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Published by 711-10-nur, 2021-10-25 21:57:12

PDF TESL B (1)

PDF TESL B (1)

AISYALAM
NI 91-DIVOC
GKEB 1072 - FLIPBOOK

PPISMP TESL B

AIDA SABRINA BINTI AMIR Symptoms Threat to the Healthcare
HUSAINI @ MAHADI
PPISMP TESLB * fever, dry cough and tiredness COVID-19 TEST
* Runny nose or a sore throat (mild cases)
* Breathing difficulty and organ failure might * In the beginning, most tests were carried out in government
develop (severe cases) laboratories.
* Increasing numbers per day make the private hospitals and
Progression In Malaysia laboratories open their services to help lessen the burden.

ICU BEDS AND VENTILATORS

FIRST WAVE OF OUTBREAK (25 JAN – 15 FEB) 22 CASES * ICU beds and ventilators are two critical commodities in times
of crises.
* 25 JAN 2020 - First 3 cases was imported cases (infection acquired from outside
Malaysia) came from the 8 close contacts (worked , traveled or lived together with a Covid-19 * The government also allocated a special RM500 million budget
to purchase equipment like ventilators and PPE.
COVID-19 patient) of a confirm case in Singapore had travel to Johor.
STAFF’S HEALTHCARE
* 15 FEB 2020 – Case increased to 22 (12 persons under investigation (PUI) , 8
close contacts of confirmed cases and 2 cases were Malaysian evacuees of * A respiratory illness * healthcare staff serve to protect the health and wellness of the
humanitarian aid mission from Wuhan,China) * Was detected in Wuhan City, Hubei general population.
* After the 22nd cases,no news was reported for 11 days which formed the first province on 31 December 2019
* They are the frontliners risking their own safety and health
wave of outbreak in Malaysia. All cases from the first wave were recovered from * Largely spread by droplets in the air and responsible in activities related to COVID-19.
the infection. ( typically expelled by coughing and
sneezing) * MOH has also called on private and retired medical staff to
SECOND WAVE OF OUTBREAK (27 FEB – ONWARD ) 22 CASES contribute in COVID-19 management nationwide to avoid
burnout and exhaustion among healthcare workers which
* People who had international travel history started to manifest symptoms. could be detrimental to their physical and mental
health.
* Clusters began to form.
- Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster (largest cluster) : attended by 14500

Malaysian,1500 oversea attendee
: April 29, a total of 33,577 people had been examined, the cluster reported

2,167 cases.

THIRD WAVE OF OUTBREAK (8 OCT – PRESENT ) 22 CASES Infection of vulnerable population

* Highest number of cases : Sabah (8082),Selangor (3357),KL (2853), Kedah (1940) * Elderly and those with chronic diseases were more vulnerable.
*October 8 , the total number of confirmed cases was 14,368. * Majority COVID-19 cases was highest among age 55 to 64 years old.
* December 3, the number of cases increased to 69,095. * 81% had chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases

Movement Control Order SOPs

* 18 – 31 March ( phase 1 MCO ) * 19 April – 12 May ( phase 4 MCO ) * Social distancing.
* 1 – 14 April ( phase 2 MCO ) * 1 May - 9 June ( CMCO) * Personal hygiene.
* 15 - 28 April ( phase 3 MCO ) * 10 June – 31 August ( RMCO) * Appropriate use of face mask.
* border control, control of public movement and prohibition of * Immediate reporting of COVID-19 case
public gathering and promotion of social distancing. to the MOH.
* Movement control : all non- essential work places, commercial * Priority in protecting vulnerable
population (infants, children,
COVID-19 establishments, and services were ordered to close down. elderly, and handicapped person).
MITIGATION * Sick persons with symptoms to undergo
STRATEGY health screening.
* Social distancing in public transport.
Mass Antibody Testing * online transactions.

* can be a strategy for countries - detect their population immune Vaccination
response to COVID-19 ( looking for antibodies developed against the
Virus ) * Is the best way to achieve herd community
* Malaysia has also considered to conduct random antibody against the virus.
testing in the red zones areas to know the prevalence of * Malaysia will cooperate with another vaccine
infection in the community, especially among infected persons producing countries to develop COVID-19 vaccine.
who have not been detected. * Malaysia will be participating in the clinical trials
once the vaccine was done.

Aida Sabrina Binti Amir Husaini @ Mahadi



Challenges Those instructed to self-quarantine at Designated hospital beds ( ICU beds and ventilators )
home did not comply with the order PPE supply
COVID-19 Quarantine centers
EPIDEMIC Selecting a suitable evidence-based
medication to be used Malaysia lost RM2.4 billion a day during MCO period
IN
MALAYSIA Adequacy of medical necessities Accumulated loss of RM63 billion up to the end of April

Adequacy of manpower Social quarantine / lockdown
Conditional MCO (CMCO),Recovery MCO (RMCO),
Speed of vaccine procurement enhanced MCO(EMCO)
Border control
Economy impact
MySejahtera
Responses Implementation of Movement MyTrace
Control Order (MCO)
Social distancing ( not < 1m )
Ministry Of Health developed the Personal hygiene
National Guideline on COVID-19 Appropriate use of face mask
Immediate report of COVD-19 case to the MOH
Government developed mobile Priority given to vulnerable group
phone apps ( COVID-19 Sick person (symptom) undergo health screening
management ) Promotion of online transaction
Cooperation between public and
private healthcare

Implementation of economic
recovery strategy

Implementation of strict standard
operation procedure (SOPs)

AINNUR ATIRAH BINTI AZHAR

More vulnerable Infection of Local mass gatherings
chronic diseases Imported cases from PUI travelled from other countries
81% had chronic diseases Attended meetings and events altogether
such as hypertension,
diabetes, heart disease Developed respiratory
infection
63% elders were reported
to be in the cases Traveled outside of
Malaysia
MOH encouraged the use
of healthcare facilities Being in close contacts

Research discovered the 26th case to COVID-19 Sabah states election on Sept 26 Being in close contacts
be more aggressive
Healthcare workers Sudden outbreak of Evacuees of humanitarian
Suggested to triggered by spike mutation due to the exposure Sabah’s cases aid missions
from bats 70% were reported to be infected
outside of the healthcare settings Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster
Strain A : resembles bat coronavirus
AISYA JAHEERA BT ZULKIFLI Among the PUI (Person
Strain B : mutated from strain A Under Investigation)
(synonymous and non-synonymous
Via droplets in the air
mutations) & in Malaysia
Tiredness
Strain C : non-synonymous mutation Fever
from strain B (also present in Malaysia) Sneeze
Dry cough
Runny nose and sore throat

Practice Social Distancing Suitable range of evidence-based medicine Led to be in designated
1. Avoid contact with someone Did not comply with self-quarantine’s order quarantine centers
2. Avoid non-essential transport
3. Work from home Challenges Deficiency of hospital beds, ICU called on private and
4. Avoid gatherings beds and ventilators retired medical staff
5. Use telephone to contact
Inadequate of medical staff
essential services.
Concern about the speed of vaccine
COVID-19 procurement from other countries

Manpower and sufficiency PPE

Targeted active cluster identification EMCO imposed strict
no in-out movement

Methods of Enhanced screening &
case collaborations with interagency

identifications A few of mass sampling areas nationwide

Urged the use of technology via mobile MySejahtera and
phone MyTrace apps

Practiced with social distancing Self-quarantine

Responses Collaboration with public and private healthcare Identifying high-risk districts
Implemented the MCO (Movement Control Order) (green, yellow, orange and red)
AISYA JAHEERA BT ZULKIFLI Implementation of border control
Prohibition of public gathering Cross-district and cross-state
level were prohibited

Strict SOP (standard operating procedures)

Droplets are expelled when an infected
​person coughs or sneeze

Transmission Spread via droplets in the air

Shed through splitting, touching
​one's mouths/noses, talking

Fever

Closely resembles that of Strain A
the bat coronavirus
Common Dry cough
Mutated from strain A by synonymous
and non-synonymous mutations Strain B Variants Tiredness

Mutated from strain B with a Strain C Infection Symptom Light Runny nose
non-synonymous mutation Outbreaks Sore throats
Caused the virus to be more
aggressive and contagious Mutation

All three major variants are Severe Breathing difficulty
present in Malaysia Ultimately organ failure

Elderly

Vulnerable Diabetes
population

People with chronic Hypertension
diseases
COVID-19 in Epidemic
Challenges Malaysia Progression Heart disease
January 25 to February 15, 2020

First Wave 12 PUI
Second Wave
Nationwide reached a maximum of Increasing number of 22 Cases 8 Close contacts
16,635 rRT-PCR tests per day testing per day
Threats to the 2 Malaysian evacuees of
Each healthcare staff involved Adequacy of manpower & healthcare system humanitarian aid mission
must be provided with the sufficiency of PPE supply from Wuhan
appropriate level of PPE
Amount of healthcare staff February 27, 2020 onwards
Some ministry healthcare staff
have been tested positive for The adequacy of hospital's Sri Petaling
COVID-19 ICU beds and ventilators Tabligh Cluster

5,945 cases Other clusters &
by April 29 case concentration

Mainly concentrating Worsened after Sabah
the east of Sabah state election on Sept 26

Third Wave October 8 to present
14,368 cases on Oct 8

CHEN YI YANG 69,095 cases on December 3

Responses for
COVID-19 in
Malaysia

Disease Containment Movement Control Conditional Movement Recovery Movement Enhanced Movement More Migration
Order (MCO) Control Order (CMCO) Control Order (RMCO) Control Order (EMCO) Strategies

Enhanced screening Key measures Announced by the Prime Minister on June 10 to August 31, 2020 EMCO may be enforced in Social distancing
Implementation of border control May 1, 2020. potentially explosive localities
Interagency collaborations at entry points. Control of public movement Sectors were reopened with Be apart of each other more
Prohibition of public gathering Continued until June 9 before entering strict Standard Operating All residents are required to than ​1 meter.
Bolster sampling at health clinics & hospitals. Promotion of social distancing RMCO. Procedures remain indoors at all times.
Reopening the country
Designation of hospitals & laboratories nationwide Implemented when the number of Partial opening of the economic sector Reopened Sectors A medical base is set up.
as "treating" and "sampling" centers. COVID-19 cases started to escalate. Reopening of the country's economic
Total lockdown period was intended Cross-district & cross-state travel were Economic Door-to-door screening at all & public sectors on May 4
Empowering the public health surveillance system. for 8 weeks. prohibited unless for work and with prior residents for COVID-19 is
Phase 1 permission from the police. Education conducted. Due to the damaging impact of
Robust contact tracing lockdown on the economy.
March 18 to 31, 2020 Reinstated in the state of Sabah on Religious All business activities are ceased
Adequate stockpiling of personal protective Phase 2 Oct 13. except for essential services. Mass Antibody Strategy
equipment (PPE) & medications needed. Hospitality
April 1 to 14, 2020 Reinstated in Klang Valley from Oct 14 All entry and exit points are To detect immune response to
A nationwide call for attendees to come forward Phase 3 onwards. Tourism guarded. COVID-19.
for testing.
April 15 to 28, 2020 Reinstated in other states in Peninsular Essential food supplies are Helps to contain the number of
Justified localized Enhanced Movement Control Order Phase 4 Malaysia except for Perlis on Nov 9. provided for free. sporadic cases in the country.
to particular areas.
April 29 to May 12, 2020 Food deliveries deliver only to a Achieving Herd Immunity
Developed MySejahtera & MyTrace apps to assist designated area.
COVID-19 outbreak management. Might overwhelm a country's
healthcare system
Three T's of "trace-test-treat"
Lack of evidence that recovered
Isolation and quarantine of close contacts and travelers patients may develop immunity.
returning from abroad.
Malaysia does not want to
Returnees and close contacts were quarantined for 14 days. take the risk.

Make sure Malaysians will adequately receive successfully Vaccination
developed COVID-19 vaccines.
Malaysia is considered suitable for
CHEN YI YANG human vaccine trails as it's a multi-
racial country.

First wave Most cases were imported cases or of Chinese nationalit

EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION Close contacts from Chinese nationality in Singapore

Malaysian evacuees of humanitarian aid mission from
Wuhan

The Guidelines for COVID-19 Management in Malaysia was
developed

Second wave The Sri Attended by 14,500 Malaysians and 1500
Petaling oversea attendees
Tabligh
Cluster Largest cluster of COVID-19

Generated a number of subcultures
especially at madrasah

COVID-19 Other Clusters Formed from local mass gatherings
and Case & imported cases

Concentrations Visitors who believed to have
been exposed will do screening

Third wave Infection of Elderly (55-64 years old) and those
Vulnerable with chronic diseases in Malaysia
Population
Encouraged the use of
PharMarchy Value Added Service

Detected Virus became more aggressive and
Mutation of contagious
SARS-CoV-2
Discovered through 26th case who
had travel history to Shanghai

CHALLENGES Selecting suitable range of evidence-based medications to be used in Malaysia
The speed of vaccine procurement
The adequacy of designated hospital beds/ ICU beds/ ventilators
The adequacy of manpower and sufficiency of PPE supply

People didn't comply the self quarantine order

PISMPTESLB0622 Farah Husna Binti Abdul Rahman

First initiated for 2 weeks from PISMPTESLB0622- Farah Husna binti Enforced in localities within each red
March 18 to 31, 2020 Abdul Rahman ditrict

Enforced through the Prevention Remain indoor at all time/ medical
and Control Infectious Diseases base is set up/ door to door
screening
Act 1988
Food deliveries allowed to deliver to
Implemetation of border designated area only
control, control of public
movement, prohibition of Essential food supplies are provided
for free
public gathering and
promotion of social distancing

Increase number of RESPONSE Be apart from each other <1m
hospital beds/ICU beds &
Conducted in the red Avoid contact with someone
setting up temporary zones areas with symptoms/ Avoid
medical facility gatherings

Ordering medical Avoid non essential use of
ventilators & PPE public transport

To acquire herd community Work from home/ use
telephone or online services
Calling cooperation with other To detect population
vaccine-producing countries immune response

Willing to participate in
clinical trials

COVID-19 EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION IN MALAYSIA
Second Wave of Outbreak

First Wave of Outbreak (February 27 Onwards, The Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster

5945 Cases by April 29)

January 25,2020 February 15 After the New cases March 10 March 15 Generated • March 19 June 11
First 3 imported Number of 22nd appeared 129 cases Number of daily a number of Traced 10650 attendees • Represented
cases (8 close cases case, no (PUIs, close new cases surged subclusters and detected 513 positive
contacts of a increase to new contacts, from 41 to 190 cases 38.9% of the
confirmed case 22 case for evacuees of across all states (a • April 29 total positive
of Chinese 11 days humanitarian aid COVID-19 case in 33577 people had been cases
nationality in missions Brunei attended examined, 32590 samples • The number of
Singapore had the tabligh taken from the tabligh deaths
traveled into convention which cluster [2167cases (6.5% of constituted
Malaysia) was attended by total samples taken and 28.1% of all
14500 Malaysians) 36% of total 5945 cases)] deaths

Infection of Vulnerable Population Third Wave of Outbreak (October 8 - Present) Other Clusters and Case
Concentrations

The elderly Age group Case fatalities Most significant number October 8 (14368 cases) A cluster from a 601 cases (non-
and those 55 - 64 years - 63% above 60 of cases was recorded in December3 (69095 cases) PUI Malaysians: most
with chronic (highest years old Sabah (travel history to were nationalities
disease are cases) - 81% had chronic ( September 26 Sabah Bali) from Indonesia and
more diseases state election ) • 43 cases the Philippines)
vulnerable • 3 deaths

Detected Mutation of SARS-CoV-2 in Malaysia

The Institute for Medical Research later The COVID-19 disease, which is The main virus strain for the infection in LAU CHEN SIN
discovered a possible mutation in the virus strain caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has been Malaysia is of strain B
isolated from the 26th case, which might have suggested to be triggered by spike ( found exclusively in East Asia)
caused the virus more aggressive and contagious mutation of the SARS-CoV from bats,
which enabled it to infect humans

Transmission Largely spread via droplets in the air and is a respiratory illness

Infected persons keep shedding the virus after they recover for
around two weeks

Infected persons with mild or no symptom can have a very high viral
load in their upper respiratory tracts

44 cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology were reported in China Origin Movement control order A phase 1 MCO was first iinitiated from March 18 to 31 (2 weeks)
due to escalating of cases (second wave )
Chinese authorities identified a new type of coronavirus
The total MCO period was intended for 8 weeks due to extension
The outbreak was associated with exposures in a seafood market in
Wuhan City Enhanced movement control order Employed a targeted approach in tackling the COVID-19 epidemic by first
identifying high-risk districts and localities and may enforce EMCO in them
WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a public health emergency
of international concern 7 EMCO's were designated with the assistance of the police and armed
forces (April 23)
The virus is mutating into transmissible forms

Cases spread all over Malaysia after the conclusion of the assembly COVID-19 Social distancing Recommended to be apart from each other at a distance of not < 1m
with attendees returning to their hometowns EPIDEMIC To reduce social interaction between people

Infected international participants later spread the virus to their native IN Epidemic progression Research predicted an epidemic peak of 5070 active cases by April 12, 2020
countries MALAYSIA Efforts were made to increase the number of available hospital beds
Disease containment
Repurposed drugs found to have no significant beneficial effect on Mitigation strategy
the treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 2596 cases on April 5 (highest) is 51.2% of the predicted cases
LAU CHEN SIN The implementation of the MCO flattened about half of the epidemic curve
The regimens had little or no effect on 28- day mortality or the in- Flattening the epidemic curve
hospital course of COVID- 19 among hospitalized patients

The whole healthcare system may be stretched thin with improper Threats and challenges Exit strategy Strategizing for an exit strategy to reopen the country to revitalize economic sector and activities
management and administration
WHO announced 6 conditions a country must acquire before lifting a lockdown and
The adequacy of designated hospital beds along with its ICU beds that criteria has been met by Malaysia
and ventilators will come into question
The social and education sectors may have to wait a longer period and the travel
The scarcity of PPE in certain parts of the world has led to infections ban may continue after MCO is lifted
and deaths of healthcare staff from COVID-19 infection
Threats to the healthcare system Planning an exit strategy that will both help contain the spread of COVID-19 at a
manageable level and allow economic sector to restart (loses about RM 2.4 billion a
Burnout and exhaustion among healthcare workers day during MCO )

Some 325 ministry healthcare staff has been tested positive for Reopening the country Announced a reopening of the country's economic and public sectors on May 4
COVID-19

Categories of industries and businesses are not permitted to operate (involving
public gatherings and body contact )

Local public movement must be within a state

International borders remained closed to entering foreigners and exiting Malaysians

Set SOPs for the reopening of the economic sector and businesses starting May 4

Mass antibody testing Considered conducting random antibody testing in the red zones areas to
know the prevalence of infection in the community(especially among infected
persons who have not been detected )

Antibody testing helps to contain the number of sporadic cases in the country

The required level of herd immunity is unlikely to be achieved with
the current level of natural population exposure to this pandemic

Achieving herd immunity Mass exposure to the virus in the hope of achieving herd immunity
could result in increased mortality

Does not want to take the risk of allowing for herd immunity

Has no case of COVID-19 reinfection by recovered patients

The best approach to acquire herd immunity against the virus

Vaccination Vaccine only be available within 1 to 1.5 years

Willing to participate in the clinical trials once the vaccine is made available





AMIR

AMIR

= First wave of outbreak in
Malaysia
A new type of corona
virus has been (25/1/2020 until 15/2/2020)
[22 cases]
identified in China
(2019-nCoV)

First three cases 15 out of 22
in Malaysia were cases in the
first wave were
imported
imported

Second wave of Third wave of outbreak
outbreak in Malaysia in Malaysia

(27/2/2020 onwards) (8/10/2020 until present)

Sri Petaling Tabligh Malaysians that Sabah recorded Many people who
cluster where 14 attended the several large came back from
500 Malaysian
attended a tabligh tabligh returned to clusters of cases Sabah state
that had a their states, this election were
confirmed positive tested positive
case caused generation
of many

subclusters

MUHAMMAD HARRIFFUDIN BIN SAUDI

Isolation and Movement Control Has been implemented in
quarantine Order (MCO) multiple phases

Enchanced Controls borders, public movement
screening and prohibits public gathering

National Covid-19 DISEASE Enchanced Movement Implemented in high risk
Immunization plan CONTAINMENT Control Order (EMCO) areas

Mass THREATS AND MITIGATION Areas affected has no in and
sampling CHALLENGES STRATEGY out movement

Adequacy of beds Avoid contact with
and ventilators people

Social Work from home if
distancing possible

THREATS TO COVID -19
HEALTHCARE
Adequacy of SYSTEM Soft landing strategy where ban
manpower and periods are longer
personal protective

equiment

Reopening the country Reopening economic sectors
with conditions

EXIT Mass antibody Testing to allow lifting of
STRATEGY testing restrictions

Malaysia has conducted
random testing

Herd immunity through mass virus
exposure unlikely due to increase in
mortality rate

Achieving Herd Malaysia does not use this way to
Immunity achieve herd immunity

Vaccination Best approach to
achieve herd immunity

Malaysia has cooperated to help
develop vaccines

MUHAMMAD HARRIFFUDIN BIN SAUDI

MUHAMMAD NABIL BIN ZULFIKRI PPISMP TESL B
COVID-19 EPIDEMIC IN MALAYSIA

CHALLENGES

MUTATION OF VIRUS STRAIN
Strain A Strain B Strain C

ADEQUACY OF MANPOWER AND PPE SUPPLY

SHARP CASE INCREMENTS RM 2.4 BILLION LOSS PER DAY DURING MCO
PENINSULAR SABAH STATE ELECTION

LARGE CLUSTERS

ADEQUACY OF HOSPITAL BEDS

PANIC BUYING

EXIT STRATEGY

RESPONSE

MASS ANTIBODY TESTING

IMMUNE RESPONSE DETECTION

RISK ASSESEMENT

REOPENING THE COUNTRY

INTRODUCE STEP DOWN CENTERS

MOVEMENT CONTROL ORDER USE OF PHARMARCHY VALUE ADDED SERVICES

PUBLIC MOVEMENT CONTROL

PHASE 1,2,3 MEDS THROUGH DRIVE THROUGH , POST AND ETC.

CMCO RMCO
EMCO
SPECIFIC LOCATION ENHANCED SCREENING CONTROLLED DISEASE TRANSMISSION MINIMISED OUTBREAK RISKS VACCINATION

ESTABLISH PREVENTIVE MEASURES

GUIDELINES FOR COVID-19 MANAGEMENT

HERD IMMUNITY

MOBILIZE HEALTHWORKERS TO RED ZONE DISTRICTS COOPERATION WITH VACCINE-PRODUCING COUNTRIES

SOCIAL DISTANCING

PERSONAL HYGIENE

PROGRESSION OF JANUARY 30: WHO SECOND WAVE , FEB MARCH 11 , SRI PETALING OUT OF 10650
COVID-19 announced COVID- 27 , SRI PETALING WHO TABLIGH ATTENDEES OF THE
19 as public health TABLIGH CLUSTER , CLUSTER TABLIGH CLUSTER , 513
EPIDEMIC IN INFECTION RATE ANNOUNCED
MALAYSIA emergency of 6.5% COVID-19 AS GENERATED A WERE POSITIVE
international concern NUMBER OF
PADEMIC
FIRST WAVE, 22 SUBCLUSTERS

CASES ( JANUARY

25 - FEBRUARY 15 ) ,

NO DEATH

LARGE THIRD WAVE ( OCT OTHER CLUSTERS 3347 CASES
APPEAR FROM WERE REPORTED
CLUSTERS 8 - PRESENT ) ,
DUE TO SABAH GATHERING ( CHURCH IN FROM THE
MAINLY AT < < SARAWAK )AND IMPORTED < CLUSTER ( MAY
EAST OF
STATE ELECTION CASES ( RETURNING 21 ) AND THE
SABAH MALAYSIANS FROM CLUSTER ENDS
OTHER COUNTRIES ) ON JULY 8 ( ZERO
ACTIVE CASE)

CASES SHOT <
BY 381% TO

69095 BY
DECEMBER

3RD

LOCALISED MAJOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT
EMCO IN SAMPLING MYSEJAHTERA AND ALLOCATED A
REGARDLESS
PENINSULAR OF THEIR MYTRACE APPS BUDGET OF RM3
MALAYSIA NATIONALIT BILLION FOR
Y VACCINATION
WITH SHARP
INCREMENTS

OF CASES

MUHAMMAD NABIL BIN ZULFIKRI
PPISMP TESL B









COVID-19 THREATS TO THE HEALTHCARE DISEASE CONTAINMENT
epidemic SYSTEM MOH comes out with a comprehensive preparedness
in plan
Malaysia ICU beds and ventilators are two critical commodities in enhanced screening
times of crises active case detection
adequacy of manpower and sufficiency of PPE supply robust contact tracing
MOH called on private and retired medical staff to adequate stockpiling of personal protective
contribute in COVID-19 management equipment (PPE) and medications
healthcare staff risk being exposed to contracting the MOH distributed the national Guideline on COVID-19
infection themselves Management
active cluster identification
EMCOs imposed strict no in–out movement
imposed isolation and quarantine

DETECTED MUTATION TRANSMISSION WAVES OF OUTBREAK

Possible mutation in the virus strain via droplets of water in air o FIRST WAVE
discovered from the 26th case persisted for days on surfaces Jan 25- Feb 15 2020 ( 22 cases)
Mutation causes virus to be more contagious through spit First three cases in Malaysia are imported cases
and aggressive touching their mouths or noses Guidelines for COVID-19 Management in Malaysia was
COVID-19 is triggered by spike mutation of expelled through infected person developed by MOH
the SARS-CoV from bats sneezes/coughs
Found the virus in three major variants through talking o SECOND WAVE
Feb 27 onwards ( 5945 cases by April 29)
Variant A People who travelled overseas started to manifest
Variant B symptoms
Variant C Clusters started to form when they held social events
main variant in Malaysia is Variant B Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster

ORIGIN SYMPTOMS largest cluster in Malaysia
MOH urged all tabligh attendees to contact district health
Wuhan, Hubei Province of China fever offices
Detected on 31st December 2019 in China dry cough/ sore throat
Origin of the outbreak in Malaysia: a runny nose, breathing Malaysia announced Movement Control Order (MCO)
passenger from China tested positive difficulties o THIRD WAVE
Detected in Malaysia on Jan 25, 2020 organ failures/ fatalities
Oct 8- present
Several clusters reported in Sabah
Largest cluster reported is Benteng Lahad Datu cluster
led to several subclusters such as Tawau Prison cluster
number of cases worsened after Sabah state election on
Sept 26

NUR IRDINA BINTI NOR AZHAR ( TESL B ) MOH - ministry of health

COVID-19 STRATEGY

MITIGATION EXIT
STRATEGY STRATEGY

MCO EMCO Exit strategy MOH has set SOPs for
Social quarantine Mass Antibody Testing the reopening of the
a total lockdown was enforced economic sector and
with the assistance of the business
police and armed forces.
to detect their population
Lockdown Social distancing immune response to
MCO and EMCO COVID-19
To be apart from each other
at a distance of not <1 m

Epidemic progress Flattening the curve Re-Opening WHO announced six
conditions a country
increasing the implementation of the MCO, Achieving Herd must acquire before
availability of ICU especially phases 1, 2, and Immunity lifting a lockdown
beds, ordering of 3, has clearly managed to
medical ventilators, flatten the epidemic curve Vaccination Malaysia doesn’t want to
and ordering of allow herd immunity as
personal protective the evidence is lacking
equipment that recovered patients
will develop immunity.

Malaysia is willing to
participate in the clinical
trials once the vaccines
is available.

Nur Irdina binti Nor Azhar (TESL B)

The main virus Detected Mutation of January 25 to February 15
strain is strain B SARS-CoV-2
Close contacts of a Chinese
Strain A and strain C nationality in Singapore
were also present

Infection of Malaysian evacuees of humanitarian
vulnerable aid mission from Wuhan, China

diabetes Elderly COVID-19
hypertension
heart diseases Those with EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION People’s travel history
chronic diseases (China, Japan, Italy and Australia)

IN MALAYSIA Local mass gatherings

Second wave

Entered it in early October The Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster

Highest number of cases A 3-day church gathering in Sarawak
was recorded in Sabah

Several large clusters of cases
have been identified

These clusters are mainly
concentrating in the east of Sabah

NUR NADHIRAH BINTI SUMADI

Challenges Selecting a suitable range of evidence-based medications

The adequacy of designated hospital beds, ICU beds, ventilator,
manpower and sufficiency of PPE supply

Economic impact
Some people did not comply to the federally imposed isolation and quarantine

The MOH distributed the national Guideline on Covid-19

COVID-19 Implementation of border control
IN MALAYSIA Control of public movement
Prohibition of public gathering
Implemented Movement Control Order (MCO) Promotion of social distancing
MySejahtera
Conditional MCO (CMCO), recovery MCO (RMCO)
Developed mobile phone apps MyTrace and Enhanced Movement Control Order (EMCO)

Response

Upgraded capacity of healthcare facilities

Mass Antibody Testing Conducting it randomly in the red zones area
Helps to contain the number of sporadic cases

Vaccination Calling for cooperation with other vaccine-producing countries to
work together in developing the COVID-19 vaccine

Willing to share facilities, data and resources
Willing to participate in the clinical trials

NUR NADHIRAH BINTI SUMADI

COVID-19 EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION

First wave Second Wave Third Wave

January 25 – February 27- October 8-
February 15 onwards
present
Imported cases or 2 cases were People with The Sri Petaling
of Chinese of local international travel Tabligh Cluster : The number of cases
history to China, Japan, increased after
nationality & close transmission 3375 cases
contacts Italy, Australia Sabah state election
on September 26
(15/22 cases)
By December 3, the
2 cases ofMalaysian All cases Other clusters : local 3-day church number of cases
evacuees of humanitarian recovered mass gatherings gathering in increased to
aid mission from Wuhan, from the & PUIs traveling Kuching : 176 cases 69,095
infection history & 3 deaths
China

139 cases from
12,672 Malaysians
who returned from

overseas

NURHANIS DAYANA BINTI MUHAMAD RIZA

3 Major Variants Strain A : USA & Australia Cough
Transmission Strain B : Malaysia Sneezes
Strain C : Europe Spitting
Talking
Droplets in the air
Persist on surface for days

Vulnerable Elderly (55-65 years old) Diabetes
population
Had chronic disease Hypertension
Symptoms Heart diseases

Challenges Severe Breathing difficulty Fever
Common Organ failure Dry cough
Fatal Tiredness
Runny nose
Sore throat

• Adequacy of manpower & sufficiency of PPE supply
• Adequacy of designated hospital beds and ventilators
• Burnout & exhaustion among healthcare workers

• MOH distributed the national Guideline on COVID 19

Response • Enhaced screening and interagency collaborations at entry points

• Mass samplings MySejahtera
• Contact tracing MyTrace

NURHANIS DAYANA BINTI MUHAMAD RIZA

Influenza pandemic 11-12 January 2020 Coronavirus outbreak was
associated to exposures in
the Hong Kong Flu
the Asian Flu (Milder Pandemics) a seafood market in Wuhan
The most severe was the Spanish Flu
Pandemics of City
the 20-21st
Origin of COVID- 7 January 2020 Chinese authorities identified
century 19 a new type of coronavirus

WHO declared the outbreak of

Covid-19 a public health

30 January 2020 emergency of international
concern

COVID-19 Epidemic in Malaysia Most commonly cases

Infected 265 Malaysians Nipah Virus Symptoms Mild cases Fever,dry cough,tiredness
and killed 105 COVID-19 virus
Chinese tourists from Runny nose,sore
Wuhan via Singapore Was brought by SARS Outbreak throat
Experience breathing
Severe cases difficulty,organ failure

Malaysia citizens who traveled to History of Transmission of Can be shed through
high COVID-19-infected countries epidemics in COVID-19 spitting,touching their mouths or
noses and talking
like Indonesia and Italy Malaysia Definition : Infection acquired from
outside Malaysia with reference to the Largely spread via droplets in
Only claimed two lives in Malaysia travel history of individual case the air and is a respiratory
illness
Infected 8,098 and killed 774 However,all cases of first wave
people globally recovered from the infection Droplets are typically expelled
when an infected person
MOH encouraged the use of To protect the vulnerable Imported cases in The cases were detected coughs or sneezes
Pharmacy Value Added Service(VAS) groups Malaysia when on tracing and
screening SARS-CoV-2 has been found
Develop a guideline on Recommendation for the Infection of Most of the cases were imported to persist for many days on
COVID-19 Pandemic for Private,Public and NGO vulnerable population or of Chinese nationality and surfaces
close contacts
Residential Aged Care Facilitties First wave of
outbreak Those who
Incidence per population rate of COVID-19 worked,traveled or
was the highest among age group 55 to 64 lived together with a
COVID-19 patient
years in population

Elderly and those who have chronic
disease are vulnerable to COVID-19

Definition of close
contacts

3-day gathering in Kuching recorded Local mass gatherings COVID-19 Second wave Cases spike up China
176 cases and three deaths EPIDEMIC of outbreak Japan
Other clusters and case PROGRESSION IN People who had Australia
Hospital cluster that recorded 56 cases of concentrations MALAYSIA international travel history Italy
which 29 cases were linked to church
gatherings to

Several areas that have higher Lahad Datu The largest cluster- District Police
concentrated numbers of cases has been Headquarters which lead to
Imported cases of PUIs travelling The most significant numbers several subclusters including
placed under Enhanced Movement from oversea countries is in Sabah where there are Tawau prison subcluster
Control Order (EMCO) several clusters such as :
15 March,the new cases spiked Number of cases spikes up
PUI from Italy recorded infections up,which most of them were Third wave after the Sabah state election
among 63 cases with five deaths linked to the Tabligh cluster of outbreak
Tawau,Sandakan,
The Tabligh cluster then lead to another The Sri Petaling Highest cases are detected at Semporna
subclusters in several states Tabligh Cluster
Sabah,Selangor,Kuala
MOH Malaysia announced the country to be in Lumpur and Kedah
Movement Control Order (MCO)
Three major variants in
However,on July 8,only zero active case from Malaysia : Strain
the cluster A,Strain B,Strain C

The largest cluster of COVID-19 Detected Mutation of
that triggered the local SARS-coV-2 in
Malaysia
transmission all over the country
COVID-19 is caused by severe
Main virus infection in Malaysia acute respiratory syndrome
is Strain B coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Also reported that variants
strain A (found in Australia

and USA) and strain C
(Europe) are also found in

Malaysia

To be triggered by spike
mutation of the SARS-CoV

from bats

NURUL AININA BINTI MOHD ALIF EMPATI

COVID-19 THREATS AND THREATS TO THE Inadequate number of hospital beds
EPIDEMIC IN CHALLENGES HEALTHCARE SYSTEM along with its ICU beds and ventilator
MALAYSIA
MITIGATION DISEASE CONTAINMENT Increase in workload of the laboratories
STRATEGY Bolster sampling at health clinics and
MOVEMENT CONTROL hospitals
NOTE : MIER is Malaysian Institute of ORDER
Economic Research Empowering the public health surveillance
ENHANCED MOVEMENT system through
CONTROL ORDER
• Implementation of border control
SOCIAL DISTANCING • Control of public movement

EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION Specific locations were subjected to
stricter order
FLATTENING THE PANDEMIC
CURVE To be apart from each other within not
< 1 m as well reducing social interaction
NURUL AININA BINTI MOHD ALIF EMPATI
MIER predicted that the active numbers
of COVID-19 cases triggered the
healthcare system

The implementation of MCO during phases
1,2 and 3 managed to flatten the curve





connected to Clusters and Origin of Covid-19 Wuhan City,
Sri Petaling case concentration (Dec 31, 2019) Hubei Province of
Tabligh event China

local wholesale associated with
markets exposure in

(Selayang, Selangor, a seafood market
nothern Kuala Lumpur) in Wuhan City

Healthcare workers via droplets in the air
(HCWs)
expelled when an
Masjid India infected person :
Road
- cough
(foreign immigrants) - sneeze
- spitting
Self quarantine Transmission - touch their mouth /
/ lockdown
Covid-19 nose
Social distancing in Malaysia - talking
(2 metre) (respiratory illness)
persist on surfaces
Appropriate use
of face mask Standard Operation fever
Procedure dry cough
Personal hygiene (S.O.P) tiredness
(wash hand regularly,
hand sanitizer) common

Report Covid-19 mild cases runny nose
cases to MOH sore throat

Sick people with
symptoms must

undergo
health screening

55-64 Symptoms
years old
elderly breathing difficulty
organ failure
diabetes people with severe cases fatal
hypertension chronic disease
heart disease Vulnerable population

COVID-19
in Malaysia

Epidemic Responses Challenges
Progression
Coping ability Selecting a Healthcare Impact on
Early response Further response workers Malaysia's
of suitable exposed to economy (big
First wave Second wave Third wave screening My Sejahtera burnout loss due
(Jan 25, 2020 - (Feb 27,2020 - (Oct 8, 2020 - and interagency & MyTrace apps healthcare range of and to lockdown)
July 8, 2020) collaborations at exhaustion
Feb 15, 2020) present) entry points Migitation system evidence-
(airports, seaports, strategy
22 cases 5,945 cases etc.) (adequacy of based
- MCO
The Guidelines (border control, ICU beds, medications
for Covid-19 public movement
Close International Sri Petaling Highest cases control, promote ventilators,
contacts travel history Tabligh
of Chinese Cluster Sabah manpower,
nationality China (Masjid Jamek
in Singapore Japan in Sri (8,082) PPE supply)
Italy petaling,
Malaysian Australia Kuala worsened Management social distancing)
evacuees Lumpur) after
Sabah state in Malaysia - Enhanced MCO
of 14,500 election by MOH (stricter and
humanitarian Malaysians (79% in 2
aid mission months) adequate enforced with
assistance of
from stockpiling of polices and
Wuhan, China personal protective armed forces)
equipment (PPE)
Traveled
to high Covid- 1,500 oversea and medication - Conditional MCO
attendees
19 needed - Recovery MCO
infected
countries generated Vaccination
a number (to achieve
herd immunity)
of
subculters

Italy

Indonesia

Travel history is the main reason of the outbreak in 1st WAVE of SYMPTOMS COMMON SYMPTOMPS
Malaysia OUTBREAK
Fever
Close contacts to a Chinese nationality in Singapore: JAN 25TH – FEB Dry cough
Traveled to Johor, Malaysia 15TH Tiredness

Two Malaysian evacuees of humanitarian aid mission
from Wuhan, China

International travel history to other 2nd WAVE of COVID-19 MILD SYMPTOMPS SEVERE CASES
countries: China, Japan, Italy and OUTBREAK
Australia Runny nose Breathing difficulties
FEB 27TH – Sore throats Organ failure
Close contacts of confirmed cases who JULY 28TH Fatal
attended events:
Meetings, Conventions, Gatherings When someone:
Sneezes
The Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster ORIGIN TRANSMISSION Spitting
Talking
- A positive covid-19 case in Brunei had Detected in Wuhan City Droplets in Coughs
attended a tabligh on December 31st 2019 the air Touching their
3rd WAVE of mouths and nose
- Attendees : 1500 oversea attendees OUTBREAK
across Asia , 14500 Malaysians
Highest number of cases: Sabah (8,082), Selangor (3,357), Kuala
- Screening activity targeted to Islamic Lumpur (2,853) and Kedah (1,940)
educational institutions: Madrasah,
Tahfiz School

Mainly concentrating in the east of Sabah. SABAH
:
Worsened after the Sabah state election on
September 26th

Nurul syuhrah Aqilah binti jamalluddin (tesl b)

INFECTION OF THE VULNERABLES COVID-19 MITIGATION STRATEGY
Vulnerable Groups
THREATS AND CHALLENGES Movement Control Order Government
- The elderly : Age group 55 to 64 years old
- People with chronic diseases: Diabetes, Disease Containment - Lockdown with social distancing protocol.
- During RMCO:
Hypertension, Heart disease - Enhance screening at entry points: airports - Educations, religious events, tourism and
- Contact tracing: reducing disease transmission by
1. Higher risk to Covid-19 economics were reopened but with strict
doing test that were carried out by the MOH for standard operating procedures also known as
2. Ensure adequate supply of medicine for free SOP.
them without being exposed to high-risk - Imposed isolation and quarantine - The international borders are opened only for
environment with Covid-19 : Hospitals approved travels.
Threats to the Healthcare System
DETECTED MUTATION of SARS-CoV 2 Enhanced Movement Control Order
Mutation in the Virus - The shortage of supply treatments for Covid-19:
Hospital beds and ventilators. - Green districts: no active case Within
- The virus is more aggressive and - Yellow districts: 1-20 cases 14 days
contagious - The scarcity of PPE had led to infections and - Orange districts: 21-40 cases
deaths of the frontliners from Covid-19 infections - Red districts: more than 40 cases
- Cause severe acute respiratory
syndrome EXIT STRATEGY Social Distancing

Reopening the Country - Reduce the transmission of Covid-19 by
- Avoiding gatherings, work from home
- SOPs for the reopening: social distancing,
personal hygiene, use face mask, health Nurul syuhrah Aqilah binti jamalluddin
screening for sick people

Mass Antibody Testing

- A strategy to detect immune response:

Vaccination

- Best approach to acquire herd immunity
against the virus

EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION

First wave of Second wave Other clusters & Third wave outbreak
outbreak of outbreak cases concentrations

• First three cases were • The new cases began to • Formed from local mass • Malaysia entered the 3rd wave of
imported cases and its appear as people who had gatherings & imported outbreak in early October with
defined as infection acquired international travel history to cases of person under the highest number of cases
from outside Malaysia with countries such as investigations(PUIs) coming from
reference to the travel china,Japan,Italy and travelling fom oversea sabah,Selangor,Kuala Lumpur &
history and it was detected Australia started to manifest countries kedah.
after the communication the symptoms
from the Singapore ministry • In relation to • The most significant number of
of health which a close • The Sri Petaling Tabligh cases was recorded in sabah.The
contacts of a Chinese cluster clusters,several areas clusters are mainly
nationality in Singapore had concentrating in the east of
travel to Johor - It became the largest are reported highly sabah & the largest cluster is
cluster of COVID-19 that Benteng Lahad Datu clusters at
• On February 15, the number triggered local concentrated number of the Lahad Datu District Police
of cases increased to 22 transmission. Headquarters including the
cases and no new cases cases had been placed tawau prison subculture.
reported for 11 days.It - The Ministry Of Healths
formed the first wave of (MOH) announced a under Enhanced • The number of cases become
COVID-19 outbreak. movement control order worsened after the sabah state
because the number of Movement Control Order election .
daily cases.
(EMCO) to contain the

local transmission rates.

Nurul Wafa Atiya

COVID-19 epidemic in Malaysia

challenge Response

- They faced a challenge to choose a suitable range of • Movement control order (MCO)
evidence-based medications to be use in Malaysia - Social quarantine/lockdown

- ICU beds and ventilators are two criticals commodities in • Enhanced movement control order (EMCO)
times of crisis - 7 EMCOs were designated on April 23 whereby a total

- They also have faced the adequacy of man power & lockdown was enforced with the assistance of the police
sufficiency of PPE suply and armed forces.

• Introduced isolation and quarantine

• Build an apps to keep tracing people who may be exposed
to infected. (MySejahtera & MyTrace)

• Social distancing
- The recommended social distancing for the public is to be

apart from each other at a distance of not less than 1
meter
- To avoid contact with someone who is displaying symptoms
of COVID-19 which include a high temperature and
continuous cough.

• Vaccination.
- Vaccination would be the best approach to acquire herd

immunity against the virus. Malaysia is willing to participate
in the clinical trials once the vaccine is made available.
- Malaysia is considered highly suitable for the human vaccine
trials because Malaysia is a multiracial country.

Nurul Wafa Atiya

Progression Of Covid-19 in Malaysia

Origin of Covid-19: First wave (25/1-15/2):
Wuhan, Hubei Province (Dec 2019) - imported cases (singapore)
Transmission: - Malaysian evacuees from Wuhan
droplets in the air, coughs/sneezes, spitting, - Chinese nationality (most cases)
Talking, touching mouth/nose - Guidelines for COVID-19 Management in
Symptoms: Malaysia (No. 05/2020)
fever, dry cough, fatigue, breathing difficulty

Second Wave (27/2 onwards): Other Cluster & Case Concentrations:
- international travel history - local mass gatherings
- church gathering in Kuching
(China, Japan, Italy, Australia) - hospital cluster
- SRI PETALING TABLIGH CLUSTER - Malaysian students return from IDN
- first MCO (8/3) - non-Malaysians (PUIs travellers from IDN,
immigrant workers, asylum seekers)
Third Wave (October onwards): - HCWs carry high risk
- highest cases [Sabah, Selangor, KL, Kedah] - EMCO (Enhanced MCO)
- Sabah State Election (26/9)

SITI NORZALINA BINTI JAIBIT

Covid-19 in Malaysia

Threats/ Challenges: Responses/ Containtments/ Solutions:
- screening/interagency collabs at entry points
- people at high risk - bolster samplings at health clinics/hospitals
> the elderly - hospitals/laboratories as ‘treating’/ ‘sampling’ centers
> people with chronic disease - training centers, technical institutes, community colleges,
hotels, former National Service Camps as quarantine centers
- SARS-COV-2 detection - PharMacy Value Added Services (VAS)
> strain B mostly - Recommendations for the COVID-19 Pandemic for
> straic C also precent
Private, Public and NGO Residential Aged Care Facilities
- adequacy of manpower - contact tracing
- sufficiency of PPE supply - free tests for EVERYONE
- people failing to follow - MySejahtera/MyTrace apps
- MCO and EMCO (social distancing, SOP)
MCO/ SOP - PPE donations from local entrepreneurs, businesses,
- economic struggles
- difficulty to find the safe private companies
- donations of isolation gowns, head covers, boot covers
medications - hire medical staffs on contract
- achieving herd community through vaccination

SITI NORZALINA BINTI JAIBIT

TREE MAP COVID-19 EPIDEMIC IN MALAYSIA :
EPIDEMIC PROGRESSION, CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES
INTRODUCTION
COVID-19 PROGRESSION THREATS AND CHALLENGES
PANDEMICS OF IN MALAYSIA
20-21ST CENTURY DISEASE CONTAINMENT
FIRST/SECOND/THIRD
1. SPANISH FLU (1918-1919) WAVE 1. ENHANCED SCREENING
2. ASIAN FLU (1957-1958) AND INTERAGENCY
3. HONG KONG FLU (1968) FIRST WAVE : COLLABORATIONS AT
JANUARY 25 TO FEBRUARY 15 (22 CASES) ENTRY POINTS (AIRPORTS
ORIGIN OF COVID-19 AND SEAPORTS)
SECOND WAVE :
WUHAN CITY, FEBRUARY 27 TO APRIL 29 (5945 CASES) 2. ADEQUATE STOCKPILING
HUBEI PROVINCE OF PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
OF CHINA THIRD WAVE : (PPE) AND MEDICATIONS
OCTOBER TO PRESENT TIME (2041866 CASES) NEEDED
TRANSMISSION OF
COVID-19 INFECTION OF THREATS TO THE
VULNERABLE POPULATION HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
DROPLETS IN THE AIR
1. ELDERLY PEOPLE
ASMA 2. CHRONIC ILLNESS PATIENTS

DETECTION OF MUTATION OF
SARS-COV-2 IN MALAYSIA

DOUBLE MEANINGS MAP COVID-19 EXIT STRATEGY
EPIDEMIC IN
MITIGATION STRATEGY MALAYSIA : REOPENING THE
COUNTRY
MOVEMENT EPIDEMIC
CONTROL ORDER PROGRESSION, MASS ANTIBODY
CHALLENGES TESTING
ENHANCED
MOVEMENT AND ACHIEVING HERD
CONTROL ORDER RESPONSES COMMUNITY

SOCIAL CONCLUSION VACCINATION
DISTANCING
MALAYSIA FACES MOUNTING CHALLENGES
EPIDEMIC IN RESPONDING TO THE CRISIS BECAUSE OF
PROGRESSION THE LIMITED FACILITIES BUT MANAGED TO
FLATTENING THE
EPIDEMIC CURVE OVERCOME THE FIRST TWO WAVES OF
EPIDEMIC WITH GOOD COOPERATION
ASMA BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND THE PUBLIC.

COVID-19 Epidemic in Malaysia: Epidemic Progression

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness and it is spread via droplets in the air.

First Wave of Outbreak Second Wave of Outbreak Third Wave of Outbreak
(January 25 - February 15) (February 27 Onwards) (October 8 - Present)

• The first three cases were • The Sri Petaling Tabligh Cluster (The larger • Large clusters were identified in
imported cases. cluster of COVID-19 infection.) Sabah.
✓ 14500 Malaysians, 1500 oversea ✓ The largest cluster was the
• Eight close contacts of a attendees and a COVID-19 case from Bentang Lahad Datu cluster, which
confirmed case in Singapore had Brunei had attended the tabligh then led to subclusters such as
travelled to Johor, Malaysia. convention. Tawau prison subcluster.
✓ Local transmission deteriorated.
• The number of cases in Malaysia ✓ Movement Control Order (MCO) was • With the Sabah state election, the
had increased from three cases to announced by government. number of cases in Sabah
22 cases. ✓ Subclusters at Islamic educational deteriorated.
✓ There were only two local institutions and a number of other ✓ People who returned from
transmission. tabligh clusters were identified. high-risk area in Sabah to
✓ Zero active case was being reported on peninsular Malaysia were tested
• All patients were recovered from July 8. positive.
the infection.
• Other Clusters and Case Concentrations
✓ Clusters were formed through local mass
gatherings and imported cases of
persons under investigation with travel
histories.
✓ Enhanced Movement Control Order
(EMCO) was implemented to areas that
reported highly concentrated number of
cases.

TAN CHEE TENG TESL B

COVID-19 Epidemic in Malaysia: Challenges and Responses

Challenges: Challenges (C) and Responses:

• Speed of vaccine procurement. Responses (R): • MySejahtera and MyTrace apps,

• There was a mayhem in which • C: Clusters of positive cases were introduced.
people were panicked buying
basic requirements and some increased. • Isolation or quarantine were
took the 2-week MCO to return R: Contact tracing was
to their hometowns. carried out to include indispensable for close contacts
✓ Social distancing was regular close contacts and and travellers.
ignored. places visited by each case.
• Malaysia joined Solidarity Trial to
• Economic crisis. • C: Global spread of virus.
✓ RM2.4 billion was lost during investigate the treatment of
the public movement R: Malaysia’s government Covid-19.
control conducted. brought back Malaysians
from other countries with • National Covid-19 Immunization
charted flight.
Plan was introduced to get all
• C: Workload of testing Malaysians vaccinated.

laboratories increased. • Targeted testing was carried out
R: Private hospitals and
laboratories decided to on symptomatic, asymptomatic,
open their services. local and foreign individuals.

• C: Adequacy of hospital • Public movement control

beds, ICU beds, ventilators, strategies:
manpower and PPE supply. ✓ MCO coupled with social
R: “Step down” centres
were built to house distancing between each
asymptomatic and clinically other < 1m and EMCO with
stable patients. the assistance of police and
R: Guidelines on the usage armed forces were
of PPE was given to implemented.
healthcare workers. ✓ Conditional MCO (CMCO)
R: Private and retired with partial opening the
healthcare workers were economic sectors and
hired. Recovery MCO (RMCO) with
strict standard operating
procedures (SOPs) were
implemented.

TAN CHEE TENG TESL B


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