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Published by Carmen Falkon, 2022-03-31 07:51:41

Better Essays

How_Write_Better_Essays

Bibliography

Dorothea Brande, Becoming a Writer (London: Macmillan, 1984). Even profes-
sional writers admit they are indebted to this book for its help in freeing
their most creative insights.

Tony Buzan, Use Your Head (London: BBC, 1979). One of the first to popularise
pattern notes, or ‘mind maps’.

Stuart Chase, Guides to Straight Thinking (New York: Harper, 1956).
Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Macmillan – now

Palgrave, 1999).
Edward de Bono, Parallel Thinking (London: Penguin, 1994).
Edward de Bono, Serious Creativity (London: HarperCollins, 1995).
Manya and Eric De Leeuw, Read Better, Read Faster (Harmondsworth: Pelican,

1973).
Jean M. Fredette (ed.), Handbook of Magazine Article Writing (Cincinnati:

Writer’s Digest Books, 1990). Learn from the professionals – this is full of
sound practical advice from professional writers.
Bruno Furst, The Practical Way to a Better Memory (Marple: Heap, 1977). One
of the most renowned books on concentration and memory training.
Harry Maddox, How to Study (London: Pan, 1967).
John Peck, and Martin Coyle, The Student’s Guide to Writing (Basingstoke:
Macmillan – Palgrave, 1999).
William Strunk, and E. B. White, The Elements of Style (New York: Macmillan,
1979). Once known as ‘the little book’, this sold over two million copies in
its first edition – learn how to write clearly and concisely.
Robert H. Thouless, Straight and Crooked Thinking (London: Pan, 1958).
John Wilson, Thinking with Concepts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1963).

280

Index

abilities thought provoking, 197–202,
range of, 8, 56–9, 61–5, 178–81 265–6
unlocking, ix–x, 51– 4, 55, 63,
125–6, 132, 177–81, 258–60 confidence, 42
see also patterns of study; creativity
thinking skills
keeping the editor at bay, 176–7,
active voice, 218–20, 271–2 255, 258–61
analysis
staking your claim, 43
getting started, 16–21 see also brainstorming; ideas;
need for, 9–14, 22–3, 278
three-step technique, 27–41 pattern notes
appearance, 275–6 criticism and evaluation
authorities
challenging them, 61–3, 278–9 four-step technique, 110–17
effects of being tied to, 66–8, how to, 108–17

118, 121–3, 177–8, 192–5, devil’s advocate, 110–17, 178–81
237–8 discussion

bibliographies, see referencing in essays, 177–81, 197–8
books in seminars, 53– 4, 108–9, 119–20,

using them effectively, 78–81 127–8, 162–3
brainstorming, 42–53
economy, 215–24
importance of, 43– 4, 54–5 see also simplicity; style; writing

clichés, 213–14 editing
see also jargon; words; writing the essay, see revising the
essay
cognitive skills, 63– 4, 178–81, the plan, 142, 151–9
192–5, 228
essays
see also thinking skills irrelevance, see relevance
concentration, 109–10, 125–6, learning from them, 1–2, 278–9
structure, 9–14, 143–4, 151–2,
128–9 182–5, 187–9, 230–1, 263–6,
concepts 278

analysis of, 9–14, 22–3, 27–41, evaluation, see criticism and
278 evaluation

forming, 27–35 evidence
open and closed, 15–16 improving use of, 195–6, 225–32,
testing, 36–41 264–5
conclusions overstating and understating,
and taut, cohesive essays, 198, 225–8, 230–1, 264–5
and paragraphs, 195–6
265–6 relevant and specific, 264–5

281

282 Index

selective use of, see thesis learning
statements active, 83–4, 125–6, 162–3, 238
importance of needs, 69, 162
showing rather than telling, passive, 61–2, 66–8, 83, 108–10,
230–1, 264–5 192–4
processing, 83–95, 132–8; deep
too much of, 230–1, 264–5 level, 76, 83–4, 125–9; surface
types, 226–8 level, 76, 83, 109–10, 118,
see also readers 127–8, 162, 193–4
examinations
assessing abilities, 56–65, 192–5 linear notes, 52–3, 94–100
avoiding panic, 166–70 advantages of, 145–50
examination technique, 160–5, examples of, 90–2, 96–9, 146–9,
153–6, 191–2
168–70
revision for, 1–2, 66–7, 95, 101–7, logical indicators
effective use of, 208, 222–4, 264
122–3, 160–8 losing the reader, 207–8, 189–91
examiners, 144
marks
see also marks earning the highest, 14, 39, 42,
169, 184, 226–7
fallacies, 84–5, 110, 114, 179
flexibility, 51–5, 67, 78–80, 94, 106, memory
improving, 83, 85–6, 96, 99,
118 101–7, 125–8, 160–70
fluency, 117, 160–1, 176–7, 187–8, trusting, 103–4
see also learning – active
222–4, 255–6, 258–60, 262–3,
274–5 mind
reading aloud, 262–3, 274–5 helping it self-organise, 85–6, 92,
see also ordering ideas; topic 104, 119–22, 127–8, 133–5,
sentences; transitions 161–3, 258–60

ideas mnemonics, 164–5
helping them develop, 2–3, 54–5,
279 needs, see learning
using your own, 7, 22–3, 31, notebook, 54–5, 121, 222, 279
42–55, 108–9, 118–23, 258–60, notes
278
see also creativity; pattern notes; abbreviations, 102–3
thinking skills the appropriate strategy, 94–5
clear structures, 66–7, 76, 85,
imagination, 53, 177–8
see also brainstorming 94–100, 193
consolidating, 106
index card system, 122–3, 152, of criticism and evaluation,
246–7
108–17
instructional verbs, 56–60 knowing what to leave out, 7, 55,
interpretation of questions, see
66–7, 101–4
questions recalling them, 76, 94–109
introductions, 143–4, 176–86, 263 record of your own thinking, 76,

essay structure, 183–5, 263 103–4
interpretation of the question, verbatim, 66–7, 108–9
see also linear notes; pattern
182–3
simple formula, 182, 185–6 notes
irrelevance, see relevance
opinion
jargon, 211–12 and conclusions, 197–8
see also clichés; words; writing

journal, 121–2, 279

Index 283

substitute for evaluation, 195 indicators; topic sentences;
suspending judgement, 177–81 transitions
too much, 195, 197–8, 225–8 processing, see learning
see also evidence project box, 123
ordering ideas, 142, 152–9 punctuation
organisation, 77 creating rhythms of speech,
notes, see notes 205–8, 214
retrieval system, see retrieval
questions
system incomplete answers, 10–14,
time, see time; timetable 145
interpreting, 7–8, 108–9, 182–3
paragraphs see also analysis; brainstorming
development, 192–5, 264 range of abilities, see
evidence, 195–6, 264–5 instructional verbs
and introductions, 187–8 structure, 7–8, 9–14, 16–17, 42
see also introductions typical, 166–8
length, 188–9
linking, see logical indicators; readability, 215–17, 225, 230,
topic sentences; transitions 268–72
a simple formula, 188–96
reading
passive voice, see active voice an aid to writing, 203
pattern notes, 94–5, 145–6 for analysis, 83–5, 94–100
authors hijacking your thinking,
advantages, 52–4 43– 4
examples of, 19, 34, 46–9, 115– for comprehension, 84
for criticism, 84–5, 108–17
16 inefficient reading, 67, 78–82,
more creative work, 52– 4 105–6, 108–9, 125–9, 133–5
see also creativity previewing, 7, 43– 4, 108–9
patterns of study purposefully, 75–6, 78–82
developing the right abilities, scanning, 51, 80–2
skimming, 80–2
61–5 slow, 67
integrating new skills, x, 69
need to change, 51, 59–60, 62–3, readers
empathetic responses, 225, 230
66–71, 118, 124–31 losing their trust, 267
see also flexibility losing them, 9, 42– 4, 143– 4,
plagiarism 151–2, 160–1, 182–4, 187–8,
avoiding, 2, 44, 67–9, 105, 108–9, 205–8, 222–4, 263–5, 269
thinking for themselves, 177, 201,
122–3, 193, 234–9 216, 230
causes, 234, 237–8 see also evidence
definition, 233
recycling opinion, 67–9, 233– 4 referencing, 240–51
six-point code, 236–7 acknowledging uncited sources,
planning 245–6
for examinations, 142, 160–7 bibliographies and reference lists,
in examinations, 160–1, 168–70 246–51
how to, 143–59 endnotes, 242
importance of, 141–5 footnotes, 241–2
rehearsing the arguments, 141–2, impressing the examiner, 68
in-text, 243–5
145–50, 158–9
strengthens weaker points, 144
for taut, cohesive essays, 183–5,

187–92, 263–6
see also introductions; logical

284 Index

reasons for, 240 study, how to, see patterns of study
systems for citing, 240–51 style, 203–32, 268–72, 274–7
relaxing, 128–9, 133, 136
relevance, 9, 42–50, 52–3, 78–9, and clear thinking, 206, 211–12,
215–17
143–4, 151–2, 182–5, 187–8,
192–6 seven practical rules, 217–32
see also questions see also economy; simplicity;
retrieval system
organising it, 54–5, 106, 118–23, writing
279 synthesis, 42–50
and your own insights, 54–5,
118–20 see also brainstorming; ideas;
revising the essay thinking skills
checklists, 265–6, 268, 272, 275
by ear, 262–3, 274–5 thesis statements, 177–81
five-stage strategy, 262–77 selective use of evidence, 178–80
preserving your best ideas, suspending your judgement,
258–61 177–81
purposeful, 260–1 using all your abilities, 177–81
separating editor and writer, see also thinking skills
176–7, 217, 231, 255, 258–61,
278–9 thinking skills
style, 268–75 creative thinking, 118–23, 177–81
unnecessary material, 268–9 inconsistent arguments, 84–5,
see also appearance; readability; 110–17, 189–91, 195
sentences; words using more of them, 56, 61–71,
revising for the exam, see 124–38
examinations see also learning
rhythm, see punctuation
right answers, 63–9, 177, 192–5 time
routines finding more, 75–6, 127–8
taking stress out of studying, length of each study session,
124–5, 127–9, 133, 135–6, 135–6
167 organising, 124–38
working at the right time, 125–6, Parkinson’s Law, 127–8, 133,
133–5 135
when you work best, 124–6,
Semmelweis, Ignaz, 24, 27, 36 132–5
sentences see also ideas; learning; relaxing;
routines; stages of essay
clearer, 205–8, 215–22, 267–72, writing
274–5
timetable
long sentences, 205–7, 269 need for, 124–31, 237–8
losing the reader, see readers planning it, 132–8
varying length, 206–7 separating the stages, 134–5
see also writing be specific, 135–6
simplicity, 203–14 variety, 134–5
see also economy; style; writing
stages of essay writing topic sentences, 143– 4, 187–92,
separating them, 2–3, 133–5, 255, 264

258–61 transitions, 187–92, 222–3, 264
stress, see routines
understanding, 1–2
universities

compared with schools, 59–65

vocabulary, 211–14, 217–18, 220–2

words Index 285
choosing the right ones, 211–14,
217–24, 269–71 grammar, 267
rely on nouns and verbs, 220–1, heavy unreadable prose, 203–24,
270–1
replace prepositional phrases, 268–72, 274–5; see also
222 readability
unnecessary words, 215–17, improving style, see style
220–2, 268–72 jargon, see jargon
see also clichés; jargon; writing more interesting prose, 119–23,
177, 198–202, 225, 230–1,
writing 258–60
adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, making it clearer, 145, 151–2,
220–2, 270–1 160–1, 203–8, 211–24, 262–72,
avoiding the passive reader, 177, 274–5
188, 201, 216–22, 225, 230–1, paragraphs, length, see
264–5, 268; see also readers paragraphs
clearer sentences, see sentences plagiarism, see plagiarism
clichés, see clichés putting it into your own words,
confusing words and phrases, see plagiarism
205–8, 211–14, 216–17, 268–72; rhythm and punctuation, see
see also economy punctuation
more creative writing, 255, talk in print, 176–7, 204–8,
258–60 211–14, 262–3, 274–5
fluent prose, see fluency; ordering thesis statements, see thesis
ideas; topic sentences; statements
transitions unnecessary words, see words
words – choosing the right ones,
see words


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