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Published by anuraji88, 2018-12-12 02:15:29

BHARANA GHADANA SAKSHARATHA SINGLE

BHARANA GHADANA SAKSHARATHA SINGLE

tI-c-f\n-bak` tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

tIc-fkÀ-¡mÀ
s]m-Xp-hn-Zym-`ym-k-h-Ip¸v

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm-]p-kvXIw

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-X þ P-\-Io-b-hn-Zym-`ym-k-]-cn-]mSn

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 1

title
Constitution Literacy Book
Published on
6th December 2018
Director
Dr.P.S.Sreekala
Illustration
E.V.Anil
Cover & Layout
Renjith Puthenchira
Published by
KERALA STATE LITERACY MISSION AUTHORITY
Tc no:27/1461, Kammattom Lane, Convent Road
vanchiyoor, Thiruvananthapuram-35
phone: 0471-2472253,2472254
email: [email protected]

Kerala State Literacy Mission Authority

2 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

k-tµiw

\½psS kzmX{- ´yk- a- c {]Øm\w apt¶m«- ps- h¨ P\m[- n]- X- yw, aX\- nc- t- ]£- X- , Ahkc
kaX- zw, k{v Xoþ]- pc- pj XpeyX- , A`n{- ]mb kzmX{´yw XpS§- nb al¯- mb aqey§- fpw temI¯v
hfÀ¶ph- ¶ a\pj- ymh- I- mi- §- fpw ]uc[- À½hpw kzmwioI- c- n¨v cq]s- ¸S- p¯- nb- X- mWv C´y³
`cW- L- S- \- . \½psS \nbah- mg- vNb- psS ASn¯- d- b- mbn \nes- ImÅ- p¶ `cW- L- S- \- b- mWv
P\X- b- psS AhI- mi- §- s- fÃmw kwc£- n¡- p- ¶- X- v. cmPys- ¯bpw P\X- s- bbpw apt¶m«p \bn-
¡m\- pÅ ktNX- \- a- mb D]I- c- W- a- mWv `cW- L- S- \- . AsXmc- n¡- epw ]g©- \- mh- pI- tbm Ime-
lc- W- s- ¸S- pI- tbm sN¿p¶- nÃ. kaqlw hfc- p¶- X- n\- \- pk- c- n¨- v `cW- L- S- \- b- nepw amä§- Ä
hcp¶- p. Cu amä¯- n\- pÅ ASn¯- d IqSn {Im´Z- ÀinI- f- mb `cWLS\- m\- nÀamX- m¡- Ä Hcp-
¡ns- h¨- n«- pï- v. AXps- Imï- mWv ]pXnb Ime¯- nsâ aqeyk- wl- nX- b- mWv `cW- L- S- \- s- b¶v
]db- p¶- X- v.

\m\mP- mXn aX§- fpw hnhn[ `mjI- fpw hn`n¶ kwkvImc- hpw DÅ cm{ãa- mWv C´y. \m\mX- z-
¯n GIX- zs- a¶ al¯- mb Bib- a- mWv C´ys- b¶ cm{ãs¯ H¶n¨- p\- nÀ¯p¶- X- v. PmXn¡pw
aX¯- n\pw `mjbv¡pw AXoX- a- mb P\§- f- psS sFIya- mWv \½psS iàn. Cu Icp¯v \ap¡v
{]Zm\w sN¿p¶- Xpw cmPys¯ sFIyt- ¯msS apt¶m«p \bn¡- p¶- Xpw \½psS `cW- L- S- \- b- mW- v.

aX¯- ns- âtbm PmXnb- ps- Stbm `mjb- ps- Stbm t]cn P\§- sf `n¶n¸- n¡- m³ {ian¡- p¶- Xv `cW- -
LS- \- bv¡v FXnc- mb B{Ia- Ww Xs¶b- mW- v. C¯cw {]hW- X- I- Ä hÀ[n¨p hcp¶ Ime¯v `cW- -
LS- \m aqey§- Ä P\§- s- f, {]tXyI- n¨v bphX- e- a- pd- s- bbpw hnZymÀ°nI- s- fbpw ]Tn¸- nt- ¡ï- Xv
A\nh- mc- ya- mW- v.

tIcf- - km£- c- Xm anj³ X¿md- m¡- nb `cW- L- S- \m km£c- Xm ]pkvXIw `cW- L- S- \m aqey-
§s- f¡- pd- n¨v kaql- ¯- n\v {]mYa- nI- a- mb Adnhv ]Ic- p¶- X- n\v {]tbmP- \- s- ¸S- pw. hcpwXea- pd- sb
`cW- L- S- \m t_m[a- pÅ D¯a- ]- uc- ·- mc- mbn hfÀ¯ns- bS- p¡- m\- pÅ {ia§- Ä¡v Cu ]pkvXIw
klmb- I- a- mI- ps- a¶v {]Xo£- n¡- p¶- p. P\§- f- n `cW- L- S- \m km£c- X- b- pï- m¡- m³ tIcf
km£c- X- ma- nj- ³ \S¯- p¶ {]hÀ¯\- §- sf A`n\- µ- n¡- p¶- p.

]n-W-dm-bn hn-Pb³
tIc-fap-Jy-a{´n

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 3

Biwk

C´y³ P\m[n]Xy¯nsâ \s«Ãmb `cWLS\sb kw_Ôn¨pÅ Aht_m[w krãn¡m\pw
`cWLS\bn DÄt¨À¶n«pÅ klPamb aqey§sf kw_Ôn¨v s]mXpkaql¯nÂ
[mcW krãn¡p¶Xn\pw tIcf \nbak`bpsSbpw kwØm\ km£cXm anj³ AtXmdnän
bpsSbpw kwbpàm`napJy¯n kwLSn¸n¡p¶ `cWLS\m km£cXm P\Iob
hnZym`ymk ]cn]mSnbv¡mbn X¿mdm¡nbn«pÅ ]pkvXIamWv '`cWLS\m km£cXm
]pkvXw'. tIcf kÀ¡mcnsâ s]mXphnZym`ymk hIp¸nsâ Iogn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶
kzbw`cW Øm]\amb km£cXm anj³ AtXmdnän XpSÀ¶p hcp¶ _lpapJ§fmb
XpSÀ hnZym`ymk ]cn]mSnIÄ ÇmL\obamWv. \nbak`bpambn tNÀ¶v km£cXm
anj³ kwLSn¸n¡p¶ Cu DZyaw hnPbIcamIs«sb¶pw '`cWLS\m km£cXm
]pkvXIw' AXn\v t{]mÕml\amIs«sb¶pw Biwkn¡p¶p.

kvt\-l-]qÀÆw

]n {io-cm-a-Ir-jv-W³
kv-]o¡À, tI-c-f-\n-bak`

4 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

Biwk

tIcf \nbak`bpw km£cXmanj\pw kwbpàambn kwLSn¸n¨n«pÅ `cWLS\m
km£cX- P\Iob hnZym`ymk ]cn]mSn {it²bhpw amXrIm]chpamb Hcp ZuXyamWv.
kvXpXyÀlamb Hcp sshÚm\nI CSs]SemWv Cu ]cn]mSn F¶p ImWp¶Xn AXnbmb
kt´mjapïv.

anI¨ P\m[n]Xy kwhn[m\§Ä \ne\n¡p¶ C´ybn `cWLS\sb¸änbpÅ
sXfnabpÅ Aht_m[w sI«pd¸pÅ kmaqlyPohnX¯n\pw kpc£nXamb hyànPohnX-
¯n\pw A\nhmcyamWv. `cWLS\m km£cX F¶ Bib¯n\v Cu ]Ým¯e¯nÂ
Gsd {]kànbpïv. aqeyt_m[apÅ Hcp XeapdbpsS hnImk¯n\v `cWLS\m km£cX
Icp¯p]Icpw.

Cu ZuXy¯nsâ `mKambn cïv amk¡mew \S¡m³ t]mIp¶ hn]peamb ]cn]mSnIÄs¡m¸w
`cWLS\sb IqSpXÂ hyàambn ]cnNbs¸Sp¯p¶Xn\v `cWLS\m km£cXm
]pkvXIw IqSn {]kn²oIcn¡m\pÅ Xocpam\w DNnXambn«pïv. `cWLS\m km£cX
P\Iob hnZym`ymk ]cn]mSnbpsS hnPb¯n\v FÃm `mhpI§fpw t\cp¶p.

s{]m-^.kn.c-ho-{µ-\mYv
s]m-Xp-hn-Zym-`ym-k-h-Ip-¸p-a{´n

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 5

ap-Jhpc

\½psS `cWLS\ kw_Ôn¨v {]mYanIhpw ]uccpsS auenI ISaIÄ XpS§n ASnØm\]camb
ASnØm\]chpamb Aht_m[w kaql¯n Imcy§Ä am{Xw efnXambn {]Xn]mZn¡p¶XmWv Cu
cq]s¸Sp¯m\mbn tIcf\nbak`bpw km£cXmanj\pw ]pkvXIw. Chsb¡pdn¨v `cWLS\bnÂ
\S¸nem¡p¶XmWv "`cWLS\mkm£cX- -- P\Iob ]dbp¶ Imcy§Ä kzX{´ambn ]cn`mjs¸Sp¯n
hnZym`ymk ]cn]mSn'. bmWv ]pkvXIw X¿mdm¡nbncn¡p¶Xv.

C³Uy³ `cWLS\m\nÀ½mWk` `cWLS\ a\pjymhImiI½oj³ sNbÀam³ (dn«) PÌnkv
AwKoIcn¨ Znh-kamb \hw_À 26 apX dn¸»nIv Zn\ BâWn sUman\nIv, temImbpà Hmw_pUvkvam³ (dn«)
amb P\phcn 26 hsc cïpamk¡mew \oïp\n¡p¶ PÌnkv sI sI Znt\i³, t]meokv Iwss¹âvkv
XmWv Cu hnZym`ymk]cn]mSn. kwØm\s¯ apgph³ AtXmdnän sNbÀam³ (dn«) PÌnkv hn sI taml\³
hmÀUpIfnepw `cWLS\mkm£cXm¢mkpIÄ F¶nhcpsS BßmÀ°amb klmbw Cu ]pkvXIw
\S¯m\mWv e£yanSp¶Xv. Act¡mSntbmfw P\§Ä X¿mdm¡p¶Xn\v e`yambn«psï¶Xv \µntbmsS
hnhn[ L«§fn Cu {]{Inbbn ]¦mfnIfmIpw. kvacn¡p¶p.

Cu P\Iob hnZym`ymk]cn]mSn¡mbn km£cXmanj³ "`cWLS\mkm£cX - P\IobhnZym`ymk]cn]mSn'¡v
X¿mdm¡nbncn¡p¶XmWv "`cWLS\m km£cXm FÃm ]n´pWbpw DïmhWsa¶v A`yÀ°n¡p¶p.
]pkvXIw'. `cWLS\bpsS BapJw, {][m\auenIm-
hImi§Ä, Ahbpambn _Ôs¸« BÀ«n¡nfpIÄ,

tUm. ]n F-kv {ioI-e
U-b-dÎÀ, km-£-c-Xm-anj³

66 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

\-½p-sS `-c-WLS\

\½psS cmPy¯nsâ
]ctam¶X \nbaamWv
C´y³ `cWLS\.

temI¯v FgpXs¸«
`cWLS\IfnÂ
Gähpw hepXmWv
\½psS `cWLS\.

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c`-cX-Wm]-Lpk-S-\vXmI-kwm-£7-c-Xm]pkvXIw 7

`cWLS\m\nÀ½mWk`bmWv
\½psS `cWLS\ cq]s¸Sp¯nbXv.
`cWLS\ FgpXn¯¿mdm¡p¶ I½nänbpsS
sNbÀam\mbncp¶ tUm._n BÀ Awt_ZvIÀ
`cWLS\minev]n F¶v Adnbs¸Sp¶p.
1949 \hw_À 26 \mWv `cWLS\m\nÀ½mWk`
`cWLS\ AwKoIcn¨Xv.
`cWLS\ \nehn h¶Xv 1950 P\phcn 26 \mWv.
Cu ZnhkamWv dn¸»nIv
Zn\ambn \mw BNcn¡p¶Xv.

8 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m8-\kmt-£I-c-c-f-Xkm-awn-Ø-j³-m-\Ak-tXm-£m-dn-cä-Xn m-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

C-´y³ `cWLS\bpsS B-apJw

F´mWv
BapJw ?

\½psS cm{ãhpw kaqlhpw F§s\
bmbncn¡Ww, `cWLS\bpsS
Dt±iyhpw kao]\hpw F´v,
`cWLS\bpsS AhIminIÄ Bcv,
\½psS cm{ã¯nsâ khntijXIsf´v,
`cWLS\ AwKoIcn¡s¸«Xv
F¶v XpS§nb Imcy§Ä tcJs¸Sp
¯nbncn¡p¶ `mKamWv BapJw.

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c`-Xc-Wm]-Lpk-S-\vXmI-kwm-£9-c-Xm]pkvXIw 9

C´y³ `cWLS\bpsS BapJw

\-½Ä, C-´y-bn-se P-\-§Ä, C-´y-sb H-cp ]-c-am-[n-Im-cþ
Øn-Xn-k-a-Xzþa-X-\n-c-t]-£þP-\m-[n]-Xy dn-¸-»n-¡m-bn
cq-]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn\pw C-´y-bn-se FÃm ]u-c-cp-sSbpw
km-aq-ln-Ihpw km-¼-¯n-Ihpw cm-{ão-b-hpam-b \o-Xn

Nn-´, B-hn-jv-¡mcw, hn-izmkw, `àn, B-cm-[-\
F-¶n-h-bv-¡p-Å kzm-X-{´yw

]-Zhn, A-h-k-c-§Ä F-¶n-h-bn-ep-Å k-aXzw

F¶n-h D-d-¸m-¡p-¶-Xn\pw hy-àn-bp-sS A-´Êpw cm-{ã-¯nsâ
sF-Iyhpw A-J-Þ-Xbpw D-d-¸p-h-cp-¯p-¶ km-tlm-Zcyw
FÃm-cnepw h-fÀ-¯p-¶-Xn\pw Zr-V-\nÝ-bw sN-bvXp-sIm-−­ v
\-½p-sS `-c-W-L-S-\m-k-`-bn h-¨v, 1949 \-hw-_-dnsâ
Cu C-cp-]-¯n-bmdmw Znhkw Cu `-c-W-L-S\-sb C-Xn-\mÂ
Aw-Ko-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw \n-b-a-am-¡p-Ibpw \½Ä, \-ap-¡m-bn¯-s¶
k-aÀ-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sN-¿p¶p.

0 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m1-\0kmt-£I-c-c-f-Xkm-awn-Ø-j³-m-\Ak-tXm-£m-dn-cä-Xn m-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

]cam[nImcw - \-½p-sS cm-Py-s¯-
¡p-dn-¨v B-ap-J-¯nÂ
\½psS cmPy¯nsâ kzX{´amb A[nImcs¯ C§-s\ ]-d-bp-¶p
kqNn¸n¡p¶p. ]pdsa \n¶pÅ Hcp iànbpsSbpw
\nb{´W¯neà C´y F¶À°w. `-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c`-X-c-Wm]-Lpk-S-\vXmI-kwm-£11-c-Xm]pkvXIw 1

tkmjyenÌv -

k¼¯v Ipd¨p t]cpsS ssIIfn am{Xw tI{µoIcn¡p¶
AhØ, \oXn]qÀÆamb km¼¯nIhnXcW¯neqsS
CÃmXm¡Wsa¶v {]Jym]n¡p¶p.

aX\nct]£X -

FÃm aX§sfbpw Xpeyambn ]cnKWn¡pIbpw
_lpam\n¡pIbpw thWw. cm{ã¯n\v kz´ambn
Hcp aXanÃ. FÃm]ucÀ¡pw AhchÀ¡v CãapÅ
aX¯n hnizkn¡m\pw {]Ncn¸n¡m\pw A\phmZapïv.

P\m[n]Xyw -

"Hcp hyàn¡v Hcp thm«v' F¶ \nebnepÅ AhImis¯
kqNn¸n¡p¶p. AtXkabw, P\m[n]Xyw F¶Xv cm{ãob
P\m[n]Xyw am{XaÃ. kmaqlyhpw km¼¯nIhpamb
P\m[n]Xyhpw C´y³ `cWLS\ {][m\ambn ImWp¶p.

dn¸»nIv-

cm{ã¯nsâ Xehs\ Hcp \nÝnXImet¯¡v
sXcsªSp¡p¶psh¶XmWv dn¸»n¡nsâ khntijX.
GIm[n]Xytam kÀÆm[n]Xytam Aà F¶À°w.
C´ybn cm{ã¯eh\mbn {]knUïv A©p hÀjt¯¡v
sXcsªSp¡s¸Sp¶ hyhØbmWv \nehnepÅXv.

\o-Xn-sb-¡p-dn-¨v
]-d-bp¶-Xv
t\m¡q

\oXn -

kmaqly\oXn, km¼¯nI \oXn, cm{ãob \oXn F¶nh DÄs¸Sp¶p.

kmaqly\oXn -

PmXn, hwiw, \ndw, aXw, enwKw, P\n¨Øew XpS§nbhbpsS
t]cn C´y³ ]ucÀ¡nSbn hnthN\w ]mSnsöv
`cWLS\ hyhØ sN¿p¶p. C´y FÃm¯cw
NqjW§Ä¡psaXnsc \nesImÅp¶p.

km¼¯nI\oXn -

hcpam\w, kz¯v, km¼¯nI ]Zhn F¶nhbpsS
ASnØm\¯n ]ucÀ¡nSbn hnthN\w ]mSnÃ.
\½psS cmPyw km¼¯nIkaXz¯n\p thïn \nesImÅp¶p.

cm{ãob\oXn -

cm{ãob {]{Inbbn ]s¦Sp¡m³ kzX{´hpw
Xpeyhpamb Ahkcw FÃm ]ucÀ¡papïv.

122 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

kzm-X-{´yw
k-aXzw
km-tlm-Zcyw
F-¶n-h-sb-¡p-dn-¨v
]-d-bp¶-Xv t\m¡q

kzmX{´yw -

`cWLS\m]camb ]cn[n¡pÅn \n¶psImïv
]men¡s¸tS−-­XmWv kzmX{´yw.
CX\pkcn¨v C´y³ ]uccpsS
Nn´bv¡pw {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä¡pw
AImcWamb hne¡pIÄ GÀs¸Sp¯m³ ]mSnÃ.

kaXzw -

hnthN\anÃmsX ]ucÀ¡v Ahkc§Ä e`yam¡Ww.
\nba¯n\pap¶n FÃmscbpw Xpeycmbn ]cnKWn¡Ww.
FÃmÀ¡pw \nba¯nsâ Xpeyamb ]cnc£ DïmhWw.

kmtlmZcyw -

cm{ã¯nsâ `mKamWv FÃmcpsa¶ kmtlmZcy`mhw
]ucÀ¡nSbn ]pecWw. aX]ctam hÀ¤obtam
PmXobtam Bb Bib§Ä¡v C´ybnÂ
CSw \ÂImsX cm{ã¯nsâ sFIyw Im¯pkq£n¡Ww.

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 1133

At¸mÄ A§s\bÃ, BapJw
CsXms¡bmtWm `cWLS\bpsS s]mXpkz`mh
auenImhImi§Ä ? amWv ]dbp¶Xv.

C´y³ ]uccpsS {]mYanIhpw ASnØm\]chpamb
a\pjymhImi§fmWv auenImhImi§Ä.
C´ybnse P\§Ä¡v auenImhImi§Ä
A\p`hn¡m³ Ignªm am{Xta BapJ¯nÂ
]dbp¶ C´ybpsS khn-ti-j-XIÄ \ne\nÀ¯m³ Ignbq.

144 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

auenImhImi§Ä

Fs´ms¡bmWv
auenImhImi§Ä ?

■ kaXz¯n\pÅ AhImiw
■ kzmX{´y¯n\pÅ AhImiw
■ NqjWw sN¿s¸SmXncn¡m\pÅ AhImiw
■ aXkzmX{´y¯n\pÅ AhImiw
■ kmwkvImcnIhpw hnZym`ymk]chpamb AhImiw
■ auenImhImi§Ä kwc£n¡p¶Xn\v

`cWLS\ Dd¸p\ÂIp¶ ]cnlmc¯n\pÅ
AhImiw.

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 1155

■ auenImhImi§Ä ]mÀ-«v aq-¶n DÄ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶p.

Cu auenImhImi§Ä
F§s\bmWv \ap¡v
A\p`hn¡m³ IgnbpI ?

`cWLS\mhyhØIfneqsSbmWv
auenImhImi§Ä Dd¸m¡p¶Xv.
`cWLS\mhyhØIÄ BÀ«n¡nfpIfnÂ
DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«pïv. auenImhImi§Ä
\ntj[n¡s¸«m \ap¡v t\cn«v
kp{]ow tImSXnsb kao]n¡mw.

166 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

F´mWv
BÀ«n¡nÄ ?

`cWLS\bpsS BapJ¯nÂ
]dbp¶ Dt±iy§fpw kao]\§fpw
bmYmÀYyam¡phm\pÅ hyhØIfmWv
BÀ«n¡nÄ AYhm hIp¸v.

`-c-W-L-S-\m-km-£-c-Xm]pkvXIw 1177

auenImhImi§fpsS {][m\s¸«h
BÀ«n¡nÄ ]dbmw
GsXms¡bmWv?
kaXz¯n-\p-Å A-h-Imiw
.
BÀ«n¡nÄ 14 -

\nba¯n\pap¶n FÃmcpw XpeycmWv.

BÀ«n¡nÄ 15 -

aX¯nsâtbm hwi¯nsâtbm PmXnbpsStbm
enwK¯nsâtbm P\\Øe¯nsâtbm
t]cn hnthN\w ]mSnÃ. ZpÀ_ehn`mK§Ä¡pw
]n¶m¡¡mÀ¡pw {]tXyI]cnKW\ \ÂIp¶Xn\pÅ
\nba\nÀ½mWw A\phZ\obamWv.

BÀ«n¡nÄ 16 -

kÀ¡mcn\v IognepÅ Øm]\§fn sXmgnen\pw
\nba\¯n\pw AhkckaXzw D­−mhWw.
AtXkabw, ]n¶m¡hn`mK¡mÀ¡v sXmgnenÂ
kwhcWw \ÂIm\pÅ A[nImcw kÀ¡mcn\p­−v.

BÀ«n¡nÄ 17

sXm«pIqSmbva ]mSnÃ.

188 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän

kzmX{´y¯n-\p-Å A-h-Imiw

-

BÀ«n¡nÄ 19

CXn A`n{]mb{]IS\¯n\pw
BhnjvIcW¯n\papÅ kzmX{´yw,
kam[m\]cambn kwLSn¡m\pÅ kzmX{´yw,
\½psS cmPys¯hnsSbpw k©cn¡m\pÅ
kzmX{´yw, \½psS cmPys¯hnsSbpw
Xmakn¡m\pÅ kzmX{´yw, GXp sXmgnepw
sN¿m\pÅ kzmX{´yw XpS§nbhbmWv
]dbp¶Xv.

BÀ«n¡nÄ 21 -

Pohn¡m\pÅ AhImihpw
hyànkzmX{´y¯n\pÅ AhImihpw
\nba\S]SnIfneqsSbÃmsX \ntj[n¡cpXv.

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4 tI-c-fkw-Ø-m-\km-£-c-Xm-an-j³A-tXm-dnän


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