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Published by logintechnique, 2019-05-30 08:21:54

Volume I - Issue 1

Volume I - Issue 1


(A Blind Peer Reviewed Half Yearly Journal)


(Govt. Aided & Re- Accredited by NAAC with “B” Grade)


E-mail id : [email protected]

Phone: 0461- 2310600, Fax : 0461- 2310275


Patrons Warm Greetings from EduReach!

Shri. A.P.C.V. Chockalingam , President V.O.Chidambaram College of Education, proposes
Shri. A.P.C.V. Shanmugam, Secretary to launch a half yearly journal. The new edition of this
journal named “EduReach : VOC Journal of Educational
V.O.Chidambaram College of Education Research” is a blind peer reviewed with an ISSN, focusing
on all issues related to education. We are glad to unveil
Advisory Committee this first issue with the blessings of our Hon. founder
secretary Kulapathi A.P.C. Veerabahu. We express our
Dr. V. Thamodharan, Ph.D., Principal sense of gratitude to the faculties, research scholars and
non-academicians interested and involved in education
V.O.Chidambaram College of Education for extending their generous and magnanimous support
and constant encouragement in the forthcoming days
Prof. Dr. O. Nellaiyapen, Ph.D., also.

Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Educating children today is a big challenge as the
teachers have to be prepared and trained in every aspect.
Prof. Dr. Balakrishnan Muniandy, Ph.D., Unimaginable change brought by Liberalization,
Privatisation and Globalisation, especially Science and
University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Information Technology has become a big challenge.
Social networking challlenge has tremendous impact
Prof. Dr. Ugur Demiray, Ph.D., on the lives of people. At the outset, the way of thinking,
culture and the life style of the people have also changed.
Anadolu University, Eskisehir Turkey. The outcome of this change in behaviour could be visible
in the early stages. In this scenario, the teachers shoulder
Prof. Dr. Samuel Ouma Oyoo, Ph.D., the responsibility of educating young minds which needs
dedication and training in every aspect. Teachers should
Wits School of Education, Australia. inculcate values and share the knowledge make use of
these resources meaningfully, because this fast growing
Chief Editor media makes the receiver enriched. Hence, it is the duty
of the teachers to monitor and accompany the children
Dr. T. Kanakaraj to make use of the resources effectively and efficiently,
so that they become productive.
This issue of our journal carries research papers
Dr.S. Rasul Mohaideen, Dr.R.Sasipriya on various issues like Egocentric Characteristics, Writing
Deficiency of teacher trainees, Soft Skills and Teaching
Co-Editors Competency, Academic Help Seeking Behaviour,
Personality, Organisational Climate, Communication
Dr. S. Usha Parvathi, Dr. S. Guru Vasuki Skills, and Human Rights Awareness. This issue mainly
focuses on prospective teachers and a few on school
Associate Editors students. This will throw some ideas to reform the teacher
education institutions and ultimately the society.
Prof. Dr. E. Ramganesh, Ph.D.,
With Regards,
Bharathidhasan University, Tiruchirappalli.
Editorial Board
Prof. Dr. I. Muthuchamy, Ph.D.,

Bharathidhasan University, Tiruchirappalli.

Dr. P. Vijayal, Ph.D.,

Former Principal, V.O.C.College of Education,

Dr. K. Thiyagu, Ph.D.,

Central University of Kerala, South India.

Technical Committee

Dr. G. Rajadhurai Dr. C. Thanavathi

Assistant Professors,
V.O.Chidambaram College of Education

Published by

V.O.Chidambaram Educational Society,

Thoothukudi – 628008.

Printed at : Uma Press, Tirunelveli.


* Mrs.A. Linsey Cranab **Dr. B. William Dharma Raja

Early adolescence is a distinct developmental phase, which qualitatively differs from
both latency and adolescent proper. Early adolescent at the terminal stage of concrete thinking,
may not be able to perform abstract thinking. So there may be some cognitive distortions within
them. One of the cognitive distortions encountered by them is egocentrism. It is the state of
being self-centred, preoccupied with one’s own concerns to the exclusion of noticing or caring
about others. The egocentrism at the early adolescent stage is distinctive and crucial as the
cognitive and emotional disequilibrium as well as the psychological vulnerabilities. This study
reveals the egocentrism with regard to select attributive variables.

Keywords : Egocentrism, Early adolescent and for girls and acting-out and learning difficulties for
Cognitive distortion.
boys. The findings of Riely, Adams and Nielson

Introduction (1984) examine that perceived parental support was

Adolescence is a time of transition in whichassociated with diminished egocentrism, while

the adolescents must cope with involving his or heprerceived parental rejection was predictive of

mind, body, emotions and social relationships. Theheightened self-consciousness. Egocentrism

term egocentrism is named by child psychologist, contributes to unrealistic optimism (Weinstein and

Jean Piaget. From his research on developmental Lachendro, 1982). The existence of the imaginary

stages of children, he notised that egocentrism wasaudience declined with age, as did the personal

a primary phase for children until about age six. Hfeable,although the latter did not decline to the same

termed egocentrism as the tendency for children toextent as the former (Enright et al., 1979). According

only be aware of their own needs and thoughts andto O’Conner (1995), identity development was

to basically assume that they are the centre of the more strongly and consistently related to ego

world. In this phase, children are not able to considceerntrism.

or grasp the thoughts of others accurately, becauseSignificance of the Study

adolescents to think that they are invulnerable. In addition to the abstract thinking, early

Burka and Glenwick(1978) say that high adolescents foster egocentrism. Adolescent
egocentrism is associated with shy, anxious behavieoguorcentrism is the heightened self-consciousness of

* UGC - Junior Research Fellow, Department of Education, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,
Tirunelveli - 627 012.

** Head, Department of Education, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli - 627 012.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 1 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

adolescents, which reflected in their belief that othteorsbe 0.723. The Cronbach’s -value for 38 items
are as interested in them as they are in themselves,is 0.700. Items with low correlation value were
and in their sense of personal uniqueness and dropped and 16 items were deleted. To have
invincibility. Many cognitive characteristics can beCronbach’s - value as 0.803, the items were
studied but the egocentrism is the characteristic reduced from 38 to 22.
which cannot be easily identified by oneself. BecauSsaemple
The accessible population for this study is
it will diminish as the child grow to adulthood and
exceptions are also there. This study helps to knowall high and higher secondary school students in
Tirunelveli district. The data were collected from 596
the individual differences in their egocentric students of standard IX from 21 schools which
characteristic with regard to selected background include government, aided and private schools.
Data Analysis
Objectives the significant difference, if any, in
1. To find theoTaf bselec–on1d:aSryigsntiufidceanntcsewoifthdirfefegraerndcteoipneergsoonceanl vtraicrianbalteusr.e

egocentric nature of the early adolescents with Personal variable N Mean SD t p

regard to the personal variables. Gender Male 302 64.91 10.36360 4.967 0.000*
294 61.044 8.57851
2. To find the significant difference, if any, in the Female

egocentric nature of the early adolescents with Medium Tamil 297 63.284 9.87717 0.704 0.482 NS
English 299 62.724 9.55273
regard to the familial variables. if any, in the Residence Day Scholar 563 63.065 9.76301 0.707 0.517 NS
3. To find the significant difference, 33 61.937 8.85724
egocentric nature of the early adolescents with * Significant at 1% level NS - Not Significant at 5% level

regard to the institutional variables. Table - 2 : Significance of difference in egocentric nature

Hypotheses of secondary students with regard to familial variables

1. There is no significant difference in the egocentricFamilial variable N Mean SD t p

nature of the early adolescents with regard to the Parental Status Both Parents 566 63.001 9.616 0.506 0.988 NS
personal variables. Single Parent 30 63.03 11.55 0.924 0.356 NS
339 10.3
Mothers Employee 63.323
2. There is no significant difference in the egocentErmicployability Not an
nature of the early adolescents with regard to the Status Employee 257 62.581 8.873
NS - Not Significant even at 5% level
familial variables. difference in the egocenrTteargbiaclerd- with
3. There is no significant 3 : Significance of difference in egocentrism
to institutional variables
nature of the early adolescents with regard to the Institutional Source of Sum of df Mean F value P value
Variable Squares
institutional variables. Type of School Between 117.108 2 58.554 0.620 0.538NS
Methodology 593 94.436
Within 56000.844

Survey method was adopted for this study. Nature of School Between 1334.001 2 667.000 7.220 0.001**
Within 54783.952 593 92.384
Tool Used Locality of Between 134.786 2 67.393 0.714 0.490NS
A three point scale namely LiWi’s scale on School Within 55983.166 593

egocentrism developed by the authors containing 22**Significant at 1% level NS - Not Significant even at 5% level

statements was used to identify the egocentric natuTraeble - 3 (a) : Scheffe’s test result showing the significant
difference in the egocentrism of early adolescents with
of the early adolescents. of school
The tool was given to three experts School Mean Std.Error P Value
field of psychology and education for face Private difference

Based on the suggestions given by the experts, item64s.389 61.280 - 3.108 0.966 0.006*

were reframed apposite to the level of early - 61.280 64.220 2.936 0.936 0.008*

adolescents. Three point rating scale - always, 64.389 - 64.220 0.168 1.044 0.987 NS

sometimes and never - was employed. The try out * Significant at 1% level NS - Not Significant even at 5% level
was established using 90 respondents. The Findings and Interpretations
Table 1 reveals that there is no significant
respondents were students of standard IX from six
schools. The reliability coefficient of the tool was difference in egocentrism with regard to medium
verified using test–retest method, and it was foundof instruction and mode of residence. And only

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 2 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

with regard to gender early adolescents show situations, so that children can learn from one another.

significant difference at 1% level of significance. Social perspective training, Interpersonal cognitive
The male students exhibit more egocentric problem solving training and value education can be
given at earlier stages to minimize the egocentric
characteristics than their counterparts.
From the table 2, it is found that there is behaviour. The Jigsaw puzzles and building blocks of
no significant difference in egocentrism with different sizes and shapes develop the child’s capacity
for abstract thinking (Weiler, n.d). These activities
regard to familial variables.
Table 3, reveals that there is no significant are sure to hold the interest of the children and help
difference in egocentrism with regard to type of them to develop abstract thinkinTg.he involvement
to the lack of social cognitive skills, they exhibit Youth and Adolescence,13(5),401-417. Retrieved
egocentric characteristics. Research says that from
students studying in unisex and co-education schooBlFs 02088638.
show significant differences in their social values and

personal variables, academic behaviours and Printed by The Uma Press, Published by

achievement, attachment with parents and teachers,V.O.Chidambaram College of Education, on

and perception about the climate (Levinson, behalf of V.O.Chidambaram Educational

Cookson and Sadovnik, 2002). Society and Printed at The Uma Press, 25

Recommendations Railway feeder Road, Tirunelveli Town,

Through various life skill developmental Tirunelveli - 627006. and Published from

programmes, the early adolescents can be trained to V.O.Chidambaram College of Education,

think before acting, to consider the impact of this Palayamkottai Road, Thoothukudi - 628008

egocentric behaviour on maintaining relationships. Thaend owned by V.O.Chidambaram Educational

heightened egocentric behaviour shrinks the social Society, Thoothukudi.

characteristics of an early adolescent. Social Editor : Dr. T. Kanakaraj.
interaction has to be encouraged in classroom

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 3 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


*Dr. Hariharan ** Dr.K. Mohana Sundaram

The manufacturing units are systematically employing the six sigma method for the
comprehensive and operative quality sustenance. The utility value of six sigma DMAIC strategy
in teacher education has been rarely comprehended and the same method can revamp the
teacher education system to suit the present day opportunities and challenges (Hariharan, 2013).
This experimental study comprises of two groups namely –control and experimental groups
with 30 student teachers in each group and the Learning Deficiency Scale (LDS) was used to
analyse the writing deficiencies. The findings reveal the relevancy of six sigma-DMAIC methods
and influence of the deficiencies are less in experimental group taught by ICT enabled approach.
Six sigma calculations reveal that the student teacher’s writing strategies are deficient in both
the groups but its level is less in the experimental group.

Keywords : Six sigma, DMAIC approach, Learninthge customers - every product and service - towards

deficiency and FMEA. near perfect quality.

Introduction The document on quality assurance in higher

Lack of quality learning process is the education of the NAAC (2007) has stated, “the six
predominant factor in the classrooms which sigma as philosophy is concerned with customers
deliberately slow down the quality skill acquisitionfocus and creative process improvements. Six sigma
of the student teachers. The academic life with pooprhilosophies believe that there is a strong correlation
readability, poor writing ability, lack of self – between the level of defects, costs and customer
assessment, lack of note- taking attitude may (student trainees) satisfaction. If this is spread across
obstruct the academic growth of the prospective the organization as an inherent philosophy, people
teachers. In this standpoint, the six sigma is a provwenork in teams with ultimate goal of reducing the
quality principle which can be adopted to find the defects and aspire to reach the perfection”.
influence of the negative factors of writability of According to the NAAC document, the six sigma
student teachers as the six sigma is widely used in method can be effectively used to improve the quality
the manufacturing sectors like Motorola which of academic learning.

pioneered the six sigma quality strategy. The prime focus of this study is to analyse

Six Sigma – Dmaic quality of student teachers’ performance in the

The six sigma DMAIC analysis was establishceldassroom via use of the DMAIC method of the six
by Bill Smith in Motorola in 1986 to foster the sigma methodology in the academic process which
industrial quality in all the ways. Now it has been is underpinning the determination of advantages of
widely used in all the industrial units. However, it tihse DMAIC method in teacher education and
not much used in the academic setting (Hari Harantraining (Hari Haran, 2015).
The novel contribution of this paper is such
et al., 2015) Hence, the research on quality of
academic service based on the six sigma strategy isadvantages of use of the six sigma-DMAIC method
of the six sigma methodology in teacher education
very meagre.
Six sigma, defined O’Neill and Duvall (2005)f,or analysing their writing for attaining the
is a disciplined quality improvement methodologyachievement.

that focuses on moving every process that touches

* Asst. Professor, Indra Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, MadhyaPradhesh.
** Former Principal, Govt. Arts College, Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 4 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table – 1 : Six sigma - DMAIC method in the Need for the study – Failure Mode Effect Analysis
classroom learning system (FMEA) on writing

D Define the writing as prime objective of academic outcome

M Measure writing deficiencies while learning psychology by student Failure mode and effect analysis, or FMEA,
is an attempt to delineate all possible failures, their
A Analyse their writing the psychological principles by statistical
process effect on the system, the likelihood of occurrence,

I Improve learning based on the data analysis in the analyse phase and the probability that the failure will go undetected
C Control plans that institutionalize the improvements for the future (Pyzdek, 2010). This technique is a primal attempt
to ensure that student learning stay at a desired level. to bring out the rational outputs of writing factors

The psychological concepts are taught througehncountered by teacher trainees (Hariharan and

the ICT enabled classrooms by which the learning Mohana sundaram, 2013).
defects can be minimised.

Table- 2: The FMEA on writing of the student teachers

Mode of Effect of S.I Causes of failure O Controls DR Recommended
failure failure action
Lack of Lack of dynamic Periodical of
readability Lack of ability in inspection 6 180 Re sourceful T raining
learning 6 moulding the 5 authorities process
Hampering attainments students to write
The fullest Lack of parental
potential in care in writing Periodical 4 144 Creating
remarkable visit of infrastructural
learning 6 authorities
outcome facilities to meet
writing skills
Poor adminis trative Effective Implementation of
and academic monitoring by suitable strategies to

practices towards 7 teacher 7 294 Improve the

textual writing. educators and writability


Lack of skill Constant 210 Providing

training of the 5 Motivation by 7 motivational
students in the feedback programs–

textual writing counselling

R elu ctan ce for Effective 112 Providing

continuous on 4 monitoring 4 motivational
evaluation programs–

writing skills counselling

Authorities of nodal agencies, managements, fads of the institutions, Faculty and students

[(R=SI×O×D) S.I–Severity Index; O–opportunity; D–Detection possibility; R-Risk priority number]

Since the reading skills are the essential for that may create irresistible effect on the positive
the student teachers, it is need of the hour to evaluadtevelopment of the school children of their
their writing the psychological concepts. Further threespective schools and hence the present study was
FMEA analysis shows that the Lack of dynamic abciloitnyducted to analyse the learning deficiencies of
in moulding the students, Poor administrative the secondary teacher trainees in terms of the reader
academic practices (294) and in Lack of skill trainin(HgariHaran&Zaseerinska, 2015).

of the students (210) are the most negative dominanSttudy Design

factors which may negatively influence the student The design of the present empirical study
teachers. Hence it is obligatory to take on the currencot mprises the research question and purpose,
study entitled”Writing Deficiencies of Teacher variables, samples and methodology of the present
Trainees – An Analysis by Six Sigma-DMAIC empirical study.
Approach”. Since the learning deficiency will be
The guiding question of the present empirical
wholly seen as academic failure of teacher educatiosntudy is: Does the teaching strategy and six sigma –

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 5 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

DMAIC method influence the writing pattern of Table – 4: The deficiency level in writing of the two groups
Deficiency Factor Norm fit DPMO SigmaValue
student teachers? Factors mean value (4 weeks) T.G ICT
Objective of Study T.G ICT

1. To find the sigma values of learning deficienciesPDreosbclreibminsgof 48.4 30.6 0.484 0.306 484000 306000 1.54 2.007
and achievement test score of control and Unintentional to 50.4 32.7 0.504 0.327 504000 327000 1.49 1.948

experimental group in reading skills. write the content
2. To find out ttehaecehfifnegctiinvethneescslaosfsIrCoTomproofgsratumdeinntcUwaoshnsnialitembelnweiltartfitouteinlltyghe
psychological 47.6 35.9 0.476 0.359 476000 359000 1.56 1.861
teachers. Dislikes/Avoids
written work 44.1 31.7 0.441 0.317 441000 317000 1.648 1.976
Methodology in the class room

In this experimental study totally 60 student Inadequate
structure in the 42.6 33.7 0.426 0.337 426000 337000 1.687 1.921
teachers were purposely selected from the written work

TDreipbaarltUmneinvteorsfiEtyd,uAcamtiaornk,aInntadkiraanGdaanldlohtiteNdaetiqounaalllyUWTnr.titiGdteyn.w-orkTrad4i5t.i2on28a.4l 0.452 0.284 452000 284000 1.621 2.071

group (Control)
in two groups – control and experimental and the ICT - ICT group (Experimental)
self-prepared pre-test and post-test questionnaire
The below table 5 reveals the achievement
DPMO Sigma value
Results of Hypothesis testing – 1 (one opportunity)
Defective Score (X) DPU

There is no significant difference in the control ICT T ICT ICT
ttoespt rwetaesstadsiogpmteaTdG2243roup T Group ICT Group T Group
and experimental group with regard Group Group Group Group
mean value in writing skills. The ‘t’ 8 0.48 0.16 480000 160000 1.55 2.494
460000 220000 1.6
11 0.46 0.22 2.272

in the present study. 20 9 0.40 0.18 400000 180000 1.753 2.415

Table-3: ‘t’ value in the writing of two groups in the pretest 22 9 0.44 0.18 440000 180000 1.651 2.415

Group N Sigma S.D Std. t p Remarks 26 12 0.52 0.24 520000 240000 1.45 2.206

Mean Error value value 25 10 0.50 0.2 500000 200000 1.5 2.342

22 9 0.44 0.18 440000 180000 1.651 2.415

Control 30 1.2867 0.2473 0.05272 28 15 0.56 0.30 560000 300000 1.349 2.024
ICT 2.044
0.054 Non - 25 9 0.50 0.18 500000 180000 1.5 2.415
30 1.3011 0.2395 0.05106
Significant 21 10 0.42 0.2 420000 200000 1.702 2.342

p<0.05 27 11 0.54 0.22 540000 220000 1.4 2.272

The table 3 reveals that the sigma mean value 22 14 0.44 0.28 440000 280000 1.651 2.083
6 0.40 0.12 400000 120000 1.753 2.675

of control group and experimental group are similar 24 15 0.48 0.3 480000 300000 1.55 2.024

and hence the hypothesis above stated is accepted. 29 12 0.58 0.24 580000 240000 1.298 2.206
8 0.52 0.16 520000 160000 1.45 2.494

Since the pre-test attainments is similar in each 18 10 0.36 0.2 360000 200000 1.853 2.342
group, the post test is conducted so as to find the 23
24 11 0.46 0.22 460000 220000 1.6 2.272

8 0.48 0.16 480000 160000 1.55 2.494

effectiveness of ICT based learning as well as the 18 11 0.36 0.22 360000 220000 1.858 2.272
reduction of the DPMO (Defects per Million
23 14 0.46 0.28 460000 280000 1.6 2.083
10 0.44 0.2 440000 200000 1.651 2.342

opportunities) and increase of sigma value in two gro25ups. 9 0.50 0.18 500000 180000 1.5 2.415

19 12 0.38 0.24 380000 240000 1.805 2.206
The below table 4 shows that the variation in 18
13 0.36 0.26 360000 260000 1.858 2.143

DPMO value in traditional group (504000) is higher24 8 0.48 0.16 480000 160000 1.55 2.494

than the ICT group (359000) and sigma process 22 15 0.44 0.3 440000 300000 1.651 2.024
13 0.42 0.26 420000 260000 1.702 2.143

outcome is more in the ICT group. The deficiencies 19 14 0.38 0.28 380000 280000 1.805 2.083
in writing are lesser in ICT group (2.071). 25 10 0.50 0.2 500000 200000 1.5 2.291
Mean 0.4566 0.217 456666 217333.3 1.609

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 6 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

The results of the hypothesis - 2 concentration, tiredness, etc. Further, they have
Table – 6 :‘t’ value in the wringing deficiencies level of stated that, a control chart can reduce our chances
two groups. of making possible errors.

Group N Sigma S.D Std. ‘t’ P Remarks the ICT Concept by the Prospective Teachers.
Control Mean 0.1517 Error value value Significant Paper presented and published in the Book of
abstracts of the Association for Teacher
30 1.612 0.282 16.328* 0.000 p<0.05

ICT 30 2.292 0.0305 0.023 Education in Europe Spring Conference 2013:

The DPMO (Defects Per Million Teacher of the 21st Century: International
Opportunities) noted in the table 7 of two groups conference Quality Education for Quality
are optimum, its level is less 217333.3 in the ICT Teaching, p. 31, Riga, Latvia, Europe. May 10-
group than the control group (456666) as the ICT 11, 2013.
mode of teaching of psychological concepts Hariharan,R., Zascerinska, J., &Swamydhas.P.
enhanced the learning. Further the hypothesis abov(e2013). A Comparative Study of Methodologies of
stated is rejected as there is significant difference Teaching Web Technologies to Prospective Teachers
between the control and experimental group exist in India and Latvia. International Journal of
with regard to the process sigma mean. (Control - Modern Education Forum (IJMEF).Volume 2
1.612; ICT - 2.292). Issue 4, November 2013.p.84-91. U.S.A. Science
Discussion and Engineering Publishing Company (SEP).
The results of Kuldeep Nagi and Srisakdi Hariharan, R., Zascerinska, J., (2015).Six sigma–
Charmonman (2010) who reported that Six SigmaA new trend in Educational Research.
methods can help in analysing the reasons for the Germany, Globe edit - Omni Scriptum GMBH,
lack of activity during the course of studies and it ISBN:978-3-639-82460-5.
gives a clear identification of instructional problemKsuldeep, Nagi., & Srisakdi Charmonman,
collected through data. This case study reveals that(2010).Applying Six Sigma Techniques to Improving
Six Sigma based DMAIC technique can improve the Quality of e-Learning Courseware Components-
the quality learning process of the secondary teachaeCr ase Study. Management of innovation and
trainees. It is in concurrence with the findings of technology (ICMIT), 2010.IEEE International
Chlaidzeand I. Linde (2006) who reported that theconference, (275-280).
Six Sigma pertains to improving the quality of matMteirrkoSavic.(2006). P-Charts in the Quality Control
taught, the character generated of the students, andof the Grading Process in the High Education.
the quality of study and student’s life. Panoeconomicus, 2006, 3, str. 335-347 UDC
Due to the lack of writing, reading, note takin3g78.4:371.26.
and writing strategies, the achievement tests may O’Neill, M. & Duvall, C. (2005). A Six Sigma quality
have reduced score. It is concurrence with the approach to workplace evaluation, Journal of
findings of Mirko Savic (2006) who indicated thatfacilities management, 3, pp.240–253.
a control chart can reduce the common cause Pyzdek, T. (2001). The Six Sigma Handbook – A
variation which is usually a student’s responsibilityC,omplete Guide for Greenbelts, Blackbelts and
for instance, poor preparation for exams, Managers at All Levels. New York, McGraw-Hill.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 7 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017



*Dr. R. Sasipriya **Dr.P.Annaraja


UNESCO (2001) aims to provide global leadership on teachers, their status, their
professional training, their management and administration and key policy issues. Hence teacher
education has to create a new paradigm based upon the five pillars of education - Learning to
know, Learning to do, Learning to live together, Learning to be and Learning to transform
oneself and society. National Curriculum Framework (2005) looks at the teacher as an active
agent to aid the child in knowledge construction by acting on his/her social and physical
environment. The teachers help the students to acquire not only the right knowledge but also
values, attitudes, habits and skills that are necessary to cope up with the world of tomorrow
with cutting edge knowledge. Teaching-learning, being a process of interaction and interpretation
becomes meaningful and successful only in the presence and application of soft skills and teaching
competency in the classroom. Hence, a continuous, practice in soft skills and teaching competency
during teacher training is essential. The investigator adopted the survey method to study the
relationship between the performance in soft skills and teaching competency of secondary
teacher education students. The sample consists of 1287 secondary teacher education students.
Among them 314 are male students and 973 are female students. The investigators developed
two tools for collecting data namely Soft skill inventory and Teaching competency scale (2009).
Significant relationship between the performance in soft skills of secondary teacher education
students and their teaching competency is found significant.

Keywords : Soft skills, Teaching competency andencounters a number of challenges in economic,

Teacher education. social, political and technological fields. These skills

Introduction are known as soft skills. Every teacher has to keep

Education develops desirable habits, skills antdhese soft skills in his /her mind while creating
attitudes which make an individual a good citizen.oIpt timum and challenging learning atmosphere in the
empowers the individual with necessary skills andclassroom situation.

competence afonrdatchheireevbinygciomntproibrtuatnint gpetorstohneasl oacnidal Significance of the Study
social goals
The progress of a country depends upon the
development. Education is the most powerful
instrument in the hands of teachers whose effectivequality of its teachers as they build the pillars of the
use requires the strength of will, dedicated work anndation. Teachers occupy a pivotal role in any nation.
They are of high esteem and honour in the society.
rteoalechoTefrhsteewacphhuoerrphoaisvseneoporlfoofneegdseusricocanotianolfncinoiemsdpttoeotetpenracocidehusin.cgTe heTTdihesaescierhmpeironsaiistteiosontnheaenwcduhrlootuleriemin.bTtihhbeeeyss,oacrieinetttehyrepisrmeutasnkieqarunsedo. f the
alone. They need to be thorough professional, fullyfuture citizens of the society. They are philosophers,
acquired with high academic standard, pedagogic guides and men of higher ideas in moulding the
and professional skill. To achieve one’s goal, he / society. The teacher is one who sets up the standards,
she has to acquire, update professional skills to leabduilds desirable attitudes, behaviours and characters
a happy life in the present democratic society that among the students.

* Assistant Professor of Physical Science, V.O.C. College of Education, Thoothukudi.
**Former Research Director & Associate Professor of Mathematics, St.Xavier’s College of Education, Tirunelveli.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 8 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Teaching is the noblest profession among all Objectives

professions. It is a career that shapes the minds of To find out the relationship between teaching
tomorrow. It provides the students with the skills competency and the performance in oral
for survival. Teaching is a complex set of task whicohmmunication skill, written communication skill,
demands the ability to understand, to communicatec,omputer skill, stress management skill, organising
to inspire and to motivate the students, to create skill, time management skill, leadership skill,
interpersonal skill, and team building skill of
patience, values, intelligence, enthusiasm,
friendliness, personality, sense of humour and secondary teacher education students.
empathy. The concept of teaching has changed fromNull Hypotheses

the teacher-centered to learner-centered. They have1. There is no significant difference between male

become a facilitator than the instructor and the souarcned female secondary teacher education students in

of all knowledge. their performance in soft skills.

In this present situation the teachers require a2. There is no significant difference between male
new type of knowledge, attitude, atmosphere and and female secondary teacher education students in
facility to make his/her task easy, fruitful and their teaching competency and its dimensions.

confirming according to the demands of the society3. There is no significant relationship between

and the students. So the teachers must be properly teaching competency and performance in soft skills

equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and of secondary teacher education students.

abilities to deal with children. The educational Methodology
institutions have to play significant roles and to make The investigator adopted the survey method
possible the dreams of younger generation. Futureto study the relationship between teaching
teachers have to play bigger and crucial roles to competency and the performance in soft skills of
incorporate, sustain and transmit competency-basesdecondary teacher education students.
and skill-based education.
Population for the Study

The teacher helps the students to acquire not The accessible population for the present study
only the right knowledge but also values, attitudes,includes all the secondary teacher education students
habits and skills that are necessary to cope up withstudying in B.Ed. colleges in Tirunelveli, Tuticorin

the world of tomorrow. Teaching-learning, being aand Kanyakumari district affiliated to Tamil Nadu

process of interaction and interpretation becomes Teachers Education University, Chennai.

meaningful and successful only in the presence andSample for the Study
application of soft skills and teaching competency The investigator had used stratified random
in the classroom. It is a high time for teachers to sampling technique for selecting the sample. The
acquire knowledge about the factors and areas thatinvestigators randomly selected 16 B.Ed. Colleges
lead and improve teaching competency. Likewise,from Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari district
they should understand their own soft skills that healfpfiliated to Tamil Nadu Teachers Education
them to understand students in a better manner. University.

Mitchell (2010) found that soft skills are From each college Tamil, English Maths,

important components of the educational curriculuPmh.ysical Science, Bioscience, History Computer
So, through this study, the investigator tries to findScience, Economics and Commerce optional subject
out the relationship between teaching competency secondary teacher education students were taken
and soft skills namely oral communication skill, by including both male and female students.
written communication skill, computer skill, stressStratification was done on the basis of gender,

management skill, organising skill, time managemreenltigion, management of college and type of college.

skill, leadership skill, inter personal skill and teamThe sample consists of 1287 secondary teacher

building skill of secondary teacher education education students. Among them 314 are male

students. students and 973 are female students.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 9 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Tools Used Findings and Interpretations

1. Soft skill inventory developed by Sasipriya Table1 reveals that there is significant difference
and Annaraja (2009).
between male and female secondary teacher
2. Teaching competency scale developed by education students in their performance in oral
Sasipriya and Annaraja (2009).
communication skill, computer skill, stress
Table -1 : Difference between male and female secondary management skill and leadership skill. But there is
teacher education students in their soft Skills
no significant difference between male and female
Soft skills Male Female Calculated
(N = 314) (N = 973) ‘t’ value Remarks secondary teacher education students in their
Mean S.D Mean S.D
performance in written communication skill,
Oral communi-
cation skill 28.04 4.478 26.75 4.861 4.374 S organising skill, time management skill, interpersonal

Written communi 27.36 5.060 27.67 4.733 0.963 NS skill and team building skill. Male students have better
cation skill 36.51 8.352 35.42 8.385 2.000 S performance in oral communication skill than female
Computer skill students. This may be due to the fact that male
Stress manage- 32.61 5.152 31.82 5.609 2.314 S students have more social exposure which leads them
skill 29.37 5.112 29.62 4.857 0.773 NS to interact with their neighbours and community.
Organising skill They get the chance of mingling with their peer
Time manage- 28.78 5.154 29.13 5.126 1.039 NS
ment skill

Leadership skill 23.25 4.689 22.41 4.784 2.744 S group, relatives and society. This contact with
society provides them with oral communication skill.
Interpersonal 33.08 4.723 32.73 4.927 1.139 NS And also they have more chances for self-exploration
skill through exposure to the world and they involve
themselves more in external activities because of the
Team building 26.64 4.776 25.22 4.463 1.654 NS favourable cultural settings. This finding supports the

(At 5% level of significance the table value of ‘t’ is 1.96 )

Table – 2 : Difference between male and female secondary
teacher education students in their teaching competency

Male Female Calcu- investigation done by Sasipriya and Annaraja (2008).
(N = 314) They found that the boys were better than girls in
Dimensions (N = 973) lated their oral communication skill. Male students have
Mean S.D better performance in computer skill than female
Skill of planning Mean S.D ‘t’ value Remarks
the lesson
19.39 2.950 18.99 3.36 2.026 S

Skill of motivation 20.19 2.969 19.94 2.97 1.328 NS students. This may be due to the fact that male
students have more inclination to earn more money
Skill of subject 20.16 2.971 19.96 3.13 1.009 NS to settle in life and to acquire wealth. Being aware
mastery 23.19 3.644 22.95 3.66 1.015 NS

Skill of presentation

Skill of using 15.86 2.769 16.01 2.72 0.847 NS of the modern blooming reality to mint money in the
audio-visual 16.31 2.669 16.20 2.53 0.610 NS field of computer industries, male students show more
36.28 5.569 36.28 5.66 1.593 NS interest in excelling in their computer skill.
Skill of usingrelevant 16.03 2.565 16.30 2.55 0.821 NS
Male students have better performance in stress
Skill of class room

Skill of closure of the

Skill of evaluation 19.92 3.039 20.09 3.10 0.553 NS management skill than female students. This may be
Skill of guidance 37.76 5.217 37.95 5.34 2.026 S due to the fact that male students have more chances
to mingle with the society more freely by going out
Teaching competency 19.39 2.950 18.99 3.36 1.328 NS of their house and spend time with their friends in
the recreational places like parks and play grounds.
(At 5% level of significance the table value of ‘t’ is 1.96 ) Male have the tendency to forget the negative
happenings and thoughts more easily. They cannot
Table-3 : Relationship between teaching competency and
performance in soft skills of secondary teacher education students

Soft skills N Table Calculated Remarks
Oral communication skill Value value of r

0.333 S

Written communication skill 0.406 S relate it with the past incidents and they are not

Computer skill 0.313 S prejudistic. And this may help them to release their
Stress management skill 0.424 S
1287 0.062 0.539 S pent up feelings and emotions and are better in stress
Organising skill

Time management skill 0.449 S management skills. And male students have better
Leadership skill 0.296 S
Interpersonal skill 0.553 S performance in leadership skill than female students.
Team buildingskill
0.533 S This may be due to the fact that male students get in

(At 5% level of significance the table ‘r’ value is 0.062) touch with the outer world easily. Boys may get more

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 10 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

chances to involve group activities such as activities development programmes in order to enhance

of the communities and voluntarily organisation and the level of soft skills.

sports groups. This exposure may help them to 4. Workshop on time management and stress

improve their innate leadership qualities. This finding management can be conducted.

supports the study conducted by Sasipriya and 5. Provisions for team work should be given.

Annaraja (2008), which revealed that the boys wer6e. Various kinds of soft skills can be developed

better than girls in their leadership skill. through continuous training for prospective

Table 2 reveals that there is significant difference teachers.

between male and female secondary teacher 7. Female secondary teacher education students

education students in their skill of planning the lesson should be given more social exposure through

and skill of guidance. But there is no significant academic activities in their course.

difference between male and female secondary 8. Students teaching practice should be more

teacher education students in their skill of motivation, effectively organised and supervised to promote

skill of subject mastery, skill of presentation, skill of student’s development of relevant teaching

using audio-visual aids, skill of using relevant skills.

examples, skill of class room management, skill of9. Information and communication technology

closure of the lesson, skill of evaluation and teaching must be incorporated in teaching learning

competency. Male students have better skill of process.

planning the lesson than female students.This mayReferences

be due to the fact that male students get more Bharathi, T. et. al. (2007). Personality develop -

exposure due to their social responsibilities. They ment and communicative English. New Delhi:

are in the field of administration in the society andNineelkamal publications Pvt. Ltd.

house.Female students have better skill of guidancDe ash, B.N. (2004).The teacher and professional

than male students.This maybe due to the fact thatgrowth.Vol. 1.Delhi : Dominant Publishers and

they had acquired the knowledge about the past, Distributors.

present and future. Their memory power and Glaxton, G. (1993).Developing Teachers.

retention power is so high. They retain those thingsBuckingham : Oxford University Press.

in their mind and provide guidance to the students.Jenifar, Flora, (2011). Teacher Education: Quality

Table 3 reveals that there is significant relation Indicators.New Delhi : APH Publishing House

between teaching competency and performance in Corporation.

oral communication skill, written communication sSkairlal,vanan, P. (2010).A study of locus of control

computer skill, stress management skill, organisingand soft skills among higher secondary students.

skill, time management skill, leadership skill, Unpublished M.Ed. dissertation.M.S University,

interpersonal skill and team building skill of seconTdiarruynelveli.

teacher education students. This may be due to theSasipriya, R. and Annaraja, P. (2008). Relationship

fact that teaching competency is not a single skill tboetween performance in soft skills andacademic

be acquired and nurtured. It is an embodiment of achievement of higher secondary students.

many skills. It needs a systematic practice. It is theUnpublished M.Phil.dissertation, M.S University,

knowledge to use the right thing at the right time aTndirunelveli.

in a right place. If one acquires and practises soft php ? title =

skills one can excel in teaching competency. Pedagogical_Content_Knowledge_% 28 PCK

Recommendations % 29.

1. Soft skills trainng should be given to the studehntttsp://prime % 20skills % 20 project % 20 compre-
hensive % 20report.pdf
in colleges of education.
2. Teaching strategies should be developed by www.ncert.nic/in/rightside/lines/pdf/framework/
using different dimension of soft skills.
3. Colleges of education should organize _ in _ the _ worplace
workshops and seminars on personality _ apreli....

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 11 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


*Mr. A. Alexander **Dr. I. Muthuchamy


Help-Seeking is a life skill that needs to be developed by young people, so that they can
get appropriate practical and emotional support from other people. Much of the research on
help seeking has focused on mental health but it is also clearly relevant for physical health
outcomes too. Help-seeking can be informal, involving drawing on family and friends, or it can
be formal, involving professional services including teachers, teacher trainees and health
practitioners. The present study assessed Academic Help Seeking Behaviour of Prospective
Teachers of Colleges of Education in Tiruchirappalli District”. This study found that male and
female and rural and urban prospective teachers do not differ significantly in respect of their
academic help seeking behaviour.

Keywords : Academic help seeking behaviour, itself diverse and includes a wide range of
professions. These include health professional for
Positive behaviour and Social supports.
example medical specialists and health care
providers and also non-health professionals and also
Seeking help was conceptualised as one non-health professional such as teachers,
part of the positive behaviour process of every
individual. However, even though it comprises paratdministrators and community workers. The term
of the illness behaviour process, help-seeking is
conceptualised as a dynamic process itself. One
the earliest definitions of help-seeking was providetdreatment providers and seeking help from generic
adnefaindeadptaivsethfeormsseuepkpionrgt and community services. Informal help-
by David Mechanic, who saw it as is assistance from informal social networks,
of coping. Later, help-seeking was
behaviour of actively seeking help from other peopsluec.h as friends, family and the society. It comprises
cinomtemrmusniocfautinndgewrsittahndinspgor,oufrecsessioonfahle, lrpeltahtaiot nhsahviepawpitehrstohneahl,ealpn-dseneoktear.
It was deemed to be about
others to obtain assistance
advice, information, treatment, and general support Most recently, self-help has emerged as an area
in response to a problem or distressing experience.of attention. This has occurred because of the rapidly
As such, it was a form of active and problem- growing opportunities to use computer mediated
focused coping, which relied on external assistancecommunication technologies to support mental
from others.Help can be sought from a wide rangehealth. Help-seeking can now include assistance
of external sources, including people who occupy from sources that do not comprise communication
different roles and who vary in terms of their with an actual person. Sophisticated and dynamic
relationship with the person seeking help. Two mahinelp-seeking options are increasingly available
types of help-seeking have been delineated i.e. through online and computer-mediated processes.
Such options make an interpersonal component less
formal and informal help seeking.
Formal help-seeking is assistance from critical in the help-seeking process.
professionals who have a legitimate and recognizedConcept of help Seeking Behaviour

professional role in providing relevant advice, “Help-Seeking Behaviour (HSB) is an appropriate
support and/or treatment. Formal help-seeking is way to seek a solution for a health problem and

* Research Scholar, Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Trichy.
** Professor, Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Trichy.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 12 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

requires suitable interaction with a medically trainebdy a commensurate level of service use and

professional. HSB has three main components: a associated Help Seeking Behaviour. Instead, there

health issue (physical or psychological), a person is a marked match between prevalence of mental

who needs help to address the health issue, and a disorder and professional Help Seeking. At all ages,

source of help.” there is a much higher prevalence than there is

Before proceeding, it is important to define thegreatest service to use, through the mismatch in
terms that frame this document, particularly “help-greatest where the need is highest.

seeking behaviour” and “social supports.” There are Consequently, a focus on understanding and
few specific, agreed upon definitions of “help-seekeincgouraging Help Seeking behaviour particularly
behaviour” in the health and development literaturtee.acher aspirants, also emerged out and to become
Furthermore, when referenced, help- seeking progressive. Help Seeking may be characterized as
generally refers to the use of “formal” supports, effective or ineffective, effective help seeking takes
which is defined as health facilities, youth centres,place when a learner knows when he needs help,
formal social institutions or professional care what kind of help the student needs, whom to ask
providers, either in the public or private sector. In for help, and how to ask for the help that he needs.
many cases, “help-seeking” is used interchangeablEyffective help seeking may avert possible failure,
with “health-seeking,” which generally refers moremaintain engagement and lead to long item monetary
narrowly to seeking services or remedies for a and autonomous learning.
specific ailment or illness. In many of the documents Effective help seeking in variety as an important
cited in the bibliography, “help-seeking” refers to
the use of health and other services in the case of strategy contributes to self-regulation and vice versa
(New man, 2002, Puustinem, 1998) enabling true
severe or serious mental health issues, including student to continuing learning. Self-regulated
substance use, depression and suicide. In only a fueswhseteduldpe, nratsticnognotrnollyfaret qaupepnrocpyrwiaittehtiwmheischanthdeayvaosikdifnogr
cases in the literature is the term “help-seeking”

in a more comprehensive way to refer to the use ofdependence (Puustimen,1998) Both the overview
binoctlhudfoersmmael ns,uwppoomrtesna,ncdhiilndfroernm, aylosuuthp,peolrdtse,rswihnicthhmoefahyellepaadntdo
true avoidance of help when it is needed
less effective learning. Hence, it is
family and society, academic and/or religious leadewras.rranted to carry out a study on “Academic Help
Need and Significance of the Study
Seeking Behaviour of prospective Teachers of
One of the greatest challenges of effective Colleges of Education in Tiruchirappalli District”.
functioning of teacher may be due to altruistic andObjectives
help seeking behaviour. BtoeShaevekioaucraidsetmheicr,eSluocctiaanlc,b1ee. haTvioofuirnodfopurtotshpeecletivveel
of Prospective Teachers of academic help seeking
problems and way to intervene need to be investi- Hypotheses of the study
Based on the above objectives, the null
Consequently Academic Help Seeking has hypotheses have been framed.
received a greater consideration for research. The Methodology in Brief
The investigator followed the survey method
problem and their roles better, quicker and faster
and in need of both quantitative and qualitative for the study. Prospective teachers’ help seeking
growth, policy and practice, however, progress in behaviour scale was developed and administered
the field has been hindered by a lack of the high to B.Ed. trainees of Colleges of Education in
prevalence of mental health problems is not matchTediruchirappalli District.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 13 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Sample Table – 3 : Difference between Rural and Urban area
The population for the study consisted of Prospective Teachers in the Help-Seeking behaviour

prospective teachers of colleges of education in Locality N Mean S.D ‘t’ Value Result

Tiruchirapalli District. The investigators selected 20R0ural 103 96.8 11.49 0.16 N S
trainees from the selected colleges of education, Urban 97 95.8 12.48

affiliated to Tamilnadu Teachers Education University The calculated t-value 0.16 is less than the
by using simple random sampling techniques. table value 1.96 corresponding at 0.05 level of
Statistical Techniques
significance. This implies that the difference in help
The data were tabulated and statistically ana- seeking behaviour mean scores under consideration
lysed by adopting mean, standard deviation and t-tiesstn.ot significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted,
Data Analysis
therefore it is concluded that the Rural and Urban
Hypothesis-1: The level of academic help- Prospective Teachers do not differ significantly in
seeking behaviour of prospective teachers is not their respect of Help-Seeking Behaviour.
Hypothesis – 4 There is no significant difference
Table – 1: Level of academic help-seeking behaviour between UG and PG Qualified Prospective
of prospective teachers
Teachers in the Help-Seeking Behaviour.
Variable N Mean Maximum Score S.D
Academic Help 200 95.8 120 10.7 Table – 4 : Difference between UG and PG Qualified
Seeking Behaviour Prospective Teacher in the Help-Seeking Behaviour

From the above table 1 the Academic Help Educational N Mean S.D ‘t’ Value Result

Seeking Behaviour of Prospective Teachers is founQdualification 160 94.12 11.10
to be above average. This is evidenced by the MeanU G 40 103.2 12.60
value 95.8, which is for above the mid value 47.9 oPf G 4.51 S

maximum score 120. It is inferred that the The calculated t-value 4.51 is greater than

prospective teacher’s academic help-seeking the table value 2.58 corresponding at 0.01 level of

behaviour is at above average level. significance. This implies that the difference in the

Hypothesis – 2 : There is no significant difference help seeking behaviour mean scores under
between male and female prospective teachers in consideration is statistically significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. Therefore it is concluded that
the Academic Help-Seeking Behaviour.
the UG and PG qualified Prospective Teachers differ
Table – 2 : Difference between male and female
prospective teachers in the Academic significantly in their respect of their Help-Seeking
Help-Seeking Behaviour
Behaviour. Further the higher Mean Scores of PG

Gender N Mean S.D ‘t’ Value Result qualified Prospective Teachers are better in their
not significant. Hence, the hypothesis is “Accepted2”.. No significant difference is found in the Help-
Therefore it is concluded that the male and female Seeking Behaviour between Male and Female
prospective teachers in the colleges of
prospective teachers do not differ significantly
in respect of their academic help-seeking behaviour education.
3. No significant difference is found in the Help-
in the colleges of education.
Hypothesis – 3 : There is no significant difference Seeking Behaviour between rural and urban
between Rural and Urban area Prospective Teachers prospective teachers.

in the Help-Seeking behaviour.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 14 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

4. Significant difference is found in the Help- References

Seeking Behaviour between UG and PG Aleven, V. (2003). Help seeking and help design in
qualification prospective Teachers. Then higheirnteractive learning environments 10 Journal of
mean scores of PG qualified prospective Documentation, PP,53-54.
knowing how to ask a question that yields Braithwaite, V. A. (2003). Social-psychological
precisely what are needs. The Women and factors affecting help-seeking for emotional
Unisex Colleges Prospective teachers should problems. Social Science and Medicine, 39,
develop social competencies, i.e. knowing who563-572.

is the best to approach for help, knowing how Rickwood, D. (2005). Young people’s help-seeking

to carry out a request for help in a socially for mental health problems. Advances in Mental

appropriate way. Health, Journal Australia, PP- 45-47

2. In order to strengthen the motivational Willis, M. (2006). Building effective help systems:
contextual resources, i.e. classroom factors suchhelp seeking behaviour. OZCHI, Sydney,
as goals, grading, academic, collaborative Australia. PP- 433-436.
activities and Student-Teachers interaction that
peer relation facilitate them in the knowledge
acquisition and transformation of knowledge and
it is important to meet in students help seeking.


The study has presented an analysis of the
prospective teachers on their Help Seeking
Behaviour. In the light of the research findings, it is
felt that the present research may be contributed to
help-seeking behaviour of perspective teachers. The
study has also revealed that male and female
prospective teachers, rural and urban prospective
teachers do have the adequate results in their level
of help seeking behaviour. This kind of academic
help seeking behaviour of prospective teachers will
help them to enhance their academic, social and
professional life.

“God lives, feels and suffers in everyone - Thanks to The Florida State University
of us, and in course of time, His attributes,
knowledge, beauty and love will be revealed
in each of us” - Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 15 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


*S.Gomathi Sankari , **Dr. A. Faritha Begam,


The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship between the organizational
climate perceived by the high school teachers and their professional commitment. Survey method was
adopted for the present study. A sample of 300 high school teachers was selected using simple random
sampling technique. Percentage analysis, mean, standard deviation,‘t’-test, ANOVA and Karl Pearson’s
product moment correlation were the statistical techniques used. The percentage analysis revealed
that the perception of organizational climate of high school teachers is neutral and the professional
commitment of high school teachers is average. A significant relationship was however found between
perceived organizational climate and the professional commitment of high school teachers.

Keywords : Organisational Climate, Professional committed to their profession and well-being of the

Commitment. students. They need committed teachers to achieve

Introduction their objectives and cannot succeed without their

Organisational climate is the process of efforts and commitment.
Thus, it has been said that the teacher
quantifying the culture of an organization and its
proceeds the notion of organizational culture. commitment is at the center of school organizational
Comparatively, Gilmer (1966) defined climate as trheeform. The concept of commitment as the
Need for the Study
of high school teachers.

Every organization aspires to have 3. To find out the relationship between the

individuals who are highly committed. The organizational climate perceived by the high

educational organizations such as schools, colleges school teachers and their professional

and universities also require teachers who are commitment.

* M.Ed Scholar, Bharathidasan University (DDE),
** Assistant Professor, St.Ignatius College of Education (Autonomous), Palayamkottai.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 16 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Null Hypotheses Analysis of Data

1. There is no significant difference between male Table 1. Shows the Difference in the Organisational
Climate Perceived by the High School Teachers with
and female High School teachers in their regard to Gender
perception of organizational climate.
Gender N Mean SD t value Table Remark
2. There is no significant difference between the Male
UG qualified and PG qualified high school Female 88 184.88 23.06 2.16 1.96 S
212 191.09 21.79

teachers in their perception of organizational It is inferred from the above table that the

climate. calculated ‘t’ value is greater than the table value for

3. There is no significant difference between the 298 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance.
married and unmarried high school teachers inHence, the null hypothesis is rejected. This may be
due to the fact that the motherly tendencies in females,
their professional commitment.
4. TSwchihtehoreorelisstpeneaoccthstieogrsnthiifneicttahyneptierdopiffrfosefcreehsnoscoieol.naaml ocnogmHmiigtmh esfiCinTntlatuidmbalitaetito2ee.naPSssehyriocnwteoitsvheatehdcescbcoDyhmitfohfemoerleHo.nidgcaheteiSnctthhhoeeomOl Trsgeeaalnvcihesesartswiowintiahtlhthe

5. There is no significant relationship between the regard to Educational Qualification

organizational climate and professional Educational N Mean S D t value Table Remark

commitment of High School teachers. UG 93 193.32 20.85 2.19 1.96 S
PG 207 187.45 22.75
methocdalculIatteisdi‘ntf’evrraelduefriosmgrtehaetearbtohvaen table that the for
The investigator has adopted the survey the table value
of research of the objectives of the study.
298 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance.
Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. This may be

All the high school teachers working in due to the fact that the teachers with UG qualification

Tirunelveli revenue district form the population fohr ad a chance to be appointed as a teacher earlier

the present study. than their counterparts. They may see themselves

Sample luckier and appreciate the value of their job. The

300 From the population, the sinchvoeostlisguatsoinrgsesliemctpeldeitnhsetminscetlvoefssuwrevlilvaadl jmusatyaballesotoptlhaey a role in making
teachers working in high surrounding.

random sampling technique. Table 3. Difference in the Professional Commitment of
the High School Teachers with regard to Marital Status
Statistical Techniques Used
For analyzing the data, the investigator used Marital Status N Mean SD Calculated Table Remark
‘t’ Value Value

mean, standard deviation,‘t’-test, ANOVA and Married 271 135.81 13.00 2.08 1.96 S
Unmarried 29 131.83 9.38

Tools Used in the Present Study It is inferred from the above table that the

1. “Organizational Climate Questionnaire” by Halpairne many responsibilities at home. They are aware
and Croft. (1966)
of their responsibility towards the betterment of their

2. “Professional commitment scale” developed by students and betterment of themselves towards
Dr. S. Arockiasamy (1999)

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 17 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table 4. Shows Difference in the Professional 4. There is significant difference among high school
Commitment of the High School Teachers with regard teachers in their professional commitment with
respect to the type of school.
to Type of school

Type of Mean SSb SSw d f ‘F’ Value Table Remark 5. There is significant relationship between the
school value organizational climate perceived by the high
school teachers and their professional
Govt. 138.21 commitment.

Aided 135.561884.93 46602.31 2, 297 6.01 3.03 S

Private 132.06

It is inferred from the above table that the Recommendations

calculated ‘F’ value is greater than the table value 1. The teachers should be provided healthy

for 2, 297 degrees of freedom at 5% level of academic environment in schools, so that they
significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. feel satisfied and comfortable.

This may be due to the fact that the government 2. The schools should give the teachers the

school teachers were found to be more satisfied with opportunity to attend orientation programmes,

factors like promotion, recognition, independence, refresher courses, workshops etc. organized by
job security, job status and educational policies. They various agencies. This will help in updating their
have permanent job. They get reasonable salary. knowledge, skills and competencies and
ultimately will result in enhanced commitment
Table 5. Shows the Relationship between the
Organisational Climate Perceived by High School
Teachers and their Professional Commitment towards their profession.
3. The teachers should love their profession to be
Variables N Calculated Table Remark
more committed.
Organisational Climate vs. ‘’ Value Value
Professional Commitment 4. Teachers who always make use of mass media
300 0.197 0.114 S are found to be more committed professionally

It is inferred from the above table that the than others. As we are living in an age of
calculated ‘’ value is greater than the table value technology, the teachers should be encouraged
for 298 degrees of freedom at 5% level of to make use of mass media very often, thereby
significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. expanding their horizons of knowledge and
This may be due to the fact that teachers may have experiments.

a democratic atmosphere in the schools. When theReferences
teachers are working in a congenial working Gunbayi, I.(2007)School Climate and Teachers’
environment where their needs are taken into Perceptions on Climate Factors: research into nine
consideration and more encouragement is providedurban high schools. The Turkish online Journal of
by the Heads and colleagues both for personal andEducation Technology, 6 (3), (70-78), July 2007.

professional growth, they will have a strong affinitMy ohan, R. (2011). Teacher education.New Delhi:

towards their institution. Their morale will also bePhHigIhl.earning private limited.

Findings Robbins, S. (1989).Organisational behaviour. New

1. There is significant difference between male aDndelhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.

female high school teachers in their perceptionSharma, S. (2010). A study of Professional

of organizational climate. Commitment of Teacher Educators in relation to their

2. There is significant difference between the UGOrganizational Climate and Gender
qualified and PG qualified high school teacherDs ifference.Prachi, Journal of Psycho-cultural
in their perception of organizational climate. dimensions, 26 (2), (144-147).

3. There is significant difference between the

married and unmarried high school teachers in

their professional commitment.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 18 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


*Dr.V. Kasirajan

Human rights are essential for the full development of human personality and for human
happiness. According to Dev (1996), Maheshwari (2002) human rights are generally defined as
the right which every human being entitles to enjoy and to protect. Human dignity is not an
individual, exclusive and isolated sense. It is a part of the common humanity. Closely related to
issues that result from different interpretations of human rights are questions about what
constitutes the cognitive and affective content of human rights that should be known by the
B.Ed. trainees as they are going to be the future teachers. This study was carried out to find out
the significant difference, if any, in the human rights awareness of secondary prospective teachers.
Normative Survey method was used and random sampling technique was employed for the
study. “Human - rights awareness Inventory”was used as tool to collect data from the sample
of 300 secondary prospective teachers. The findings of the study reveal that i) there is significant
difference between male and female secondary prospective teachers in their human rights
awareness. ii) there is significant difference among men’s, women’s and co-education college
secondary prospective teachers in their human rights awareness.

Keywords : Human Rights, Colonialism, Racism Significance of the study

Introduction Man is a social animal. He cannot live apart

Education is the most vital input for the growftrhom the society. For leading a successful life he has

and prosperity of a nation. It has the power to to establish with different individuals, organizations

transform human beings into human resources. It iasnd associations. He has to understand the nature

a deliberate and organized activity through which of human beings and society. If one wants to have

the physical, intellectual, aesthetic, moral and spirigtuoaold relationship with other human beings, he is in

potentialities of the child are developed, both in theneed of the ability to understand a person and to

individual and also as a member of society so that their rights. Human rights denote the respect for

one may lead the fullest and richest life possible inhuman personality and its absolute worth regardless

this world and finally attain one’s ultimate end in tohfe colour, race, gender, religion and other

world to come. consideration. Human rights are essential for the full

Education is an integral part of human life. Itdisevelopment of human personality and for human
the basic condition for the development of the whohlaeppiness. According to Dev (1996) and
man and vital instrument for accelerating the well Maheshwari (2002) human rights are generally
being and prosperity of all in every direction. Withdoeuftined as the right which every human being entitles
education, man would still be living just like a spletnodeindjoy and to protect.
slave or like reasoning savage. Education is an activity Every individual has dignity. The principles of
or a process which transforms the behavior of a human rights were drawn up by human beings as a
person’s instinctive behavior to human behavior. way of ensuring that the dignity of everyone is
it“Eisdaulcsoatiaodneims oacratptihnraogtpaerhlyumanadn equally respected, that is, to ensure
Indira Gandhi mentioned being will be able to fully develop and
liberating force and in our age
force, cutting across the barriers of caste and class,use human qualities such as intelligence, talent and
mbyosbtiritmhpaonrdtaontncthoeenerdscsi.eDncigenaitnydgsiavteissfyanhiins doirvhideuraslpairsiteunasleaonfdvoatlhueer
smoothing out inequalities imposed
circumstances”. So education is the
aspect which leads human beings to know and enjoaynd worth. The existence of human rights
demonstrates that human beings are aware of each
their rights too.

* Assistant Professor, S.Veerasamy Chettiar College of Education, Puliangudi, Tirunelveli.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 19 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

other’s worth.Human dignity is not an individual, Table – 1 : Level of human rights awareness of
secondary prospective teachers with respect to gender
exclusive and isolated sense. It is a part of our
Low Moderate High
common humanity. Closely related to issues that
aarenrseduqlatuffefersoctimtoivndesicfafobenorteuentntwtionhftaethrcpuormentasanttiitrouingteshstostfhthehuactmosgahnnoiutriilvgdehbtsAHVeawurmaiaraebInnleteRssiisgshitsnfeGMFreearmnleedadelerfCr13o37oumnt % Count % Count %
65.9 12 14.1
20.0 56 69.8 32 14.9
15.3 150
table that 20.0%
the above
known by the B.Ed. trainees as they are going to b6e5.9% and 14.1% of male and 15.3 %, 69.8%,
the future teachers. Learning about human rights isand 14.9% of female secondary prospective
closely associated with development of peace and teachers have low, average and high level of
disarmament education and specific topics of humaanwareness of human rights respectively.
rights violations; e.g. apartheid, racism, colonialism2., To find out the level of human rights awareness
terrorism and poverty and starvation may help a of secondary prospective teachers with respect to
person to know other human beings better and to nature of college.
have a better and beautiful relationship with others.Table–2 : Level of human rights awareness of secondary
So the investigator wants to investigate the prospective teachers with respect to nature of college

awareness on human rights of secondary prospective Nature of Low Moderate High

teachers. Variables College Count % Count % Count %

Objectives Human Rights Men 8 16.0 35 70.0 7 14.1

1. To find out the level of human rights awareness Awareness Women 9 20.5 25 56.8 10 22.7
of secondary prospective teachers. 18.9 138 67.0 29 14.1
Co- 39

2. To find out the significant difference, if any, in the It is inferred from the above table that 16.0%,
human rights awareness of secondary prospective 70.0% and 14.0% of men’s college, 20.5%, 56.8%,
teachers with respect to gender and nature of the and 22.7% of women’s college and 18.9%,
67.0%,and 14.1% of Co-education College
secondary Prospective Teachers have low, average
and high level of awareness of human rights
A descriptive survey method was adopted by respectively.
the investigator to conduct this study.
Population for the study 3. There is no significant difference between male
and female secondary prospective teachers in
The population of the present study is the their human rights awareness.
secondary prospective teachers.
Table – 3: Difference between male and female secondary
Sample for the study prospective teachers in their human rights awareness
The investigator used the simple random
sampling technique for selecting the sample.The Variables Gender Count Mean S.D Calculated Remarks
‘t’ value
sample for the present study comprises of 300
secondary prospective teachers from 8 Human Rights Male 85 147.82 20.023 2.027 S
awareness Female 215 142.81 17.288

B.Ed.colleges of Tirunelveli district, in Tamil Nadu. It is inferred from the above table that the
Analysis of data
4. There is no significant difference among men,
1. To find out the level of human rights awareness women and co-education college secondary
of secondary prospective teachers with respect prospective teachers in their human rights
to gender.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 20 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table – 4 : Difference among men, might have induced them to have awareness on

women and co-education college secondary human rights.
prospective teachers in their human rights awareness
Source of df (2,297) In the light of the findings of the present study
Variables Variance Sum of Mean Calculated Remarks
the investigator offers the following recommendations,
squares squares ‘F’ value

Human rights Between 10519.73 5259.865 17.622 S 1. The mass media available should be properly
awareness Within 88649.937 298.485 utilized to create awareness of the human rights.

It is inferred from the above table that the 2. Teacher education should provide opportunities
calculated value (17.6022) is greater than the table for their trainees to become awareness of human
value (3.03)for df (2,297) at 5% level of significance.rights by asking them to be in touch current
Hence the null hypothesis is rejected. It shows that events.
there is significant difference among men’s, wome3n.’sUniversities should introduce diploma course on
and co-education college secondary prospective human rights, which should be open for all.
teachers in their human rights awareness.
4. The secondary prospective teachers may conduct

Findings and Interpretations a case study on child labour or a school dropout

1. 20.0% 65.9% and 14.1% of male and 15.3 which may give a positive awareness to them.

%, 69.8%, and 14.9% of female secondary 5. Human rights education courses for different
prospective teachers have low, average and high groups such as the community at large,
level of awareness of human rights respectively. professional marginalized sections etc. need to
2. 16.0%, 70.0% and 14.0% of men’s college, be developed.
20.5%, 56.8%, and 22.7% of women’s college and6. Human rights day, international day of the
18.9%, 67.0%, and 14.1% of co-education college disabled and the aged, may be planned and
Secondary Prospective Teachers have low, average observed in B.Ed. colleges.
and high level of awareness of human rights 7. Mobile mission can go to the urban and rural areas
to create human rights awareness through cultural
3. The‘t’ test result reveals that there is significant programme.

difference between male and female secondary Conclusion
prospective teachers in their awareness of human In order to develop human rights awareness
rights. While comparing the mean values the two among the secondary prospective teachers in
groups, male secondary prospective teachers are particular and teachers in general, the above cited
better than female secondary prospective teachers recommendations may be implemented at the
in their awareness of human rights. This may be dueearliest.
4altiow.fetah.reTTenhhreeeeasir‘ssFoeo’ndftuthehcsuaatmttriteoahsnneuyarlitngardhlestvmose.ewadlasiantthpataotvtlehiveweraeayisdfiosgirngtinhfiiefeiidrcRB-anVaettforelarueBmn.eBceI.Is(I2,N00ew4),DEenlchyic, lRopefeedrieanocef
Human rights

difference among men, women and co-education Jagannath Mohanty (2005),Teaching of Human
college secondary prospective teachers in their Rights New Trends and Innovations, New Delhi,
awareness of human rights in their awareness. WhiDleeep and Deep publications.

comparing the mean values of the three groups’ meMnanjot Kaur (2008),Teaching of Human Rights,

college secondary prospective teachers are better New Delhi, A P H Publishing Corporation.

than their counterparts in their awareness of humanPathak C.R. (2004),Human Rights Education,
rights. This may be due to the reason that most of New Delhi, Rajat Publications.
sacthtocaea-fcdfcueormmlrlieieccgmuealbsacerthiravasn.vitdeiTeegshxoeatoyrloda-nnicenou.ftrrTraiohscnteurlyluyaccrtocuaoncrncetiecvaneninttrditaerqtase.tueToalnhoifinmiseoddSPreehepdaoramtg. oagRic.aAl
(2010),Teacher Education and
Training,New Delhi, R.lall book

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 21 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


*Dr. R. Thangadurai **Mrs.R.Thanga Selvam

This research article focuses the relationship between the communication skills of higher
secondary students and their academic achievement. The investigators adopted survey method
for collecting the data. The investigators prepared and validated a scale to measure communication
skills of higher secondary students. For measuring the academic achievement, the half-yearly
marks of the students were considered. All the higher secondary students studying standards XI
and XII in the higher secondary schools in Tirunelveli District formed the population of the
study. From the population, the investigators have chosen 1130 students using simple random
sampling technique. For analyzing the data, the investigators used Mean, SD, ‘t’ Test, ‘F’ test
and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. The findings showed that the communication skills
of higher secondary students are significantly correlated with their academic achievement.

Keywords : Communication skills, Academic as an agent of providing a secure and stimulating
environment where a child can acquire as well as
practice necessary skills required for harmonious
Today the society is at the crossroads where development.
the explosion of technical and job oriented educatiConommunication Skill
neglects life oriented education. There is revolution Communication skill is an ability to

of knowledge at one end and increasing inability tocommunicate. It is the primary factor that
assimilate it. Hence, there is a need for a shift in oudristinguishes human beings from animals. And it is
education to increase the capability of the individutahles ability to communicate well that distinguishes one
to deal with changes and friction, since education iisndividual from another. The fact is that apart from
the only essential means for formation and the basic necessities, one needs to be equipped with
development of the individual and nation. A healthhyabits for good communication skills, as this is what
system of education would be one, which ensures will make them a happy and successful social
physical, mental, economic development and being.In order to develop these habits, the people
needs to acknowledge the fact that they need to
sensitivity of the students.
The extent to which a child will be able to improve communication skills from time to time. They
acquire the necessary skills to interact successfullyneed to take stock of the way they interact and the
with his/her surroundings is mainly determined bydirection in which their work and personal relations
two factors viz., heredity and environment.Geneticare going. The only constant in life is change, and
endowment provides a range of development to thethe more one accepts one’s strengths and works
child. Position of a child in the given range is towards dealing with their shortcomings, especially
determined by opportunities and exposure given toin the area of communication skills, the better will
him/her. Enriched environment compels the child tboe their interactions and the more their social
remain at the lowest level of the range. It has beenpopularity.
observed that despite the rich heritage, children from Today, effective communication skills have
deprived background (deprived of love, care, become a predominant factor even while recruiting
concern also) fail to actualize their potential to theemployees. While interviewing candidates, most
highest possible level. Family plays a very vital rolienterviewers judge them on the basis of the way they

* Principal, PSN College of Education, Tirunelveli.
**Assistant Professor in Bio. Science, Annammal College of Education, Thoothukudi.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 22 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

communicate. They believe that skills can be Hence, the investigators haave planned this study.
improvised on the job; but ability to communicateObjectives
well is important, as every employee becomes the 1. To find out the level of communication skills
representing face of the company.
and academic achievement of higher secondary

Significance of the Study students.

Education is a life-long process. It is by 2. To find out the significant difference in the
education one develops his/her abilities, habits, communication skills and academic achievement of
values, skills, attitudes etc. Education is not a passhiviegher secondary students with regard to gender,
learning but it is an interactive and integrative procleoscsa.lity of school, type of school and religion.
A learner should be open to accommodate all that 3. To find out the significant relationship between
help to build up character. While speaking about the communication skills of higher secondary

the brokenness within, St. Paul observed, “I do notstudents and their academic achievement.

understand my own actions.” True! It is a difficultMethod and Procedure
task to see one’s dividedness, brokenness and
The investigator adopted survey method for the
disintegration within. If so, it is tougher to correlatperesent study. The investigator prepared and validated
the theoretical knowledge with practical wisdom. a scale to measure communication skills of higher
Students need to train their mind. They requirseecondary students. For measuring the academic
Nowadays, a large number of young students Variables
engage in anti-social activities, which create a lot of Low Moderate High

N% N% N%

social problems like alcoholism, drug abuse, sexualCommunication
abuse, smoking etc. This challenges society and theSkill 143 12.65 783 69.2 204 18.0

entire system of social setup is in a collapsed state. Academic 223 19.74 695 61.5 212 18.7
academic performance by clarifying their doubts inof higher secondary students are low, moderate and
their studies, while conveying their difficulties to thhiegihr respectively in their academic achievement.
teachers and peer group members. Skill based Null Hypothesis – 2 : There is no significant
education helps the students to improve the difference between male and female highersecondary
expressive and receptive skills, decision-making sksitluldents in their communication skills and academic

and ability to take everything in the right sense. achievement.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 23 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table - 2: Difference in the Communication Skills and Variables Type of Mean SSb SSw ‘f’ Table Re-
Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Student Communi- School value Value mark
Govt. 79.92
with regard to Gender

Variables Gender N Mean SD ‘t’ Table cation Skill Aided 79.76 9.03 63860 0.08 2.99 NS
value Value Remark Matric. 79.70

Communi- Male 603 79.87 7.87 0.37 1.96 NS Academic Govt. 878.92 2.99 NS
cation Skill Female 527 79.71 7.11 1.56 1.96 NS Achieve Aided 874.02 52315 26859055 1.10
Male 603 872.88 152.31 Matric. 891.11
Academic ment

Achievement Female 527 887.29 156.53 It is inferred from the above table that the

It is inferred from the above table that the calculated ‘F’ values are less than the table value at
calculated ‘t’ value is less than the table value at 5%5% level of significance, the null hypothesis is
level of significance. So, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference
Table - 3 : Difference in the Communication Skill and
Table - 5 : Difference in the Communication Skills
Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students
and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary
with regard to Locality of School
Students with regard to Religion
Variables Locality N Mean SD ‘t’ Table
value Value Remark
Variables Religion Mean SSb SSw ‘f’ Table Re-
Communi- Rural 611 79.54 7.65 value Value mark
cation Skill Urban 519 80.1 7.37 1.25 1.96 NS Communi- Hindu 80.59
Rural 1.96 NS cation Skill Christian 77.18
Academic Urban 611 868.91 154.49 2.53 2343 61525.4 21.5 2.99 S
Achievement 519 892.19 153.47 Muslim 77.15

It is inferred from the above table that the Academic Hindu 896.7 S
Achievement Christian 835.4 1194632 25716739 26.2 2.99
calculated ‘t’ value is less than the table value at 5% Muslim 797.9

Null Hypothesis – 6 : There is no significant
academic achievement.
Null Hypothesis – 4:There is no significant relationship between communication skill of higher
difference among the higher secondary students secondary students and their academic achievement.

studying in government schools, aided schools and Table - 6 : Relationship between Life Skills of Higher
matriculation schools in their communication skills Secondary Students and their Academic Achievement

and academic achievement. Life Skills N ‘r’ Value Table Remark
0.427 0.062 S
Table - 4 : Difference in the Communication Skills and Communication
Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students Skills 1130

with regard to Type of School

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 24 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

It is inferred from the above table that the programmes may be given for improving the
calculated ‘r’ value is greater than the table value actommunication skills of the higher secondary students
5% level of significance. So, the null hypothesis isfor making their academic achievement in a better
rejected. Hence, there is significant relationship way.
Hindu students have better communication skill anSdaritaKumari, and D.S. Srivastava, (2005).
academic achievement. So, the investigator opinesEducation: Skills and Competencies.New Delhi :
that necessary steps such as, skill based developedIsha Books.

The most inspiring quotes of Gandhiji on Education

Mahatma Gandhi’s views on education were always focused on an all-
round education, not just literacy. He stressed on the development of a child as
a whole, not just the mind.

Æ By education, I mean an all-round drawing of the best in child and man in
body, mind and spirit.

Æ The real difficulty is that people have no idea of what education truly is. We
assess the value of education in the same manner as we assess the value of
land or of shares in the stock-exchange market. We want to provide only such
education as would enable the student to earn more. We hardly give any thought
to the improvement of the character of the educated. The girls, we say, do not
have to earn; so why should they be educated? As long as such ideas persist
there is no hope of our ever knowing the true value of education.

Æ A teacher who establishes rapport with the taught, becomes one with
them, learns more from them than he teaches them. He who learns nothing
from his disciples is, in my opinion, worthless. Whenever I talk with someone
I learn from him. I take from him more than I give him. In this way, a true teacher regards himself as a
student of his students. If you will teach your pupils with this attitude, you will benefit much from them.

Æ Literacy in itself is no education. Literacy is not the end of education or even the beginning. By
education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.

Æ Basic education links the children, whether of the cities or the villages, to all that is best and lasting
in India.

Æ Love requires that true education should be easily accessible to all and should be of use to every
villager in this daily life. The emphasis laid on the principle of spending every minute of one’s life usefully
is the best education for citizenship.

Æ Education should be so revolutionized as to answer the wants of the poorest villager, instead of
answering those of an imperial exploiter.

Æ Persistent questioning and healthy inquisitiveness are the first requisite for acquiring learning of any

Æ True education must correspond to the surrounding circumstances or it is not a healthy growth.

Æ What is really needed to make democracy function is not knowledge of facts, but right education.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 25 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

*Dr. E. Ramganesh **S. Irissappan

“Education is the single most important factor in achieving rapid economic development
and technological progress… in all branches of national life education becomes the focal point
of planned development,” (GOI, 1961). The Indian Higher Education System has established
itself as the largest system in the world in terms of number of institutions and third largest in
terms of student enrolment after China and USA (MHRD, 2012). However, the access to higher
education is measured in term of Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), which is a ratio of persons
enrolled in higher education institutions to total population of the persons in age group of 18 to
23 years. As per UNESCO estimate, at least 20 per cent of GER in higher education is a pre
requisite for rapid socio economic development of country (Chauhan, 2010). The access in higher

education has increased over the years, 10% of GER was found in the year 2000 and it is
increased by 24.3 % in 2016 (MHRD, 2016). Indian higher education is more reliable, competent
to that the coming generation can be more competent to face the challenges in their life. It is in
this context, the paper makes its attempt to highlight the GER of Indian higher education at
present scenario.

Keywords : Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), HigheCr handigarh (56.1%) and Puducherry (46.0%) have
the first and second place in terms of GER at States
education. and UTs level in the country (MHRD, 2016) respec

GER in Indian higher education system has a tively.
tremendous improvement. Former MHRD Minister According to Agarwal (2006), the growth of
portal) has also increased significantly. At presentT,able - 1 : Growth of Higher Education Institutions in India

there are 760 universities, as against 757 in 2015, Year No. of Universities No. of Colleges

and 38498 colleges against 38,056 in the year 2014- 1950-51 20 695

15. It is evidence for increasing of higher education 1960-61 55 1542
institutions in India. 103 3604
The GER of Indian higher education also
improved to 24.3 per cent in 2015-16 from 23.6 1980-81 133 4722

per cent in 2015 and 22.5 per cent in 2014 1990-91 190 7346

respectively. Overall enrolment in higher was 34.2 2000-01 256 12806

million in 2015-16 compared to 33.3 million in 2010-11 564 33023
2014-15(MHRD, 2016). Regarding enrolment in
higher education, the top 8 States in terms of highest 2011-12 634 34908
667 35525
number of colleges in India are Uttar Pradesh, 2012-13

Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra 2013-14 723 36634

Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and 2014-15 757 38056
760 38498
Telangana. In GER in Indian higher education, the 2015-16
state of Tamil Nadu retains the number one position

(45.2 %) among the states. The Union territory of Source : Ministry of Human Resource Development, (2015-16)

*Professor and Head, Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-23
**Senior Research Fellow, Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University,Tiruchirappalli-23

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 26 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table-1 shows that the growth of higher Table - 3 : Selected States and UTs’ above the
National GER level (24.3%) in Indian
education institutions (Universities and Colleges) in Higher Education
India for the period 1950-51 to 2015-16. In the

year 1950-51 the number of Universities was 20 STATES / UTs GER (%) Male Female

which went up to 760 in the year 2015-2016. The Chandigarh 56.1 48.6 63.6
increase in the universities during the period was 38 46 47.7 44.2
times. In the year 1950-51 the numbers of colleges Puducherry 45.2 47 43.4

were 695 which increased to 38498 in the year Tamil Nadu

2016. The increase in the colleges for the above- Delhi 43.5 42 45.4
mentioned period is 55 times. From 2000 to 2015- Telungana
16, it can clearly indicate the tremendous growth of 36.1 39.2 33
the universities and colleges in India. The growth of Manipur 35.9 37.1 34.8
33.9 34.9 32.8
Universities and Colleges was due to massive effortsUttarakhand

and policy decisions that were periodically taken Himachal Pradesh 31.2 29.2 33.3
Andhara Pradesh 31.2 35.2 27.3
by the central and the state government of India. Sikkim 30.3 28.4 32.4

Table - 2 : Growth and enrolment details in higher
education institutions (2013 to 2016)

YEAR 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 Kerala 28.7 24.1 33.3

No. of Universities 667 723 757 760 Arunachal Pradesh 28.3 28.6 27.9
No. of Colleges 35,525 36,634 38,056 38498 30 25.6
No. of stand alone Maharashtra 27.9 25.2 30.7
11,664 11,922 12276
Institutions 11,565 Goa 27.7

Enrolment in Higher

Education (in mil) 30.1 32.3 33.3 34.2 Haryana 27.6 27.6 27.5
Punjab 27.1 26 28.4
GER(Total) 21.5 22.5 23.6 24.3

Male 22.7 23 24.5 25.3

Female 20.1 22 22.7 23.2 Karnataka 26.4 26.7 26

Source : Ministry of Human Resource Development, GOI, (2015-16) Uttar Pradesh 25 24.5 25.5

Table - 2 clearly indicates the growth and Source : AISHE, MHRD Report (2016)

enrolment status of the higher education institutions

in the country for the last three years. In all these Table-3 indicates that the selected States and UTs
years the enrolments in higher education institutionGsER that are above the average of the national GER
have increased. However, during the year 2012- in Indian higher education (24.3 %). From the table
13, 30.1 million students took part in the higher 18 states and UTs have to increase the GER on par
education, but in the year 2015-16 there are 34.2 with the national GER level. Among the States and
million students who are pursuing their higher Union Territories, Chandigarh (56.1), Puducherry
education. The estimation of GER is generally bas(e4d6.0%), and Tamilnadu, (45.2%) have the
on the data collected by AISHE/MHRD (2016) maximum GER respectively.
from the higher education institutions. The Current Scenario of GER in Indian Higher Education
government initiatives for the planned development The higher education institutions are at present
being enrolled in the higher education arena, education for the betterment of the quality and to
eventually promoting the progress and developmenint creasing the GER at global level. Higher Education
sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in the
of the nation.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 27 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

number of Universities/University level Institutionisn higher education increased from 0.7 per cent in

and Colleges since Independence. 1950-51 to 1.4 per cent in 1960-61 to 5 per cent

But, India’s GER of 17.9% (2012) was muchin 1980, 6 per cent in 1990 to about 10 per cent in
below the world average of 26%, as well as the 2000. It is further increased to 12 per cent in 2007

other emerging countries such as China (26%), US(AErnst andYoung, 2011) to about 17.9 per cent in

(95%) and Brazil (36%) (MHRD, 2012).The GER2011-12 (Ernst &Young, 2012), 2012-13,

in the year 2012-13(21.5%), 2013-14(22.5%), 21.5%,2013-14,22.5% and 23.6 % in the year

2014-2015(23.6%) and 2015-16 (24.3 %) 2014-15 respectively. It indicates the phenomenal

respectively. It will be increased to 25% by 2017. growth in access to higher education cuts across in

Former HRD Minister KapilSibal said, “India needsstates, religion, and gender thereby increasing the

800 to one thousands new universities and 40,000 Gross Enrolment Ratio from 10% in 2000 to 24.3

new colleges to meet the aims of 30 percent GER % by 2016.Thus, access to higher education in India

by 2020(MHRD Report, 2010). Now, India aimedhas increased over the years.


YEAR GER(%) year 2014-15 women enrolment increased up to

1950-60 0.7 46 per cent (AISHE, 2014).Gram Vikas Trust
1960-61 1.4 (GVT) supports to reduce the dropout and increase
1979-80 5 the girls GER at higher education level by providing
1989-90 6 free bicycle for the students of marginalized sections
1999-00 10 in the society and they can able to achieve their goal.
Government of Tamil Nadu provide 8 gm gold and

2006-07 12.3 the sum of rupees 50,000 as incentive for the

2011-12 17.9 undergraduate female students under the

2012-13 21.5 ‘Thaalikkuthankam scheme’.Thus, the scheme was

2013-14 22.5 to ensure to increase the women education and
2014-15 23.6 promote the gender equity in higher education. Also,
2015-16 24.3 issuing of free laptops and bicycle is witnessing for
top in enrolment in higher education level. However,

Source : 12th FYP Report (2012-2017) the schemes, initiatives and special project play an

The access to higher education is measured inimportant role in increasing the female GER at state
terms of GER, which is a ratio of persons enrolledand national level.

in higher education institutions to total population of

the persons in the age group of 18 to 23 years. GER

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 28 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Table – 5 : Female GER increased States modern attitude visualizes education as an instrument
and UTs in Indian Higher Education for women’s equality and their development at global
level. The National Policy of Education (1986),
STATES / UTs GER in GER in Difference broadening the vision further underscored the role
of education in empowering women that would
Male (%) Female (%) (%) overcome inequalities and disparities (Chanana,
1993). ShanjenduNath (2014) mention some key
Chandigarh 48.6 63.6 15.0 influences for increasing the female GER in higher
education in the country are as follows :
Delhi 42.0 45.4 3.4  Increased number of higher educational
institutions helped women to complete their higher
Uttar Pradesh 24.5 25.5 1.0 studies.
 There are some courses which provide
Himachal Pradesh 29.2 33.3 4.1 scholarship facilities for women. This also helps many
poor female students to complete their higher studies.
Sikkim 28.4 32.4 4.0  There are many institutions which have the
provision of hostel facilities for girls’ students.
Goa 25.2 30.7 5.5  Expectation for education based employment is
very high amongst women. This factor works very
Kerala 24.1 33.3 9.2 silently in completing their higher studies.

Punjab 26.0 28.4 2.4 Table - 6 : GER, HDI & GDP % on higher education
in selected countries
Jammu & Kashmir 24.1 25.5 1.4

Andaman & Nicobar 24.6 2.7
Island 21.9

Dadra & Nagar 07.07 09.5 1.8

Daman & Diu 04.5 09.5 5.0 Country HDI GER Public Expenditure

Lakshadweep 02.0 06.2 4.2 as % of GDP
Meghalaya 19.8 21.2 USA 0.91 95% 5.6
1.4 UK
0.89 61% 5.6

Nagaland 15.2 16.1 0.9 GERMANY 0.91 57% 5.1
JAPAN 0.89 60% 5.6
Source : AISHE - MHRD Report (2015-16)
FRANCE 0.88 51% 3.8
Table - 5 shows that the number of women RUSSIA 0.77 75% 5.9
0.89 100% 4.1
students enrolling for higher education in India has KOREA 0.79 35% 3.7
shot up, among the states and UTs Chandigarh standCs HINA
first 15.0 %, Kerala stands second, the GER INDIA
difference is 9.2% than the male in terms of 0.58 24.30% 3.3

enrolment, and Goa stands third 5.5% difference Source : Human Resource Development Report - 2014
their GER respectively. The female enrolment is iTnable- 6 indicates the
education scenario in progress of the world higher
terms of the GER, HDI in
slightly higher than the male enrolment. In generalrelation to the public expenditure as % of GDP on
students’ enrolment at undergraduate level has 53 education. The GDP of USA is 5.6%, the total GER
percent male and 47 percent female , post graduate95%, HDI is 0.91 but the Korea lead the GER in
level has 49 percent male and 51 percent female 100%, HDI is about 8.9 and the GDP is 4.1 %. It
(MHRD,2015) . Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1948) shows majority of developed countries has the
says, “there cannot be educated people without maximum GER, developing country like India has
educated women. If general education has to be the gradual improvement in GER in higher education
limited to men or women, the opportunity should blevel at last five year. From the table the GDP is the
given to women. From them it would most surely main contributor to increase the GER in the
be passed on to the next generation.” However, thedeveloped countries. Here, the Indian GDP is only

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 29 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

3.3%, HDI is 0.58, the GER 23.6% respectively. IfErnst & Young (2012), Higher Education in India:

we increase the GDP in higher education level, it Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017) and beyond.

ensures the maximum GER to attain the global MHRD Report (2010).Department of Higher
average. HDI, GER and GDP have the close link Education.Government of India Strategic Plan for
and play an important role in the development of the period (2010-11).
the any nation in the world.
MHRD Report (2013) On Annual Status of Higher
Education in States and UTs in India-2013 from
The main objective of the higher education in
India is to increase the gross enrolment ratio in higShhearnjenduNath (2014).Higher Education and
education to 15 % by 2011-12 to 21% by 2016- Women Participation in India.Journal of Business
17 and 30 % by the year 2020 (MHRD,2014), the Management & Social Sciences Research
current GER is 24.2 %.It will automatically increas(JeBM&SSR) ISSN No: 2319-5614 Volume3,
the number of students being enrolled in the educaNtioon.2, February 2014.
Need for Change. New Delhi: Indian Council for University Education Commission (1948–1949)
Research on International Economic Relations. Final Report, Government of India, Ministry of
Education, New Delhi.
AISHE (2014-15) Provisional Report, Ministry of initiatives-xi-plan.
Human Resource Development, Department of
UGC (2011)11th Five Year Plan Annual Report,
Higher Education, New Delhi, 2015.
AISHE (2015-16) Ministry of Human Resource University Grants Commission, New Delhi.
Development, Department of Higher Education, UGC (2012-17) 12th Five Year Plan Report,
University Grants Commission, New Delhi.
New Delhi, 2016.
Chanana, K. (1993), ‘Accessing Higher Education
- The Dilemma of Schooling: Women, Minorities,bitstream/10603/40610/9/12_chapter3.pdf
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in
Contemporary India,’ Experience and PerspectivesI,RJSS-2013-104.pdf.
New Delhi: Sage, pp. 115-54.
Chauhan, S. (2010). Are we heading towards WorlOdctober/5.pdf.
Class Universities?.University News, 48(28) July
view File/15243/
12-18, 2010.

Ernst & Young (2011), 40 million by 2020: Preparhinttgp://
for a New Paradigm in Indian Higher Education, news/Enrolment-of-women-in-higher-education-
EDGE report.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 30 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

Convocation Address delivered by
His Excellency Prof. S. Thangasamy,
Vice-Chancellor of Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University,

Chennai during the
60th Convocation of V.O.Chidambaram College of Education, Thoothukudi

on 18.12.2016

Most revered President of the College, Success would definitely knock at your door if you

Shri.A.P.C.V.Chockalingam! Secretary forget the past defeats and start utilizing the present

A.P.C.V.Shanmugam! dedicated Committee opportunities.

Members of the college including I would like to share the findings of the

Shri.A.P.C.V.Ganapathi ! research done in the Centre for Research in

Dear Principal who has been administering thEeducation at Madurai Kamaraj University, when I

college effectively ! was the director there. We interviewed 31 district

Beloved Professors ! collectors and asked them if they were the first rank

Very good morning to you all !
boat. So you will also over come one day.

Delivering convocation address in this How? I will give the suggestions for this

V.O.Chidambaram College of Education, gives mequestion also based on the research findings done
immense pleasure in two different manner.
by us in the Madurai Kamaraj University. We

First of all, I have the chance to address in theundertook a study with 100 people who have

institution which still renders education only as thebecome millionaires within 25 years. They were

service even in the present scenario of hailing from the families which could not even

commercialization of education. I was the ardent provide them basic necessities. Four important

admirer of Mr.M.G.R. during my young age for hisreasons told by them for becoming millionaires are

adventurous and chivalrous action. But the film also to be known by you and to be practised by

entitled ‘Kappalottia Thamizhan’ which is depictinygou.

the life history of V.O.Chidambaram, turned me th1e. The urge to become millionaire was always

fan of Mr.Shivaji Ganesan. I am so happy to address burning with them.

in the college which is named after such a legendar2y. Continuous defeat and humiliation made them
stronger and add fire to their furies.

Next reason is the Principal of the college, 3. ‘Early to raise’ is an important secret behind
Dr.V.Thamodharan whom I met three decade ago their success. They raised the sun instead of
with handsome outlook and skillful teaching. Thus, being raised by it. They understood the fact
it makes me doubly happy to address in the college that no birds would continue sleeping after the
which is headed by such a wonderful friend of mine. dawn of the day.

My first and foremost wishes for the new 4. Timely help and assistance rendered by people
teaching graduates is that you should come out both and friends in and around them. It is to be noted
from your classroom and in the life with flying coloursh. ere that, even our Thiruvalluvar allocated 50

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 31 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

couplets for ‘friendship’ whereas only 10 couplets I would like to share the findings of another

were written even for invocation. research done by us in the Madurai Kamaraj

I wish you to become the great teachers by University. When primary school children were
imbibing these four mantras in your life. You shoualsdked whether they liked to go to school every day,
be pointed by your students when asked for their the answer was negative. The reason expressed by
best friend, because the teacher is the half-mother,them was that education was thrust upon them. Such
half-father and half-God. ‘Teacher’ should be the type of answers should not come from your students.
only word that has to wake up every body from If your students feel sorry and search for you here
their slumbers. The day should come when the sicakn-d there, when you take leave, it goes without
children of yours should be taken to you, teachers,saying that you have become a good teacher.

for treatment instead of doctors. The degree you will receive is not a mere paper

Another important message I want to tell is signed by three mortals namely the Vice-Chancellor,
that, the Registrar and the Controller of Examination. This
TpcrscehaooharomsissiuaotelnidDTDnsdodihnoofsbartitnnecrsouaa’’hcsmrittveibsVnbbpe.etdeeltdihlDcekesssemdhenoo-svaoCelassorewwoaaiwlgnuohlealeghrpnoemd.ictttltgO..heehIeOlietAlwshcoathateehinrtmar,xoedhsbIprnesiwtwecgtharieoiioailcs,lelttfldrfnsdoaooowcrosummreeswgtaaoieiildwtns-nltomitynhtfitwhonrhageoaugenrymtte..hamovyeuuTemoyt.rwuhoyie.ot r2ii1msd..stphYetoYdioenenfeaoorfcnstmruuiaoysanrrnaumtisutdpktnhebraridteleneeroyrd.eagrelemnwaboydtmyfsioopb’suttfeyh.hpgbeeaatrehmiwranceedafomaauuymlfliatztteitahoanernetsgmids.oseaauhneTkfgaihofnerreefdgayrd-ticoywhnuhuoegaoaustgfrrermokra.adlinilndeInodgtuggwhiardsei–atrneejregusdaw.bsmthiholiruapenlsedt
and deeds of the great people like Vivekananda and3. The third one is the dream of the society. This
will lift this universe a better position.
Abraham Lincoln.

The revelation and realization may come from I offer my felicitation for cherishing these dreams
anywhere for the human mind. Once Mahatma and pray the God almighty to shower all His blessings
Gandhi travelled from Bombay. In river Godhavariin, all your endeavors.

he happened to see a woman wearing half-saree in Considering all these two hundred teacher-

her body and half tied with the nearby tree. He graduates as the miracles of the world, I wish you

asked for the reason to his secretary. He told that all the best on behalf of the Tamil Nadu Teachers

adjusting with mono-dress was the position of the Education University.

majority of Indian women. This awakened Gandhiji Before I conclude, I take this opportunity to
and made him follow the principle of half-nakednecsosn. gratulate the pain-ful efforts taken by the parents
So my dear young graduates Travel more ! Learn and the teachers to make this day possible.
More !
Thank you.
Reading, listening and travelling will widen our

knowledge. The experiences gained by these “Education is the most powerful weapon
gestures should be chewed by you all. Internal which you can use to change the world”.
learning and external reading are the both sides of
- Nelson Mandela
the success.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 32 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017


The authors are expected to submit original, scholarly and unpublished research articles in the
following format.


Length of the manuscripts should be approximately 2000-3000 words (4-6 pages in A4 size
paper) please send MS Word compatible files only. At the time of submitting a paper for review, please
include tables and figures in the manuscript file with appropriate table and figure with title and number.
Please do not send multiple files. You are requested to use Times New Roman with 12 font size with
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first lines of paragraphs rather than spacing between them. Please number all pages except the cover


Place the title, author name(s) with designation, contact address with phone /mobile number
and e-mail id of the corresponding author(s).


The main body should include the following major components.

Title followed by an abstract summarizing the major points of the research paper comprising of
100 – 150 words. Abstract should be followed by key words.

Introduction should pertain to specific area of study and should cover only relevant research
Need and Significance of the Study

The author should emphasize the necessity of selecting this study and its impact on the society.

Objectives should be framed very obvious, specific and relevant to the variables of the study.

Hypotheses may be framed based on objectives.

Methodology should cover method adopted, population, sample, tools and statistical techniques
Analysis of Data

Relevant data may be given preferably in the form of tables or figures. Avoid the repetition of
data more than one form. Do not include many tables. If feasible, combine the tables together.
Findings and Interpretations

This is an important aspect of the research paper. It may be drafted carefully from the results
drawn after analysis of the data in the concerned hypotheses framed and discuss those findings in the
light of the relevant past research works and how the relevance of your results fits with other
researches in the area.
Educational Implications

Write the possible effect of research findings in the field of education as in the form of
recommendations and suggestions.

This is a summary of the most significant results/findings.
References:References should be as per American Psychological Association(APA) Format.

EduReach : V O C Journal of Educational Research 33 Volume 01 Issue 01 January - June 2017

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