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Close-up Form 3 English txtbook

KSSM ENGLISH FORM 3 TEXTBOOK

Keywords: CLOSE UP

1 2 . The Body Beautiful

A Match the parts of the body a-j with the w ords below.

1 ankle □
2 calf □
3 chest □
4 elbow □
5 forehead □
6 hip □
7 shoulder □
8 stomach □
9 thigh □
1 0 thumb □

В Read these amazing facts about the human body and choose the correct answers.

A man's contains between 7,000 and 15,000 hairs. 5 When you're angry, your pressure rises.
a chest
b beard с eyelid a blood b water с sweat

On average, a person 15,000 times a day. 6 50% more males than females are _ .

a blinks b laughs с cries a left b left-handed с handed

The human is used for pronunciation as well as 7 T h e in the heart work involuntarily. This means
tasting food, you don't have to think about using them.

a neck b cheek с tongue a muscles b bones с cells

It's impossible to _ and keep your eyes open. 8 On average, a person 23,000 times a day. j

sneeze b cough yawn sighs b breathes с bites

С Com plete the text with these words.

confident ears eyebrows features personality shy successful thin

W hat's in a face? I

It is said that the eyes are the window of the soul, but did you know that
according to the ancient Chinese art of face reading, all your facial
(1 ) _____________________reveal secrets about your (2 ) ______________________ ?

In this ancient art, all parts of the face give an experienced 'reader'
information. Large eyes indicate that you are generous, while long, thick
(3 ) above the eyes indicate that you are very wise.
Large, flat (4 )_______________________ show that you are a good listener, and
the type of mouth you have says a lot about your ability to communicate.
A large mouth shows that you are probably loud and (5)
when you speak, whereas a small mouth shows that you may be quiet and
( 6 ) _______________________ If your lips are large and thick, this indicates that
you are honest and loyal. However, if your lips are small and
(7) _______________________ , don't despair! This means that you will be
( 8 ) _______________________ later in life.

О Ideas Focus Do you believe what is being suggested in C? Why? /Why not?j

If you can dream it, you can do it.' Walt Disney. Do you agree
with this statement? Why? / Why not?

150

гш ки й г

■Adjectives Adverbs

I A Read and underline the adjectives in the sentences. D A d verbs give us information about how, where,

when, how often and to what degree something

I My mum has a beautiful red Italian car. happens. Look at these sentences and the

I What a horrible huge straw hat! adverbs in bold and answer the questions below.

| Jenny gave me a gorgeous white woollen scarf.

The little boy wrote his name carefully.

IB Read the sentences in A again and answer the Our PE teacher left yesterday.
questions. My grandad is quite fit.
I often go to the gym opposite my house.
1 Which adjectives describe opinion?
Which adverb is used to answer the question
and

1 how?

2 Which adjectives describe colour? 2 where? -----------------
I ___________________ and 3 when? -----------------

3 Which adjective describes origin? 4 how often?

4 Which adjective describes size? 5 to what degree? -----------------

So & Such

5 Which adjectives describe material? E W e use so and such for emphasis. Look at these
I ___________________an d ___________
sentences and answer the questions below.

Ь Do adjectives of opinion come before or after other Looking after your health is so important.
kinds of adjectives? Oranges are such a good source of vitamin C.

|C Read the sentences and com plete the rule below 1 What part of speech follows so?
by choosing the correct endings. 2 What parts of speech follow such?

a Basketball is a very tiring sport.
b They're tired because they've been playing basketball.

I Adjectives that end in - ing / -ed describe the effect О Grammar Focus pp.172 & 173 (12.1 to 12.6)
■omething can have on someone. Adjectives that end
I in ing / -e d describe how someone feels.

f Complete the sentences with the adjectives in brackets.

1 Julie has________________________________________hair, (blonde / lovely / short)

2 Lisa bought som e________________________________________ boots. (Italian / leather / new)

3 I saw a(n)_______________________________________ statue, (amazing / huge / marble)

4 What a(n)_______________________________________ ring! (diamond / expensive / pink)

5 We sat around th e table, (large / round / wooden)

IG Complete the sentences with the pairs of H Circle the correct words.

words given. 1 I always brush / brush always my hair before I go to

amazed/amazing bored/boring excited/exciting school.

interested/interesting 2 My little sister is too / enough short to go on the

1 Medicine is a(n)____________________ subject to study. rollercoaster.

Mandy is ____________________ in becoming a doctor. 3 This book is almost / very never read.

2 Riding a rollercoaster is____________________ 4 The doctor told my father not to work such / so hard.

The children a re ____________________ because they 5 Peggy goes on Saturdays to the gym / to the gym on
are going to the funfair today. Saturdays.

3 I think watching tennis is ____________________ I'd 6 People usually are / are usually at home at the weekend
much rather play it.
7 W e should all exercise and eat healthily / healthily eat.
I'm J What can I do?
8 The seminar was such a / so success that it will be held
4 The human body is_____________________ It can do again next year.
so many things.

Janet w as-----------------when her brother
learnt to ride a bike in half an hour.

151

The Body Beautiful

L 'lS + e t iin ^ Exam

A W here on the body are each of these things found? Keeping calm
W rite L (leg), A (arm) or H (head).
• It's important to try and keep calm in the exam
ankle □ knee □ - getting nervous will make it more difficult for
calf □ shoulder □ you to understand the listening.
chin □ thumb □
ear □ tongue □ • Try to focus on each question and underline the
elbow □ key words in the questions before you listen.

В Ж Э Т Listen to four speakers and circle the body • As you listen, look at the pictures carefully and
take notes. Write down any key information you
part they are describing. hear.

1 a ankle b neck с elbow You will have time to read your notes and the
2 a calf b hip с neck questions again, so don't worry if you can't
3 a toes b fingers с hands answer all the questions the first time you listen.
4 a ears b eyes с legs

С 12.2Д] Read the Exam C lose -u p and then com plete the Exam Task. Exam Те
Rem ember to focus on each question and write notes while you listen.

There are six questions in this part. For each question, there are three pictures and a short recording. Circle the correct
answer a, b, or c.

1 What activity do the friends decide to do? 5 Which part of her body did the woman hurt?

ЕГ

2 When will the man leave hospital? 6 What does the man decide to buy?

ajMARCH E MARCH _c] MARCH

1U 43 4 5 6 7 121 3 4 5 6 7 12 34567
0у 11 12 13 14 8 10 11 12 13 14
8 П 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21
15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 16 17 18 19 20 2 } 29 30 31

29 30 3 l| n22 23 2S 24 Г27 28

29 30 31

3 How does the girl think she hurt her shoulder?

Г

D I Q4 Which picture shows the boy's uncle? [Electrodes are used to measure the brain
activity of a meditating Buddhist monk, Dru-gu
D K I D Listen again and check your answers. Choegyal Rinpoche - according to scientist
Richard Davidson, one monk they studied was
152 proven to be 'the happiest man in the world’.

ip e d k fu itf)

Work with a partner and answer these questions.

• Do you ever feel tired or lack energy? Why do you think that is?
• Do you enjoy physical activity or would you rather watch TV or use a tablet or computer?

P Look at the list of ideas related to caring for your body. Put a tick (/ ) next to the ones
which are good for you and a cross (X) next to the ones which are bad. Com pare with a partner.

1 watching a lot of TV □ 5 drinking lots of water □
2 eating lots of fruits and vegetables >
3 exercising three or more times a week Q 6 sleeping for five hours a night
4 brushing your teeth three times a day |J
7 eating fast food

8 riding your bike to school orwork [

К Work with a partner. Student A, describes photo 1 and Student B,
describes photo 2. Rem em ber to listen to each other's descriptions.

Interacting with your partner

• Remember to listen carefully to the instructions
before you start.

• When you are asked to talk about a topic with
your partner, make sure you interact with him or
her.

• Ask his or her opinion on the topic and react to
the answers.

• Say if you agree or not and give your reasons.

• It's a good idea to ask your partner questions
to get more information and to keep the
conversation going.

Useful Expressions L

Talking about health and fitness
So, what do you do to stay healthy?
Do you do anything special to stay fit and healthy?
How often do you do exercise / go to the gym?
Do you go swimming / play any sports?
Do you think it's important to ... ? Why?
Do you have enough time to ... ? Why not?

wand Read the Exam Close-up. Then listen to the instructions for

the Exam Task. W h a t do you have to d o ?

E Work with a partner and com plete the last part of the Ex am Task.
Use the U sefu l Exp ression s to help you.

Why is it important for us to look after our bodies? Ideas Focus
Do you think people in your country have a healthy diet?
Why? / Why not?

153

12 The Body Beautiful

M o o a ^ iA 1йгц I
Phrasal verbs

A In the following exercise, tw o of the options given are used with each verb in bold to make a phrasal verfa

For each question, cross out the option that cannot be used with the verb in bold.

1 back: away / over / out of 4 run: out of / over / of

2 hand: over / against / out 5 think: over / around / up

3 head: together / for / off 6 stand: out / in / across

В Com plete sentences 1-12 with w ords from A.

1 If you run ___ breath, stop exercising until you feel better.

2 They started to back as soon as the smell hit them.

3 I'm going to head now. I've got a dentist's appointment soon.

4 knew Jenny would back coming jogging with me. She hates it!

5 need a new haircut that will make me stand

6 You aren't allowed mobile phones in class. Hand it ____________________

7 Paul got run____________________ by a car last week! He's got a broken arm and a bruised hip.

8 If you h ead the DVD shop, I'll catch you up in five minutes.

9 They had to get another biology teacher to stand ____________________ for ours when she was off sick.

10 I'm trying to think____________________ an easy way to lose weight.

11 Could you do me a favour and hand these leaflets about my hair salon?

12 Please think_______________ my proposals for the beauty salon. I think they'll improve business.

Com plete the sets of sentences with the correct form of the
phrasal verbs from A.

If you come across an angry d o g ,____________________ from it slowly.

You can't____________________ our deal; we shook hands on it!

Can you help me some ways to plan the party without
Mum knowing about it?

Let's____________________ her offer to help before we make a decision.

Where is John going? It looks like he's____________________the park.

Well, I think we'd better____________________ now or we'll be late for
the meeting.

The race was nearly over and many of the runners had
___________________ breath.

Don't ride your bike in the road! You'll g e t _____
by a car.

5 a She had gorgeous long blonde hair which really made her
___________________ in a crowd.

Our biology teacher was off sick, so the PE teacher had to
___________________ for her.

6 a Stop right there, thief!________ the stolen money or
we'll shoot!

There's a man on the corner_________ leaflets for the
new museum.

( Do you like to stand out in crowd? Why? / Why not?
Do you think you are good at thinking up new ideas?
Ideas Focus W hy? / Why not?

Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs Com plete the second sentences so that they have
a similar meaning to the first sentences. Use the
|A Look at these sentences and answer the w ords in bold.
questions below.
a Grandad's moustache is the longest I have ever 1 Mum and Dad go to bed at midnight. I go to bed at
seen. ten o'clock, late
b Paul's feet are bigger than his father's feet,
с My classmate James complains the most in our I don't go to b e d ------------------
[ class. Mum and Dad.
d Steven wakes up earlier than the rest of his family.
2 Cathy's hair reaches her waist. My hair is shoulder-
1 Which sentences contain the comparative form? length. than
□ and[
My hair ------------------------ Cathy's.
2 Which sentences contain the superlative form?
Zand; ; 3 I try hard to do well at school. My best friend doesn't

В Look at these sentences and answer the try hard enough, harder

questions below. I ______________________________ my best friend to do
a My brother isn't as tall as Dad. well at school.
b Lucy can run as fast as Beth.
4 Both Melinda and I run for two kilometres every
1 In sentence a, who is the tallest? _____________
2 In sentence b, can Beth run faster than Lucy? morning, far

|C Complete the rules. Melinda runs I do
every morning.
We use _ ___________ + adjective/adverb +
toshowthat two people or things are similar in some 5 I haven't seen a better documentary than the one
[way. When they are not similar, we can use about the human body, the
I as/so+adjective/adverb + as.
The documentary about the human body was
О Grammar Focus p.173 (12.7 & 12.8) ______________________________ I have ever seen.

6 Kelly takes less time to solve maths problems than
the rest of the class, quickly

Kelly solves maths problems________________________
the rest of the class.

7 I can see better than my grandma, well

My grandma can't s e e _____________________________
as I can.

Mum says that nobody sings as beautifully as I do.
most

Mum says that I sinq_____________________________
of all.

E Com plete the text with these words.

longest many more most sm aller smallest

Our skeleton

ЩГ The human skeleton is amazing. Some of its many functions include enabling us
to move, supporting and protecting our internal organs and producing blood
If i cells.

I Not surprisingly, the bones of children and young teenagers are
(1) ____________________ than those of adults. However, babies have
v* (2) ____________________ bones than adults. A baby is born with about 300
bones. As it grows, some bones join together. An adult skeleton has 206
bones and half of them are in the hands and feet. However, the foot doesn't
have as (3 )____________________ bones as the hand; it has one less.

Bones have different shapes and functions. Some bones are flat, others are
long or short and others are irregular in shape. The thighbone is the
(4 ) and strongest bone of the human skeleton, whereas
the (5 )____________________ bone in our body is found in the ear. It is only 2.8
mm long.

Even though bones are strong and tough, they can break. Did you know
that the collar bone breaks the (6 ) ____________________ easily? Luckily for
us, bones are made of living cells. When a bone breaks, lots of new cells are
produced to rebuild it.

155

12 The Body Beautiful

W n - H v u ): a d m v n a T w s+ o r^

Learning F o c u s жз

Making stories more interesting fjcr■ t // Ai

There are several ways to make your stories interesting. Ш к. C

• Interesting stories start with a dramatic opening sentence, which
will make the reader want to read on.

• Descriptive adjectives and adverbs help the reader to imagine the
characters and the action.

• You can also use some idiomatic expressions to make your writing
more colourful.

• Direct speech and short dramatic sentences in places add variety
and drama.

• Introducing a twist in the story in which something unexpected
happens can add suspense.

• Finally, an interesting ending to the story is also important.

Match the ways of making your story more interesting 1-8
with the examples a-h.

descriptive adjectives I Unfortunately, the two cousins have never seen eye to eye.
dramatic opening sentence [j 'Please don't leave me! I promise I won't hurt you again,' she said.
descriptive adverbs | Today was the day when Hannah was going to meet her sister
direct speech for the first time.
idiomatic expressions [j He jumped quickly out of bed, rushed downstairs and opened the
short, dramatic sentence j door nervously.
a twist in the story | Like most teenagers, Hannah was independent and not very communicativ
8 an interesting ending He left the building with tears in his eyes. That part of his life was over.
They had always been a loving family, but one day something happened
В Read the writing task below and change that forever.
He stopped and stared.
then answer the questions about
it in your notebook.

Your teacher has asked you to Sa lly w a y e x tr e m e ly n e rvo u s. I f W as th e ir tun
write a story. Your story must to d a n c e . S a lly b re a th e d d e e p ly w h ile fAaddу
begin with this sentence. VJas c o m p le te ly re la x e d . ‘C o m e o n !' said :
Sally was extremely nervous. tAaddy. ‘W eVe g o tto W in!'
(100 words)
M a d d y and Sally m e t a t d a n ce class a year
1 How will your story start? a 9o. T h e y q u ic k ly d is c o v e re d t h e y h a d a lot и
2 How does Sally feel? co m m o n . W h e n t h e ir t e a c h e r e n te re d them i
3 Do you have to explain why she a c o m p e titio n th e y W ere v e ry excited.

feels this way in the story? T h is iwas t h e i r Ц c h a n c e . W o W e ve r, w hen the
nnusic s ta rte d Sally froze. tA ad d y Was anyry
С Read the example story and b u t c a rrie d on. W hen th e m usic stopped,
fA a d d y h e a d e d f o r t h e d oo r. S a lly k n e w she
underline techniques from A that h a d le t rA add y doW n. W o rs t o f all, she had
make the story more interesting. lost a friend.

156

Read the example story again and answer the
questions.

1 Why does Sally feel nervous?
2 Where did Maddy and Sally meet?
3 How did the girls react when their teacher

told them about the competition?
4 Which girl does something disappointing?
5 How does the other girl react?

P Match to com plete the plan for the exam ple story.

a Give background details about the characters'
relationship.

b Set the scene and introduce the main characters,

с Introduce a twist in the story and bring the story

to an end. □
Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

|F Look at the U seful E xpressions and choose the
correct answers.

1 She was relieved to see that everyone looked very

a suspicious b embarrassing с friendly

Can I give you _ with your suitcases?

a a hand b an eye с an arm

3 I don't find it easy t o on with new people.

a see eye to eye b respect с get

4 We don't have a lot in .

a trust b friendship с common

5 The two brothers grew when they left home.

a apart b out с up for

|G Read the Exam C lose-up. Then read the Exam Task
below and make a paragraph plan.

Exam Useful Expressions

Leaving enough time Relationships
friendship
• In the exam, remember to leave yourself enough stranger
time to write the story. trust
(not) have a lot in common
• Try to decide quickly which question to do and then make friends with
make a plan thinking of ideas and useful expressions get on
for each paragraph. give someone a hand
grow apart
• Leave a few minutes to check your writing at the end. help someone out
щшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшшяшшшшшшшшшшшяяшшшшшшшшшшшшш let someone down
see eye to eye
II H Com plete the Exam Task. Rem em ber to include embarrassing
techniques to make your story more interesting and friendly
to leave time at the end to check your writing. suspicious
rely on
Exam Task respect

Your teacher has asked you to write a dramatic
story. Your story must begin with this sentence.
Alex was the best friend anyone could have.
( 1 0 0 words)

157

1 2 - l t o c W le W io rv j W U h

Before you watch
A How much do you know about the human brain? Look at the statements

below and w rite T (True) or F (False).
1 The brain is the most complex organ in the body.
2 Our brain sleeps when we sleep.
3 The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa. | |

While you watch
В W atch the video and circle the words you hear.

1 The young Italian man calls it 'the art / ability of memory'.
2 It's a kind of memory that is connects / connected to what I see.
3 Gianni has a very special kind of gene / memory.
4 Researchers are now studying how memory and learning / knowledge change the brain.
5 He practises continuously to increase / improve the power of his memory.
6 If there is a memory gene, Gianni Golfera probably / definitely has it.

After you watch
С Com plete the summary of the video b elow using these words.

correctly genes information memorised memory

Gianni Golfera is a man with a wonderful 610542 584 5Ш

(1) He can remember a lot

of (2)_____________________ In one experiment,

people choose 60 numbers and someone reads

the (3)____________________ to Golfera, who is

blindfolded. Then, after hearing them only once,

Golfera says the numbers

(4 )___________________ from memory. After that,

he says the numbers again, backwards this time.

And again, he does it perfectly. Golfera has

(5 ) over 250 books and he can

remember every detail of every day of his life.

Doctors (6) why he has such a

great memory. Is it because he received good

memory (7) from his family?

Or is it the (8 ) of a lot of

practice? Whatever the reason, Golfera is making

good use of it. He teaches classes that help people

'remember to remember'.

Ideas Focus Do you think it's important to study how the brain 'works'?
Why / Why not
Do you have a good memory? Why? / Why not?

U nits 11 & 12

A Circle the correct words.

1 I hope to graduate / pass from university this year.
2 Did you know that an adult's body consists of 212 bones / eyelids?
3 Jamie has been trying harder at school and has done / made progress.
4 The students found the lecture boring and started to sneeze / yawn.
5 The candidate / examiner was very pleased with how easy her oral examination had been.
6 Private schools usually charge very high grants / fees.
7 She was unhappy and we could hear her breathe / sigh quite often.
8 We are taught many different lessons / subjects at school.
9 The principal had to expel / behave a student who was rude to a teacher.
10 I know you have a busy timetable / schedule, but could we meet on Tuesday?

В Complete the sentences with both phrasal verbs.

1 back away back out
a You promised to help me with my project! You can't----------------------- now!
b The policeman asked people t o ___________________________ from the injured man.

2 head for head off

a Dan w ill___________________________ the library after class to study in peace.
b I think I w ill___________________________ now. I'm late for my biology class.
3 think over think up

a James wanted t o ___________________________ the matter of choosing a college very carefully.
b She had put on a lot of weight and had t o __________________________ a diet plan to slim down.
4 run out of run over

a I was so upset when my cat w as___________________________Fortunately, it survived.
b The teacher has___________________________ patience with the badly-behaved student.
5 stand in stand out

a The actress always wears clothes that make her___________________________ in a crowd.

b Our tutor broke his leg and so his assistant had t o for him.

6 hand out hand over

a The secretary w ill___________________________ the application forms for the course.
b 'OK, John! I think you should___________________________ the purse you stole,' the detective said.

С Complete the sentences with the correct preposition,

about at for from in on out with

1 My mother is very satisfied________ my marks at school this year.

2 My best friend is going to apply_______ a course at the same university as me.

3 I should have concentrated what the teacher was saying rather than daydreaming.

4 Vicky suffers_______ a lack of confidence because of how often her father criticised her.

5 My brother is so goo d _____________ English, people think he is English.

6 Don't worry_______ your dad. He probably got delayed in heavy traffic.

7 There has been a big increase the number of unemployed people this year.

8 Becky helped hand________ food at the shelter for homeless people.

159

СГ ^ U nits 11 & 12

Л'

A Com plete the sentences using the correct form of the causative.

1 The patient_______________________________________________ (his brain / scan) four times since last month.

2 Sammy_______________________________________________ (her hair / cut) since I saw her last.

3 I can't talk to you because I am at the dentist's. I ______________________________________________ (my teeth / clean)
at the moment.

The owners___ (their gym / renovate) next summer.

the college _(its classrooms / paint) every year?

Jane _ (her eyes / test) by 1 0 o'clock yesterday.

you (the photo / frame) after you took it?

8 The university graduate___________________________________________________ (his qualifications / recognise) by the
government last month.

В Com plete the sentences with the gerund or the correct form of the infinitive of the verbs in brackets.

My friend is having difficulty____________________ (cope) with his studies.

Try__________________ _ (look) up unknown words in a dictionary. It's good practice.

The young boy refused (go) to school this morning.

I suggest_____________ (enrol) on an art course this summer.

Helen must (revise) for her exams if she wants to pass.

He went o n _ (talk) for an hour. It was so boring!

I'd rather____ (call) for information on each course than send an email.

David denied (be) rude to his English teacher.

W rite the words in the correct order to make sentences.
1 never / allowed / to choose / have / I / my own clothes / been

2 find / so / children / it / I / that / learn / quickly / things / wonderful

3 human brain / know / scientists / enough / about / the / don't

4 touches / big / my dog's / that / the ground / it / is / stomach / so

5 a prize / interesting / the book / to win / wasn't / enough

6 speak / his uncle / several / fluently / can / languages

7 left / the scientist / the lab / after lunch / quickly

8 ? / blue / horrible / bag / whose / old / this / is / leather

D Com plete the sentences with the correct form of the w ord in brackets.

1 I wish I could sing_____________________________________ (good) my brothers.
2 Our teacher is always_____________________________________ (early) of all the teachers to arrive at school.
3 That is_____________________________________ (bad) painting I have seen in my life!
4 I don't think Jenny is _____________________________________ (pretty) her sisters.
5 That scientist is one o f _____________________________________ (intelligent) people I know.

160

Grammar R eference

M i\+ \ Negative

1.1 Present Simple I am ('m) not playing
he/she/it is not (isn't) playing
Affirmative we/you/they are not (aren't) playing

I l/we/you/they play Questions

;|he/she/it plays Am I playing?
Is he/she/it playing?
Negative Are we/you/they playing?

Bpve/you/they don't play Short Answers
he/she/it doesn't play
Yes, I am. No, I'm not.
Questions Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn't.
Do l/we/you/they play? Yes, we/you/they are. No, we/you/they aren't.
Does he/she/it play?
No, l/we/you/they don't. Spelling: make -» making, swim —►swimming,
Short Answers No, he/she/it doesn't. study -» studying
Yes, l/we/you/they do. W e use the Present Continuous for
Yes, he/she/it does. • actions that are in progress at or around the time of

We use the Present Simple for speaking.
facts or general truths. W e 're w atching a DVD a bo ut elephants.
My grandm other speaks five languages. • actions that are temporary.
routines or habits (often with adverbs of frequency). M y cousin is staying with us this weekend.
My sister always plays volleyball at the weekend. • situations that are changing or developing in the present.
permanent states. Family members are living further and further away
We live in Sevenoaks. from each other.
timetabled events in the future. • an annoying habit (often with always, continually,
The film starts at 8 o'clock in the evening. constantly and forever).
M y b ro th e r is forever complaining about his homework.
• plans and arrangements for the future.
W e 're visiting my aunt this Saturday.

Note: Some common time expressions that are often Note: Some common time expressions that are often used
used with the Present Simple are every d ay/w e ek/m o nth / with the Present Continuous are at the m oment, now, fo r
summer, every other day, once a week, twice a m onth, the tim e being, this m orning/afternoon/evening/week/
atthe weekend, in January, in the m o rnin g/a fte rno on / m onth/year, today, etc.
evening, at night, on Tuesdays, on Friday mornings, etc. Jenny is g e ttin g m arried in Decem ber.
Jane visits her m other tw ice a week.

1.2 Adverbs of frequency 1.4 Stative Verbs

We use adverbs of frequency to say how often something Some verbs are not usually used in continuous tenses. They
are called stative because they describe states and not
lappens. They come before the main verb, but after the actions. To talk about the present, we use these verbs in
the Present Simple tense. The most common of these are:
verb be. • verbs of emotion: hate, like, love, need, prefer, want.

Jeremy is often tire d in the m orning. Jane loves her new house.
• verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste.
Susan rarely argues with her brother.
This soup tastes delicious.
Mum always makes our birthday cakes. • verbs which express a state of mind: believe, doubt,

Some common adverbs of frequency are: forget, imagine, know, remember, seem, suppose,
think, understand.
always (most often) I think that's a great idea!
• verbs of possession: belong to, have, own, possess.
usually This flat belongs to my aunt.
• other verbs: be, consist, contain, cost, include, mean.
often Those curtains cost a fortune.

sometimes Some verbs can be both stative verbs and action verbs, but
with a different meaning. The most common of these verbs are:
rarely/hardly ever/seldom • be

never (least often) John is very honest, (usual behaviour)
Ken is being very rude, (at the moment; not his normal
1.3 Present Continuous behaviour)

Affirmative 161

I am ('m) playing
he/she/it is ('s) playing
we/you/they are ('re) playing

Gram m ar Reference

• expect 1.6 Uncountable Nouns
I e xp e ct you enjoyed yo ur holiday, (expect = think or
believe) Some nouns are uncountable. They do not have plural
I'm e xp e ctin g a le tte r from m y grandma, (expect = wait
for) forms.

• have advice history progress
Lucy has a lovely house, (have = own/possess)
Susan's having a g re a t tim e at her cousin's house! cheese homework research
(have = experience)
Gerty's having lunch with her parents today, (have = chocolate in fo rm a tio n rubbish
eating)
equipm ent knowledge salt
• look
She looks like her m other, (look like = resemble) food luggage tim e
A re yo u lo o kin g fo r yo ur keys? (look = search)
fruit milk traffic
• taste
This soup tastes horrible! (taste = have a particular fun money water
flavour)
Why are yo u ta stin g the sauce? (taste = test the furniture music weather
flavour)
We don't use a or an with uncountable nouns. We can use
• think some and any.
I th in k you're m ad! (think = have an opinion) I'd like some cheese in my sandwich.
Jenny's th in kin g o f g oing to France, (think = consider) Have you g o t any homework tonight?

• see W e always use singular verb forms with uncountable nouns
'My uncle Paul is my mum's b ro th e r.' ’Oh, I see.' (see =
understand) This fruit is so delicious.
'I'm seeing W endy to m o rro w evening.' (see = meet) M ilk is g o o d fo r you.

• smell Note: Some uncountable nouns end in -s. Remember to
These flowers sm ell w onderful, (smell = have a use a singular verb form with them
particular smell) The news isn 't good.
Why are you sm elling the milk? (smell = action of M aths is my favourite subject.
smelling)
W e can use phrases describing quantity with uncountable
• weigh
Jill w eighs 48 kg. (weigh = have a particular weight) nouns to say how much we have. The most common of I
I'm w e ig h in g my suitcase to see how heavy it is. (weigh
= measure the weight) these phrases are:

• a bag o f • a jar o f

• a bottle o f • a kilo o f

• a bowl of • a loaf o f

• a can o f • a number of

• a carton o f • a packet of

• a cup of • a piece o f

• a glass o f • a tin o f

A bowl o f soup
A glass o f w ater

1.5 Countable Nouns 1.7 Quantifiers

Most nouns are countable and have singular and plural W e use some with both uncountable and plural countable
nouns in affirmative sentences and in requests or offers.]
forms. leaf —* leaves Here are some books for your research.
sister —►sisters Can you give me some advice?
W ould you like some chocolate?
family —* families child -» children
to y —>toys woman —>women

tom ato - » tomatoes fo o t —» feet W e use any with both uncountable and plural countable
nouns in negative sentences and in questions.
We usually use a or an with singular countable nouns. D id Julia buy any fru it at the market?
a wedding Sarah hasn't g o t any brothers.
an opinion

We can use some, any or a number (eg three) with plural W e use a lo t/lo ts o f with both uncountable and plural I
countable nouns. countable nouns.
There are some birds in the park. There's a lo t/lo ts o f tra ffic today.
Are there any biscuits? There are a lo t/lo ts o f p e o p le in town.
W e're m oving house in th re e weeks.
We use a little with uncountable nouns and a few with I
We use singular or plural verb forms with countable nouns plural countable nouns in affirmative sentences.
depending on whether we are talking about one or more I like a little m ilk in my tea.
items. James always eats a fe w biscuits fo r breakfast.
A family g e t-to g e th e r is ju st what we need.
My sisters live in Hull. W e use much with uncountable nouns and many with plura
countable nouns in negative sentences and in questions.
Note: Some countable nouns don't end in -s. Remember There wasn't much snow last night.
to use a plural verb form with them. Have many o f y o u r friends seen that film?
Children are sometimes unkind.
His feet are very big!

162

Mm+Ъ Mum was m aking hamburgers fo r us at 7 o'clock last
night.
2.1 Past Simple • two or more actions that were in progress at the same
time in the past.
Affirmative I was co oking while my bro the r was w atching TV.
l/he/she/it/we/you/they cooked • giving background information in a story.
The sun was shining and the children w ere playing
Negative outside when suddenly there was a loud bang.
l/he/she/it/we/you/they didn't cook • an action that was in progress in the past that was
interrupted by another.
Questions We w ere g e ttin g ready to have dinner when the
Did l/he/she/it/we/you/they cook? doorbell rang.

Short Answers No, l/he/she/it didn't. Note: Some common time expressions that are often
No, we/you/they didn't. used with the Past Continuous are while, as, all day/w eek/
Yes, l/he/she/it did. month/year, at ten o'clock last night, last Sunday/week/
Yes, we/you/they did. year, this m orning, etc.
M ario was w orking all n ight y e ste rd a y
Spelling: dance -» danced, travel - »travelled,
tidy -»tidied, play -» played 2.3 Used To & W ould

Note: Some verbs are irregular and do not follow these W e use used to + bare infinitive for
spelling rules. See a list of irregular verbs on • actions that we did regularly in the past, but that we
I pages 174 & 175.
don't do now.
We use the Past Simple for Our family used to p ro d u ce olive oil when I was young.
• something that started and finished in the past. • states that existed in the past, but that don't exist now.
I used to love eating out but now I prefer cooking at
John made some coffee a few minutes ago. home.
• past routines and habits (often with adverbs of
W e use w ould + bare infinitive for actions that we did
frequency). regularly in the past, but that we don't do now. W e don't
Sue never ate fast fo o d at school. use it for past states.
• actions that happened one after the other in the past, Their mother w ould cook something special at the
| for example when telling a story. weekends.
We w ent to the park and had a picnic.
2.4 Be Used To & G et Used To
Note: Some common time expressions that are often
used with the Past Simple are yesterday, last n ig h t/w e e k/ W e use be used to + gerund/noun to talk about
month/summer, a w eek/m onth/year ago, twice a week, something that is usual or familiar.
once a month, at the weekend, in March, in the m ornin g/ Her daughter is used to e atin g late at night.
afternoon/evening, at night, on Thursdays, on M onday
mornings, etc. W e use g e t used to + gerund/noun to talk about the
The farmer harvested the olives last week. process of something becoming familiar.
I am g e ttin g used to salty food. I d o n 't m ind it.
2.2 Past Continuous
Note: Be and g e t change depending on the tense that is
Affirmative needed in the context.
He's used to w aking up early.
l/he/she/it was cooking Julie has never g o t used to eating a lo t o f olive oil.
we/you/they were cooxing
Wh»+ ? ?
Negative
3.1 Present Perfect Simple
l/he/she/it was not (wasn't) cooking
we/you/they were not (weren't) cooking Affirmative

Questions l/we/you/they have ('ve) seen
he/she/it has ('s) seen
Was l/he/she/it cooking?
Were we/you/they cooking? Negative

Short Answers l/we/you/they have not (haven't) seen
he/she/it has not (hasn't) seen
Yes, l/he/she/it was.
Yes, we/you/they were. No, l/he/she/it wasn't. Questions
No, we/you/they weren't.
Have l/we/you/they seen?
Spelling: write —* writing, travel —►travelling, Has he/she/it seen?
tidy -»tidying
Short Answers

We use the Past Continuous for Yes, l/we/you/they have. No, l/we/you/they haven't.
• actions that were in progress at a specific time in the past. Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/sne/it hasn't.

163

Grammar Reference

Spelling: walk —►walked, dance -> danced, 3.5 Present Perfect Continuous
travel —» travelled, tidy •*tidied, play —* played
Affirmative
Note: Some verbs are irregular and do not follow these
spelling rules. See a list of irregular verbs on l/we/you/they have ('ve) been seeing
pages 174 & 175. he/she/it has ('s) been seeing

W e use the Present Perfect Simple for Negative
• something that started in the past and has continued
l/we/you/they have not (haven't) been seeing
until now. he/she/it has not (hasn't) been seeing
That scientist has studied global warming since 2001.
• something that happened in the past, but we don't Questions
know or we don't say exactly when.
Biologists have found new marine species. Have l/we/you/they been seeing?
• something that happened in the past and has a result Has he/she/it been seeing?
that affects the present.
Pollution has endangered the survival o f many animals. Short Answers No, l/we/you/they
• actions that have just finished. haven't.
The museum has ju st closed for the day. Yes, l/we/you/they have. No, he/she/it hasn't.
• experiences and achievements. Yes, he/she/it has.
Lynda has travelled to many countries.
Spelling: make —►making, swim swimming,
Note: Some common time expressions that are often study ->studying
used with the Present Perfect Simple are already, ever,
for, fo r a long time/ages, just, never, once, recently, since W e use the Present Perfect Continuous
2007/June, so far, twice, three times, until now, yet, etc. • for actions that started in the past and are still in
Mary has lived in this house since 2003.
progress now or have happened repeatedly until now.
3.2 Have Been & Have Gone The team o f biologists has been searching for new
species in the Amazon.
Notice the difference between have been and have gone. • for actions that happened repeatedly in the past and
have been = someone has gone somewhere and has now have finished recently, but that have results that affect I
returned the present.
I have been to that natural history museum. It's great,
have gone = someone has gone somewhere and is still M y eyes hurt because I have been w orking on the
there com puter fo r hours.
M um is n ot here. She's gone to work. • to emphasise how long actions have been in progress
for.
3.3 Ago, For & Since
Her b ro the r has been researching global warming fors
W e often use ago with the Past Simple, and for and since decade.
with the Present Perfect Simple.
Note: Some common time expressions that are often
W e use ago at the end of a sentence with the Past Simple. used with the Present Perfect Continuous are all day/
He w ent to a conference a m onth ago. night/w eek, fo r years/a long tim e/ages, lately, recently,
since. W e can use How long ...? with the Present Perfect I
W e use fo r with an expression that shows a period of time Continuous in questions and fo r (very) long in questions
at the end of a sentence with the Present Perfect Simple. and negative sentences.
The Tasmanian W o lf has been extinct fo r a bo ut 50 years. We have been going on holiday to a tropical island for ages, j
H ow lon g has Bob been working in this lab?
W e use since with a point of time in the past at the end of I haven't been researching coral reefs fo r very long. It's
a sentence with the Present Perfect Simple.
The D odo b ird has been extinct since 1681. only been tw o months.

3.4 Present Perfect Simple & Past Simple 3.6 Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect
Continuous
W e use the Present Perfect Simple when we talk about
something that happened in the past and has a result W e use the Present Perfect Simple to talk about
that affects the present. W e also use the Present Perfect something we have done or achieved, or an action
Simple when we don't know or we don't say when that is complete. It is also used to say how many times
something happened in the past. W e use the Past Simple something happened.
when we say when something happened. We have w atche d that docum entary five times in the last I
The use o f fossil fuels has caused air pollution. month.
He has e xp lo re d many places in the Amazon.
We m et the famous scientist at a conference last year. W e use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about how
long something has been happening. It is not important
whether or not it has finished.
The tropical storm has been g o in g on for days.

164

3.7The Indefinite Article: A/An London is a very popular tourist destination.
• bed, church, school, hospital, prison, university,
I We use a before a consonant sound.
зfisherman college, court when we talk about something related to
зuniform the main purpose of the place. {W ork never takes the.)
Fran is in hospital. (She's had an accident and is a
I We use an before a vowel sound, patient there.)
anoctopus A ngela has gone to the hospital to visit Fran. (She's
anhour not a patient; she's gone to visit someone.)
• means of transportation in expressions like by car, etc.
I We use a/an (in the car).
• with singular countable nouns. A huge number o f people go to work by train.
He always has a laptop with him.
• to mean per/each in expressions of frequency. A
Our teachers m eet once a week.
• to mention something for the first time. (When we 4.1 Relative Clauses: defining & non-defining
continue talking about it we use the.)
An elephant was born at the zoo. Relative clauses give more information about the subject
The baby elephant is very popular with visitors. or the object of a sentence. They are introduced by the
• to show job, status, etc. following words (relative pronouns):
He is an archaeologist. • who for people.

3.8 The Definite Article: The The book is abo ut a boy w ho is homeless.
• which for things.
We use the with singular and plural countable nouns and
uncountable nouns, to talk about something specific when The program m e which was about guide dogs was very
the noun is mentioned for a second time. interesting.
Look! There's a fisherman on a boat. The boat looks very old. • whose to show possession.
The woman whose dog g o t lost was very upset.
We also use the before • when for time.
• unique nouns. A birthday is a tim e when you feel a b it emotional.
• where for places.
The sun is yellow and the sky is blue. This is the house w here we grew up.
• names of cinemas, theatres, ships, hotels, etc.
4.2 Defining Relative Clauses
When did the Titanic sink?
We're staying at the Intercontinental in Athens. This type of relative clause gives us information that we
• names of rivers, deserts, mountain ranges, and names need to be able to understand who or what the speaker is
or nouns with of. talking about. W e do not use commas to separate it from
Where is th e Sahara Desert? the rest of the sentence. W e can use that instead of who
The Andes are covered in snow. and which in defining relative clauses.
• countries or groups of countries whose names are These are the rescue workers w h o /th a t rescued hundreds
plural. o f p eople in the flood.
Have you visited the U nited States?
She comes from th e Philippines. 4.3 Non-defining Relative Clauses
• musical instruments.
Brian plays th e violin and th e piano. This type of relative clause gives us extra information which
• nationalities. isn't necessary to understand the meaning of the main
The British are well-known fo r drinking tea. clause. W e use commas to separate it from the rest of the
The Chinese invented the m odern abacus. sentence.
• adjectives used as nouns. His father, w ho is a trainer, has a great love fo r dogs.
The p o o r should get help from the governm ent.
• superlatives. 4.4 Temporals
He is th e best student in the class.
• the following words beach, countryside, station, jungle, When we use temporals such as when, before, after, until,
etc. once, by the time, etc to talk about the future, we follow
We love going to the beach in summer. them with a present or a present perfect tense. W e do not
• morning, afternoon, evening. use them with a future tense.
M ost people watch TV in the evening. A fte r I finish my homework, I'll help you with yours.
By the tim e Janet arrives, the film will have finished.
W e do not use the before W e use a present perfect tense to emphasise that the first
• proper nouns. action is finished before the other one starts. W e cannot
use a present tense if one action has finished.
Is Anna at work today? You can watch TV when yo u've cleared the table. (You'll
• names of sports, games, colours, days, months, drinks, clear the table first and then you'll watch TV.)
O nce everyone has eaten, w e'll begin. (Everyone will eat
holidays, meals and languages (not followed by the first and then we'll start.)
word language).
Blue is my favourite colour. 165
• subjects of study.
We have to study physics at school.
• names of countries, cities, streets (BUT: the High
Street), squares, bridges (BUT: the Golden Gate
Bridge), parks, stations, individual mountains, islands,
lakes, continents.

Grammar Reference

Ы ч '» + £ N o te : Some common time expressions that are often
5.1 Will used with w ill and be going to are this w eek/m onth/
summer, tonight, this evening, tom orrow, tom orrow
Affirmative m orning/afternoon/night, next week/m onth/year, at the
weekend, in January, in a few minutes/hours/days, on
l/he/she/it/we/you/they will build Thursday, on Wednesday m orning, etc.
He is g oing to leave the house in a fe w minutes.

Negative 5.3 Future plans & events

l/he/she/it/we/you/they will not (won't) build

Questions Affirmative

Will l/he/she/it/we/you/they build? l/he/she/it/we/you/they will be building

Short Answers Negative

Yes, l/he/she/it will. No, l/he/she/it won't. l/he/she/it/we/you/they will not (won't) be building
Yes, we/you/they will. No, we/you/they won't.
Questions
W e use will Will l/he/she/it/we/you/they be building?
• for decisions made at the time of speaking.
Short Answers
I'll rin g my friend to borrow her car.
• for predictions without having evidence. Yes, l/he/she/it will. No, l/he/she/it won't.
Yes, we/you/they will. No, we/you/they won't.
My son w ill be famous one day.
• for promises. Spelling: make —» making, swim —►swimming,
study —* studying
He w o n 't be late again. He promised.
• for threats. W e use the Future Continuous for
• actions that will be in progress at a specific time in the
D on't tell anyone my secret or I'll never speak to you again!
• to talk about future facts. future.
She w ill be d e co ra tin g the baby's room all afternoon. I
John w ill be seventeen years old tomorrow. • plans and arrangements for the future.
• after verbs like think, believe, be sure, expect, etc and They w ill be m oving into their new flat tomorrow.

words like probably, maybe, etc. Note: Some common time expressions that are often
I think I w ill m ove house next year. used with the Future Continuous are this tim e next week/
• to offer to do something for someone. month/summer, this time tom orrow morning/afternoon/ !
Dad w ill help you clean the house. night, etc.
• to ask someone to do something. This tim e n e x t w eek we will be living in New York.
W ill you please cook dinner tonight?

5.2 Be Going To

Affirmative 5.4 Future predictions

I am ('m) going to build Affirmative
he/she/it is ('s) going to build
we/you/they are ('re) going to build l/he/she/it/we/you/they will have built

Negative Negative

I am ('m) not going to build l/he/she/it/we/you/they will not (won't) have built
he/she/it is not (isn't) going to build
we/you/they are not (aren't) going to build Questions

Questions Will l/he/she/it/we/you/they have built?

Am I going to build? Short Answers
Is he/she/it going to build?
Yes, l/he/she/it will. No, l/he/she/it won't.
Are we/you/they going to build? Yes, we/you/they will. No, we/you/they won't.

Short Answers

Yes, I am. No, I'm not. Spelling: walk —1>walked, dance -» danced,
Yes, we/you/they are. No, we/you/they aren't. travel —>travelled, tidy - » tidied, play -» played
Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn't.

W e use be going to for Note: Some verbs are irregular and do not follow
• future plans. these spelling rules. See a list of irregular verbs on pages |
174-175.
They're going to p a in t the living room green at the
weekend. W e use the Future Perfect Simple to talk about
• predictions for the near future based on present • something that will be finished by or before a specific
situations or evidence.
Oh no! The w indow is open and the rain is g o in g to time in the future.
come in. The architect w ill have fin ish ed the design for the
skyscraper by next month.
166

• the length of time that an action will have lasted for at Note: W e usually use were for all persons in second
a point of time in the future. conditional sentences.
Next year we w ill have w orked on this p roject fo r two If Luke w ere b e tte r at football, h e'd be on the team.
years.
6.4 Unless
Note: Some common time expressions that are often
used with the Future Perfect Simple are by the end o f this W e can use unless in first and second conditional
week/month/year, by this time tom orrow, by tom orrow sentences. It means the same as if not.
morning/10 o'clock/2012, etc. Lucy w on 't be happy unless she gets chosen for the
The electrician w ill have fix e d the problem by tom orrow . netball team.
M r Martins couldn't go to the match unless he had a
Note: Other tenses that describe the future are the ticket.
Present Simple for timetabled events, and the Present
Continuous for plans and arrangements. See Grammar
Reference 1.1 and 1.3.

7.1 Past Perfect Simple

U 4\+ Affirmative

6.1 Zero Conditional: zero & first, second l/he/she/it/we/you/they had ('d) climbed
conditional, if
Negative

If clause Main clause l/he/she/it/we/you/they had not (hadn't) climbed
present simple
. Questions

present simple

Had l/he/she/it/we/you/they climbed?

We use the zero conditional to talk about the results of an Short Answers
action or situation that are always true. W e can use when
instead of if. Yes, l/he/she/it had. No, l/he/she/it hadn't.
If a football player is shown a red card, he leaves the Yes, we/you/they had. No, we/you/they hadn't.
pitch.
When a fo otba ll player is shown a red card, he leaves the Spelling: walk —►walked, dance —» danced,
pitch. travel —» travelled, tidy -* tidied, play -» played

6.2 First Conditional Note: Some verbs are irregular and do not follow these
spelling rules. See a list of irregular verbs on pages 174-175.
If clause Main clause
present tense will + bare infinitive W e use the Past Perfect Simple for an action or situation
that finished before another action, situation or time
We use the first conditional to talk about the results of an in the past.
action or situation that will probably happen now or in the The lost clim ber had been on the m ountain fo r days
future. before he was rescued.
If my team wins the match, I’ll be thrilled!
If it's still raining later, w e'll play indoors. Note: Some common time expressions that are often
used with the Past Perfect Simple are already, for, for a
We can use can, could, may or m ig h t in the main clause long time/ages, just, never, once, since 2007/June, so far,
instead of will. W e can also use an imperative. yet, etc.
If John scores a goal, we m ig h t win the game. A lig h t rain had alrea d y begun when we set o ut fo r a run.
If you aren't doing anything tonight, watch the match at
my house. 7.2 Past Simple & Past Perfect Simple

6.3 Second Conditional In some sentences, it is clear which action happens first.
In this case, we can use the Past Simple for both actions.
If clause Main clause However, when the order of events is not clear, or when
past tense w ould + bare infinitive we want to emphasise which action happened first, we
can use the Past Perfect Simple for the first action.
We use the second conditional to talk about the results of We w en t to a talk and m et a famous explorer.
an action or situation He realised later that he had done a very dangerous thing.
• that probably won't happen now or in the future.
Remember that we must use the Past Simple for both
You w o u ld be healthier if you to o k some exercise. actions when one past action happens quickly after another
• that we know will not happen now or in the future. or one is the immediate result of the other.
When the little boy heard the thunder, he hid under the
If I w on an O lym pic g o ld medal, I'd be famous! bed.

We can also use the second conditional to give advice.
If I were you, I'd take up a sport.

We can use could or m ig h t in the main clause instead of
would.
Jack co uld win the tournam ent if he trained harder.
If you left now, you m ig h t be on time for the match.

167

Grammar Reference

7.3 Past Perfect Continuous Be careful, w o n 't you?
This/That is so dangerous, is n 't it?
Affirmative These/Those are brave men, a re n 't they?

l/he/she/it/we/you/they had ('d) been climbing 7.5 Subject & Object Questions

Negative When who, what, or which asks about the subject of
a question, the word order stays the same as in an
l/he/she/it/we/you/they had not (hadn't) been climbing affirmative sentence.
Who survived yesterday's climbing accident?
Questions (Everyone survived.)

Had l/he/she/it/we/you/they been climbing? When who, what, or which are the object of a question,
the word order changes in the question form.
Short Answers W ho d id the rescue team save?
(They saved the captain.)
Yes, l/he/she/it had. No, l/he/she/it hadn't.
Yes, we/you/they had. No, we/you/they hadn't. 7.6 N egative Questions

Spelling: make making, swim —►swimming, W e use negative questions
study -> studying • to express surprise.

W e use the Past Perfect Continuous 'D id n 't Jamie finish the race?' 'N o, he collapsed before
• for actions that started in the past and were still the finish line.'
• in exclamations.
in progress when another action started or when Is n 't bungee jum pin g one o f the m ost thrilling extreme
something happened. sports?
He had been free fa llin g fo r several seconds before he • when we expect the listener to agree with us.
opened his parachute. W asn't th a t such an interesting documentary?
• for actions that were in progress in the past and had an
effect on a later action. To answer negative questions we just use a Yes or No
The hiker had been w alking for days and collapsed just answer depending on what we think. A Yes answer
before reaching his destination. confirms a positive opinion, whereas a No answer confirms
a negative opinion.
Note: Some common time expressions that are often Isn't it a lovely day today?
used with the Past Perfect Continuous are all d a y /n ig h t/ Yes. / Yes, it is. (=agreement)
week, fo r years/a long tim e/ages, since. W e can use How No. / N o, it isn't. (= disagreement)
long ...? with the Past Perfect Continuous in questions and
fo r (very) long in questions and negative sentences. (Ari\+ £>
Ben had been clim bing mountains fo r years.
H ow long had you been com peting in races? Modals & Semi-modals
8.1 Can & Could
7.4 Question Tags
W e use can + bare infinitive
Question tags are short questions at the end of a positive • to talk about general ability in the present and the
or negative sentence. They are formed with a modal or an
auxiliary verb + a personal pronoun. future.
W e usually use an affirmative question tag after a negative He can make beautiful things out o f stone.
sentence, and a negative question tag after an affirmative • for requests.
sentence. Can we go to the concert tonight?
You haven't com peted in a marathon, have you? • for permission.
The athletes are training hard, a re n 't they? People can enter this cave and explore if they like.
When an affirmative sentence contains a verb in the
Present Simple or the Past Simple we use do/does, d o n 't/ W e use ca n't + bare infinitive to show that we are sure
doesn't and d id /d id n 't in the question tag. that something isn't true.
You go swimming every day, d o n 't you? That ca n't be Jane! Isn't she away on a trip?
You w ent swimming yesterday, d id n 't you?
W e use question tags when we want W e use could + bare infinitive
• to talk about general ability in the past, (past form
• someone to agree with what we are saying.
It's a beautiful day, isn 't it? of can)
I co u ld ski when I was only seven years old.
• to make sure that what we are saying is right. • to talk about possibility.
The tennis match starts at 3 o'clock, d o e s n 't it? We could go sailing if the wind went down by
to m o rro w .
Note: Some question tags are irregular. Notice the way • for polite requests.
these tags are formed. C ould you please give me that magazine?
I am lucky to be alive, a re n 't I? • to make suggestions.
Everyone is looking forw ard to the trip, a re n 't they? We could go to the cinema.
Let's hike in the mountains, shall we?
D o n 't fo rg e t to let me know you've arrived safely,
will you?

168

8.2 May & Might 8.7 Be Able To

We use may + bare infinitive W e use be able to to talk about
• to talk about possibility in the future. • ability.

I m ay take up painting as a hobby next m onth. I w ill be able to play the guitar tonight.
• for polite requests, (with I and we) • a specific ability in the past. (Could cannot be used here.)

M ay we borrow your camera? She w a s n 't able to practise the new dance at the
• for polite permission. weekend.

You m ay ask me any question you like. 8.8 Have To
We use m ig h t + bare infinitive
• to talk about possibility in the future. W e use have to to
• say that something is necessary.
Sue m ig h t decide to jo in a gym soon.
• as the past tense of may. You have to rehearse yo ur p a rt in the play every day.
• talk about obligation.
8.3 Must
W e have to have some training before we can go
We use m ust + bare infinitive to parachuting.
• say that something is necessary.
8.9 M ustn't 8c Don't Have To
I m ust be home at 7 o'clock at the latest.
• talk about obligations. There is an important difference between mustn't and
d o n 't have to. W e use mustn't to say that something is not
You m ust wear a helm et when riding a m otorbike in allowed, whereas we use d o n 't have to to show that there
this country. is no obligation or necessity.
• show that we are sure that something is true. In basketball, players m u s tn 't kick the ball.
My sister m ust be nervous about the dance You d o n 't have to p la y basketball with us this afternoon if
co m p e titio n . you d o n 't want to.
• recommend something.
You really m ust go and see th a t play! It was great! Ы ч\+

We use m ustn't + bare infinitive to talk about something 9.1 The Passive Voice: Tenses
that is not allowed.
People m u stn 't speak on their mobiles while driving. W e use the passive voice when
• the action is more important than who or what is
8.4 Should
responsible for it (the agent).
We use should + bare infinitive to Two people w ere injured during the robbery.
• give advice. • we don't know the agent, or it is not important.
You can use the computer now. It was repaired
People o f all ages should take some exercise every yesterday.
week.
• ask for advice. The passive is formed with the verb be and a past
What should I do about losing weight? participle. Notice how the active verb forms change to
passive verb forms.
Note: O ught to can also be used to give advice, but it is
not usually used in the question form. Tense Active Passive

8.5 W ould Present Simple take/takes am/are/is taken

We use w ould + bare infinitive for Present am/are/is taking am/are/is being taken
• actions that we did regularly in the past, but that we Continuous

don't do now. Past Simple took was/were taken
I w o u ld always g o fo r a run in the m orning before I
started work. Past was/were taking was/were being
• polite requests. Continuous taken
W ould you please buy some batteries fo r my camera?
Present Perfect have/has taken have/has been taken
8.6 N eedn't Simple

We use n ee dn 't + bare infinitive to say that something is Past Perfect had taken had been taken
not necessary. W e don't use it in affirmative sentences. Simple
You n ee dn ’t take photos at the party because my bro the r
is videotaping it. Future Simple will take will be taken

Note: W e can also use need as an ordinary verb. It has Note: There is no passive form for Future Continuous,
affirmative, negative and question forms and it is usually Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous.
used in the Present Simple and the Past Simple. It is
followed by a full infinitive. W e change an active sentence into a passive sentence in
Mary needs to fin d a new hobby. the following way:
The twins d id n 't need to w alk to the cinema because
their mum took them in the car. The object of the verb in the active sentence becomes the
D id he need to pay to jo in the chess club? subject of the verb in the passive sentence. The verb be
is used in the same tense of the main verb in the active
sentence, together with the past participle of the main
verb in the active sentence.

169

Grammar Reference

They are w atching us! We are b eing w atched! Present Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
In this example, we do not know who is watching us and it Continuous
is not very important, so we do not include the word they
in the passive sentence. 'They have been recording She said (that) they had

all day,' she said. been recording all day.

Note: When we want to change a sentence with two Past Simple Past Perfect Simple
objects into the passive voice, one becomes the subject of
the passive sentence and the other one remains an object. 'He watched a film on TV,' She said (that) he had
Which object we choose depends on what we want to
emphasise. If the personal object remains an object in she said. watched a film on TV.
the passive sentence, then we have to use a suitable
preposition (to, for, etc). Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
He gave me a video camera.
I was given a video camera. 'He was reading about She said (that) he had
A video camera was given to me. Imiz,' she said. been reading about Imiz.

Other changes in verb forms are as follows:

9.2 By & W ith can could

Sometimes it is important to mention the agent (who or 'Jane can play the piano,' 1
what is responsible for the action) in a passive sentence. she said.
W e use the word by before the agent to do this. She said (that) Jane could
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. may play the piano.
The telephone was in ve n te d by Alexander Graham Bell.
'He may come to the might
Sometimes we want to mention a tool or material in the concert,' she said.
passive sentence. W e use the word w ith to do this. She said (that) he might
The window was broken w ith a rock. must come to the concert.
The room was p a inted w ith a new kind o f paint.
'He must collect the tickets had to
9.3 The Passive Voice: Gerunds, Infinitives & later,' she said.
Modals She said (that) he had to
will collect the tickets later.

'They will never like opera,' would
she said.
She said (that) they would
never like opera.

Tense Active Passive Note
Modal can take can be taken 1 Remember to change pronouns and possessive
Gerund taking being taken
Bare Infinitive take be taken adjectives where necessary.
Full Infinitive to take to be taken 'W e are going to form a band,' he said. —>He said
(that) they were going to form a band.
Surveillance cameras should be installed here to prevent 'Those are m y music magazines,' she said. —» She said
crimes.
He avoided being recognised by wearing dark glasses. (that) those were her music magazines.
The project had better be finished by tom orrow. W e can leave out that.
The battery needs to be recharged. They said th a t they had seen the film before. -» They
said th ey had seen the film before.
The following tenses and words don't change in
Reported Speech: Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect
Continuous, would, could, m ight, should, o ug ht to,
used to, had better, m ustn't and must when they refer
to deduction.

W m -h \0 10.2 Say & Tell

10.1 Reported Speech: Statem ents W e often use the verbs say and te ll in reported speech.
W e follow tell with an object.
When we report direct speech, the tenses used by the Julia said they w ould love her new single.
speaker usually change as follows: Julia to ld h e r frien ds they w ould love her new single.

Present Simple Past Simple

'He likes hip-hop,' she said. She said (that) he liked 10.3 Reported Speech: Change in time & place
hip hop.
1 When we report direct speech, there are often changes in
Past Continuous words that show time and place too.
Present Continuous

'He is listening to his new She said (that) he was 'I'm playing the guitar She said she was playing
CD,' she said. listening to his new CD. now,' she said. the guitar then.

Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple today that day

They have bought a new She said (that) they had 'We're going to the He said they were going
CD,' she said. bought a new CD. theatre today,' he said. the theatre that day.

tonight that night 10.6 Reported Speech: Requests

They can go to the She said they could go to When we report a request, we usually use ask + object +
full infinitive.
cinema tonight,' she said. the cinema that night. 'Can you lend me your headphones, please?' she asked.
She asked me to lend her my headphones.
yesterday the previous day/the day (Also: She asked if I could lend her my headphones.)
before 'Please d o n 't te ll anyone,' he said.
He asked us n o t to te ll anyone.
'I saw them in concert She said she had seen them
yesterday,' she said. in concert the previous
day/the day before.

last week/month the previous week/month Ы ч\+ \ \
/ the week/month before
11.1 Causative
'He released the CD last She said he had released the
month,' she said. CD the previous month/the W e use the causative
month before. • to say that someone has arranged for somebody to do

tomorrow the next day/the following something for them.
day John is having his new c o m p u te r d e liv e re d in the
m orn in g .
'I'll buy the tickets She said she would buy the • to say that something unpleasant happened to
tomorrow,' she said. tickets the next day/tne someone.
following day. Mrs Temp has had her car broken into.

next week/month the following week/month W e form the causative with have + object + past
participle. It can be used in a variety of tenses.
'We're going to the show She said they were going I was having m y kitchen p ainted last weekend.
next week,' she said. to the show the following A unt Maureen has been having her clothes made for her
week. fo r years.
The school has its rubbish c o lle cte d every day.
this/these that/those

This is my music She said that was her music
magazine,' she said. magazine.

ago before Note: W e can also use g e t + object + past participle. This
structure is less formal.
'I bought that CD two She said she had bought Joseph g o t his m o b ile phone taken away in English
weeks ago,' she said. that CD two weeks before. yesterday!

at the moment at that moment

'He's singing in a band at She said he was singing in a 11.2 Gerunds

the moment,' she said. band at that moment.

here there W e form gerunds with verbs and the -ing ending. W e can
use gerunds
! 'Your CDs are here on the She said my CDs were • as nouns.
table,' she said. there on the table.
Sw im m ing is my favourite hobby.
10.4 Reported Speech: Questions Ben likes cycling
• after prepositions.
When we report questions, changes in tenses, pronouns, Jenny's only five b u t she's very g ood a t reading.
possessive adjectives, time and place are the same as • after the verb go when we talk about activities.
in reported statements. In reported questions, the verb My class are g o in g canoeing at the weekend.
follows the subject as in ordinary statements and we do
not use question marks. W e also use gerunds after certain verbs and phrases.

When a direct question has a question word, we use this admit finish love
word in the reported question.
'When d id you start m aking records?' he asked. avoid forgive miss
He asked when I had started m aking records.
be used to hate practise
When a direct question does not have a question word,
we use if or whether in the reported question. can't help have difficulty prefer
‘Do you like classical music?' he asked.
He asked if/w h e th e r I liked classical music. can't stand imagine prevent

deny involve regret

dislike it's no good risk

(don't) mind it's no use spend time

enjoy it's (not) worth suggest

fancy keep

10.5 Reported Speech: Commands feel like like

When we report commands, we usually use tell + object + Some students are having d iffic u lty doing their maths
full infinitive. exercises.
'Turn the volume dow n!' he shouted at me. It's no g o o d o nly stu dyin g fo r tests. You w o n 't g e t goo d
He to ld me to tu rn the volume down. grades.
'Don't take my MP3 player!' he said to his sister.
He to ld his sister n o t to take his MP3 player.

171

Grammar Reference

11.3 Infinitives Young children love lea rn ing /to learn new things.
D o n 't start ru n n in g /to run until you hear the whistle.
Present Active Passive
Perfect (to) send (to) be sent There are other verbs that can be followed by a gerund or
(to) have sent (to) have been sent a full infinitive, but the meaning changes. Some common
ones are regret, forget, go on, remember, stop and try.
The teacher threatened to expel the badly behaved I re g re t stu d yin g French at university. (I studied French,
student. but now I wish I hadn't.)
Photos can be e d ite d on a com puter. I re g re t to te ll you th a t I've lost my maths book. (I'm sorry
You should have trie d harder to pass yo ur exams. that I have to give you this news.)
He should have been aw arded a prize. Paul fo rg o t m e e tin g Belinda and walked straight passed
her this m orning! (He didn't remember that he had met
11.4 Full Infinitives Belinda, and he didn't recognise her when he saw her this
morning.)
W e form full infinitives with to and the verb. W e use full Paul fo rg o t to revise for his test, and he failed. (Paul didn't
infinitives remember he had a test and so he didn't revise for it.)
• to explain purpose. M r Jones w e n t on ta lk in g about p ho tography fo r hours!
(He continued to talk about the same thing.)
They went to the library to look up information for M r Jones w e n t on to ta lk a bo ut photography. (He had
their project. been talking about a different subject, and then started
• after adjectives such as afraid, scared, happy, glad, sad, talking about a new subject - photography.)
etc. M y dad rem em bers learning Latin a t school. (He learnt
Jenny was so h ap py to pass her exams. Latin at school and now he remembers learning it.)
• after the words too and enough. My dad re m e m b e re d to pick me up from school. (He
It was to o late to change his m ind a bo ut his studies. remembered first and then came to pick me up from
His grades w eren 't g o o d enough fo r him to g o to school.)
university. I s to p p e d g o in g to karate classes. (I don't go to karate
classes any more.)
W e also use full infinitives after certain verbs and phrases. I s to p p e d to d o my homework. (I stopped doing
something else so I could start my homework.)
afford fail prepare If you ca n't rem em ber things very easily, try m aking notes
while you read. (You can make notes, but it might not
agree forget pretend help you.)
If you're doing a test, tr y to answ er all the questions. (You|
allow hope promise might not be able to answer them all.)

appear invite refuse 12-

arrange learn seem 12.1 Ordering Adjectives

ask manage start Sometimes more than one adjective is used in front of a
noun:
begin need want She was a nice, o ld woman.
He has a large, black, lea th er sofa.
choose offer would like
Opinion adjectives
decide persuade
Some adjectives give a general opinion, which describe
expect plan almost any noun:
He's a nice boy.
The teacher o ffe re d to give the weak student some extra She's a g o o d student.
help with maths. They're w onde rful parents.

11.5 Bare Infinitives However, some adjectives give a specific opinion to
describe particular kinds of nouns:
W e use bare infinitives after tasty meal, co m fo rta b le bed, in te llig e n t child
• modal verbs.
Usually a general opinion adjective is placed before a
You should ask your teacher for advice on your studies. specific noun:
• had b e tte r to give advice. a nice, tasty meal
a beautiful, comfortable bed
You'd b e tte r be careful when you go mountain a lovely, intelligent child
clim b in g .
• w ould rather to talk about preference. W e often use When we use two or more adjectives to describe
the word than. something or someone, we usually put them in a certain
I'd rather stay at home than go out tonight. order. Notice the correct order.

11.6 Gerund or Infinitive?

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or a full infinitive
with no change in meaning. Some common verbs are
begin, bother, continue, hate, like, love and start.
The students started w ritin g /to w rite the test at 9
o'clock.
John failed the test because he d id n 't bother revising/to
revise.
M r Cairn continued te a c h in g /to teach until he was 70
years old.

172

general nice beautiful strong Enough is also an adverb of degree, but it comes after an
opinion adjective or a verb.
The film w asn't g o o d enough to win an oscar.
size small large big She earns enough to a ffo rd a new car every tw o years.
age old new ancient
shape round oval long Adverbs of frequency such as always, never, seldom, etc
colour pink beige white usually come after the verb be but before the main verb.
nationality French Italian Japanese (See also 1.2 on page 161.)
material cotton wooden silk She always brushes her teeth in the m orning and at night.
He seldom eats sweets.

She has b e a u tifu l lon g b ro w n hair. 12.6 So & Such
He usually wears an a w fu l green w oo lle n ju m p e r at the
weekend. W e use so and such for emphasis. They are stronger than
They live in a huge o ld English cottage. very.
• W e use so + adjective/adverb.
12.2 Adjectives ending in - e d & - in g
This course is so in te re s tin g ! I am really enjoying it!
Adjectives that end in -ed describe how someone feels • W e use such + (adjective) + noun.
whereas adjectives that end in -ing describe a person,
place or thing. Her b ro the r is such a clever boy!
He's in te re s te d in the human body and he wants to be a
doctor. We can also use so and such to emphasise characteristics
This book on the human body is very interestin g. that lead to a certain result or action.
It was such an in te re s tin g b o o k th a t I read it twice.
12.3 Types of Adverbs The film was so b ad th a t I le ft the cinema half way
through.
There are adverbs of frequency, manner, time, place and
degree. 12.7 Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs
• Adverbs of frequency answer the question How often?.
W e use the comparative to compare two people or
They see each other regularly. things. W e usually form the comparative by adding -erto
• Adverbs of manner answer the question How?. an adjective or adverb. If the adjective or adverb has two
or more syllables, we use the word more. W e often use
She sings so beautifully. the word than after the comparative.
• Adverbs of time answer the question When?. Judy has g o t lo n g e r hair than me.
This black dress is m ore expensive than the white one.
Tom broke his leg yesterday.
• Adverbs of place answer the question Where?. W e use the superlative to compare one person or thing
with other people or things of the same type. W e usually
There is a g re at superm arket near my house. form the superlative by adding -estto the adjective
• Adverbs of degree answer the question To what or adverb. If the adjective or adverb has two or more
syllables, we usually use the word most. W e use the word
extent?. the before the superlative.
It's ra th e r d ifficult to think when there is a lo t o f noise You are the best friend I've ever had.
around you. He is th e m o st in te llig e n t person I have ever met.

12.4 Order of Adverbs (manner, place & time) Spelling: big -* bigger/biggest, nice —» nicer/nicest,
brave —* braver/bravest, tidy —* tidier/tidiest
When we use two or more adverbs in a sentence, the Some adjectives and adverbs are irregular and form their
usual order is manner + place + time. comparative and superlative in different ways.
He p u t the envelope carefully in to his p o c k e t a fte r the
m ee ting . Adjective/Adverb Comparative Superlative
After verbs like come, leave, go, etc, the usual order is
place + manner + time. good/well better the best
She w ent to the d e n tis t quickly a fte r work.
bad/badly worse the worst
Time adverbs can also come at the beginning of a
sentence. many more the most
A fte r the m e e tin g he p u t the envelope carefully into his
pocket. much more the most
A fte r w o rk she w ent to the dentist quickly.
little less the least
12.5 O rder of Adverbs (degree & frequency)
far farther/further the farthest/ furthest
Adverbs of degree such as quite, rather, to o and very
usually come before an adjective. 12.8 O ther comparative structures
He is q u ite g o o d at maths.
The film was ra th e r scary. W e use as + adjective/adverb + as to show that two
She is to o young to see th a t film. people or things are similar in some way.
His m other is a very talented musician. M y com puter is as fa st as your laptop.

W e use not as/so ... as to show that one person or thing
has less of a quality than another.
I am n o t as successful as my bro the r is.

173

Irregular verbs

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

be w as/w e re been
beat beat beaten
becom e becam e becom e
begin began begun
bite bit bitten
blow b le w b lo w n
break broke broken
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt burnt
buy bought bought
can could -
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
com e cam e com e
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
do did done
draw drew d raw n
dream dream t dream t
drink drank drunk
d riv e drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flo w n
forecast forecast forecast
forget forgot forgotten
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew g row n
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lead led led
learn learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let

174

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
m ean m eant meant
m ake m ade m ade
meet m et met
pay paid paid
prove proved proven
put put put
read read [red] read [red]
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
show showed shown
shoot shot shot
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
s lid e slid slid
sm ell sm elt sm elt
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
steal stole s to le n
stuck stuck
stick stank stunk
stink
sweep sw ep t swept
sw im sw am sw um
take took taken
teach taught taught
tell told told
th in k thought thought
throw threw th ro w n
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear w o re w o rn
w in won won
w rite w ro te w ritten

W riting Reference

Email

When writing an email,

• make it clear why you are writing.
• be friendly and use informal language.
• don't use te xting language (for example, ur for yo u're and lol for laugh o u t loud).

Plan

Greeting
Hi...! / Hello...! / Dear ...,

Paragraph 1
Begin with polite phrases. Thank the reader for his/her email or ask about him/her and say
why you are writing.
How are you? / /hope yo u're well.
Thank you fo r yo ur email. / It was great to g e t yo ur email.
That's why I'm w riting. / As you know, ... / I'm w riting to ...

Paragraph 2
Give more details about why you are writing.
We're planning ... / I'm thinking o f ... / W e've decided to ...

Paragraph 3
Give more information.
In addition, ... / Also, ... / As fo r ...

Signing off
See you soon! / Keep in touch. / That's all fo r now. / W rite back soon! / Talk to you later!
Keep in touch! Love, ...

Email checklist □

• Have you followed the plan? □
• Have you used grammatically correct forms? □
• Have you checked for spelling and punctuation mistakes? □
• Did you use informal language, such as short forms of verbs? □
• Is your writing style suitable for the situation and the reader?
• Did you use linking words?

176

Informal letter and email

When writing an informal letter or email,

• use informal language.
• make it clear why you are writing.
• make sure you focus on the subject you're writing about.

Plan

Greeting
Dear ..., / Hi

Paragraph 1
Ask about the person you're writing to and explain why you're writing.
How are you? / Guess what? / Thanks fo r ...

Paragraphs 2 & 3
Give more details regarding what you are w riting about and what you want to find o ut or do.
There is/are ... / If you're interested, ... / Let me know ... / When are you available? / Let's
go together!

Paragraph 4
Ask the person you're writing to further questions and suggest what needs to be done next.
Could you do me a favour? / Maybe / Perhaps you could ... fo r me? / Do we need to ... ? /
I was w ondering i f ...

Signing off
See you soon! / Keep in touch. / That's all fo r now. / W rite back soon! / Talk to you later! /
Keep in touch! / Love, ...

Informal letter checklist □

• Have you followed the plan? □
• Have you used grammatically correct forms? □
• Have you checked for spelling and punctuation mistakes? □
• Have you used informal language?
• Have you used linking words correctly?

W riting Reference

Postcard

When writing a postcard:

• open and close your postcard in a friendly way.
• use informal language
• use linking words and phrases to join your ideas.
• explain the good points about your holiday.

Plan

Opening
Use an informal greeting
Dear Eric, Hi, Eric

Paragraph 1
Write about the holiday and explain what you have done so far:
W e're having a lovely/terrible time. The fo o d is delicious/horrible/spicy. W e've had special
pizza and fresh fish.

Paragraph 2
Write what your future plans are:
W e're going to visit a Roman villa tom orrow .

Paragraph 3
Ask a question:
When are you going on holiday? How is your holiday going?

Closing:
Use an informal phrase for closing the postcard:
Bye. See you soon.
Jenny

Postcard checklist: □
• Have you followed the plan?

• Have you used informal language that is grammatically correct?

• Have you checked for spelling and punctuation mistakes?

• Have you asked a question? □
• Have you included all the information you were given?

178

Story

When writing a story,

• spend a few minutes thinking about how you want your story to develop and make notes.
• set the scene in the first paragraph and create a strong atmosphere.
• use narrative tenses (past tenses) to describe events better.
• use linking words to make your sentences flow.
• make sure you give your story an interesting ending.
• remember to talk about how the people felt in the end.

Plan

Paragraph 1
Set the scene and introduce the main characters. Make the introduction sound interesting or
dramatic. Use the sentence you are given in the task if necessary.
It was a cold, dark evening. / John was very scared.

Paragraph 2
Give background information about the characters and what is going on.
M addy and Sally m e t a t their dance class a year ago.

Paragraph 3
Describe the main events in order.
A t fir s t,... / Then, ... / The m om ent t h a t ... / Meanwhile, ...

Paragraph 4
Introduce a twist in the story (if appropriate).
That was when ... / Soon after t h a t ... / Suddenly, ... / Just then, ... / As soon as ...

Paragraph 5
Bring the story to an end.
E ventually,... / W e never w ent to the castle again. / Sally knew it w ould never happen again.

Story checklist

• Have you followed the plan?

• Have you used grammatically correct forms?

• Have you checked for spelling and punctuation mistakes?

• Have you made your story interesting to the reader?

• Is thestoryline clear and coherent?

• Have you used a range of tenses, direct speech and dramaticsentences?
expressions to givelife to your story? Q
• Have you used appropriate adjectives, adverbs and

• Have you used linking words and time expressions?

W riting Reference

Review

When writing a review,
• think of a suitable title for your review.
• try to catch the reader's attention in the first paragraph.
• remember to give your negative or positive opinion.

Plan
Paragraph 1
Introduce what you are reviewing.
Try ... / Why n o t try ...? / If you like ... / ... is w orth a try ...
Paragraph 2
Describe what you are reviewing. Give the reader an idea of what you are writing about.
... set in ... / ... combines ... with ... / ... is ideal f o r ...
For example, ... / For instance, ...
Give further details about what you are reviewing.
By the way, ... / That doesn't mean that, ... / On the o th e r hand, ...
One example o f this, ... / In this case, ...
Recomendation
End the review give your opinion.
I highly recom m end ... / I w o u ld n 't recom m end ... / ... should n ot be missed

Review checklist
• Have you followed the plan?
• Have you checked for grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes?
• Have you clearly stated what your opinion is?
• Have you used appropriate adjectives for your descriptions?
• Does the review summarise the important points?

180

Report

When writing a report,
• think of a suitable title for your report.
• use formal language and long forms.
• remember to use headings to organise your report and make your ideas clearer.
• allow yourself time to plan what you will be including in your report.
• consider the advantages and disadvantages of each option.
• each part of your report should be separated from the next with clear paragraphs.

Plan
Paragraph 1
Say why you are writing the report.
The aim /purpose o f this re p o rt is to present/recom m end/review /exam ine ... / This is a
rep ort on ... / This re p o rt will present the findings o f ... / It will also make suggestions/
recomm endations fo r ... / It will also suggest/recom m end/discuss/analyse ...
Paragraph 2
Discuss the first point or option and evaluate it and/or make suggestions.
The first option is/w ould be ... / This may be a g o o d choice ... because ... / On the other
hand, there may be some disadvantages.
Paragraph 3
Discuss the second point or option and evaluate it and/or make suggestions.
An alternative possibility w ould be to ... / Alternatively, ... / However, ... / In general, ... /
This option has several disadvantages ... / However, there may be some reservations
about/problem s with ...
Paragraph 4
Bring the report to an end by summing up the suggestions made. Recommend one of the
options or refer to future action.
In conclusion, ... / To sum up, the main recom m endations/suggestions are ... / As can be
seen from this report, ... / For these reasons, I feel th a t the best optio n is ...

Report checklist
• Have you followed the plan?
• Have you used grammatically correct forms?
• Have you checked for spelling and punctuation mistakes?
• Have you used formal language and the full forms of verbs?
• Have you used linking words correctly?
• Have you made suggestions and/or recommendations?

181

Speaking R eferences

Describing photos Adjectives for restaurants Talking about a topic
... lying on the floor. scruffy My favourite room is ... because
I can see a ... in the foreground / dirty ... and / b u t...
background. trendy
There's a white ... bright If I could change something about my
There are four... old-fashioned house / flat, it would be / I'd ...
She's got long ... expensive because ...
He's behind / in front of / next to / on slow Do you like the ... in your house / flat?
the right unfriendly How much time do you spend in ... ?
He's wearing ... rude Would you change the same things as
She's ... tall, slim good-looking me in ... ?
He / She's got... long, dark hair Opening discussions What about your... ?
They look ... relaxed / happy / easy­ Shall we start with this ...?
going Let's begin / start by looking at ... Making suggestions
First of all, ... If I were you, I'd / I wouldn't ...
Inviting To begin with, ... Why don't you ...?
You're invited to ... Let's move on to ... How / What about ...?
Can you come? Shall we talk about... now?
I want to invite you to ... Accepting / Rejecting invitations
Asking for a reply Friendly openings I'd love to come ...
Let me know if you can come. Hi! I'll definitely be there.
Tell me if you can come or not. Hello I'm sorry, I can't make it.
How are you? Unfortunately, I won't be able to come.
Writing about special events How are things?
celebration How is it going? Responding to news
guests It's good to hear from you! What exciting / sad / great... news!
invitation I'm really pleased for / proud of you.
special occasion Useful phrases It'll be fun / great ... !
surprise party I really miss you!
celebrate I love reading your emails. Giving your opinion
invite Good luck! I think ... is a good idea because ...
organise Sorry for not answering your last email. Well, I don't think he / she should ...
plan But if he / she ... , he / she'll ... !
have a party Friendly endings
Write back soon and tell me all about it. Asking if someone agrees
Using adjectives Bye! Do you agree (with me)?
It looks / seems to be + adjective Bye for now. Would you agree that ...?
I think they / he / she are + adjective See you soon. Do you think so, too?
That is / isn't good for you because it's + Speak to you later.
adjective That's all for now. Agreeing
I often eat / don't usually eat Write soon! I agree.
that because it's + adjective Yes, I totally / quite agree
I like / don't like that because it's Giving advice with you.
+ adjective If I were him, I'd ... I think you're (quite / absolutely) right.
I think it would be better to ... because
Recommending Disagreeing
I highly recommend ... Perhaps he should ... then he ... Actually, I don't really agree.
I wouldn't / don't recommend ... He should also ... I'm afraid I don't agree.
It's the perfect place / cafe / restaurant I really think it's best to ... because I don't think that's a very good idea
for ... To be honest, I'd ... because ...
It's the worst...
Describing people Paraphrasing
Adjectives for food tall /short It's a sort of ...
bitter slim / overweight It's a kind of ...
undercooked kind / unkind It's a an activity that ... / a place where
overcooked friendly / unfriendly ... / a person who ...
colourful clever / stupid I think it's a ...
delicious young / old It could be / might be a ....
healthy easy-going / nervous It's similar to ...
unhealthy scared / happy It's dangerous because ...
bland You need ... to do it.
processed Describing place/time You shouldn't do it on your own because
tasty morning / lunchtime / afternoon / evening
tasteless dark / bright You have to be careful of ...
clean / dirty Some equipment, such as ... is necessary
cold / hot to ...
early / late

Creating suspense Free-time activities Relationships
At that point... I play football / tennis / volleyball ... friendship
During the minutes / hours / days that I'm in an orchestra / choir... stranger
followed ... We usually ...
All of a sudden ... I do aerobics /judo / karate trust
As quick as lightning, / As fast as he I have a ... class. (not) have a lot in corr
could, ... After-school club make friends with
He'd never been in such an extreme ... until late get on
situation. I go swimming / running ... with give someone a hand
Without thinking, ... ... is great fun!
There was no sign of ... I love my ... because grow apart
He thought of a plan. help someone out
To make things worse, ... Changing your mind let someone down
They were just about to give up when ... Are you sure about that? see eye to eye
Do you really think that ...? embarrassing
Talking about possibility I'm sure ... is better because ... friendly
Do you think ... might be good? Actually, I think you're right... suspicious
I don't think ... would be a good idea Yes, that's a good point, I hadn't thought rely on
because ... of that. respect
... could be good? What do you think? OK then, yes, I agree with you!
Yes, I think ... would be good because ...
No, I don't think that would work Introducing reports
because ... The aim / purpose of this report is to ...
This is a report on ...
Writing a postcard This report will present the findings of ...
We're having a lovely time.
The weather is ... Closing reports
The hotel / campsite / apartment is ... To sum up, the main recommendations /
The beach is ... suggestions are ...
The food is ... In conclusion, ...
We've had ...
We've been to ... School facilities & equipment
We've seen ... canteen
We've done some sightseeing. classrooms
See you soon! common room
Miss you! computer room
theatre
Deciding gym
OK, so let's decide ... interactive whiteboard
Right, let's make a decision ... library
Do we think the best one is ... ? playground
So, do we agree that... is the best one? science labs
So, to sum up ... toilets
In the end we think ... because ...
After-school activities
Describing people arts and crafts
She's g o t... choir practice
He's wearing ... cooking
They're smiling ... music and drama
He's sitting ... sports teams
Describing places
There are lots of ... Talking about health and fitness
It looks like a ... So, what do you do to stay healthy?
I can see a ... behind / in front of Do you do anything special to stay fit
There's a ... in the foreground / and healthy?
background How often do you do exercise / go to
the gym?
Describing things Do you go swimming / play any sports?
It's a kind of ... Do you think it's important to ... ? Why?
I think it's a ... Do you have enough time to ... ? Why
It looks old / new / expensive ... not?
It could be ...

Collocations & Expressions

as quick as lightning (U7) keep calm (U7)
be in one's good books (U11) make a journey (U7)
be on a safari (U9) make a mess (U5)
break the ice (U4) make an effort (U11)
break the rules (U11) make progress (U11)
can't stand somebody (U8 ) make one's bed (U5)
climate change (U3) man's best friend (U4)
do one’s best (U7) move house (U5)
do judo (U9) move with the times (U5)
do the dishes (U5) natural habitat (U3)
do the housework (U5) pay a compliment (U1)
endangered species (U9) pay a visit (U1)
fall in love with somebody (U1) power station (U3)
fall to pieces (U1) renewable energy (U3, U9)
fossil fuels (U3) save someone's life (U7)
get a taste for something (U11) scared to death (U7)
get divorced (U1 ) solar power (U3)
get lost (U7) take a bath (U5)
get married (U1) take a break (U5)
get the hang of something (U11) tasty food (U9)
go missing (U7) without thinking (U7)
have a family (U1)
have sympathy (U1)
keep a diary (U1)
keep a secret (U1)

184

Prepositions

above sea level (U7) increase in (U11)
about the same size (U7) in love with (U4)
after years of + ing (U3) instead of (U9)
agree with (U4) interact with (U4)
angry with (U4) interested in (U4, U5)
appear in (U3) in the water (U7)
apply for ... a t ... (U11) invite to
argue with (U4) jealous of (U1 )
ashamed of (U4) keen on (U1,U4)
at the end of (U1) lead to something (U4, U6 )
at the moment (U3) listen to (U9)
at the weekend (U1.U5) look for something (U4)
before something happens (U3) on the planet
belong to (U4) over the years (U9)
below freezing (U7) over 32 degrees Celsius (U7)
(U4) (U7)
beneficial to (U5) pick up (U7)
close to (U9) protect from (U4)
come under threat (U9) proud of (U3)
communicate with (U4, U11) relate to (U4)
concentrate on (U9) rely on (U4)
concerned about (U9) responsible for (U4, U5,
cope with (U4) runs across (U4)
disappear from (U1 ) satisfied with (U7)
dress in (U9) similar to (U1 1 )
expert on something (U1 ) spend money on something (U4)
find information about successful in (U11)
for over (2 0 ) years (U3) suffer from (U9)
get from this to this (U3) take action on (U11)
get onto something (U3) talk about (U3)
go from here to there (U3) turn into something (U4)
good at (U11) the top of the/a mountain (U3)
go on safari (U9) wait for (U7)
in a desert (U7) worry about (U6 )
in common (U4) (U11)

185

Phrasal verbs

act out perform (U1 0 )
ask someone out invite on a date (U4)
back away move slowly backwards (U1 2 )
back out of decide not to do something you had previously agreed to do (U1 2 )
break up separate (U4, U9)
call for require (U8 )
call out announce (U8 )
carry on continue (U4, U7)
catch on become popular (U10)
clear up make a place tidy (U4)
cut out for suited to (U8 )
deal with do what is necessary (U7)
eat out go to a restaurant (U2)
fall down move quickly down onto the ground (U5)
fall off drop to the ground (U5, U6 )
fall over fall to the ground (U6 )
find out discover (U1 , U8 )
get down write down (U1 0 )
get on be friends (U4, U7)
give out distribute (U10)
give up stop trying (U7)
go along continue to happen (U7)
go away travel away from a person or place (U7)
grown out of become too old for (U1 0 )
hand out give each person in a group something (U1 2 )
hand over give (U1 2 )
hang out spend time relaxing (U4)
head for start moving/travelling towards a place (U1 2 )
head off leave (U1 2 )
let someone down disappoint someone (U4)
log in start using a computer (U9)
look after take care of someone or something (U1
look at read or examine something (U1)
look for search for something (U1, U5)
look up to admire/have respect for someone (U4)
look up something attempt to find (U9)
make up forgive each other (U4)
pass down give
pick up collect (U1)
pull from save or rescue from danger (U10)
put in install (U9)
put someone down make someone feel stupid (U9)
put up build, erect (U4)
put up display (U5)
run out of have no more of something left (U9)
run over drive over something (U1 2 )
sell out run out of tickets for an event (U1 2 )
set off cause an alarm to make a sound (U1 0 )
show off behave in a boastful way (U9)
stand in take someone's place (U8 )
stand out look different (U1 2 )
take after to look or behave like an older relative (U1 2 )
take to start to like (U1)
take up begin (U8 )
think over consider carefully (U8 )
think up use one's imagination or intelligence to come up with an idea (U1 2 )
try out test something first (U1 2 )
try out for audition (U9)
turn away refuse admission (U8 )
turn down decrease the volume (U10)
turn into be transformed into (U1 0 )
turn off stop something working (U3)
turn on switch on (U4, U10)
turn out end in a particular way (U1 0 )
turn up increase the volume (U1 0 )
warm up prepare one's body for exercise (U10)
(U6 )
186

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LEARNING

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Text Credits

6-7 Adapted from ‘Family Ties’, by Patricia McKissack: NGE, Jan-Feb 2010,18-19 Adapted from ‘O live Oil - Elixir of the Gods’, by Erla Zwingle: NG M , Sep 1999,
32-33 Adapted from 'Coral Reef Color', by Les Kaufmann: N G M , M ay 2005, and ‘Coral in Peril’, by Douglas Chadwick: N G M , Jan 1999,44-45 Adapted from ‘W o lf
to W o o f, by Karen Lange: NG M , Jan 2 00 2,70-71 Adapted from 'Paddleboard Racing: The Hardest Adventure Sport You’ve Never Heard o f, by Tetsuhiko Endo,
N G A blog, Aug 2009, 84-85 Adapted from ‘Alive: Then and Now ’, by James Vlahos: NGA, April 2006, 96-97 Adapted from ‘Caves; Deep Into Darkness’, by Beth
Geiger, NGE, M ay 2010,110-111 Adapted from ‘Watching You’, by David Shank: N G M , M ay 2 0 0 5 ,148-149 Adapted from ‘Your Amazing Brain’, by Douglas A.
Richards, NG K website

Photo Credits
Cover images: (front cover) © Charles Krebs/Corbis, (back cover) nikkytok/Shutterstock

Shutterstock:

5 Renata Sedmakova; 6 Psv; 7 Kudryashka; 7 Kaarsten; 8 Four Oaks; 8 Kaarsten; 9 M onkey Business Images; 10 Igorlale; 10 Gajal; 10 Shutterstock; 10 Nikkytok; 10
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Geographic; 23 Eric Nathan/Alamy; 23 Viktor Pravdica/Alamy; 31 Jonathan Blair/National Geographic; 32 Norbert Wu/ Minden Pictures/National Geographic;
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Pictures/Alamy; 42 Brian J. Skerry/National Geographic; 43 Blickwinkel/Alamy; 44 Richard Olsenius/National Geographic; 45 Richard Olsenius/National
Geographic; 45 Richard Olsenius/National Geographic; 46 J Marshall - Tribaleye Images/Alamy; 49 Jim West/Alamy; 53 Trigger Image/Alamy; 58 Steve Hix/
Somos Images/Corbis; 58 Zero Creatives/lmage Source/Corbis; 61 Markus Lange/Robert Harding; 63 Construction Photography/Alamy; 64 Urs Schweitzer/
Robert Harding; 66 William Arthur/Alamy; 67 Jeff Greenberg 4 O f 6/Alamy; 69 National Geographic; 76 Stephen Frink Collection/Alamy; 78 Ray Roberts/Alamy;
79 Rebecca Wright/Alamy; 84 Larry Minden/ Minden Pictures/National Geographic; 88 Christophe Dupont Elise/lcon Smi/Corbis; 90 National Geographic; 94
Kent Kobersteen/National Geographic; 95 Keith Morris/Alamy; 96 Ryan Mcginnis/Alamy; 97 Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic; 97 Stephen Alvarez/National
Geographic; 98 Jeff Greenberg 4 O f 6/Alamy; 98 Universal Images Group Limited/Alamy; 101 Oleksiy Maksymenko/Alamy; 101 Mediablitzimages/Alamy; 102
Bob Daemmrich/Alamy; 103 Tom Corban/Alamy; 105 Blickwinkel/Alamy; 106 Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic; 109 Tim Laman/National Geographic; 110
George Steinmetz/National Geographic; 113 Robert Clark/National Geographic; 114 National Geographic; 117 National Geographic; 118 National Geographic; 119
National Geographic; 122 Oliver Gutfleisch/Robert Harding; 123 O liver Gutfleisch/Robert Harding; 124 Fotomaton/Alamy; 124 Justin KaseZsixz/Alamy; 124 Zuma
Press, Inc/Alamy; 124 Cultura Creative/Alamy; 125 Moodboard/Corbis; 128 Jack Hollingsworth/Corbis; 130 B. Anthony Stewart/National Geographic; 131 Ted
Spiegel/National Geographic; 132 Todd Gipstein/National Geographic; 135 M ichael S. Lewis/National Geographic; 136 Tony French/Alamy; 139 Bob Daemmrich/
Alamy; 141 Jason Smalley Photography/Alamy; 146 Randy Olson/National Geographic; 148 Richard Nowitz/National Geographic; 152 Cary Wolinsky/National
Geographic; 157 Imagebroker/Robert Harding.

Front cover image:
a close-up of soap

Gbubbles.

Close- up

STUDENT'S BOOK ШН se c o n d edition

Develop students' English with Close-up, a new four level course
for B1, B1+, B2 and C1 students suitable for exam preparation.
Close-up brings English to life through spectacular National
Geographic photography and facts carefully selected to appeal
to the inquisitive minds of students. They will discover real
places, real people and real English through a 'Close-up' on the
world around them.

Key features
• Exam-style task types prepare students and build their language

confidence for a range of international English exams
• Stunning National Geographic photography used throughout
• High-interest material adapted from National Geographic and

other authentic sources
• Theme-related National Geographic video material for each unit
• A comprehensive syllabus that addresses the needs of students at

B1 level including a focus on skills development

Close-up B1 consists of:
• Close-up B1 Student's Book + Online Student Zone
• Close-up B1 Student's Book + Online Student Zone + eBook
• Close-up B1 Workbook
• Close-up B1 Workbook + Online Workbook
• Close-up B1 Teacher's Book + Online Teacher Zone
• Close-up B1 Teacher's Book + Online Teacher Zone + IW B

Close-up

□NATIONAL CENGAGE 9781408095546
GEOGRAPHIC Learning
LEARNING 9 781408 095546 >

National Geographic Learning, a part of Cengage Learning, is a leading provider
of materials for English language teaching and learning throughout the world.
Visit ngl.cengage.com


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