of Acitya Family. I never
imagine that I’m going to find a
workplace that gives me huge
comfort and a nice colleagues.
I hope we can build stronger and
Adelia Y., S.Ak. Frans M., S.Pd.
While working at Petra Acitya Junior High
7.4 I am so proud that finally I can
School, I learned a lot to serve and work
pass my first year in Acitya. It was
not easy to be a single fighter as a
with heart and I am very happy that
Petra Acitya has become a part of my life
PE teacher, but thankfully I could enjoy
process. Other than that, this school has
teaching here since I had good
a good work environment to grow.
teamwork with other teachers. 15
Hopefully, we can build a
healthier work environment
in the future.
Ada seorang anak perempuan LukiDsUaN nI A
yang suka menggambar. karya: Nadya Eva W.
Gambarnya sangat indah, tapi
sayang hobinya membuatnya “Bukannya ini gambarmu?” Kemudian dia sadar kalau dia
lupa waktu. Tugas dan Tiba-tiba ada suara yang masih memegang kuasnya.
pelajarannya terbengkalai, di mengejutkannya dari belakang. Tapi kuasnya terlihat agak
sekolah pun dia tidak Saat anak itu menoleh, ada berbeda…
mendengarkan gurunya dan seorang peri mungil. Di ujung kuasnya sekarang ada
malah menggambar diam- “Hah, kamu siapa?” tanya anak sebuah permata yang indah.
diam. Dia sudah beberapa kali itu kaget. Gagang kuasnya bewarna
ditegur orang tua dan gurunya, Peri itu malah tertawa. “Lho, putih, dihiasi ukiran-ukiran
tetapi nasihat mereka tidak kenapa kamu bingung sendiri, cantik dan bagian pegangannya
pernah ia hiraukan. Tentunya ini dunia dalam gambarmu, terbuat dari emas. Bulu-bulu
tingkah anak ini membuat dan aku peri yang tinggal di kuasnya bewarna pelangi dan
mereka resah dan sedih. lukisan ini!” berkilau.
Sekarang anak itu ingat. Tadi
Suatu hari, saat dia dia sedang menggambar Lalu anak itu berpikir, “Ini kan
menggambar sebuah dunia sebuah dunia peri, tapi dunia lukisan yang aku buat,
indah dalam khayalannya, dia kemudian ia merasa dihisap jadi apa mungkin yang
ditarik tiba-tiba oleh sesuatu oleh sesuatu yang sangat kuat. kugambar disini bisa jadi
dan kemudian di sekelilingnya nyata?”
tak ada lagi rumahnya, tapi ada
sebuah dunia yang indah. Dia
sangat heran dan cemas. Dia
“Mama… Mama di mana? Aku
ada di mana? Tadi kan, aku
menggambar di rumah!”
Karena penasaran, anak itu Apa yang terjadi kemudian? “Engh, aku mimpi…” Lalu
mencoba menggambar kupu- Mamanya melihat lukisannya.
kupu di udara dan kemudian Ternyata akibat dari “Wah… bagus sekali lukisanmu,
kupu-kupu itu benar-benar nak…” “Hehe, makasih Ma.”
menjadi nyata dan terbang! perbuatannya tersebut Anak itu lega saat melihat
Anak itu terkejut, senang dan lukisannya masih utuh dan
terkagum-kagum. Dia mulai mendatangkan akibat yang indah. “Iya, sama-sama nak,
mencoba melukis berbagai sekarang ayo cepat mandi, nak,
benda di situ, termasuk sayap sangat buruk di dunia itu. nanti kamu terlambat ke
untuk dirinya. sekolah, lho.” “Oke, siap Bu!”
Tanaman mulai layu, hewan- Anak itu lalu bergegas menuju
sekolah dan belajar dengan
hewan dan peri kelaparan dan serius. Saat pulang ke rumah ia
membantu Mamanya dan
kehausan, pakaian mereka belajar. Malamnya, saat
tugasnya sudah selesai, ia baru
compang-camping dan tak ada melukis, lalu tidur tepat waktu.
Mamanya heran, tapi senang
yang membuat pakaian baru. anaknya sudah berubah.
Seminggu kemudian, saat ujian,
Dunia yang sebelumnya indah nilainya sangat baik. Saat
pulang sekolah ia memandang
Dia merasa betah tinggal di ini jadi kacau, gelap, suram dan lukisannya dan melihat para
peri seolah tersenyum
dunia ini. Ia tidur dengan para mengerikan! Kehidupan di padanya.
peri, memetik banyak bunga dunia ini mulai memudar dan TAMAT
dan bersenang-senang. Tak mati. Anak ini panik.
ada PR, tak ada sekolah, tak
disuruh membantu Mama, tak Dia berteriak, “TIDAKK!!!”, lalu
terbangun di atas meja.
perlu bangun pagi. Ia merasa Mamanya bertanya, “Sayang,
kamu kenapa?” Anak itu
sangat bebas disini. Namun kemudian mencoba mengingat
apa yang terjadi sebelumnya.
tentunya masih ada pekerjaan Semalam ia melukis diatas
meja sampai tengah malam,
sehari-hari yang para peri lalu ia tertidur tanpa disadari.
Untunglah, kejadian tadi hanya
kerjakan, seperti memasak, mimpi. “Eehh… mimpi, Ma.”
Mamanya tersenyum, lalu
mengambil air, mencuci, bertanya, “Mimpi apa kamu
nak, kok sampai teriak-teriak?”
merawat alam tempat mereka
tinggal, memintal, menjahit dan
yang lain. Tapi toh, ini dunia
lukisan anak itu. Ia mulai
membuat para peri tak perlu
termasuk pekerjaan sehari-
karya Stephanie Chandra C.
Di suatu desa hiduplah seorang “yang berarti kebaikan Tuhan,
gadis cantik bermata biru
bernama Ella. Hampir semua nama ini diberikan oleh ibuku
orang di desa itu mengenal Ella,
karena selain cantik ia juga yang sudah lama meninggal.
seorang yang ramah. Suatu hari
ibunya menyuruh Ella untuk Sekarang kamu ada di rumah
mengantarkan kue pesanan Bu
Agatha. Ketika Ella hendak neneku, kamu telah pingsan
berjalan kembali ke rumahnya, Bu
Agatha memberikannya sebuah selama 3 hari” jawab Grace.
kotak tua. Sesampainya di rumah,
Ella segera membuka kotak tua “Apakah aku sedang berpindah
tersebut, dan ternyata di
dalamnya terdapat sebuah dimensi, tapi bagaimana bisa ?
gelang emas yang begitu indah.
Ella terus memandangi kotak tua Jangan jangan gelang emas itu
dan gelang emas yang ada
didalmnya. “Gelang emas ini …” Tiba tiba Grace
sangat indah jika dijual pasti
harganya mahal, tetapi mengapa menyodorkan sebuah
Bu Agatha malah memberikannya
kepadaku ?” gumamnya. Ia pun mangkok sup yang memecah
mencoba memakai gelang
tersebut di tangannya. Seketika lamunan Ella. “Ini, makan dulu
itu muncul sebuah cahaya yang
menyilaukan kemudian … BRAK !!! sup buatanku”. “Terimakasih,
“Akhirnya kamu sadar juga …” Grace” ucap Ella. Setelah
ucap seorang gadis kecil di
hadapannya. “K-kamu siapa ? menghabiskan semangkok sup,
Sekarang aku ada dimana ?” ucap
Ella kebingungan. Namaku Grace Grace mengajak Ella berkeliling
desa. Mereka terlihat sangat
gembira. Menjelang sore saat
nenek Grace kembali ia sangat
terkejut dengan kedatangan
Ella. Grace pun segera
menjelaskan semuanya kepada
neneknya. “Aku sarankan kamu
tidak berbuat sesuatu yang
jahat, karena kamu akan
menyesalinya” ucap nenek
Grace dengan ketus.
18 Tak terasa sudah hampir satu
tahun, mereka menjalani hari
demi hari dengan damai
meskipun terkadang saat Ella
pergi berkeliling warga sekitar “Sebab Aku ini mengetahui dan tujuan pencuri itu karena
menatapnya dengan penuh
perasaan curiga. Sekarang rancangan-rancangan apa yang desa mereka sedang
Grace sudah menganggap Ella
seperti kakak kandungnya ada pada-Ku mengenai kamu, mengalami kelaparan. Suasana
sendiri. Sampai suatu hari, tiba
tiba terdengar suara warga demikianlah firman TUHAN, menjadi hening. Para warga
yang berteriak teriak di luar.
Ella pun panik dan segera yaitu rancangan damai saling memandangi satu
membukakan pintu rumah.
“Apa yang telah terjadi ?” tanya sejahtera dan bukan rancangan dengan yang lain. “Ambilah
Ella kebingungan. “Hei pencuri
keluarlah dari desa ini !” “Tidak kecelakaan, untuk memberikan bahan persediaan makanan
perlu berpura pura lagi, kami
sudah mengetahui semua kepadamu hari depan yang kami secukupnya, kemudian
perbuatanmu. Kamu telah
mencuri persediaan bahan penuh harapan”. Saat tengah kembalilah ke desa kalian dan
pangan kami !” teriak warga.
Grace berusaha menjelaskan malam Ella terbangun dari jangan pernah mencuri lagi”
kepada warga tetapi dia tetap
tidak bisa mengubah keadaan. tidurnya, dia mendengar ada ucap kepala desa dengan
Karena keadaan yang makin
lama makin buruk akhirnya suara langkah kaki dari semak tegas. “Maafkan kami Ella
nenek Grace mendorong Ella
keluar dari rumahnya. Ella semak di dekatnya. Ella karena sudah menuduh kamu
pergi meninggalkan Grace
serta para warga yang sedang memperhatikan terus dan sebagai pencuri, dan
marah dengan perasaan
campur aduk. Ia benar benar menemukan ada dua orang laki terimakasih telah membantu
tidak mengerti mengapa para
warga menuduhnya sebagai laki berbadan besar sedang kami …” ucap seluruh warga
pencuri tanpa adanya bukti
yang kuat. Ketika Ella merasa memindahkan bahan makanan desa. “Tidak apa apa, ini juga
sudah tidak ada harapan lagi,
ia teringat salah satu ayat warga ke dalam karung goni. sudah menjadi kewajibanku
dalam Alkitab yang selalu ia
baca setiap malam. Dalam Ella ingin menghentikkannya untuk membantu kalian
Yeremia 29 : 11 dikatakan
tetapi ia sadar bahwa usahanya semua”.
akan sia sia saja. Setelah
berpikir panjang, ia Tiba tiba semuanya dalam
penglihatan Ella perlahan lahan
memutuskan untuk memberi menghilang, kemudian ia
terbangun di tempat tidur
tahu warga melalui jalur rumahnya. “Ahh… ternyata ini
semua hanyalah mimpi” ucap
belakang yang sering ia lalui Ella sambil tersenyum
mengusap kepalanya. Matahari
dengan Grace. yang masih belum tampak,
ayam yang mulai berkokok
Pada awalnya warga tidak sahut menyahut, suara kicauan
memercayainya tetapi Ella terus burung dan aroma dari
menyakinkan mereka. Akhirnya panggangan roti buatan Ibu.
warga setuju untuk mengikuti Suasana yang sudah lama Ella
Ella. Ella menunjukkan tempat rindukan.
dimana dia melihat dua pencuri
itu. Para warga segera TAMAT
menangkap dua orang pencuri
tersebut. Mereka mendapatkan
informasi bahwa dua pencuri
itu berasal dari desa sebelah
COVID-19 Pandemic has affected many aspects of life, such as health problems, education
problems, and also economic problems. According to Susilawati (2020), the increased case of
COVID-19 showed that it has a significant impact on the global economy which may also have
influenced the balance in Indonesia. The affected sectors during this COVID-19 Pandemic are
around transportation, tourism, trade, health and other sectors. However, the most affected
sector is the household sector. This may bring a lot of loss to Indonesia’s finances, as we know
tourism and trade have been the biggest income for Indonesia economy. This crisis has
happened all over the world. Therefore, what can we do in order to get through this economic
crisis? Based on Menon (2020), there are three ways that businesses can survive during this
pandemic. Derived from those issues, this article will present the problems and solutions in
order to keep our economy in good condition.
Problems Causes by Pandemic
The “lock-down” policy is taken by some countries to prevent further cases of COVID-19,
otherwise that action hinders economic activities and puts pressure on the world's economic
growth in the future, including Indonesia's economic growth. In line with Jones (2021), most of
the countries now are facing recession, if the economy is growing, usually that means more
wealth and job opportunities. However, in the middle of this pandemic many people find it hard
to get a job, which also means that our economy is barely growing. The IMF (International
Monetary Fund) roughly calculated that the global economy shrunk by 4.4% in 2020. The
organization reported the rejection has become the worst since the Great Depression of the
1930s. Moreover, the travel industry seems to need more time to recover. As we know, this
pandemic with the new variant of COVID-19 has brought a lot of problems to our travel industry.
Behsudi (2020) says that before COVID-19, travel and tourism had become one of the important
sectors in the world economy, as we can see it provided 10 percent of global GDP (Gross
Domestic Product) and more than 320 million jobs all around the world. Nevertheless, in
accordance with the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) the global pandemic
has put around 100 million jobs at risk, which will lead to the economy shrinking and massive job
loss. This will lead to the rising unemployment rate, according to the report of Falk (2021), the
unemployment rate in April 2021 reached around 14.8%, it is the highest rate discerned since
the data collection began in 1948. It assures that tourism-dependent countries will likely feel the
negative effects of this pandemic and “lock-down” procedure. This difficulty also affects
20 Indonesia’s economy as what Rosadi says that travel and tourism sectors contribute around
4.6% to Indonesia GDP. Therefore, the “lock-down” policy which was applied by most of the
world has resulted in the worsening of the world economy, especially the travel and tourism sector.
Solutions Needed In Order to Keep Our Economy Stable RESOURCES
From some concerns caused by the pandemic, solutions are needed to
keep our economy in good condition. Based on Menon (2020), Behsudi, A. (2020). Tourism-
combining speed and stability can be one of the solutions, as dependent economies are among
organizational agility is the capacity of a corporation to quickly change or those harmed the most by pandemic.
adapt in reaction to the tumultuous and hastily changing market. It was International Monetary Fund.
once desirable; nonetheless, now becoming flexible is the crucial key to Retrieved 17 January, 2022, from
stay in the global market. Other than that, these days people are forced https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/f
to stay updated all the time, it can turn digitalization to our advantage. andd/2020/12/impact-of-the-
Data tells that in a moment of eight weeks, we have hurdled five years in pandemic-on-tourism -behsudi.htm
consumer and business digital adoption. The outbreak has led us to
structural repositions including in customer choice of digital Falk, G. (2021). Unemployment Rates
engagement and moving to isolated working models for employees,
which are presumably to prevail even post-COVID. Furthermore, based During the COVID-19 Pandemic,
on Lundlin (2021) we need to focus on our core competencies and drive
systemic change through cooperation. Focusing on core competencies Congressional Research Service
means, instead of marketing something that is not necessary we can just
focus on developing what we are good at. This pandemic has been an R46554, Page: 1-24. Retrieved 20
instinctive reminder of how interdependent the entire societies are
today. Regardless of the challenges, the pandemic has taught us how January, 2022, from
important it is to establish good relationships among the society. Then,
systemic cooperation will also be the key to recover in the middle of this https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/R46554.p
To sum up, it has already been well-explained that the solution will alter Jones, L. (24, January 2021).
our economy so as to be in fine fettle. As we can see, this pandemic will
not end soon, there is a chance that many other problems will come out Coronavirus: How the pandemic has
later. In order to keep our economy well, solutions and innovations in
developing our industry are important to be done. Research and changed the world economy. (2021,
development also take place to stay competitive in global markets in the
middle of this COVID-19 crisis. Even so, soon this pandemic will lead us 24 January). BBC News. Retrieved 18
to another economic crisis, unless we can turn these troubles into
opportunities to become safer and to January, 2022, from
improve health as well as the economy.
Lundlin, K. (2020). 5 Strategies to Help
Small Businesses Survive a Recession.
Retrieved 20 January, 2022, from
Menon, V. (2020). Here are 3 ways
businesses can survive and thrive
through COVID-19 and beyond.
Retrieved 18 January, 2022, from
Rosadi, D. (22 Maret, 2021)
Menparekraf: Kontribusi Pariwisata
Ditargetkan 12 Persen dari PDB.
Katadata. Retrieved 18 January, 2022,
Susilawati. (2020). Impact of COVID-
19’s Pandemic on the Economy of
Indonesia. Budapest International
Research and Critics Institute-Journal
(BIRCI-Journal) Volume 3, No 2, Page:
1147-1156. Retrieved 17 January,
EPP GRADE 8 ACADEM 21
NET ZERO EMISSION 2050
Can Indonesia Reach It ?
Climate change is a global issue that is a major world problem. This is a matter of changing and
shifting weather patterns that increase threats to global food production, increase in global
temperatures, the spread of diseases including the covid pandemic, rising sea levels, and many
other negative impacts (Letcher.T, 2021, p. 245). Climate change is an issue that directly affects
all living things and ecosystems around the world. According to the 2021 scientific report by
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the climate agency of the United Nations,
climate change is occurring in every region and in all climate systems around the world. The
role of human activities in influencing climate change is very big but the good news is that
human actions still have the potential to limit the process of climate change and change the
direction of climate in the future. Therefore, there was an agreement between world leaders
through the 2015 Paris Agreement to make every country commit to reducing emissions and
achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Indonesia as one of the most vulnerable countries to the
impact of climate change also takes part in the world's ambition to achieve net-zero emissions
by 2050. However, there are many things that must be noticed and considered so that
Indonesia can achieve it by 2050. According to IPCC (2021), the advantages of reducing
greenhouse gases for air quality will be felt soon, but the global temperatures will take 20 to 80
years to become stabilized. So, without drastic action today, adapting to these impacts in the
future will be more difficult and costly.
Recently, the term net zero-emissions is quite popular. The term has become a concern since
the Paris Climate Summit in 2015 which obliges industrialized and developing countries to
achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 and was increasingly recognized when the Climate Leaders
Summit was held at the end of April 2021 where several countries including Indonesia
announced their commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. The net-zero emissions
referred to here are carbon neutral or some call it carbon negative, which means that the
emissions produced by human activities can be fully absorbed by the ecosystem. Net-zero
emissions do not mean stopping all human activities that produce emissions or eliminating
emissions, because in reality humans and the world cannot stop producing emissions. Simply
put, the fact that human respiration alone also produces carbon. However, too much carbon
emission is generated on earth that natural absorption becomes difficult. Whereas carbon
absorption is one way to reduce carbon emissions in response to climate change issues.
Carbon absorption is important because the main cause of climate change is global warming
caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. With the net-zero
22 emissions agreement, it is hoped that carbon emissions produced by human activities will not
be excessive so that absorption by the earth's ecosystem takes place optimally so that it does
not evaporate into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. Naturally, emissions are absorbed by
trees, sea, soil and through complex chemical reactions are 23
processed in the photosynthesis cycle. Land plants absorb
about 25 percent of carbon emissions and oceans take up
about 30 percent. So far, land and marine plants have taken up
about 55 percent of the extra carbon that humans put into the
atmosphere, while about 45 percent remains in the
atmosphere (Riebeek, H, 2011). The concentration of
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is now 414.3 parts per
million (IPCC, 2021) which means that from 1 million air
molecules in the atmosphere there is 414.3 carbon dioxide
while the rest are other greenhouse gases. This concentration
raises the earth's temperature by 1.2 ℃ and the earth's
temperature will increase by 2 ℃ if the amount exceeds 500
ppm (IPCC, 2019). This increase will certainly have an impact on
all living things on earth, especially in developing countries,
because every increase in temperature greatly affects climate
change and makes extreme climate patterns occur more often
with longer duration, it has a major impact, especially on the
issue of food security.
Experts at the IPCC also calculated that temperatures would
stabilize at 0.3 ℃ per year compared to pre-industrial 1800 if
the world could achieve net-zero emissions. This means that
the temperature will only increase by 1.5 ℃ after 2050. This
temperature increase can still be tolerated by living things on
earth, especially humans (Hoegh-Guldberg, et all , 2019).
Tolerance here means that living things, especially humans can
adapt to climate change which is not expected to occur
Indonesia, Climate Change and The Commitment
Indonesia is known as the third-largest producer of
greenhouse gases in the world after the United States and
China, making Indonesia become global attention in the
current climate change issue. Even though Indonesia is the
lungs of the world with its tropical forests, the environmental
damage in Indonesia continues rapidly. This is mainly due to
forest fires and deforestation, degradation of peatlands and
land conversion along as emissions from the energy sector,
which is mostly still in the form of fossil-based energy, which is
growing rapidly due to the high demand for electrical energy in
Indonesia (Freeman, C et al, 2010, p.44). In addition, as an
archipelago country with a large population growth that
increases the risk of land conversion, Indonesia is a country
that is very vulnerable to climate change, such as a long dry
season or extreme rainfall will certainly have a major impact on
24 public health and also national food security. Therefore,
Indonesia must immediately adapt to environmental pressures
such as climate change which will not only have an impact on
the environment in Indonesia itself but will also greatly affect
the community so that in the end it will have an impact on
The Indonesian government has announced its commitment to
reducing carbon emissions and achieving net-zero emissions.
In the National Contribution document, the Indonesian
government uses two climate change control schemes, namely
mitigation and adaptation. Nationally Determined
Contributions (NDCs) are part of the Paris Agreement, which
contains a country's commitments under the United Nations
framework convention on climate change. The target set by the
Indonesian government itself in this mitigation is that by 2030
there will be a 29% emission reduction with its own efforts or
41% with international assistance through technology transfer,
funding and capacity building. The sectors that will be
prioritized to achieve this target are the forestry sector by
reducing emissions from land use and mining as well as the
energy sector by trying to make an energy transition from
fossil-based energy to new and renewable energy, apart from
the agricultural sector, production processes and waste are
also expected to be able to help accelerate emission
reductions. The three scenarios designed by the Indonesian
government to achieve net-zero emissions are new policies,
energy transition, and low-carbon development.
Meanwhile, the Indonesian government's 2050 climate
resilience long-term scenario document states that net-zero
emissions will be achieved in "2060 or sooner". It means that
the Indonesian government is not sure that it will achieve the
target of the agreement on net-zero emissions by 2050 but
Indonesia is working hard to achieve it as soon as possible in
various ways so that by 2060 this target can be achieved or
even sooner. For climate change adaptation, the Indonesian
government will focus on increasing economic, social,
ecosystem and landscape resilience with priority on sectors
that are most vulnerable to climate change impacts, such as
food, water and energy. The results of studies from several
foreign institutions show that Indonesia is actually able to
achieve its net-zero emission target faster if it is more
ambitious to reduce the use of fossil-based energy such as
coal and carry out large-scale forest repairs. But of course,
cannot be instantaneous, it will take time and money.
international net zero-emission targets.
Moreover, the majority of power plants in Indonesia are still fossil-based which produce
electricity that is more affordable for the community and are also still under contract so they
cannot be completely replaced with renewable energy even though the Indonesian
government has started the construction of several renewable power plants. Emission
reduction commitments also must be in line with national development programs, there
should be no trade-off between economic growth and efforts to achieve net zero-emission
targets. Low carbon development in Indonesia should not be seen as an obstacle and a
challenge but as an opportunity to build an environmentally friendly country while meeting
To achieve the net-zero emission target faster, of course, it requires sacrifice, hard work, and
cooperation from all parties, from the government, the private sector to the community both
at the central and regional levels. All related parties, both the government and the private
sector to the public, need to see climate change as a crisis that requires a quick and
appropriate response strategy. The use of technology alone is not enough to achieve emission
targets but a behavioral change in society is also important. If every society is aware of this
environmental crisis and starts protecting the environment, then Indonesia can implement all
policies more quickly even though the policy towards the net zero emissions target is not
popular, such as removing fossil-based fuel subsidies, developing renewable energy such as
nuclear power plants, solar power plant, implementing a carbon tax. etc without causing
conflict in the community. We must realize that the longer we delay the handling of the climate
crisis, the greater the cost and the more difficult it will be in the future. Currently, Indonesia
may not be able to achieve the target of net zero emissions by 2050, but if all people are
willing to care and support government policies aimed at achieving these targets, it is not
impossible for Indonesia to achieve net-zero emissions in 2060.
Trevor H. Letcher (2021) The Impacts of Climate Change (A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical,
Social, and Political Issues)
Dr.Mallesh Reddy, Dr.Sanjay Shende, Dr. Premila Swamy D ( 2021) Environmental Protection: Critical
Perspectives in Science and Literature
Nijavalli H. Ravindranath, Jayant A. Sathaye(2006) Climate Change and Developing Countries
Charles W. Freeman, Michael J. Green, Robert S. Wang (2010) Asia’s Response to Climate Change and Natural
Boer, R., & Faqih, M. (2004, December). Global Climate Forcing Factor and rainfall variability in west java case
study. Neliti.Com. Retrieved January 20, 2022, from https://www.neliti.com/id/publications/244481/global-
Case, M. J. (2007, January). Climate Change in Indonesia Implications for Humans and Nature. ResearchGate.
Retrieved January 17, 2022, from
EPP GRAD Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Jacob, D., & Taylor, M. (2019, June 2). Impacts of 1.5°C of Global Warming on Natural
and Human Systems. IPCC. Retrieved January 15, 2022, from
E 8 ACADEM Indonesian’s document. (2021). INDONESIA Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050.
UNFCCC. Retrieved January 17, 2022, from https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/Indonesia_LTS-
IPCC. (2019, August 9). Climate change widespread, rapid, and intensifying – IPCC. IPCC Newsroom. Retrieved
January 15, 2022, from https://www.ipcc.ch/2021/08/09/ar6-wg1-20210809-pr/
IPCC. (2021, August 9). AR6 Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved January 15, 2022,
Lustgarten, A. (2020, May 7). How Climate Change Is Contributing to Skyrocketing Rates of Infectious Disease.
ProPublica. Retrieved January 13, 2022, from https://www.propublica.org/article/climate-infectious-diseases
IC WRITING Minister of Environment and Forestry. (2017, July). NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (NDC) AND ITS
PROGRESS OF IMPLEMENTATION. Http://Ditjenppi.Menlhk.Go.Id/. Retrieved January 17, 2022, from
Riebeek, H. (2021, June 16). The Carbon Cycle. NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved January 16, 2022, from
TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is the shift or changes from the average climate conditions to a different and
uncertain climate conditions in a short period of time. As climate change gets worse, shifts of the
climate are getting more dangerous and more frequent. The impact of climate change is Very
detrimental to many parties, including humans, animals, and ecosystems. Animals and humans
now are facing more dangerous, frequent and intense storms, heat waves, glacier melts, sea level
rises and many more dangerous climate events (WWF, 2021).
Climate change is mainly caused by four kinds of greenhouse gasses, which are carbon dioxide
(64,3%), methane (17%), nitrous oxide (6%), and fluorinated gasses (0,8%) (EPA, 2017, May 9). Four
of these gasses are produced from different sources, processes and usage. Carbon dioxide is
mostly the result or waste from burning fossil fuels from motor vehicles. Methane is produced
during the production of coal and oils. While nitrous oxide is produced in the process of
agricultural use of land, and also industrial processes (EPA, 2021, November 12).
Carbon dioxide is the gas that causes the majority of climate change This fact relates to the
increase of the usage of motor vehicles, because the carbon dioxide that’s produced during the
fossil fuel being burned is trapped around the atmosphere, keeping heat from the sun inside the
atmosphere, which leads to the increase of the temperature around the earth. The increase of
motor vehicle usage relates to the efficiency, and practicality of the motor vehicle. The usage of
motor vehicles in Indonesia has increased rapidly, approximately 8 percent or 10 million units
within 3 years (2018-2020) (BPS, 2020). If the increase in the use of motor vehicles remains stable
in the coming year, the world will get 2°Celsius warmer within the next 30 years (BBC NEWS, 2019)
From the data, what’s known is that carbon dioxide is the most gas that causes climate change
(EPA, 2017). But in reality, methane gas is more threatening and dangerous, because although in
quantity, carbon dioxide is the most abundant gas, but scientifically, methane has eighty times
stronger warming power than carbon dioxide, making methane more threatening and more
dangerous compared to carbon dioxide (EDF, 2021).
Methane is genuinely produced during the process of transport of coal. The Indonesian Ministry of
Energy and Mineral Resources projects an increase in coal production of around 637 million tons
until 664 million tons in 2022 (Bisnis.com, 2021). This increase is going to help in the economic
26 development of Indonesia, but this increase will be very dangerous to the world at the same
time, because the process of the coal transportation will create more methane which can boost
up the increase of climate change and average earth temperature.
Fossil fuel burn, transport of
coal, transport of natural
gas, and the industrial
process and waste are all
energy. This is the main
idea, the use of non-
renewable energy is leaving
side effects, some of them
are producing greenhouse
gasses in their process. The
key to stopping climate
change is to reduce gas
emissions by changing our
non-renewable energy to
renewable energy. There
are already some
innovations from the
geniuses around the world
that’s replacing the use of
non-renewable energy to renewable energy, such as Elon musk. Elon musk is the CEO and founder
of TESLA Motors. TESLA is one of the companies that believe the world could be a better place with
zero emission waste by replacing the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable energy with
electricity which is a renewable energy. TESLA is now mainly working to develop cars and vehicles
that could use electricity instead of fossil fuels to make the world a better place (TESLA, 2022).
Although the use of electricity does not produce carbon dioxide gas in the process, the electricity
manufacturing process produces carbon dioxide gas. Indonesia uses the steam power plan three
times more than the other power plants (ESDM, 2016). Choosing the use of steam power plants is
good for the economy, but generating electricity from steam power plants produces a lot of carbon
dioxide, more than the carbon dioxide produced from burning fossil fuels (Seminar Nasional
Cerdikiawan, 2016). There are approximately 3000 steam power plants around the world. If the
steam power plants have not been taken down or replaced until 2030, this world will experience a
temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius and much more dangerous climate change
Taking down all the steam power plants will be very impactful and dangerous to Indonesia and to
the world, because steam power plants are the type of power plants that supply the majority of
electricity in Indonesia and some other parts of the world. To handle this problem, we have to switch
and replace the steam power plants with other types of power plants using renewable energy, such
as solar power plants and wind power plants. Solar power plants and wind power plants are more
expensive to build and to maintain compared to the steam power plants. Although it is more
expensive than steam power plants, the change from steam power plants to solar power plants and
wind power plants must be done for the good of humans, animals and ecosystems (IRENA, 2021).
Right now the increase of climate change is very fast, to fix or reduce climate change, the world has E 8 ACADEM
to make change faster, switching non-renewable energy to renewable energy in every possible
aspect. Not only changing fossil fuels to electricity, the world has to fully integrate solar energy and
wind energy by increasing the amount of solar panels and wind turbines around the world.
However, apart from developing technology and resources from non-renewable to renewable, we
must also be aware of this problem, not just sit back and wait for something from someone to
change the world. We must also take action, change our lifestyle. Reduce the use of motorized
vehicles at short relative distances to destinations, start using solar panels to generate electricity,
and many more.
“When the last tree is cut, the last fish is caught, the last river is polluted; when to breath air is
sickening, you will realize, too late, that wealth is not in bank accounts and that you can't eat
money.” -Alanis Obomsawim
Brownstein, M. (2021, December 29). Methane: A crucial opportunity in the climate fight. EDF. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://bit.ly/3fXaj5q
Climate Change: How hot cities could be in 2050. (2019, July 11). BBC NEWS. Retrieved January 16, 2022, from https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-
Global Climate Change. (2017, May 9). EPA. Retrieved January 16, 2022, from https://archive.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/basics/today/greenhouse-
KAJIAN INVENTARISASI DAN ESTIMASI UPAYA PENURUNAN EMISI KARBON DIOKSIDA DI PLTU SURALAYA UNIT 1–7, BANTEN. (2016). SNC. Retrieved
January 23, 2022, from https://bit.ly/3KHcM1N
Martin, S. (2021, January 13). Effect of Climate Change. World Wide Fund. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from
Overview of Greenhouse Gases. (2021, November 12). US EPA. Retrieved January 23, 2022, from https://bit.ly/3rRoePU.
Perkembangan Jumlah Kendaraan Bermotor Menurut Jenis (Unit), 2018–2020. (2020). BPU (Badan Pusat Statistik). Retrieved January 22, 2022, from
Renewable Energy: A key climate solution. (2017). IRENA. Retrieved January 17, 2022, from https://bit.ly/33JBFJV
What are the solutions to climate change? (2021, April 9). GREENPEACE. Retrieved January 23, 2022, From https://bit.ly/3FYD9gq
What is Climate Change? A really simple guide. (2021, October 13). BBC NEWS. Retrieved January 22, 2022,
Numerous countries, especially agricultural countries such as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, South
Africa, etc. have banned their citizens from using plastic bags (Jalil, Mian, and Rahman, 2013, p.1).
Markets have started using paper bags for their customers and cloth bags are highly
recommended to use for shopping. All of that is said for a greener environment, for less negative
impact on our home. Nevertheless, should we really replace plastic with the new alternatives to
do that? When we analyze further, there is no need to replace plastic bags in our daily activities. If
we use it wisely, plastic bags are actually a greener choice because they cause less negative
impact to the environment compared to paper and cloth bags.
Every type of bag causes damage to our environment including plastic bags. Plastic bags we use
everyday cause some serious problems to the environment. Bell and Cave (2011) mention that
‘plastics can take between 400 and 1000 years to decompose’. Even though there are degradable
plastic bags, it’s still not environmentally friendly because they may cause emission of the
greenhouse gas methane that emerges when an anaerobic decomposition happens. Other than
that, it threatens marine life since there is a large amount of plastic waste, including plastic bags
in the ocean. For example, loggerhead sea turtles many times think that plastic bags are their
favorite food, jellies (National Geographic, 2019). If the population of marine animals decreases,
the food web in the ocean will be damaged. The UN Environment Programme (2018) also points
out that ‘Bangladesh is the first country in the world to implement a ban on thin plastic bags, after
it was found they played a key role in clogging drainage systems during disastrous flooding’. Piles
of plastic bags on sewers and rivers have always caused big floods especially during high rainfalls.
Paper bags also have a lot of negative impacts on the environment. Paper is made out of trees
and in order to make paper bags, we obviously need to have a lot of paper which leads to lots of
tree cutting. In America, 10 billion paper bags are consumed every year and 14 million trees are
cut down for the production (Washington Post, 2007). The large scale of deforestation causes
many problems to the environment such as flooding, landslides, etc. Congress of the United
States Congressional Budget Office (2012) also points out that forests store carbon from the
atmosphere to wood, leaves, and soil. The stored carbon is released into the atmosphere again
when the trees are cut down which can cause greenhouse effects and global warming.
Same as the two previous types of bags, cloth bags as well cause bad things to
happen in our environment. People buy many cloth bags and reuse them more than
twice to reduce waste. However, not seldom do people throw them away when they
are no longer in a good condition or
30 when they don't like it that much ‘while woollen garments do decompose
and produce methane’ (Bell and Cave, 2011, p.5). Therefore, throwing cloth
bags can cause methane emissions, especially wool cloth bags, which leads
to global warming. Plenty of cloth bags are also made out of cotton. To grow
cotton, Cho (2020) states that a big amount of chemical fertilizers and
pesticides is needed. Whereas the production and usage of those chemicals
contribute remarkably to eutrophication which damages the environment
and harms the ecosystem in it.
Even though all three types of bags cause negative impacts to the
environment, plastic bags cause the least impact if we see the production
processes of all three bags. Plastic represents many sets of chemical
compounds. This polyethylene-based bag requires ‘many of the largest and
most hazardous chemical families - including heavy metals, flame retardants,
phthalates, bisphenols, and fluorinated compounds’ for its production
(Health and Environment Alliance, 2021). Hence, it can contaminate water
streams and endanger the animals that live inside it. Other than water
pollution, plastic bags production can also cause air pollution as making
plastic requires machines for heating and cutting processes and the waste
produces air pollutants.
Meanwhile, paper bags production causes greater impact on the
environment compared with plastic bags production. According to the
Washington Post (2007), manufacturing paper bags starts with waiting tree
logs to dry for three years. The logs then are stripped of bark and into
squares that will be “cooked” with an immense amount of heat and
pressure. After that, the wood squares are “digested” into pulp by parget
and sulfuric acid. The pulp later on is washed and pressed into finished
paper, which will be used for paper bags. The energy needed for machines
to heat the wood, press the pulp, cut, and lastly print the paper is amazingly
high, causing pollutants to increase in the air and water. Chemical
compounds such as sulfuric acid and limestones for the pulp production
and bleach for washing the pulp also contribute to water pollution. Thus, it
takes ‘more than four times as much energy to manufacture a paper bag as
it does a plastic bag, 70 percent more air, and 50 times more water
pollutants than production of plastic bags’ (Washington Post, 2007).
While paper bags are worse than plastic in production, cloth bags, especially
the cotton ones, are the worst because their production needs a
tremendous amount of energy. As mentioned before, growing cotton
requires the use of chemical compounds like pesticides and herbicides.
Gammage (2021) points out that ‘the chemicals used in cotton runs off the
fields and contaminates surrounding ecosystems and groundwater’. Cotton
also requires a very considerable amount of water as Leahy (2015) states
that the average 10,000 litres of water is needed to grow 1 kg of cotton. That
does not include the machines used for cutting the fabric, stitching all the
body parts, and making the handles yet (Parsekar, 2016, p.12). Many
machines for the cloth bags production process will contribute to air
pollution. For that reason, cloth bags production needs the biggest energy
and also causes the most waste to the environment.
Regardless of the usage, plastic bags cause the least negative environmental
impact. Now we know that plastic bag replacement doesn’t reduce damage
to the environment since paper and cloth cause bigger problems. The main
problem that advocates people to replace them is the enormous amount of
plastic bag litter. People often directly throw plastic bags that can actually be
used not only once. The high production of single use plastics is also another
factor of why plastic bags litter is so ample. We can change that by avoiding
throwing plastic bags if it’s still decent enough to be used again. Reusing
plastic bags is another great option to reduce waste. HDPE (high density
polyethylene) bags are recommended to be reused because they are the
strongest type of plastic bags and they are also made out of tightly packed
molecules that makes them dense (A-pac Manufacturing Co., Inc., 2020). By
doing those, plastic bags won’t be that big of a problem to our home. In
conclusion, we shall use plastic bags wisely by reusing it as much as we can
for a greener environment instead of replacing it with paper or cloth bags.
A-Pac Manufacturing Co., Inc. (2020, October 9). Which Type of Plastic Bag is the Strongest? Retrieved January 28, 2022, from
Emmanuelle Gammage. (2021, January 14). Plastic Vs Cotton bags: Which is more sustainable? Save Money Cut Carbon. Retrieved January 28, 2022, from
Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL). (2021, January 18). Turning the plastic tide: the chemicals in plastic that put our health at risk. Retrieved January
28, 2022, from https://www.env-health.org/turning-the-plastic-tide-the-chemicals-in-plastic-that-put-our-health-at-risk/
Kirsty Bell, Suzie Cave. (2011, February 23). Comparison of Environmental Impact of Plastic, Paper and Cloth Bags, 2 - 15.
Md. Abdul Jalil, Md. Nannu Mian, Muhammad Khalilur Rahman. (2013, August 17).Using Plastic Bags and Its Damaging Impact on Environment and
Agriculture: An Alternative Proposal, 1. https://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/ijld/article/view/4137
National Geographic. (2019, July 5). Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Retrieved January 20,2022, from https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/great-
Paper or Plastic? (2007). The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2007/10/03/GR2007100301385.html?
Parsekar, Shubham. (2016, February 26). Paper and Cloth Bags (PAC Bags) Business Plan, 12.
Renee Cho. (2020, April 30). Plastic, Paper or Cotton: Which Shopping Bag is Best?
Columbia Climate School. Retrieved January 16, 2022, from https://news.climate.
Stephen Leahy. (2015, March 20). World Water Day: the cost of
cotton in water-challenged India. The Guardian. Retrieved
January 28, 2022, from https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable
Tawil, Natalie. (2012, January). Deforestation and Greenhouse EPP GRAD
Gases, 1. https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/112th-congress
-2011-2012/reports/1-6-12-forest.pdf E 8 ACADEM
UN environment programme. (2018, April). From birth to ban:
A history of the shopping plastic bag. Retrieved January 13, 2022,
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