INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 3
І SCIENTIFIC-THEORETICAL BASES OF THE FORMATION OF
COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
ON THE BASIS OF CLIL TECHNOLOGY
1.1 Theoretical methods of Content and Language Integrated Learning in foreign
language education …………………………………………………………..
1.2 Approaches and principles of the formation of cognitive-academic language
competence on the basis of CLIL technology ………………………………..
General conclusions for the first chapter
ІІ ORGANIZATION AND RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH ON THE FORMATION OF THE FORMATION OF
COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
ON THE BASIS OF CLIL TECHNOLOGY …………………………………….
2.1 Designing CLIL method in foreign language education ………………………
2.2 Effectiveness of applying CLIL technology in the formation of students'
cognitive and academic language competence
2.3 Experimental results and dynamics of the formation of cognitive academic
language competence of students on the basis of CLIL technology
General conclusions for the second chapter …........................................................
LIST OF THE TERMS USED IN THE MASTER THESIS
This master's thesis is used in conjunction with the following definitions of terms:
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) refers to the learning and
teaching of content by means of an additional language
Content – The first of Coyle’s four Cs in the 4C Framework of CLIL which
identifies learning the knowledge and skills of the subject
Communication – The second of Coyle’s four Cs in the 4C Framework of CLIL
which involves interaction face-to face and through the use of new technologies
Cognition – The third of Coyle’s four Cs in the 4C Framework of CLIL which
describes learning and thinking competencies
Culture – The fourth of Coyle’s four Cs in the 4C Framework of CLIL which
specifies interpreting self and other awareness, understanding cultural diversity
Integration – viewed as a matter of degree
Subject teachers – plan their lessons carefully to address the diverse needs
Language demands – other input from subject textbooks and digital materials,
when they study subjects in a non-native language
Language needs – the language needs which specific learners have when studying
a particular curricular subject, lesson, course book or other materials.
Language showers – are more common in primary CLIL and usually involve one
subject area such as art, chemistry or maths
Target language – the non-native language used in a CLIL approach
Learners – rather than students or pupils, describes this wide age range
Hard CLIL – a type of partial immersion when almost half of the curriculum or
more is taught in a non-native language
Soft CLIL – teaching topics from the curriculum as part of a language course
Metacognition – thinking about how we think, how we build knowledge; how we
learn; how we use strategies to learn
Learning outcomes – what most learners will be able to know and understand by
the end of a lesson, a unit or course. Sometimes also referred to as learning
Curriculum fit – in CLIL, how lessons and topics fit in with the subject
Competences – the knowledge, skills and attitudes for learning across the
Creative thinking – thinking skills such as those used to imagine, to solve
problems and to think of new ideas.
In his address to the people of Kazakhstan "New Kazakhstan in a new
world", President of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev said: "Kazakhstan should be
perceived around the world as a country with higher education, which uses three
languages: Kazakh as the state language, international relations, Russian and
English as the language of successful integration into the global economy" . The
implementation of the state policy in the field of trilingual education is carried out
through legislative acts and development programs.
One of these approaches, successfully implemented in the world practice, is called
content and language integrated learning, which is called CLIL. The use of CLIL
technology allows us to solve a significant range of educational problems.
Simultaneous teaching of a non-native (foreign) language and non-linguistic
subjects is an effective tool for achieving the expected learning goals and
developing a wide range of skills. In order to avoid possible risks when
implementing CLIL in the practice of secondary education, teachers should master
Therefore, radical changes taking place in the education system require
improving the learning process with advanced technologies. In this context it is
important to thoroughly master new learning technologies and apply them
correctly in accordance with the psychological age characteristics of students. The
ability to master new technologies, as well as the ability to develop intellectual,
professional, moral, spiritual, civic and other abilities of the teacher it has a
beneficial effect on the formation of many human abilities, it helps to effectively
organize the educational process.
The integrated learning method, like all didactics in general, is currently
undergoing stages. The goals of general university education have changed; new
learning plans and new approaches to integrated teaching of subjects are being
developed. And updating the content of education requires the use of non-
traditional methods and forms of teaching organization, as well as integrated
lessons in various subjects. Therefore, new educational technologies are emerging,
one of which is the technology of integrated content and language learning CLIL.
Relevance of the thesis: In modern world, approaches to learning a foreign
language have changed. Language is considered as the main device for getting
quality knowledge that meets international prerequisites. The significance of the
chosen theme demonstrates that at the present stage of improvement education is
filled by inventive components. Agreeing to the State obligatory standard
secondary education, a modern era wins personality-oriented type of education.
Advanced educational institutions progressively utilize non-standard, non-
traditional forms and strategies of training. One such approach is Content-language
integrated learning (CLIL). CLIL recommends the balance between subject’s
content and language learning. In this way, the language is utilized as implies of
studying the content, and the content, in turn, is utilized as a resource for learning
the language. As we have already noted, one of the progressive steps of learning in
the development of cognitive competence is the technology of integrated learning,
which allows us to integrate interdisciplinary communication into the increase in
the effectiveness of the educational process, as well as the harmonization of
knowledge provided to students in life, taking into account the individual
characteristics of each individual. Integrated learning technology-being a source of
high-quality learning has a beneficial effect on the qualitative development of the
discipline based on the mutual humane relationship between the teacher and
students. Flexibility and variability of this technology allows students to develop
their personal capabilities, form cognitive activity and creative independence.
The problems of subject-language integrated learning are reflected in the
works of foreign scientists D. Marsh, D. Coyle and local scientists A. A.
Beisenbayeva, B. A. Zhetpisbayeva , G. A. Khamitova.
Also, the study of the Foreign language education theories by S.S.
Kunanbayeva, Zh.E. Gabdullina, A.T. Chaklikova, S.E. Isabekov, G.
N.Amandykova allowed to define and structure foreign language teaching in
Proficiency in English becomes an important educational resource that
expands the choice of the future profession of graduates of high school. For
students in the subject-language technology, new opportunities for continuing
education and work open up. Through the implementation of the CLIL
methodology, linguistic and communicative competencies are developed, taking
into account the modern format necessary for the successful personal, general
cultural and professional development of students.
In this regard, the use of CLIL technology in the formation of cognitive-
academic language competence is considered as one of the most topical issues in
teaching a foreign language in our research work.
CLIL can be seen as an educational approach that serves to maintain
linguistic diversity, as well as a powerful tool that can have a strong impact on the
study of foreign languages. In addition, CLIL is an innovative approach to
learning, involving the creation of a holistic, dynamic and motivating environment.
It makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the traditional school
curriculum, that is, not to individually teach different subjects, but to integrate
them with others.
There are many scientific studies on how we study languages that help to
better understand and compare the following concepts: “language acquisition” and
“language learning”. Learning a language is a conscious process, while acquisition
is unintentional. Language training takes place in the classroom of the educational
institution, and acquisition takes place in everyday communication in a foreign
Within the CLIL, language development occurs naturally based on a different
form of language learning. This increases the motivation of students to learn a
foreign language. This feature is the main reason for the success of CLIL
application both in school and in higher education. The CLIL allows students to
use a second language in their natural environment, so that they forget about the
language itself and focus only on the subject of the content. Thus, CLIL is a two-
pronged approach in which the second language is used as a means of teaching the
subject and is simultaneously the object of study.
The purpose of the research work is to form students' cognitive-academic
language competence through CLIL technology.
The object of the research is cognitive-academic language competence in
the process of content and language integrated learning.
The subject of the research is the technology of content and language
integrated learning in the process of forming cognitive-academic language
competence in a foreign language lesson.
During the formation of students' cognitive-academic language competence
using CLIL technology in the process of the content and language integrated
learning, the following tasks were set:
- to conduct a theoretical study on the formation of students'
cognitive- academic language competence in the process of content and
language integrated learning, including local and foreign analysis of the
- to analyze the effectiveness of CLIL technology in the
formation of students' cognitive-academic language competence in
foreign language education;
- to report the findings of the study based upon the information
gathered as a result of the methodology and provide with practical
application of the effectiveness of CLIL technology in the formation of
students' cognitive-academic language competence.
Research methods. In the course of the research work, the following research
methods were applied: theoretical methods (analysis of scientific literatures by
foreign and domestic researchers), data collection methods (questionnaires,
observation, and the research question), descriptive methods (survey, comparison
and content analysis), qualitative research method (observing, describing and
interpreting), quantitative research method (measurement, the use of statistics and
Theoretical and methodological basis of the dissertation research. There is also
a lot of research devoted to the professional activity of future teachers, that is, the
formation of their cognitive competence. In a number of works, local scientists (S.
S. Kunanbayeva, T. D. Kuznetsova, N. A. Mynzhanov, A. K. Nurgalieva, A. K.
Kusainov, G. I. Aksenova, I. F. Isaev, Zh.Tursunova, Sh.Kurmanalina, B.A.
Zhetpisbayeva, etc.) consider and study the term ‘competence’ from the point of
view of personal qualities developed in the course of training and education.
Foreign scientists as David Marsh, D. Coyle, J. Cummins, A. Maljers,, A. Llinares,
T. Morton, P. Mehisto, D. Wolf considered the application of CLIL technologies in
teaching a foreign language.
Scientific novice of the research. The results of the research can be used in the
development of foreign language education, the conclusions and theoretical
justification for the development of the cognitive-academic language competence
in the process of content and language integrated learning using CLIL technology.
Theoretical significance of the research. The methodology of forming students '
cognitive-academic language competence using CLIL technology can be applied to
fulfill a research article.
Practical significance of the research. Effective ways of CLIL technology in the
formation of students’ cognitive competencies of in the process of teaching a
foreign language can be used as a primary tool in the planning and organization of
Research base. Experimental research conducted at Kazakh Ablai khan University
of International Relations and World Languages.
Approbation of the research results. The results of the research work were
published in the materials of the scientific and practical conference and in the
Bulletin of scientific journal.
Structure of the master thesis. The master's thesis consists of an introduction,
two chapters, a conclusion, and a list of references.
I SCIENTIFIC-THEORETICAL BASES OF THE FORMATION OF
COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS ON
THE BASIS OF CLIL TECHNOLOGY
1.1 Theoretical methods of Content and Language Integrated Learning in foreign
The CLIL method was used for the first time at the Jyväskylä Finnish
University and also in the Netherlands in the late 90s of the last century. CLIL is
an approach or method which integrates the teaching of content from a curriculum
subject with the teaching of a non-native language. The CLIL method is said to
correspond with the process of being acquainted with the so-called lingua franca
and uses it as a communication tool among nations in order to enable everyone to
understand each other without having to learn many languages [1, 12]. CLIL is
supposed to develop some necessary competences in the current globalized world,
such as а multicultural approach is to become more and more common in the
current world and to live within one country with speakers of other languages with
a different cultural background may be soon considered as a matter of fact. This
approach develops communication across cultures [2, 156].
The psycho-pedagogical basis of teaching subject knowledge in a foreign
language was formed by the "BICS / CALP Theory" by J. Cummins and a two-
factor communication model developed on its basis, Bloom's taxonomy. The
analysis of the above theories and provisions made it possible to better understand
the essence of such a complex, relevant phenomenon as content and language
integrated learning. Many foreign scientists have studied the CLIL practice. The
basis of the CLIL theory was laid by Marsh.  Coyle D.  who proposed a 4C
modeling methodology, while J. Cummins, [3, 65] made an equally important
contribution by proposing a two-factor communication model.
CLIL has four basic components, usually called ‘4Cs’. Every CLIL lesson
should consist of a set of activities based on each of the following four guidelines.
1. Content: it refers to the subject aims.
2. Communication: learners have to produce subject language in both oral and
3. Culture: understanding ourselves and other cultures makes the process of
communication with foreign people more effective.
4. Cognition: CLIL promote cognitive or thinking skills which challenge learners.
The four elements describe the essential reasons why the CLIL approach is
appropriate to active and interactive methods of teaching. The reasons have been
classified under the headings of the Four Cs Conceptual Framework by Do Coyle
[4, 13]. These four elements are tightly interwoven. Any CLIL model or
methodology considers the relative importance of the parameters below:
CLIL provides learning contexts which are relevant to the needs and
interests of learners
CLIL promotes learner progression in both language skills and knowledge
CLIL offers direct opportunities to learn through language and to make
meanings that matter
CLIL is particularly relevant in classrooms where learners bring diverse
language and cultural experiences
CLIL is fundamental to learning and intercultural awareness. The
relationship between cultures and languages is complex.
CLIL involves contexts and content which enrich the learner’s
understanding of their own culture and those of others.
From this perspective, CLIL involves learning to use language appropriately whilst
using language to learn effectively. The 4 Cs Framework is a tool for mapping out
CLIL activities and for maximizing potential in any model, at any level and any
age. The CLIL method in the education system is carried out depending on the
tasks and goals, each subject requires the implementation of a foreign language.
CLIL technology allows us to conduct classes in combination with a few theories
and approaches that are used in various educational contexts. There are several
learning theories, language learning theories that describe various methods of
implementing CLIL technology, such as language implementation, subject matter,
and progression in knowledge.
CLIL is a methodology of teaching languages in such a way that the main
emphasis is not on the ‘form’, but on the ‘content’. In the words of its first
promoter, D. Marsh, CLIL is a “language pedagogy focusing on meaning which
contrasts to those which focus on form”.
In a CLIL classroom, the curricular subject and new language skills are taught
together; thinking and learning skills are integrated too.
CLIL teachers can be subject teachers, language teachers or classroom assistants.
Different teachers have different goals that can be achieved through a high degree
of cooperation among them: language teachers need to learn more about subject
content and subject teachers need to learn about the language needed for their
The term Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) was first
proposed by David Marsh in 1994, which is one of the most effective approaches
to the teaching students’ content knowledge in a foreign language in Europe. It is
based on the idea of integrating content and language learning in the process of
vocational training in higher education and is recommended by the European
Commission, as it provides students with the opportunity to study a subject and a
foreign language simultaneously. Thus, it pursues two goals: the study of the
discipline content and simultaneous study of a foreign language. The CLIL method
is said to correspond with a concept in which a foreign language acts as a medium
of instruction. Taking into consideration Coyle et al. (2010) who maintain that
CLIL is a dual-focused educational approach in which an additional language is
used for the learning and teaching of both content and language, we decided to
place emphasis on development and implementation of CLIL in Kazakh contexts.
According to Dalton-Puffer, “CLIL can be described as an educational approach
where curricular content is taught through the medium of a foreign language,
typically to students participating in some form of mainstream education at the
primary, secondary, or tertiary level” [5, 183].
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been the term
accepted by most European countries to define a range of educational practices
with a similar common measure. The use of a non-L1 to teach a non-language
subject is considered to be the only condition that must be met and guaranteed:
“Within CLIL, language is used as a medium instruction for learning content, and
the content is used in turn as a resource for language learning”. The Eurydice
Report on CLIL in Europe provides quite similar definition: “CLIL is a generic
term to describe all types of provision in which a second language (foreign,
regional, official language) is used to teach non-language subjects” [6, 97]
Regarding the evolution of CLIL, Cenoz determines that “CLIL is part of
regular education. Within this context, a clear distinction can be made between
conceptualizing CLIL as a language teaching approach or as an educational
approach”. These two conceptualizations can be subsumed under a CLIL
continuum offering content-driven CLIL models (i.e., teaching a content subject
through the medium of an L2) and language-driven CLIL models. [7, 389]
Dalton-Puffer adds the diversity of educational contexts component when
she defines CLIL: “CLIL can be described as an educational approach where
curricular content is taught through the medium of a foreign language, typically to
students participating in some form of mainstream education at the primary,
secondary, or tertiary level”. Along the same lines, Fortanet-Gómez points out the
potential for CLIL across stages, writing that: it has been shown that one of the
secrets of success for CLIL is the continuity throughout the education process” [8,
So, CLIL is a tool to teach and learn content and language together. The
analysis of CLIL methods determines the main features of CLIL technology from
other methods: it includes language learning in content class and content learning
in language-learning class. Content and language learning allow working on cross-
cultural themes and projects. Besides that, it stands for availability of authentic
materials and students’ awareness of language competence. Students attending
CLIL classes seem to improve in content knowledge of a school subject, increase
the vocabulary, as well as develop creativity and independence in language using.
Active learning manifests itself through favoring peer cooperative work,
negotiating, teachers acting as facilitators whereas students are involved to
demonstrate their ability to make observations, analyze, generalize, and apply their
skills to fresh contexts. Scaffolding are designed to build on a student’s existing
knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, experience and provide support and guidance
until they can perform the activity themselves. Cooperation implies planning
lessons in co-operation with CLIL and non-CLIL teachers, involving the local
community and authorities. Perhaps (Coyle, 2008) the most powerful consequence
witnessed by the teachers and learners is a sense of being part of a learning
community where everyone has a role to play [9, 100-102]. Building communities
of practice is dependent on cooperation, collaboration, and partnerships for
learning. They involve content and language teachers working together, subject
and language trainers are sharing their ideas and supporting classroom enquiry,
networks of CLIL teachers and their learners working on joint curricular links and
a genuine belief that for emerging CLIL pedagogy to guide practitioners, it must be
owned by the community, developed through classroom exploration.
The idea of CLIL contributes to the development of a range of language and
content learning strategies to support learners in identifying high frequency
structures and using prior knowledge to predict content. CLIL promotes learners’
critical thinking and cognitive flexibility. CLIL teachers must meet certain
requirements: to use interactive innovative forms and methods for presenting
educational material and organizing educational activities, to be in the constant
creative search, and to acquire professional competence in the field of CLIL
technology. The teaching aims of a CLIL lesson should be both linguistic and
content ones. When designing a CLIL course, teachers should pay attention to the
content that drives the selection of the language and not the other way around.
Integrating content and language in every-day classroom situations requires
constant awareness of the equal importance of the two. Particularly in materials
design in a foreign language, teachers need to pay special attention to plan texts
and activities that present the new content in a discipline-bound language which is
understandable but simultaneously challenging enough for the learners. CLIL
teachers (Bovelann, 2014) must know the curriculum very well in order to teach
the necessary content to their pupils. As in all teaching and learning, new
knowledge provided in CLIL is constructed on pupils’ previous knowledge
structures [10, 65].
Researchers agree that teacher’s views of the language support of their learners
within the content teaching in the CLIL subject is a foremost factor, as student
achievements in learning languages are highly influenced by their teachers.
CLIL technology includes various forms of foreign language usage language
as a means of learning, provides an effective opportunity for students to apply their
new language skills in practice now, not waiting for the right moment in the future.
Hence, English language teaching is cross-curricular and it is closely related to
other subjects in the school curriculum.
This approach is gaining popularity in European education systems. The idea is
to teach the subject through a foreign language, that is, to teach the subject "using
the language". CLIL encourages the use of programs that develop interpersonal
skills, intercultural communication, and language abilities that are in demand in
today's modern world. So, in CLIL based lessons, the lexical approach is more
important than the grammatical one.
The specificity of the CLIL method is that knowledge of the language becomes
a tool for studying the content of the subject. At the same time, attention is focused
both on the content of the texts and on the necessary subject terminology. The
language integrated in the curriculum, and the necessity of immersion to be able to
communicate thematic material significantly increases the motivation of language
use in the context of the topic being studied. This means that we can improve
students’ lexical skills while teaching a different discipline.
This is facilitated by carefully selected teaching materials not only for studying
a specific subject, but also for teaching the language: lexical and grammatical units
and structures, all types of speech activity (reading, speaking, writing and
Types of tasks should be developed according to the level of complexity, built with
an emphasis on the subject content, its understanding, verification and subsequent
At various stages of working with the text, attention is focused on the
vocabulary, the content of the text, and then on the specific grammatical material.
The while - and post-reading stages can include the number of independent and
creative tasks: describing, comparing, contrasting, asking a question, expressing
point of view, making a presentation. So, when working with the text, it is
important to have illustrations to visualize what has been read, texts can be
presented schematically, which helps students identify the idea of the text and the
information presented in it. After reading, it is desirable that the students can
convey the idea of the text in their own words, while the teacher needs to draw the
attention of students to certain lexical phrases that are appropriate for the topic and
subject. Also, the teacher should pay attention to special vocabulary, as well as to
some universal language units: phrasal verbs, collocations, degrees of comparison,
which are useful regardless of the topic of the lesson or subject. The preparation of
assignments should take into account the level of training of students and learning
Thus, there are special requirements for the selection of educational material
and the development of tasks for it:
− Text processing tasks should be built with an emphasis on the subject
content, involve students in the process of understanding, checking, and
discussing the main idea of the text.
− Tasks should stimulate independent and creative activity of students,
communicative tasks for oral and written communication in a foreign
− Students should be introduced to compensatory strategies to address
language, content, and communication difficulties.
− The choice of training materials will depend on the course structure defined
by the training institution.
One of the tasks in learning a foreign language is to replenish the vocabulary.
Lexical skill involves working not only with a specific word, but also with
thematic and semantic groups, word formation, and rules for using lexemes in
accordance with the grammatical and stylistic structure of the utterance text. [11,
As we can see, the definition of lexical skill emphasizes the role of context. S.
G. Ter-Minasova points out that the use of words in context is not an easy task:
"Learn a new foreign word, the equivalent of the native should be very careful with
its use: the word is the notion of concept — object or phenomenon of reality the
world and a world of different countries, foreign, stranger, alien". [12, 624]
As noted above, lexical skill is a complex phenomenon, in the structure of
which there are two subspecies: receptive and productive skills. Receptive lexical
skills are manifested during listening and reading, allowing you to recognize
lexical units using different channels of perception. Productive lexical skills allow
you to choose the right linguistic phenomenon in accordance with the context and
rules of word formation in oral and written speech [13,102]. The process of
forming a lexical skill consists of several stages. O.S. Levitskaya writes that
foreign linguists identify four main steps in the study of vocabulary: perception of
a word, understanding of meaning, memorization and use in speech. Along with
these stages, the assimilation of the cultural, psycholinguistic, grammatical and
textual aspects occurs [14, 58-59].
Working with context, as noted above, is especially important when developing
lexical skills. Conscious memorization of language phenomena in the context is
more effective than memorizing isolated words. S. Thornberry considers guessing
the meaning of a lexeme from the context is one of the most productive strategies
of semantics [15, 186].
The most popular when training the studied vocabulary at this stage are
conditional-communicative exercises associated with the presence of a given
speech situation. Game methods help to increase the interest of students at the
stage of developing lexical skills. According to N. B. Marchan, "the game
approach can be used at any age, adapting the content and form of classes to the
age characteristics of each specific group" [16, 27-29]. Lexical skills are basic
when learning a foreign language. It is important to remember that their formation
and development is most successful in the conditions of a competent combination
of modern techniques that can interest and motivate students to learn vocabulary
and create a comfortable psychological atmosphere in the classroom.
There are three basic course models based on the CLIL methodology:
− Expanding language education – one or two hours a week is devoted to
working with materials on individual subject topics or multiple subjects.
− Modular teaching - at various stages of the educational process, modules for
studying individual or multiple subjects in a foreign language are included.
− Partial merging with the subject – up to 50 % of foreign language classes are
conducted in the format of the CLIL methodology.
The content of the training material can repeat or supplement the material
studied in the main classes on the subject.
With proper consideration of all of the above factors, a course based on the
CLIL methodology will allow you to solve the following educational goals and
− increase students' motivation to learn a foreign language;
− teach students to use a foreign language consciously and fluently to solve
everyday communication problems;
− develop students' knowledge and understanding of other cultures;
− develop linguistic and communicative competence through the use of a
foreign language in its natural and modern way.
Despite the large number of advantages of this method, when implementing it
into the educational process, a number of problems may arise:
− lack of educational complexes for the specialty in a foreign language;
− lack of methodological courses, advanced training courses for teachers who
− low level of interaction between subject teachers and foreign language
− unwillingness of the teaching staff to learn new approaches, methods and
− low level of foreign language proficiency by students themselves, which
leads to a number of psychological problems associated with the acquisition
of material in a foreign language.
In spite of all these difficulties of implementing the CLIL methodology, it
represents a functional approach to teaching a foreign language, which allows you
to solve a wider range of educational problems.
Of course, such training cannot completely replace the study of the
corresponding subject in the native language, but it can significantly complement
it. In a modern dynamically developing society, serious processes of education
modernization are taking place, which entails the need for changes in the
requirements for the qualification of a teacher. This fact requires an updated
approach to teacher training. Teaching children the principle of "learn to learn,"
each teacher must, of course, follow it himself. Thus, the introduction of a
teacher’s professional standard should contribute to the formation and
improvement of the various general and professional competencies of teachers
necessary at this stage of education. The effectiveness of the method is ensured by
arranging classes in modern forms of interaction between the teacher and students,
using innovative educational technologies.
Integrative system supposes equal combination of related topics of school
subjects, which learning is at every stage of the lesson. At integrated lesson pupils
have opportunity to get deep and diverse knowledge, using information from
different subjects, in a whole new way grasping facts and events. At integrated
lesson there is a possibility for knowledge synthesis, one forms ability to take up
knowledge from one subject to another. In this regard integrated lessons help to
pupils to unify getting knowledge into consistent system and activate interest of
pupils to subject.
Main characteristics of content and language integrated learning:
1. Multilateral focus:
− learning language is supported in subject and language ;
− mastering of subject content is supported at the lessons in language;
− integration of subjects is realized ;
− reflection of learning is held.
2. Safeness enriching educational environment:
− routine actions are used ;
− studied subject content and language structures are reflected clearly;
− language mistakes are not corrected, but teacher gives model of right use of
− authentic (original) learning materials for conscious mastering of language
3. Authenticity and affinity to source:
− pupil uses possibility to speak, write and also to pass reflection of his skills
in oral and written speech;
− pupil can take into account his interest;
− learning material is connected with daily life of pupil;
− actual material of mass media and other sources is used.
4. Active learning:
− at the lesson pupils speak more than teacher ;
− pupils themselves formulate goals and tasks for mastering of subject content
and development of language and educational skills;
− pupils describe results of learning and ways of their achievement;
− conditions for effective use of work in pairs and groups are used at the
− pupils and teacher achieve understanding of subject and language material
meaning with the help of talk and accomplishment of different tasks ;
− role of teacher - to create opportunities in class and to manage three
processes, namely: educational process, process of relations development in
group, leading to cooperation and also process of personal development.
5. Supportive structure:
− in educational process teacher relies on experience, knowledge, skills,
opinions, convictions and interests of pupils;
− learning styles of pupils are taken into account in planning and conducting
of the lesson;
− development of creative and critical thinking is paid attention;
− pupil has opportunity to be in difficult situation, when he is helped to
overcome it in emotional context.
− subject lessons, lessons in language and topics are planned by teachers
together in the process of communication and cooperation;
− parents participate in educational process both to support pupils in mastering
of native language and culture, and to create possibilities for using of target
− local community, official departments, employers and other specific groups
are involved in educational process.
In such a manner, use of integrated approach gives possibility to achieve from
pupils not only subject understanding, but skill to use and to consolidate gained
knowledge in science course subjects learning and English language and also
opportunity to understand, that gained knowledge in subjects are closely
interconnected and can be useful in daily activity. The most important conclusion
from what has just been said: in content and language integrated learning initial
position is not so much mastering of science course subjects, as target language
Special methodologies and pedagogical technologies are worked out and used
for realization of above mentioned principles. Methodology CLIL is international
acknowledged. Detailed description and recommendations in its use in real
educational process are represented in fourth section of this study guide.
Traditional and unstandardized lessons are distinguished in modern didactics. The
last are integrated lessons, which mitigate fatigue, overload of pupils due to
replacement on different kinds of activity, sharply increase cognitive interest, and
act as development of imagination, attention, thinking, speech and memory of
pupils. Integration gives opportunity for self-realization, self-expression of
teacher’s creativity, contributes to skills revelation of his pupils. Integration is
source of new facts search; they confirm or make more profound definite
conclusions, observations of pupils in different subjects.
If traditional lesson solves comprehensive goal, directed to acquisition of
knowledge by pupils and is built mainly on explanatory-illustrative method, so
integrated lessons are built on the basis of different methods and training resources
combination, solve many tasks including science course subjects and English
language integrated learning. One uses explanatory-illustrative methods, and partly
search, research methods of learning, discussion, different sources of knowledge,
TV programs, filmstrips, e-learning courses, Internet technologies, other learning
and control technology. Also different forms of work are used widely. They are
grouped, frontal, section leader, paired, individual [17, 232].
At such lessons, there are more opportunities to solve cognitive tasks, offers
statements of pupil creative potential realization:
− phonetic drill: orientation to achievement of lessons practical key goals;
preparation of pupils for work with new language material; development of
− homework: task checking at the lesson, its control during work at new
teaching material; quality of homework fulfillment; fixation of cases of task
nonfulfillment before its checking; commenting of task fulfillment by
teacher, use of forms of its checking; ways to compensate defects at current
lesson; providing of skills and abilities formation; difficulties list which
happening by pupils in homework fulfillment; generalization of common
mistakes; explanation of reasons, arousing these mistakes; use of effective
method to overcome them; mistakes correction; atmosphere of civility and
good will in process of homework checking;
− introduction of new material: form of new material introduction; use of
inductive method; use of blackboard, textbook material; use of subject,
graphic visual aid, interpretation, definition, comment, transfer, context, the
situation for the semantics of the new material; correspondence of learning
stage to language units character, difficulties of introduced material, aims of
its adoption; providing of pupils’ mastering of oriented actions basis ,
mastering of knowledge in new language material explanation; control of
new language units understanding; pupils’ use of language units in context
− providing of new language material mastering: use of language, conditional
speech and speech exercises for different types of speech activity;
observation of rational correlation of different types of exercises, oral and
written, programmed and non-programmed, problematic and unproblematic;
use of study aids and graphic visual aid;
− listening learning: ways used by teacher to achieve set goal; methodological
justification of work stages with audio text; organization of training for text
perception; use of tape recorder; rational use of listening; use of visual,
graphic, picture visual aid and linguistic and semantic supports; result of
− speaking learning: selection of speech material, speech situations, sample
dialogue, text, use of visual aid, study aid; organization of help to pupils and
building management of dialogic statements; use of various types of
supports; effectiveness of gaming devices and problematic tasks, used by
− reading learning: formation of reading techniques skills and skills to
understand readable; use of a variety of techniques, tasks and exercises at
textual and after-textual stages; correct solution of task of each stage work at
text; rational use of methods for control of understanding.
Basics of CLIL methodology in comprehensive schools are following
− language knowledge becomes way of subject content learning;
− classes are conducted in entertaining form, pupils put and carry out scientific
− language is integrated into comprehensive curriculum;
− motivation increases to learn to use language so that one can discuss
− classes are based on immersion;
− necessary skill is to read texts in foreign language.
Thus, we note that for a foreign language teacher, from the point of view of the
language component, the use of CLIL technology is not new. The difference is that
the foreign language teacher must be well versed in a third-party subject, or the
subject teacher must be proficient in a foreign language at a sufficient level to
teach their subject in a non-native language. The teacher's versatility is the
foundation of CLIL technology.
The introduction and active use of CLIL technology in teaching a foreign
language is a functional approach that makes it possible to solve an expanded
range of educational tasks. In CLIL classes, students learn not only a foreign
language, but also a subject that is not related to the language. The use of this
technology motivates students to learn languages, expands their horizons, develops
communication skills and prepares students to continue their education in their
Today, CLIL is becoming very popular not only in Europe but also in
Kazakhstan. High-quality implementation of this technology depends on the
professional training of CLIL teachers. It should be noted that the analysis of world
experience in the use of CLIL technology, as well as the implementation of this
technology in the context of Kazakhstan, shows the presence of certain difficulties
in the training of already working CLIL teachers. CLIL is a route to an educational
change. It is an interactive teaching approach that creates a meaningful
environment in which the learner actively participates in the creation of knowledge
on both content and language. What is clear though is that CLIL promotes
learners’ critical thinking and cognitive flexibility. Through language pedagogical
techniques as scaffolding, both content and language learning are supported
maximizing the learning effect. Activating methods are language pedagogical
approaches that make learners to participate in the creation of knowledge. A CLIL
experience is about learning and producing in which teachers act as a bridge
between the language and content of the materials.
The researchers note that different options for organizing training based on
CLIL technology are possible: language acquisition, "language shower", language
camp, dual education, family training, multilingual education (for example,
European School, trilingual education program), intensive training program,
language training of emigrants (students and adults), International School.
Language of instruction when using CLIL in formal learning
two (or more) languages and a target language (L2) are used, including the
student's native language (L1) (primarily in the primary school). At the same time,
CLIL learning has little in common with traditional language learning lessons,
where it is taught for further use and is the goal of better language proficiency.
Subject and language integration in the case of teaching, learning a language is not
your own concern. The language is taught in an accelerated way, using topics that
are interesting and accessible to the student. A safe learning environment is created
that encourages goodwill and collaborative learning.
Thus, CLIL as a content-language integrated teaching methodology (Table 1) is a
methodically coordinated Association of two disciplines within the framework of a
single curriculum in order to achieve double results: foreign language proficiency
and subject content.
Table 1- CLIL conceptual framework for content-language integrated learning
Definition A set of methods of teaching content
Goals/Aims (any subject) through a foreign language
Methodology or a second language, during which the
language itself is taught simultaneously.
Study of the subject in a foreign
language and study of the subject taught
in a foreign language
An approach focused on achieving the
dual goal of learning, in which the
second language is used as a means of
teaching the subject and is
simultaneously an object of research
Conceptual components 4 C’s:
Aspects - Content - subject-content component,
learning the knowledge and skills of the
- Communication - social and linguistic
component, improving overall target
- Cognition - cognitive and educational
component, developing thinking skills.
- Culture - cultural component, building
intercultural knowledge and
- Cultural aspect
- Social aspect
- Language aspect
- Subject aspect
- Training aspect
- soft CLIL
- hard CLIL
- middle CLIL
Many scholars believe that the quality of teaching in CLIL classrooms is
largely influenced by teacher training [18, 16], [19, 110], and that subject teachers
should be aware of the language needs of their learners in the second language
acquisition [20, 423]. Yet most teachers in CLIL classrooms worldwide are not
completely ready to teach both the content and the language simultaneously [21,
115]. The inadequate training of teachers about the CLIL methodology and
language development may lead to the inefficient implementation of CLIL which
in turn may result in the lower quality of teaching materials [19, 105]. As a result,
the progress in the language development and content learning of students may
suffer. Consequently, in order to strengthen methodological and theoretical
competences of CLIL teachers, extensive teacher training should be carried out
Pihko pointed out three basic characteristics of competent CLIL teachers,
which are cognitive, pedagogical and work community competences. The cognitive
competence includes the teacher’s subject knowledge and sufficient proficiency in
both the native language of students and the language of instruction. Pedagogical
competence is about adaptation of lesson materials according to the cognitive and
language abilities of students by implementing the CLIL approach. Work
community competences include dynamic teacher collaboration with colleagues at
and outside school.
Many researchers agree that professional development of teachers, such as
peer coaching, collegial meetings, professional development communities and
networks are all good sources for sharing experience, knowledge, lesson materials
and ideas about CLIL [23, 250], [24, 38]. In Kazakhstan, there are a few
institutions, such as BILs (former KTL) and NIS that generated adequate practical
knowledge on the CLIL approach, and which have been disseminating the CLIL
practices through seminars, trainings and conferences.
CLIL methodology allows exposing learners to foreign language in a quasi-
natural environment, authentic situation and even though the time of exposure is
shorter compared to foreign language classes it is expected that the impacts of such
organization of learning will be more intensive. The main focus is on the content;
curricular content leads to language teaching. This is also considered in the
evaluation that focuses on the content and not language achievement what means
the language barriers is surmounted and the risk-taking is higher. Concerning
language, we do not expect language perfection but rather the ability to understand
the written text and to pass the message. It has been already said that in CLIL we
deal with integration of language teaching and subject content; what means for the
learner that language becomes means of communication and not the target of
learning. It is necessary to determine the topic that integrates a target language and
the subject content. Preparation of the relevant material is important, necessary
step in planning as in CLIL there are two aims that have to be accomplished. It has
been suggested that the textbooks contain the CLIL material, however, it has to be
admitted that the focus is primarily on the development of the language
competence. Mehisto describes 10 basic criteria that should be carefully considered
while quality materials for CLIL [25, 27]:
1. make the learning intentions (language, content, learning skills) & process clear
2. systematically support academic language proficiency;
3. foster learning skills development and learner autonomy;
4. include self, peer and other types of formative assessment;
5. encourage to create a safe learning environment;
6. cultivate cooperative learning;
7. find ways of incorporating authentic language and authentic language use;
8. promote critical thinking;
9. foster cognitive fluency through scaffolding of a) content, b) language, c)
learning skills development helping student to reach well beyond what they could
do on their own;
10. help to make learning meaningful.
Generally, we may affirm that currently the language textbooks offer plenty
of materials that can be considered CLIL, as they offer the content connected with
other subjects. They are a part of language textbook; the content is well written but
not necessarily considers language learners and their curriculum what is natural –
the textbook cannot coincide to all national curricula. Still, they are very good
material for teachers preparing their CLIL lessons.
1.2 Approaches and principles of the formation of cognitive-academic language
competence on the basis of CLIL technology
Only through language do people perceive important life discoveries and
exchange information. The tool that allows each country to communicate with each
other is the language system. Sometimes language is considered only a means of
human communication. Therefore, its functionality may seem limited. In the
language of cultural literature, language is described as a mirror of culture that
reflects the true appearance of the environment, the worldview of the people, their
national mentality, traditions, customs and the appearance of the whole world. It is
not easy to describe the function of language in the culture of different peoples.
In modern linguistics, a comprehensive study of the semasiological,
pragmatic, functional, cognitive, and psycholinguistic aspects of the
communicative function of language is being carried out. In the XXI century,
according to the new theoretical and cognitive methodology, it is not enough to
study the language "for yourself", and it is necessary to study it in close connection
with cognition, culture and practical activities of a person. The main goal of the
cognitive direction in linguistics, which was founded at the turn of the century, is
to master the scientific foundations of cognitive theory in linguistics, expand
students ' horizons through its main conclusions and basic principles; to consider
methods and methods of explaining the inner essence of pre - linguistic images in
consciousness, to find out the ordered, systematic, processed information of
logical-positive and aesthetic cognition through language. The study of language
from a cognitive point of view is currently a direction in linguistics in the world
Now, if we go further to the concept of "cognitive", the word" cognitive"
comes from the Latin word ‘coghoscere’ which means knowledge. Cognition is the
collective designation of purposeful efforts aimed at finding, recognizing,
recognizing, understanding, distinguishing, classifying, discussing and processing
things, that is, changing them through mental operations (from concretization to
abstraction). Combined with this approach, psychologists conclude that a person is
not a machine that blindly and mechanically responds to stimuli (internal factors or
events in the external world). On the contrary, the human mind has much more to
do: analyze information about reality, compare it, make decisions, and solve
problems that are facing it every minute.
One of the most important principles of cognitivism is the interpretation of a
person as a subject who, guided by certain schemes, programs, plans, strategies,
actively perceives and produces information that is guided by his mental activity.
And cognition itself regulates the mental processes in the human brain. It appeared
as a science of principles. Modern research shows that cognitivism combines
several scientific areas: cognitive psychology, cultural anthropology, modeling of
artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, etc.in this regard, it is
worth noting the interdisciplinary nature of cognitive science.
The term "cognitivism" has various notions:
- research program on the "mechanism of thinking" of a person;
- study of the processing of information that comes to a person through
- creating mental models of the world;
- organization of systems that provide various cognitive activities;
- formation and understanding of human and computer thinking programs
expressed in natural language;
- model a computer program that understands and reproduces text create;
- a wide range of mental processes that serve mental actions.
In cognitive science, the main focus is on human cognition, not only the observed
actions are studied, but also mental images (internal representations, models),
symbols, and human strategies that evoke knowledge-based actions; that is, the
cognitive world of a person is influenced by language, which forms the speech-
mental basis of a person's activity-forms his motives, views, and can predict the
result based on its active participation, it is studied by its behavior and activity.
In the middle of the XX century, there was a prospect of explaining some
thought processes by observing the language acquisition of children: it seems that
children came to learn their native language more evenly, and the universal
"algorithm" for mastering this language consists in introducing new rules into the
internal rules. child's grammar. Summing up the results of the observation, the
researchers concluded that these rules are very similar to everything that controls
non-speech actions, and sometimes appear as involuntary, uncontrolled behavior
that affects the structure of perception, memory, and even emotions. A cognitive
methodology based on such thoughts that explains the text and a linguist who
analyzes the reasons why sentences are correct and meaningful similar to the
service. As a result of cognitive activity, a system of meanings is formed about the
individual's knowledge of the world and his thinking about it. The study of human
being and the world and how to work with symbols in self-knowledge in the world,
the combination of linguistics with other disciplines that study human being and
society, led to the emergence of cognitive linguistics. From the point of view of
this science language cannot be considered in isolation from other types of
intellectual activity of a person, since the results of cognitive activity are fixed in
the language. In general, activity is one of the hypostases of a person and his
ontological property. Even W. Humboldt considered language a continuous
creative activity (energy) and understood it as the basis of all other types of human
activity [27, 272].
Thus, the categorization of a person's experience is related to his cognitive
activity, since it is obtained in the course of a person's cognitive activity and
informational information, which is the product of its processing, finds its
expression in linguistic form.
A well-known scientist A. N. Leontiev developed the term ‘cognition’ as the
following "Linguistic consciousness in general and the meaning of a word as a
fragment of it is a form of structuring and fixing people's social experience,
knowledge about the world... a form of presentation and actual retention of
knowledge in the individual consciousness» [28, 62]. Cognition is the most
important concept of cognitive linguistics, which introduces knowledge and
thinking into their linguistic expression, so cognition, cognitivism, turned out to be
closely related to linguistics. Now, in the entire complex of humanities, first of all,
the interrelationship of language and other types of activity has become a
coincidence. Language, rather than culture and society, gives cognitive scientists
the key to understanding human behavior. Therefore, language has become the
focus of cognitive scientists.
Cognitive linguistics arises on the basis of cognitivism within the framework
of the modern anthropocentric paradigm, which significantly expands the horizons
of linguistic research. In the second half of the twentieth century, the need to
approach language from the point of view of participation in human cognitive
activity was established. Information obtained in the course of cognitive activity
enters a person through various channels, but the object under consideration in
cognitive linguistics is only the part of it that is reflected in the language form.
The formation of certain ideas about the world is the result of the interaction
of three levels of mental reflection: sensory perception, the formation of ideas
(simple generalization and abstraction), speech and thinking processes. All this
summary information is the essence of the system of concepts. R. Shepard defines
cognitive science as the science of systems for presenting knowledge and obtaining
information. Or we can give by other definitions, the science of general principles
governing mental processes.
Cognitive linguistics emerged as a result of the interaction of several sources
1. Cognitive Science also called Cognitology. The subject of its study is the
structure and function of human knowledge, which arose as a result of the
development of an engineering discipline called artificial intelligence. Analogues
of the human brain and computer are expressed in the ability of a person and a
machine to process information step-by-step.
Cognitive science is based on the concept of information and the structure of
knowledge from the theory of information, processing information, storing it in
memory, extracting the necessary data from it, information in the human mind and
language form. In principle, he tries to answer the questions of how human
consciousness is organized, how a person learns about the world, what information
about the world is acquired by knowledge, and how mental space is created.
2. Cognitive linguistics takes the concept of conceptual and cognitive models from
the concept of cognitive psychology. The functioning of language really relies on
psychological mechanisms, since language is an important link in the accumulation
and preservation of a person's grouped experience of interaction with the world or
knowledge. Since the basis of all experience is perception and memory, the study
of cognition and language is impossible without taking into account the specifics
of the processes of perception studied within the framework of psychology.
3. Language semantics. Some researchers call cognitive linguistics "Super
Semantics" and considers it as a natural development of semantic ideas. They
consider the categories of linguistic semantics as a general cognitive category,
which can be represented as a result of the development of the world in the process
of human cognition. However, such a conclusion will not be sufficient, first of all,
some of the results obtained in cognitive linguistics relate not only to the semantics
of the language.
Cognitivism is an attitude that should be studied as a human information
processing system, and human behavior should be described and interpreted from
the point of view of human internal states. These states are physically expressed,
controlled, and interpreted as receiving, processing, storing, and then mobilizing
information to rationally solve intelligently formulated problems. Since the
solution to these problems is directly related to the use of language, language has
become the focus of attention of cognitive scientists. Language theorists who
consider themselves cognitive scientists try to apply a general approach to
describing and explaining "language cognition".
It is not uncommon for science to hear echoes of positions and problems that
once appeared in a new concept. This affected the term ‘cognition’. Taking the
term" cognition" as the main meaning, this direction leads to accusations of
restoring what has long been known in a new context. After all, knowledge,
intelligence, and perception have been the subject of discussion since ancient
times. Our century passed under the sign of knowledge. Externally, cognitive
scientists differ from their searchers in the widespread use of metaphors and
images of information search. Cognition for scientists is a process related to the
acquisition, use, storage, transfer and development of knowledge [30, 98].
"Cognitive linguistics" is the direction of language as a general cognitive
mechanism. In the vital interests of cognitive linguistics, linguistic it includes the
structure of knowledge ("presented") and the "mental" foundations of
understanding and speech in terms of participation in information processing.
Cognitive unlike other disciplines of the cycle, cognitive linguistics is inherent in
humans only as Homo lucivens and is unique to them examines cognitive
structures and processes. In particular, the previous in the series: a systematic
description and explanation of the mechanisms of human language acquisition and
the principles of structuring these mechanisms. This raises the following questions
1. Principles of presentation of mental mechanisms of language acquisition
and their structuring: is it enough to limit you to just one sentence, or is it should
mechanisms be presented within the framework of different representations? How
do these mechanisms interact? What is their internal structure?
2. Production. The main question is: Are production and perception based on
the same systematic units, or do they have different mechanisms? Also: do the
processes that make up speech occur in parallel or sequentially in time? What
internal structures (for example, syntactic, semantic, conceptual, etc.) appear in a
conversation and how are they arranged?
3. Cognitive perception is studied much more actively than conversational
perception - this is another manifestation of interpretive code.
In cognitive linguistics, it was accepted that mental processes are not only
based on manifestations, but also correspond to certain procedures - "cognitive
calculations". For other "cognitive disciplines" (especially cognitive psychology),
the conclusions of cognitive linguistics are valuable because they provide a general
understanding of the mechanisms of these very cognitive calculations.
The purpose of cognitive linguistics, accordingly, is not only to study such a
system and systematically reflect its phenomena, but also to establish its most
important principles. In cognitive linguistics, the main emphasis is placed on the
fact that language is the basis of cognition and a prerequisite for cognition. In the
time of V. Humboldt, he emphasized that language is the main activity of the
human spirit, covering all spheres of human existence and cognition [32,
189].Cognitive linguistics basic concepts: thinking, knowledge, cognition,
linguistic vision of the world, mentality, concept, etc.
In cognitive linguistics, a common problem for everyone is the problem of
determining the relationship between the concepts of "mental language, perception,
thinking, memory, action, concept", etc.in the cognitive chain. Tasks of cognitive
1. the role of language in the process of learning and learning the world;
2. reception, continuation (transportation), processing of information about
A person knows many types of activities that reflect the environment –
labor, art, etc. creative, industrial spheres. Each of them presupposes an
independent system of psychic being leading to reality. "Conceptual science",
which is often referred to today in relation to the cognitive level associated with
this, is the main way to understand reality. Cognitive models of language images
aimed at identifying the foundations of worldview construction allow us to create
scientific works. In addition to the fact that objects and phenomena of the world
are common to people living on the planet, each people uses these objects and
phenomena according to their culture, knowledge, and being, naming them
according to their level of knowledge and ability to recognize them.
In conclusion, cognitive linguistics is a cross-sectional field of science, one
of the new directions of linguistics, which is part of the anthropocentric paradigm.
Cognitive linguistics is a science that studies the cognitive nature of language.
I. L. Bim mentions that in order to socialize and integrate future foreign
language teachers, i.e. today's student community, it is necessary to meet the
− teach future foreign language teachers to develop the ability to think
independently, independently solve the upcoming life, orientation and
production tasks, to be armed with the basics of knowledge, skills and
competencies necessary for the upcoming work related to modern complex
techniques and technologies that require rapid adaptation to changes in the
situation, the ability to apply the acquired knowledge at the market stage;
− on the basis of the education of future foreign language teachers in
combination with national culture, science, language, art, the formation of a
person's native language and languages of interethnic communication, his /
her own and other peoples ' history, culture, customs-education as a human
being with a high moral and behavioral culture, who respects traditions and
− the main principle of education is constantly improved in the process of
learning at all stages and levels of education, guided by the principle of
training, education and improvement, development of the younger
generation education of the ability to use methods and information
technologies as much as possible, to strengthen their self-health, to form
aesthetic taste, to be constantly active in public life, to support themselves
in various life situations in the conditions of market relations.
We decided to highlight some of the principles of I. L. BIM in the modern
education of future foreign language teachers:
- activity of future Foreign Language teachers, widespread use of forms and
methods of education that develop the ability to self-manage;
- experimental activity;
- constant updating of the educational process;
- integration of education and training in higher educational institutions;
- taking into account the desire for multiculturalism in the process of education
in individual communities [33, 215].
Analyzing the definitions given by Professor S. S. Kunanbayeva, we can say
that competence is a set of closely related knowledge, competencies, skills and
creative activities of students, while competence is the ability of a foreign language
learner to apply knowledge and skills in practice to solve some practical and
theoretical problems in everyday life [34, 19].
A special place in the process of professional training of future teachers is
occupied by the issue of forming their readiness for project activities. After all,
according to the modern educational paradigm, which has moved from the
formation of "knowledge, skills and abilities" to the formation of competencies,
first of all, there is a need to prepare a teacher for creative work. And his ability to
work creatively is inextricably linked with the formation of this readiness, that is,
readiness for design activities.
Therefore, now let's focus on the meaning and notion of the concepts of
"competence" and "competency", what role do these concepts play in the formation
of students' cognitive competence using the technology of teaching and developing
the stage of alienation education? First, let's try to answer these questions. The
term "competence" has recently been used in various fields of science. Depending
on the possibility of application, the concepts of "competence, competency, and
competence" are classified. "Competence is the readiness of a person's ability to
effectively implement internal and external resources to achieve their goals."
External resources include knowledge, skills, skills, competencies (methods of
action), psychological characteristics, values are subject to.
This is the presence of personality, responsibility, communication skills,
high perception of innovations, ability to solve problems, humanity, high
education, the ability to master new technologies, work in a team, active qualities.
In the Explanatory Dictionary of the Kazakh language, these terms are defined
separately: competence – preparation for the effective implementation of internal
and external resources to achieve the set goals; preparation for successful actions
in order to meet personal and public needs. The competency is the knowledge and
abilities that a person has. Well, competence is a characteristic of evaluating the
productive performance of a given or assigned task by a person.
Competency is the ability to apply knowledge, qualifications and personal
qualities to productive activities in a particular area. Competence - the result of
education, which manifests itself in the assimilation of knowledge, skills, and
universal methods of activity by students when solving educational and life
situations" the concept of competence and competency, i.e. competence, are
complementary and interrelated.
A competent person is a person who is able to take responsibility in various
situations, is ready to expand and improve the boundaries of his knowledge.
Competence the ability to establish a link between knowledge and the situation or
it is considered as the disclosure of knowledge and the development of actions that
are favorable for solving the problem in specific situations of its implementation.
Competence is based on knowledge, skills and abilities aimed at specific
conditions of activity. In order to properly organize training, the teacher must
understand that the information on the topic that is sent to the student in the lesson
is only information, i.e. future knowledge or skills raw materials for. In the context
of the transition to specialized training at the higher stage of secondary schools of
general foreign language education, there is a need to prepare specialists for project
activities. It is not for nothing that these features of teacher training are paid special
attention to by state educational standards.
A student's competence is an image of their future, a guide to mastering it.
During the training period, certain components of such "adult" competencies are
formed, so that they not only live in the future, but also live in the present,
assimilate them educationally. Key words in the description of competencies are
words for searching, thinking, cooperation, entering the business, and adapting.
Academician of the International Pedagogical Academy, doctor of
Pedagogical Sciences A. V. Khutorskoy defines the main, general subject, subject
competencies [35, 359].
I. Fundamental or core competencies in education:
educational and cognitive;
social and labor competence;
competence of personal self-improvement.
Semantic competence is a worldview competence related to the value
orientation of a student, the ability to see and understand the world around him, to
orient himself in it, to know the role and purpose, to be able to choose meaning and
meaning for their actions and goals, to make decisions. These competencies
provide a mechanism for the student's self-determination in the context of
education and other activities. During the lesson, the teacher tries to ensure that the
student clearly understands for himself: what and how he learns today, in the next
lesson, and how he will be able to apply the acquired knowledge in his later life.
To develop this type of competence, the following methods are used: before
mastering a new topic, the teacher tells students about it, and students ask
questions on this topic: "Why", "why"," how"," what about". However, together
with students, the most interesting ones are evaluated and try not to leave any of
the questions unanswered. If the rules of the lesson do not allow you to answer all
the questions, students are invited to think at home and after classes or after
classes, and the teacher returns to them.
This method allows students not only to understand the purpose of studying
this topic, but also to understand the place of the lesson in the lesson system, and
therefore the place of the material of this lesson in the entire topic.
Sometimes the teacher gives students the right to independently read one paragraph
of the textbook and write a summary as homework. Students are instructed to
identify the main idea, write down new properties, and determine which of the
previously studied properties they believe in. As a result, students not only gain a
deeper understanding of the studied material, but also learn to choose the main
thing; not only for others, but also for the most the main thing is to justify the
importance for themselves.
General cultural competence. The range of issues that a student should be
well aware of, have knowledge and experience of - these are the features of
national and universal culture, the spiritual and moral foundations of human life
and morality, individual peoples, the family, social, cultural foundations of social
phenomena and traditions, science the role of religion in a person's life, their
impact on the world, competence in the field of internal and cultural leisure, for
example, ways to effectively organize leisure activities. This includes the scientific
picture of the world of students experience in mastering, understanding culture and
the universal world.
Educational and cognitive competence is a set of competencies. The student
is the one in the field of independent cognitive independence, who includes
elements of logical, methodological, and educational activities related to specific
cognitive objects. This includes knowledge and skills in goal setting, planning, and
analysis, and reflection, self-assessment of learning and cognitive activity. Within
the framework of these competencies, the requirements for appropriate functional
literacy are determined: the ability to distinguish facts from speculation, the ability
to master measurement skills, the use of probabilistic, statistical and other methods
of cognition. This type of competence is particularly effective in solving non-
standard, entertaining problems, as well as in a problematic approach to presenting
a new topic, conducting small research based on the study of the material. Creating
problem situations, the essence of which is to educate and develop students '
creative abilities, teach them a system of active mental actions. This activity is
manifested in the fact that the student analyzes, compares, synthesizes, generalizes,
concretizes real material, and receives new information from it. When introducing
students to new mathematical concepts, when defining new concepts, knowledge is
not given in a ready-made form. The teacher encourages students to compare,
compare, and contrast facts, resulting in a search situation.
With the help of specific objects (television, tape recorder, telephone, fax,
computer, printer, modem, copier) and information technologies (audio-video
recordings, e-mail, media, Internet), Informative competence is formed by the
ability to independently search, analyze and select, organize the necessary
information. These competencies also provide students with skills to develop
students ' actions in subjects and areas of education, as well as in relation to
information that exists in the world around them. When planning an information
search, the student searches for the necessary information, attracting additional
sources of information.
Communicative competence is the creation of various texts (essays,
messages), public speaking, productive group communication, creating dialogues,
working in groups.
Social and labor competence means having knowledge and experience in the
field of civil society activities (acting as a citizen, Observer, voter, representative),
in the social and labor sphere (consumer, buyer, client, producer Rights), family
relations and responsibilities.
To a teacher on the basis of reforming the educational process the new
requirements set the task for the system of professional training of future
specialists to form a specialist ready for innovative activities, ready to actively
participate in research activities. That is, a modern teacher should not only master
the methods of solving already known pedagogical problems in educational
practice, but also be able to actively apply them himself.
To conclude, the term "competence" is the awareness of something, a certain
degree of knowledge, familiarity with experience in a particular activity, a property
of the individual. In her scientific work, D. K. Sadyrbekova analyzed the
definitions given by scientists to the concept of "competence" as follows [ 36, 54].
Table 2 - Definitions of the term "competence" by scholars
Name of the scientists Definitions
Sh. T. Taubayeva an integrated personality trait based on
knowledge and experience acquired in
B.A.Turgynbayeva the course of educational and
M.J.Dzhadrina sociological processes, defined as its
K.S.Kudaybergenova general ability and readiness for action
L.M.Mitina be able to apply the knowledge gained
through their practical activities in
solving their life problems
solving problems using skills of
independent development, self-
management, knowledge, flexibility
to make authoritative decisions on any
knowledge, skills, as well as methods
used in practice, communication, and
V.N.Shamov self-development of the individual
M.A.Galymzhanova a set of knowledge, skills, experience,
Y.N.Kuliutkin and conscious orientation within the
framework of truth
ability to effectively solve problems and
tasks that arise in specific situations of
Above, we have revealed the meanings of the concepts of" cognitive","
competence", and" competency". Solving the problem of building and
implementing a model of a competence-based approach in education, one of the
most important tasks of scientific and pedagogical education is to identify key
competencies. The main competencies, based on the experience of independent
activity and personal responsibility of students, are integrative in nature, as they
are closely related to skills and knowledge related to a number of cultures and
broad areas of activity.
J. Cummins has distinguished between spoken and academic languages; he
identified two aspects of language competence – “BICS” (basic interpersonal
communicative skills) – basic communication skills of everyday communication
and “CALP” (cognitive/academic language proficiency) cognitive/academic
language competence, which is necessary outside of everyday communication
situations [37, 322].
BICS is present where there is a contextual support for understanding a
second language. "Context-driven" situations of direct communication provide
nonverbal support that facilitates understanding. Facial expressions, sign language,
instant feedback, and cues complement speech communication. This is the level of
language a person has when communicating in everyday life or class situations and
is used mainly in informal communication.
CALP, on the other hand, is present in "context-free" situations where
higher-order thinking skills are needed, such as analysis, synthesis, evaluation,
comparison, hypothesizing, classification, prediction, and generalization, and
language is not context-driven. CALP is formed and developed in the learning
process. CALP is the language necessary to understand and discuss the content in
the classroom or at the university (or other Academic environments).
The difference between BICS and CALP can be shown by comparing them
with the language of communication in the playground and in school. The
language of the playground is direct, and it is reinforced by facial expressions,
gestures, and other forms of nonverbal communication. Its purpose is to engage in
social, gaming activities. In contrast, the language of communication in the
classroom is more abstract, the educational language is used to teach mathematics,
physics, biology, chemistry, literature, etc.
J. Cummins used the image of an iceberg to illustrate the differences
between BICS and CALP in his research papers. The very graphic may help
understanding BICS and CALP and its characteristics:
Picture 1 – BICS/CALP Iceberg Model
Above the surface are the BICS communication skills, such as understanding
and speaking, and below it are the CALP skills, such as analysis and synthesis.
Thus, basic language knowledge (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary) is located
on the "visible part of the iceberg", and at the bottom there is difficult-to-measure
proficiency in semantic and functional means of the language.
Highlighting the differences between BICS and CALP was important and
influenced both the learning process and the process of evaluating its results.
Teachers, even more than scientists, believe that the awareness of the distinctive
features of BICS and CALP is a new look at the teaching methodology, which will
allow providing the necessary language support to children in the proper volume
and quality. In addition, teachers, for example, in the United States, have
concluded that excessive testing requirements for bilingual children are dangerous.
The BICS/CALP theory does not claim to be a general theory of the
formation and development of language skills; it is applicable only in the context
of subject-based learning in a second language. Also, it was not intended to
determine the moment from which to introduce reading in a second language in the
classroom or to introduce subject-based learning in English. The BICS/CALP
theory was also unfairly criticized for not addressing many conceptual concepts
and contexts that it was not intended to discuss in principle. Due to its limited use,
it is important to show which situations it can be used for and which it cannot be
1. The BICS/CALP theory can be applied to situations where children
who are seemingly fluent in a second language fail to complete the
curriculum tasks in that language. It outlines the "two-step" process
of mastering a second language. Children and adults continuously,
step by step, improve their knowledge of the second language, and
not by leaps and bounds. This development of language
competence is comparable to the gradual increase in the volume of
television broadcasting. Bilingual language skills are constantly
evolving, interacting, dynamic,and complex. They are not
dichotomies that are divided into unrelated parts.
2. BICS/CALP theory provides an opportunity to understand and
explain the results of previous research in the field of bilingual
subject learning. However, many scientists argue that the
theoretical hypothesis of the existence of BICS/CALP does not
indicate how the difference between them can be accurately
determined and rigorously tested, so they are difficult to operate on
3. Terms like BICS and CALP are inaccurate, simplistic, and often
misused. These are hypothetical terms that some tend to view as
real entities. These terms can be used to classify students,
especially if they have more developed BICS than CALP.
4. The relationship between language and cognitive development is
not unambiguous, that is, the development of one competence non-
linearly affects the development of another. The relationship
between cognitive and linguistic development is influenced by
various factors (for example, public policy, social stratification,
level of culture and motivation, context, educational institutions,
family and society).
5. The sequential nature of acquiring first BICS and then CALP is a
typical route for immigrant children learning a second language.
However, this order is not always absolute, sometimes there are
exceptions (for example, a scientist who can read research papers in
a second language, but does not know how to speak it).
6. CALP explains the ability of students to perform well on tests in
school subjects (erudition tests) in a second language, as they relate
to a specific, traditional, educational activity. Educational practice
supports the "middle class" view that BICS/CALP theory gives
special status to the styles of language spoken by educated "middle
class" people and, therefore, belittles the importance of the spoken
style of the "working class" language, which was not the intention
of Cummins J. Knowledge of this theory has convinced many
teachers to prematurely not take students with poor language skills
(for example, Spanish-speaking children in the United States) to
ordinary English-speaking classes, as a result of which the effect of
"language discrimination" did not occur.
7. In the process of oral communication, sometimes no less developed
cognitive skills are required than in training. For example, a well-
thought-out logic of statements, the use of metaphors and other
abstractions are also necessary in colloquial speech.
8. Different sociocultural contexts require the application of different
appropriate language cliches and thinking skills, and school is not
the only context in which high-order language skills are developed.
The BICS and CALP theory helped us to explain why the education system
for children of linguistic minorities sometimes fails. For example, in the United
States, special education programs have been developed and are being
implemented to ensure that students of minority languages achieve a level of
English proficiency that would allow them to communicate with their peers,
teachers, and engage in classes with students of the majority language. They are
transferred to regular classes when they achieve a superficial fluency in speaking
in English, that is, they have developed enough language competence (BICS) to
study in the main program. However, such children subsequently learn poorly.
According to the theory of Cummins J., their cognitive / academic language
competence is not sufficiently developed for them to cope with the requirements of
the curriculum, which was developed for children of monolinguals of the linguistic
Cummins J. believes that in the process of bilingual education, "general
proficiency skills", that is, the universal skills of a bilingual person, should be well
formed. They can be developed in the first or second language or in two languages
at the same time.
Cummins J. in the guidelines for the use of CALP identified the following
three areas: cognitive, academic and language [38, 103].
Cognitive: training should be conducted at a high level of complexity, which
develops such thinking skills as assessment, the ability to draw conclusions,
generalization and classification. Cognitive component (determined by the level of
development of higher-order thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation) in the
discipline being studied, which is characterized by the ability to clearly state
thoughts, argue and analyze the results obtained, build evidence, make judgments,
isolate parts of the whole and identify the relationships between them, generalize,
be able to distinguish basic and secondary information, evaluate and interpret
Academic: language learning should be integrated into the content of the
curriculum, so that students learn from the background the language of specific
subject areas. Academic component (knowledge of the terminological minimum,
language cliches typical for the studied discipline, the ability to give definitions,
comment on the solution of mathematical problems in two languages, correctly
understand the symbols characteristic of mathematics, work with graphic material,
the development of educational strategies that include actions and operations used
by students to optimize the process of obtaining and storing lexical information,
learning words, extracting them from memory to solve speech-thinking problems
in the process of using and perceiving foreign language vocabulary);
Language: critical language awareness should develop in two directions: linguistic
and socio-cultural. The language component (knowledge of the system of the
language being studied and the skills of operating with language (lexicogrammatic
and phonetic) means of communication formed on their basis).
J. Cummins theory assumes that fluency in the second language (first quadrant –
BICS) develops independently of its development in the native language. On the
contrary, context-free, cognitive communication in both languages develops
interlinked and can be improved either by using one of the languages, or both.
Thus, this theory shows that bilingual education will be successful only if students
have sufficient language competence in the first and second languages to work in
contextually non-conditional, requiring cognitive skills, situations in the
In the process of applying content and language integrated learning, in an
ideal classroom, all lesson information is provided at the appropriate academic and
language level. Teachers play an important role in this whole process, as they
provide lesson information that is academically challenging but not too
linguistically difficult. On this issue, the scientist Cummins developed four
quadrants that are used to describe the cognitive and linguistic level of information
in the lesson.
The quadrants make some distinction between lesson information, which can
be either BICS or CALP. Distinguish between simpler and more complex
information in relation to context and thinking, for example:
TABLE 3 – Cummins’ Quadrants
QUADRANT 1 The information is supported by a large BICS
QUADRANT 2 BICS
QUADRANT 3 number of visual hints and simple CALP
language – High context Low cognitive
QUADRANT 4 CALP
Information with a small context, easy to
understand, presented in simple language
– Low context Low cognitive demand
The information is supported by a large
amount of context, but is difficult to
understand, given in a more abstract
language – High context High cognitive
Information with very little context,
difficult to understand, set out in more
detail – Low context, high cognitive
The use of such quadrants allows the teacher to determine whether the
intended information is suitable for the language and content goals that need to be
The first factor, the degree of cognitive challenge, is shown in Cummins’s
framework as basically easy or hard. The two quadrants across the top of
Cummins’s chart show oral or written tasks that are cognitively undemanding –
either largely social or simply academically easy. The two lower quadrants of the
chart perform tasks that are cognitively demanding. These tasks are academically
difficult, demanding higher levels of thought processing and language skills.
The second factor in Cummins’s framework figures out the amount of
contextual support inherent in the task. Contextual supports offer clues to the
meaning of words. The more spoken and written words are supported or embedded
in context, the easier they are to comprehend. Spoken language can be delivered
contextual support through facial expressions, gestures, body language,
demonstrations, and visual cues from the physical environment. Written language
can suggest contextual support through pictures, graphs, charts, tables, and
textbook aids. Oral and written tasks with these kinds of supports are called
context-embedded. Tasks in which students have only the spoken or written words
alone to work with are called context-reduced.
Quadrant 1 represents highly context-based and less cognitively requiring
language activities, such as daily conversations in routines and playground
language. Quadrant 4 represents academic language, requiring a high level of
cognitive demand with little environmental or interpersonal clues. Language
development generally moves from quadrant 1 to quadrant 4. Quadrant 2 is critical
in this process. It refers to language activities containing cognitive demand
provided with contextual support or scaffold intervention. Most effective strategies
proposed by research about education of ELLs are situated here. Quadrant 2 serves
as a bridge between quadrants 1 and 4. Quadrant 3 represents context-reduced and
cognitively undemanding activities. Activities within this quadrant are occasionally
used in the reinforcement or practice of particular aspects of language such as
asking children to trace letters repeatedly.
Actual examples of tasks in each of these four quadrants, as shown in Table
3, will help clarify Cummins’s chart. Face-to-face conversations fall into Quadrant
I. The task of making conversation is communal and therefore not particularly
cognitively demanding. Contextual support for spoken words comes from
observing the speaker’s lips and observing facial expressions and body language.
The task moves to Quadrant II when the same conversation takes place over the
telephone. While the task is still social, the listener loses the speaker’s contextual
support and must rely completely on audible input for comprehension. The tasks
illustrating Quadrants III and IV are similar. On the lower half of the chart, the
tasks are cognitively challenging. English language learners will seek
mathematical word problems that offer the contextual support of manipulative,
graphics, and/or pictures easier to solve than problems without these aids. Again,
the difficulty is affected by how well the words are embedded in context.
The level of the material should be acceptable to the students, so the teacher
needs to think through both the content and the language, which are naturally
interrelated. Two aspects play a role in determining the level of availability of the
material. The first is the level of complexity of the material, and the second is the
level and knowledge that the student has.
Vocabulary is also of great importance. Teachers working on the technology
of subject-language integrated learning, consider the dictionary with their students.
The dictionary can be divided into three categories: general, subject, and academic.
General vocabulary refers to common, commonly used words used in
everyday communication. Subject terminology is a specialized language for a
particular subject (such as" molecule "in chemistry or "cell" in biology, etc.). The
academic vocabulary consists of words that are widely used in academic texts. For
students studying in the technology of subject-language integrated learning, it is
important to be able to recognize, understand and use these words. As they
gradually need to develop a more academic language to move from BICS to
Thus, it can be concluded that providing teachers with the material at the
appropriate content and cognitive levels is very important, as well as it is important
to guide students for more successful assimilation of the lesson material. It can be
presented in various ways, through the use of, for example, visual, auditory, or
written means. It is necessary to refer to the theory of quadrants by J. Cummins, in
order to correctly evaluate the lesson material and ensure that the student
understands the lesson material of various types and different levels.
Summing up, we can offer the following recommendations for the presentation of
the lesson material:
1. offer multi-modal and different types of content through different
channels: use reading and listening to texts, videos, photos, hands-on activities, and
2. select or adapt the material so that the text and visual material support
3. use different types of materials for different purposes;
4. use Cummins’ Quadrants to evaluate the material or information for
academic and language level compliance.
The theoretical foundations are based on the theory of the relationship
between thinking and speech by L. S. Vygotsky, the theory of BICS/CALP by J.
Cummins, and the taxonomy of skills and abilities in the cognitive field of Bloom.
The ultimate goal of the CLI is to build students' CALP by integrating their prior
experience and personal interests in the relevant subject area. As a result of
studying the works of L. S. Vygotsky, J. Cummins and Bloom's taxonomy, it was
concluded that CALP is a cognitive/academic language competence aimed at
synthesizing higher-order thinking skills and means of their verbalization in a
Considering the following, this study introduced the concept of "cognitive /
academic language competence" as an integrative characteristic of a person,
including the ability and readiness to carry out educational and cognitive activities
using a foreign language.
CLIL has a number of advantages over traditional training. First, there is a
full immersion of students in the language environment, as they pass through a
fairly large amount of language material. Secondly, the student's vocabulary is
enriched due to the subject terminology, his skills and abilities are developed in the
field of the use of an academic foreign language. Third, the CLIL contributes to a
deeper understanding of scientific concepts, making it easier for students to grasp
the scientific concept, since the acquisition of the term and its correlation with the
corresponding scientific concept occur simultaneously [39, 96].
In the process of using CLIL, there is an interaction of cognitive processes
used in the study of a foreign language and a discipline of a non-linguistic cycle,
for example, mathematics, which has a positive synergistic effect, which is
expressed in the development of the student's thinking skills and in increasing
motivation to study the discipline and the second language.
It is relatively easy to choose the subject content, and it is difficult to
understand how to teach it. Content learning is more effective when students '
cognitive abilities are well developed. Therefore, CLIL teachers need to actively
engage students in the learning process: to help them understand what they are
learning and how to make the most of it.
The most well-known and widely used description of cognitive abilities is
the Boom's Taxonomy. Benjamin Bloom created a hierarchy of six mental
operations, arranged in a sequence from the lowest to the highest. According to this
system, lower-order mental operations imply knowledge of the definition, naming,
description, and use of objects. Higher-order thought operations-analysis, synthesis
of knowledge, which is necessary when students use new information in a given
situation, divide information into parts or collect ideas into a single whole in order
to understand the information better and create something new. The application of
Bloom's taxonomy is one of the CLIL techniques that facilitate students'
understanding of the learning process [40, 82].
Undoubtedly, the cognitive abilities of students often outstrip the
development of foreign languages. As a result, when implementing CLIL, there is
a dilemma of how to balance the development of both. Marsh cites Snow, Meta,
and Genesi's proposal to establish a distinction between content-obligatory
language (the level of knowledge of a language required for studying a particular
discipline) and content-compatible language (a language used both to facilitate the
study of subject content and to achieve the program's linguistic and cultural goals),
which allows for consistent implementation of the goals of studying content and a
foreign language [41, 128]. That is, students need to possess a certain level of
foreign language competence in order to study the subject content, and the teacher
needs to structure the linguistic material so that it is studied simultaneously with
the subject. To plan classes, teachers need to link subject and linguistic goals. D.
Coyle developed a "Language Triptych" to explain how language is used in the
context of CLIL, which is divided into Language of learning, Language for
learning, Language through learning.
Language of learning – the language required for mastering certain content,
such as mathematics, engineering, biology, etc. In this case, the choice of language
structures, terms, and functional vocabulary will depend on the subject content.
Language for learning-vocabulary, structures, functions for learning:
necessary for students to work within the framework of the language being studied.
This aspect is the most significant due to the fact that it is difficult for students to
use a new language for them. Teachers should support the use of a foreign
language through various techniques, such as working in groups, pairs, debates and
Language through learning – the language that is mastered in the process of
learning by CLIL. Here it is very important to help students advance in their
studies, giving them the opportunity to understand new linguistic aspects,
consolidate them, and expand their linguistic knowledge, skills and abilities.
Foreign language acquisition occurs systematically, as language and speech units
appear in various specific contexts. That is, through thematic texts (and other types
of materials) that needs to be provided with grammatical structures and functions
so that students know how to use them correctly in the communication process.
Culture is also an important part of CLIL: cultural awareness of us, learning
and understanding other cultures. We live in a world where communication with
representatives of other countries is not uncommon. If people are from another
country, it means that their language is different, and their behavior, and traditions,
that is, in general, the culture. Therefore, for a successful and conflict-free
intercultural dialogue, it is necessary to realize that a foreigner has his own cultural
values. CLIL allows you to consider, study various cultural aspects, and develop
the intercultural competence of students, which is so important in today's
globalized world. Through CLIL, students develop the ability to see and manage
relationships with their culture, values, and behavior, as well as to predict the
meaning of concepts from a foreign language and relate them to concepts from
their native language.
The goal of CLIL is to explore and discover the possibilities of cross-cultural
communication, as well as to introduce students to the diversity of cultures. The
integration of culture into the curriculum is mandatory in a multicultural world.
The study of culture in CLIL lessons is presented in the form of situations that can
occur with students in the real world: communication with representatives of
different groups and strata of society, self-identification, civil duties and rights of
students, acquaintance with the cultural values of representatives of different
cultures and peoples.
ІІ ORGANIZATION AND RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
ON THE FORMATION OF THE FORMATION OF COGNITIVE ACADEMIC
LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS ON THE BASIS OF CLIL
2.1 Designing CLIL method in foreign language education
According to Ph. Ball, one of the main features of CLIL is the use of
"conceptual sequencing", according to which the topics to be studied are presented
in a horizontal (or vertical) sequence and are chronologically or thematically
dependent [42, 57].
The CLIL is based on the fact that the subjects of the curriculum are taught
and studied in a foreign language. Thus, this technology is characterized by the fact
− a foreign language becomes a way of studying the content of other
− foreign language is widely used in the curriculum; students ' motivation
− students master a foreign language sufficiently after 5-7 years of study in a
− fluency is preferred over correctness of speech, as the presence of
grammatical or lexical errors is considered an integral part of the language
learning process. Students develop fluency and fluency of speech, using a
foreign language as a means of communication;
− the main skill being formed is reading.
S.Darn highlights the following advantages of CLIL [43, 59]:
− using a broad cultural context;
− preparing students for the process of internationalization and globalization;
− expanding the list of subjects to be studied, along with the opportunity to
receive international certificates of study;
− formation and development of general and special language competencies;
− the opportunity to diversify the methods of educational and cognitive
According to the CLIL, it is necessary to develop all types of speech activity
within the framework of a foreign language class. S. Darn believes that from the
point of view of a foreign language teacher, a foreign language class within the
CLIL should have the following characteristics:
The lesson should integrate the formation of both receptive and productive
The lesson is usually based on a text or a sound representation of the text.
The use of language structures and language units is functional and is
determined by the content of the discipline being studied.
Learning a foreign language is based on a lexical, not grammatical approach.
An individual approach is widely used.
Within the framework of higher professional education, the idea of CLIL has
spread as Integrating Content and Language (ICL) – the integration of subject
content and a foreign language. ICL is based on the idea of constant interaction and
joint cooperation between teachers of special disciplines and teachers of a foreign
language. Such cooperation makes it possible to create interdisciplinary
communities whose activities contribute to improving the quality of the
educational process as a whole. ICL is a pedagogical problem, the solution of
which involves overcoming certain difficulties, primarily of an organizational and
structural nature, for both teachers and students.
Most experts believe that the use of CLIL has great prospects, but its
implementation requires a revision of traditional concepts and views on teaching.
At the moment, there are a number of circumstances that, according to many
researchers, can have a negative impact on the implementation of CLIL in the
learning process. Subject teachers are not always willing to support innovations,
since the use of this technology requires a lot of training on the part of the teacher.
It should also be noted that there are a small number of programs and trainings for
training specialists in the field of CLIL and the lack of coordination of foreign
language programs with programs in other disciplines. Nevertheless, the need for
reform in the field of foreign language teaching in connection with the process of
globalization contributes to the future active implementation of CLIL technology
in the educational systems of most countries.
The question of the need to introduce integrated subject - language learning in
the framework of professionally-oriented training is raised by many authors. In
particular, D. Marsh, B. Marsland, and K. Stenberg [44, 127 ], as well as D.Wolff
[45, 12] cites six reasons why it is necessary to use the CLIL in an academic and
professional environment (in higher and secondary special education):
− obtaining practical knowledge and skills; developing interpersonal
− implementation of cross-cultural communication;
− obtaining high-quality education in a certain field; competitiveness in the
− the opportunity to look at the academic discipline being studied from
Constructivism as a theory of knowledge and a theory of knowledge
development is an important element in the context of CLIL, as it explains the
mechanisms of human perception (understanding) and cognition, which, in turn,
are key issues in the integration of a foreign language and subject content.
Within the framework of constructivism, several theories related to human
perception have been developed. All of them are based on the idea that perception
is a creative (constructive) process. Cognitive psychology, being an offshoot of
constructivism, considers perception as a cognitive process, where the knowledge
that a person possesses interacts with an external stimulus. The result of this
interaction is an individual mental construction that will be stored in the memory
of a person, provided that he considers it sufficiently important and necessary. This
theory can be applied to the issues of language perception, namely: the knowledge
that a person possesses consists of two components: knowledge about the world
and the language component, which interact in order to catch the meaning of the
received external stimulus. The incoming stimulus represented either in the form of
a sound wave or in the form of letters, must be transformed into a cognitive,
meaningful unit for perception.
In the theory of social constructivism, the key moment of the process of
creation and perception is "taken out" beyond the brain/consciousness of the
perceiving person into the external social environment, where the process of
interaction (communication) takes place. Social constructivism, which is based on
the ideas of M.Bakhtin, suggests that communication participants jointly create a
concept in the course of the communication process itself. Of course, an important
role in this process is played by individual knowledge (personal constructive
units), as well as the ideas of each of the participants about the world and language
H. Clark developed a model of individual communication (face-to-face
interaction), where he defined communicative interaction as a joint action built on
individual actions. He also argued that skills such as speaking and listening are
interdependent [47, 310].
All constructivist theories emphasize the importance of the input process. In
this case, what is important is not so much the process of entering information,
which is certainly of great importance for successful perception, as its significance
for the person receiving this information. Along with Jan. Komensky cognitive
psychologists believe that a person who accepts information (comprehender) can
successfully process the incoming data, provided that he connects them with the
existing knowledge base. Social constructivists have developed this position. They
assume that only information that is meaningful to the recipient can be processed
properly. This fact will eventually lead to the formation of a meaningful unit
(construct), which the subject can use in the future. Thus, constructivist theory not
only emphasizes the importance of the content side of the input information, but
also how this information correlates with the experience and interests of the
Constructivists emphasize that human perception and cognition are creative,
constructive processes that the subject organizes and conducts independently. The
subject can perceive and further recognize only the information that is associated
with the existing knowledge at his disposal. The perception of each person depends
on the personal experience and background knowledge of the subject. Therefore,
the result of the learning process will be different in each individual case.
The constructivists integrated human emotions into their theory. Emotions, in
their opinion, are constructive units that influence cognitive processes, and,
accordingly, the formation of ideas and knowledge about the surrounding world.
Representatives of constructivism attach special importance to the social context in
which the training takes place.
According to the theory of constructivism, perception is a complex creative
process in which a large number of mental functions are activated. The reader or
listener not only receives external stimuli (stimuli) and transforms these stimuli
into information that the subject can store in memory. In the course of this process,
the subject needs to activate knowledge about the language and the surrounding
world, draw conclusions, and process the statements of the interlocutor.
Perception is a constructive (creative) process with a high degree of activity.
Here is the key to understanding the process of learning a language. Language
acquisition occurs when the student is involved in a constructive process of
perception. Mastering a foreign language does not take place if the student does not
activate constructivist capabilities, but only picks up on the receptive level external
stimuli that the senses recognize. A similar situation develops with modern
methods of teaching in secondary and higher schools, where it is believed that as a
result of monotonous performance of formal exercises, a student or student will
learn a foreign language.
The active use of a foreign language integrated with the subject content in the
constructive process creates conditions for mastering a foreign language. The
acquisition of a foreign language in the process of perception occurs when students
try to understand the meaning of what they read or heard. The process of mastering
the language is due to the fact that a semantic unit is created. It should be noted
that this situation is true both in the case of learning the first and in the case of
learning the second language.
Perception is a key component in the process of learning a foreign language.
However, this fact does not explain why learning a foreign language within the
framework of the CLIL gives better results than in the format of a traditional
lesson. In this case, an important role is assigned to the content, the content. In a
traditional foreign language class, the content is pre-defined, simplified, and
classified. It is reduced to rather stereotypical everyday situations. Most of the
educational materials are compiled by the authors of textbooks and are not
authentic, but are aimed at achieving communicative or linguistic progress. The
integration of the subject content in this case leads to significant changes. Any
academic discipline (radio engineering, avionics) provides a wide range of topics
for study. This content has a high motivating potential, as it is directly related to
future professional activities. The content of any discipline studied is "realities",
that is, the facts and processes of the real world. They have an academic and
scientific focus, richer and more complex content than pseudo-real situations of
foreign language classes.
The content that the student learns in a class built within the framework of the
CLIL has a higher motivating potential compared to the content of a regular
foreign language class. This is a fascinating and informative material that students
study with great attention. Thus, training within the framework of the integration
of subject and language content is more intensive and successful compared to the
traditional educational process. Motivation and active participation are the driving
forces that activate the mechanisms of perception and, thus, increase the
effectiveness of the processes of integration of a foreign language and subject
From the point of view of constructivism, the main goal of interaction
(communication) is not to discuss language aspects and grammatical structures, as
a result of which language learning occurs, but to discuss and construct content,
which leads to its transformation and understanding.
Mastering a foreign language is considered as a side effect. It occurs due to the
fact that the subject content (and not the information at the input) is created,
constructed through society.
In contrast to S. Hillyard [48, 116], which adheres to the CLIL model, where
one teacher acts both as a subject teacher and as a foreign language teacher, M.
Gustafsson, A. Eriksson, Ch.Räisänen, A. Stenberg, C. Jacobs, J. Wright [49, 92],
B. Wyrley-Birch [50, 78] support the idea that in higher education, the most
acceptable understanding is ICL as a mutual cooperation between teachers of
language and special disciplines. According to these authors, CLIL is a general
term that is closely related to the European Language Policy, which implies the
mobility of the education system, the labor market, as well as the processes of
democratization and partnership.
In the context of Content and Language Integration, Professor M.Baynham
(University of Leeds) identifies three main areas that present certain difficulties for
researchers and educators: theoretical, methodological and contextual. From the
point of view of theory, ICL develops the idea of the role of language in the
construction of knowledge (knowledge construction), and from the point of view
of methodology, it requires the use of a collaborative approach in teaching, which
involves the work of a team of teachers [51, 29].
Despite the fact that an increasing number of universities provide students with
the opportunity to receive higher education in English, European experts say that
the corresponding retraining and advanced training of the teaching staff of
educational institutions is practically not carried out.
Variety of materials and resources in training
The material must be meaningful, authentic, and stimulating. The selected
information should be related to the realities of the world and address global issues
that will interest students. Learning content through a foreign language is most
effective when new topics and topics encourage students to learn, apply their past
experience to master new knowledge.
Videos, animations, web quests, podcasts, etc. They are authentic resources that
motivate learning: you can use them to create tasks that encourage the activation of
higher-order thought operations, the generation and creation of new ideas, projects,
and the development of CALP. Mastering CALP is a very difficult task for
trainees, so the role of the teacher in the CLIL training process is to be a mentor, to
be an example, to stimulate the development of students, to support them when
difficulties arise, to adequately evaluate the work of students, correcting mistakes
and deepening knowledge.
One of the key concepts when choosing a material is “multi-modal input” - the
presentation of the material in various visual ways (diagrams, graphs, maps, etc.),
which allow you to better understand the specifics of the subject content presented
in a foreign language. The transformation of information from one type of
representation (for example, text) to another (map, table, diagram), as well as
translation from the native language into the studied language, stimulates the study
of the language and the subject, taking into account the individual needs of
students in a variety of forms of learning.
This technique consists in the fact that the teacher creates "support" for the
students to master authentic material in a foreign language. The technique
performs several functions:
reduces / facilitates the study of a large amount of subject and linguistic
information (=input scaffolding), helping to understand the input material;
allows students to complete tasks through the structuring of information;
encourages the use of a foreign language through the use of thematic
glossaries, stable expressions necessary for completing tasks;
contributes to the structuring of speech utterance and the development of
This "support" is necessary due to the fact that authentic material that contains
unfamiliar vocabulary and grammatical functions that are difficult for students to
understand. Therefore, questions and tasks should be specially organized for easier
perception of the lesson content, understanding of the subject content and the
language being studied. Moreover, the "scaffolding" support strategy (Table 4)
helps students build speech utterances in a foreign language, increasing their
confidence in their abilities.
Table 4 - Types of scaffolding
Verbal scaffolding (aimed Procedural scaffolding Instructional scaffolding
at developing linguistic (cooperation techniques (supports trainees in the
knowledge, skills and
abilities) and task structuring) learning process)
- paraphrasing; - activation of existing - graphic organizers;
− using the “think-aloud " knowledge; - visibility, use of images;
technique; - division into - interactive lexical wall
- taking definitions out of pairs/groups, where (Word Wall);
context; students with a lower - dictionaries;
- development of questions level of knowledge - schedule placement;
on Bloom's taxonomy»; interact with students with - division by category.
- writing hints; a higher level of
- intentional use of knowledge;
antonyms and synonyms; - "think-pair-share"
- improving student technology”;
responses; - personalization of
- efficient use of waiting references;
time; - “jigsaw” technique;
- use of frequently repeated - the "dictogloss"
expressions in the lesson technique”;
("May I go to - use of various routine
the restroom?”, “Excuse tasks;
me”); - Gibbons ' range of
- clear pronunciation of assignments (oral-
words (slow if necessary); informal, oral-formal,
- clarification of statements; written-informal, written-
- use of metalinguistic formal);
information; - evaluated discussion;
- songs, jazz tunes, rhythm; - simulations, role-playing
- language exercises on the games.
graphic organization of
- development of
Intensive interaction and active use of the material (=pushed output)
The interaction hypothesis of Long suggests that learners quickly master the
language, using it in communication. The feedback received in the course of
communication contributes to the improvement of the learner's language skills and
abilities (inter language), since the communication process unites and promotes the
productive use of the input material and the abilities of the learners. Swain [52, 6]
argues that the use of learned material in practice increases the level of proficiency
in the language being studied. It is necessary to build the learning process in such a
way that students make the most of the available linguistic repertoire, evaluate
their linguistic capabilities, and think about possible ways to transform their own
oral or written utterance so that it is as clear and competent as possible.
R. Mayer notes that Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) (an approach
based on the application of problem solving in learning) contains many
methodological findings for teaching a foreign language and thus confirms that
TBLT should be an integral part of the CLIL. TBLT contributes to the formation of
the language environment in the classroom. According to this approach, the
acquisition of a non-native language is most successful in situations of real
communication in a significant social context [53, 19].
One of the most effective tasks is the “gap-principle”: true communication
occurs when there is a misunderstanding (communication gap):
- Information gap: transfer of information from one person to another,
transformation from one form to another, or transfer from one place to another. For
example, two students have different schedules, but they want to find time to have
a cup of tea together. They need to find out when they are both free and what hours
the cafe is open. This type of task allows students to learn how to find information,
ask for clarification, and negotiate terms when misunderstandings arise.
- Reasoning gap: a task in which students must extract information from the
material provided by the teacher. They need to understand and convey information,
but the information they need to convey is different from the information they
perceive. To decide what information to convey and how to solve the problem, you
need to think logically. For example, you can ask students to decide which car to
buy by considering characteristics such as speed and price, or price and quality.
- Opinion gap: in such tasks, students need to express their own preferences,
feelings or ideas about a particular situation. For example, finish a story or take
part in a discussion/debate. The teacher can limit the number of words or time to
complete the task and give instructions.
- CLIL and TBLT should co-exist as two inseparable organisms: authentic
useful material is used to create motivating and stimulating tasks. Various forms of
work of students in the process of communication contribute to the understanding
of the subject content and activate the use of the learned material.
The use of the cross-cultural aspect in the subject content
CLIL provides an opportunity to consider topics from different cultural
perspectives, taking into account the differences in the perception of many
concepts among representatives of various cultures. The great advantage of CLIL
is the ability to assess the uniqueness of values and views on the surrounding
reality of representatives of different peoples and countries. The inclusion of the
cultural aspect can be implemented in educational and methodological materials in
the form of exercises and tasks that contribute to the development of cognitive
abilities and foreign language communicative competence of students.
Activation of HOT (High-order Thinking Skills – higher-order cognitive
Proficiency in the academic language, understanding of complex subject
content, thinking, cognitive activity and language learning do not develop by them,
but need constant monitoring and systematization. R. Mayer offers a structure for
effective teaching of CLIL. Higher-order thought operations include creativity and
critical thinking, the development of which is one of the goals of the CLIL.
Creativity involves the generation and further development of ideas, processes,
objects, kinship relationships, and joint activities. Critical thinking is evaluating all
of the above. Critical thinking is based on self-analysis, which is the foundation of
learning: the development of thinking skills improves the learning process.
Rational and sustainable learning
"Sustainable" learning means the following: the teacher must make sure that
the long-term memory of the students was activated during the training process and
that the knowledge that they received during the lesson will pass from short-term
memory to long-term memory. At CLIL, sustainable learning is of paramount
importance, as the teacher promotes both the learning of the content and the
foreign language itself. Ideally, students' skills should achieve absolute automation
through language practice, resulting in its competent and spontaneous use.
In order to streamline the learning process with the use of CLIL technology,
- link any material with the personal experience and knowledge of students;
- organize the learning process in such a way that its structure is simple and
- discuss the results of work in small groups, using posters, blogs, websites,
- encourage independent learning and self-assessment (portfolios, diaries,
- practice a trans lingual approach, using the first language (L1) as needed to
support the learning process;
- focus on learning and practicing phrases and expressions, rather than on
- use spiral learning (see picture 2).
Picture 2 – Spiral learning
P. Mehisto, D. Marsh, and M. H. Frigols also identify a number of key CLIL
principles that largely coincide with the above [54, 62]:
1. Focus of training on different areas:
- support of the language aspect in various academic disciplines;
- support for the study of subject content in foreign language lessons;
- integration of multiple items;
- organization of training through interdisciplinary connections;
- support for reflection in the learning process.
2. Reliable enriching atmosphere in the learning process:
- use of routine, repetitive tasks and discourse;
- demonstration of linguistic and subject information during the lessons;
- development of students' confidence in the practice of language and subject
- monitoring the use of authentic materials by students;
- improving the level of linguistic knowledge of students.
- the ability of students to ask for help when completing tasks;
- increasing the interest of students;
- constant communication of the learning process and the students'
- use of new materials from the media and other resources.
4. Active learning:
- students practice assimilated information in communication more than the
- students evaluate their progress in learning and development;
- support for cooperative work with peers;
- discussion with students of the importance of learning the language and the
subject at the same time;
- teachers perform the role of mentors, assistants.
- organization of training based on the knowledge, skills, interests and
experience of students;
- support for different learning methods that students use;
- development of creativity and critical thinking;
- stimulating the exit from the comfort zone.
6. Collaborative activities:
- planning courses/lessons in collaboration with other CLIL teachers;
- involving parents in the CLIL learning process: explaining the program and
ways to support students.
There are several important factors and reviews that must be taken into
consideration when planning an integrated lesson: the teacher should think about
content-area skills and concepts that can associate most effectively with the
language goals, about the language competences that are needed for studying the
content, about the cognitive skills necessary to perform the tasks linked both to the
content and the foreign language, and finally about the potential for integration of
the content with language goals and cultural concepts and goals [55, 7]. It is crucial
to achieve a balance of language, content and culture. As a result, the first step in
planning is associated to choosing the content area. The concepts may come from
any of the academic subjects in the curriculum: science, mathematics, language
arts, social studies, health, music, art, or physical education. The teacher has to
identify which concepts lend themselves best to teaching in English. This decision
can be made in cooperation with the subject teacher or the class teacher who
teaches suitable academic subjects to the class. The later step is choosing a theme
or topic. The theme should be persuasive, interesting and relevant to the learners
and to the teacher. It must be connected to actual or concrete situations and provide
a context for meaningful, authentic discourse and interaction and thus facilitate the
development of appropriate, useful and real-life language functions and
communication modes, and connect to the target culture(s), wherever possible [56,
4]. Moreover, the theme should take into account advancement in learning,
stimulate the use of both higher order thinking skills (e.g. problem solving) and
lower order thinking skills (e. g. remembering and understanding) [57, 76]. These
elements regulate the learning outcomes in the content area.
After having selected the content, the teacher needs to consider
communication and decide language learning and using. Coyle, Hood & Marsh
recommend defining content-obligatory language (e. g. key words, phrases and
grammar), as well as language functions required for the discussions and
performing language tasks. These elements complete the learning outcomes in the
language area. It is now important to make a list of the activities that will promote
achievement of goals and outcomes in the above two areas. The tasks should
address to learners of different learning styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or
tactile, to mention the most prominent ones) and afford the context for real-life
communication. A challenging problem is to make activities communicative,
focused on genuine exchange of information. Information gap activities are
relevant for learners as they give them a reason to think, talk, exchange
information, and use language for practical reasons. Moreover, activities like
games, stories, songs, rhymes, graphing activities, role-plays, dramatizations,
dialogues, and presentations in pair and group work, can easily involve students in
both the content and the language. Activities should ensure the balance of all four
skills, starting with pre-listening or pre-reading activities that prepare students for
listening and reading input, and proceeding with while-listening or while-reading
input activities, building listening or reading skills, and finally engaging speaking
and writing activities. Shin [56, 5] argues that activities should be organized and
‒ varying the task and language skills;
‒ choosing the activities that are the most useful to particular group of learners;
‒ ordering the tasks to mirror the real life application of the tasks;
‒ connecting one activity to the next (from receptive to productive skills);
‒ sequencing the content in order to recycle language and scaffold students’
This stage of planning should also contain listing resources and materials.
The teacher has to make sure, if there are appropriate materials applicable, if any
adaptations or interpretations should be made, and how. If there are not adequate
materials available in English, the teacher has to provide them by seeking the
Internet, translating from native language or designing them alone or with students.
Materials are essential for making the new concepts and new language
comprehensible. This is usually achieved with the use of contextual clues, like
visuals and concrete objects (realia), maintained with concrete, hands-on and
activity-oriented teaching. A wide range of materials (posters, flashcards,
dictionaries, visual or graphic organizers, etc.) that can be provided through ICT
and the Internet, can greatly supply to making the subject content comprehensible.
Subsequently, evaluation should be an integral part of a CLIL lesson. Due to
the fact that CLIL has a dual focus, assessment should combine assessment of
language competences and assessment of content knowledge and thus «account for
the goals and objectives of two different subjects, including knowledge,
competences, skills, attitudes, and behavior, for both language and content» [56,
115]. Therefore, assessment task should be formulated to help learners to show
both the content and language they have learned, with the teacher’s help, if needed.
Massler suggests modifying or varying the assessment tasks, the amount of time
for completing the task, and the amount of scaffolding, and using different
assessment techniques, such as performance-based tasks, portfolios, journals, self
and peer-assessment, and projects [56, 126-127]. Adequate assessment contributes
to success in CLIL and to effectiveness of a CLIL lesson.
A CLIL lesson sets a number of challenges for the teacher. The main
disadvantages of using CLIL are related to teacher competences required to teach
both the content and English and to apply appropriate pedagogical practices
involving problem-solving, negotiations, discussions and classroom management.
Integration of English with content teaching requires teachers to be competent in
another curriculum subject and in English and in their respective pedagogies.
The absence of appropriate CLIL materials and resources can be a serious
challenge in preparing a CLIL lesson. Choosing and adapting content and CLIL
teaching materials can be too time-consuming, while the need to develop materials
can become a big barrier for planning for success.
From the language development point of view, there is in a CLIL lesson a
need to clarify language, give simple and clear instructions when introducing
activities and tasks, and sometimes welcome students’ use of L1 to describe
complex processes or define rather complicated concepts. Learners may be
discouraged by lack of comprehension and incompetence to express them in
However, in spite of all these potential drawbacks and challenges, many
advantages cannot be overlooked. Curtain and Dahlberg conclude that using
content-based instruction in teaching young learners is valuable because it:
1. makes instruction more coherent because the theme creates a meaningful
2. changes the instructional focus from the language itself to the use of language to
manage meaningful goals;
3. offers a natural environment for narrative structure and task-based organization
4. involves learners in real language use in a variety of situations, models and text
5. involves activities or tasks that engage the learners in complex thinking and
more modern use of language, which supports how the brain makes connections
and how learning takes place;
6. prevents the use of isolated exercises with grammatical structures, practiced out
7. associates content, language and culture to a «big idea» (with enduring value
beyond the classroom) [58, 69].
Thus, CLIL as a embodiment of subject didactics opens the possibility of
integrating foreign language learning with content learning with benefits like:
achieving the best results in the shortest time, raising levels of proficiency;
interdisciplinary teaching enhances cognitive processing through problem solving,
facilitates learning by responding to different learning styles, enhances motivation
and involvement of students by providing authenticity of purpose.