1. Describe the principles of body mechanic
1. Body mechanics
• Definition of body mechanic
• Concept of body mechanic
• Principles of body mechanics
• Advantages of using proper body mechanics
use of the body in an efficient way to prevent injury .
The arrangement of the body and its limbs
Base of support
The area beneath and between both feet
Concept of Body Mechanic
• It is important to select and apply techniques that will, in some
situations, reduce the adverse effects of gravity or friction, or in other
situations, enhance the positive effects of these two forces to reduce
expenditure of energy, avoid undue stress or strain to body systems, and
maintain control of your body.
To maintain good balance
Reduce energy required
Purpose Avoid excessive fatique
Avoid muscle strain or Tear
Avoid skeletal injuries
Loss of range of motion and normal mobility.
Fatigue in the lower back or in the neck and shoulders.
Poor posture Chronic muscle tension, cramping and “knots.”
can lead to: Imbalance between the left and right or front and back of the body.
Pain, headaches, nerve irritation, disc injuries, and numbness or
tingling in the arms or legs.
Structural and physical changes to the spinal bones or vertebrae.
Reduced respiration and altered internal organ function.
Principles of Body
01 02 03
The wider the base The Lower the centre Dividing balanced
of support the of Gravity , the activity between
greater the stability . greater the stability. arms and leg reduces
the risk of back
• perch at the edge of your chair
• move your feet and knees just beyond shoulder width and turn the feet slightly outwards
• lift the sternum slightly
• tuck your chin in and look straight ahead
Sitting : Let
• let your arms hang by your sides and roll your arms out with palms facing forward
• breathe in deeply with the belly and as you exhale roll the arms and hands further
outwards so they are now facing away from the body
• repeat for 5 full breaths and let go
• practice this position for every 30 minutes of sitting
Feet should be shoulder width apart
Lift the sternum up and out
Contract the abdomen by lightly pulling in belly button towards the spine
Tuck your chin just a little down, look forward, and pull the head mildly backwards
Let your arms hang by your sides and roll your arms out with palms facing forward
Take nice relaxed, but deep breaths with your belly
As you exhale roll your palms further outwards so they are facing away from your body
Repeat for 5 full breaths and repeat hourly or very frequently over the day
lower our body to
the ground, from a
with a pararellel feet.
Similar to the squat, place
1 leg infront and lower
body to the ground.
Bend legs until the back
knee almost touch the
Sleep straight and keep
spine in neutral position.
Choose firm mattress or
suitable mattress to follow
individual body shape and
• Stand up straight with feet
together a comfortable space
apart. toes should be pointed
forward, but if a slight angle is
• Do not lean forward or backward.
• Don't arch your back.
• Suck in your stomach slightly,
engaging your core muscles
• maintain proper posture
• Tuck in your buttocks by rotating
your hip slightly forward. chin
parallel to the ground. Avoid
arching your back or leaning
• Focus your eyes 20 feet ahead
• Shrug your shoulders and let them
relax, with your shoulders slightly
➢ relieve the tension on
shouldersand will set the
position for using arm
Ascending and Descending
• The higher demands of stair negotiation therefore requires
greater knee extensor strength than walking
➢can lead to fatigue and instability if the additional
muscle force required begins to approach the
maximum strength available
• Straight trunk
• Hand straight down while 1
hip and knee is in flexion
➢ Bending that may cause
body central gravity
➢ any rotation of hip joint
that may cause
Bending and turning
• Upper arm should be in
adduction position to the
• During bending, keep back
upright and straight and
shoulder blades pinched
• Bend only the knees and
hip, do not bend at the
Bending and turning
• Do not bend forward at the waist.
Instead, keep your core engaged,
remaining erect and straight-backed.
• Extend the vacuum, stepping forward
with one foot and slightly bending at
• keep the forward knee from bending
too far from your body, placing strain
on the knee
• continue to move pushing, shift your weight
from the front leg to back leg in a gentle,
• Keep shoulder blades engaged to keep from
accidentally straining at neck.
• Always keep knees and chest facing at front. Do
not twist and turn - can injure knees, lower
back, and neck.
• Push objects rather than pull them
• Support at back with 1 hand
• Place hand behind your
back or on thight
➢This protects the spine
from injury caused by
Getting into bed
• When lying on your side in
bed, use one pillow
between your knees and
one under your head to
keep your spine aligned and
increase your comfort.
• When lying on your back in
bed, use one or two pillows
under your knees and one
under your head.
Getting into bed
• Try to avoid using extra
pillows to prop your head
and upper back since this
will put you into a rounded
upper back position.
• But, if you have a rounded
upper back posture with a
forward head, you may
need two pillows to support
your neck comfortably.
Getting out bed
• Keep both arms in front of you.
• Pull your abdomen in and breathe as
you roll onto your side.
• Keep your abdomen pulled in and use
your hand to raise your upper body as
you carefully place your legs over the
side of the bed in one motion.
• Sit on the edge of the bed for a moment
or two before you stand up.
• When on your back, never lift your head
and upper back to sit up in bed or get
out of bed.
Keep back straight
Reach with two hands
Face the object
an object: Stand on a stable step-stool to reach high items
Bend knees slightly
Raising one leg to step over an obstacle or on to
the higher elevation such as a platform or stairs .
Do Do not:
Overreach by standing on toes
Reaching for Reach Reach with one hand
Twist Twist at your waist §
Stand on Stand on an unsafe surface
Reach Reach with legs locked in a straight position
USING BODY MECHANICS
THE IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVITY
Increases Maintains Body Improves Prevents
Muscle Respiratory Pooling Of Fluid
Strength Flexibility Function In The Lungs
Improves Helps Maintain
Circulation Healthy Skin Effective Aids Digestion
COMPLICATIONS OF BEDREST
• Everybody system is affected
• An abnormal shortening of the muscle due to
lack of use.
• The muscle is fixed into position, is deformed,
and cannot stretch.
• The person with a contracture is permanently
• Atrophy – a decrease in size or a wasting
away of muscle tissue.
• Caused by lack of use
A breakdown in skin tissue
that occurs when blood
flow to an area is
USING Using the body in an efficient and careful way.
USING Using good posture and balance
USING Using the strongest and largest muscles for work
• The area on which an
• A good base of support is
needed for balance when
• Your feet are your base of
• Stand with your feet apart
for a wider base of
support and more balance