d 100 Trinket d100 Trinket
79 An invitation to a party where a murder happened
51 A dead scarab beetle the size o f your hand 80 A bronze pentacle with an etching o f a rat's head
52 Two toy soldiers, one with a missing head in its center
53 A small box filled with different-sized buttons 81 A purple handkerchief embroidered with the name o f
54 A candle that can’t be lit a powerful archmage
55 A tiny cage with no door 82 Half o f a floorplan for a temple, castle, or some other
56 An old key structure
57 An indecipherable treasure map 83 A bit o f folded cloth that, when unfolded, turns into
58 A hilt from a broken sword a stylish cap
59 A rabbit’s foot 84 A receipt o f deposit at a bank in a far-flung city
60 A glass eye 85 A diary with seven missing pages
61 A cameo carved in the likeness of a hideous person 86 An empty silver snuffbox bearing an inscription on
62 A silver skull the size o f a coin the surface that says “dreams’’
63 An alabaster mask 87 An iron holy symbol devoted to an unknown god
64 A pyramid o f sticky black incense that smells very bad 88 A book that tells the story of a legendary hero's rise
65 A nightcap that, when worn, gives you pleasant and fall, with the last chapter missing
89 A vial of dragon blood
dreams 90 An ancient arrow of elven design
66 A single caltrop made from bone 91 A needle that never bends
67 A gold monocle frame without the lens 92 An ornate brooch of dwarven design
68 A 1-inch cube, each side painted a different color 93 An empty wine bottle bearing a pretty label that says,
69 A crystal knob from a door “The Wizard o f Wines Winery, Red Dragon Crush,
70 A small packet filled with pink dust 331422-W"
71 A fragment o f a beautiful song, written as musical 94 A mosaic tile with a multicolored, glazed surface
95 A petrified mouse
notes on two pieces of parchment 96 A black pirate flag adorned with a dragon's skull
72 A silver teardrop earring made from a real teardrop and crossbones
73 The shell of an egg painted with scenes of human 97 A tiny mechanical crab or spider that moves about
when it’s not being observed
misery in disturbing detail 98 A glass jar containing lard with a label that reads,
74 A fan that, when unfolded, shows a sleeping cat “Griffon Grease”
75 A set of bone pipes 99 A wooden box with a ceramic bottom that holds a
76 A four-leaf clover pressed inside a book discussing living worm with a head on each end of its body
100 A metal urn containing the ashes o f a hero
manners and etiquette
77 A sheet of parchment upon which is drawn a complex
78 An ornate scabbard that fits no blade you have
found so far
C h a p t e r 6: C u s t o m iz a t io n O p t io n s
THE COMBINATION OF ABILITY SCORES, RACE, P rerequ isites
class, and background defines your
character’s capabilities in the gam e, and To qualify for a new class, you must meet the ability score
the personal details you create set your prerequisites for both your current class and your new
character apart from every other character. one, as show n in the M ulticlassing Prerequisites table.
Even within your class and race, you have For example, a barbarian w ho decides to multiclass into
options to fine-tune what your character the druid class must have both Strength and W isdom
can do. But this chapter is for players w h o —with the scores o f 13 or higher. W ithout the full training that
D M ’s p erm ission —w ant to go a step further. a beginning character receives, you must be a quick
This chapter defines two optional sets of rules for study in your n ew class, having a natural aptitude that
custom izing your character: multiclassing and feats. is reflected by higher-than-average ability scores.
Multiclassing lets you com bine classes together,
and feats are special options you can choose instead M ulticlassing Prerequisites
o f increasing your ability scores as you gain levels.
Your DM decides whether these options are available Class Ability Score M i n i m u m
in a cam paign.
Barbarian Strength 13
Bard Charisma 13
M ulticlassing allow s you to gain levels in multiple
classes. D oing s o lets you m ix the abilities o f those Cleric Wisdom 13
classes to realize a character concept that might not be Druid Wisdom 13
reflected in one o f the standard class options. Fighter Strength 13 or Dexterity 13
Monk Dexterity 13 and Wisdom 13
W ith this rule, you have the option of gaining a level
in a n ew class w henever you advance in level, instead Paladin Strength 13 and Charisma 13
o f gaining a level in your current class. Your levels in
all your classes are added together to determine your Ranger Dexterity 13 and Wisdom 13
character level. F or exam ple, if you have three levels in
w izard and tw o in fighter, you ’re a 5th-level character. Rogue Dexterity 13
Sorcerer Charisma 13
A s you advance in levels, you might primarily remain Warlock Charisma 13
a m em ber o f your original class with just a few levels
in another class, or you might change course entirely, Wizard Intelligence 13
never look in g ba ck at the class you left behind. You
m ight even start progressin g in a third or fourth class. E xperien ce P o in ts
Com pared to a single-class character o f the sam e level,
you ’ll sa crifice so m e focu s in exchange for versatility. The experience point cost to gain a level is always
based on your total character level, as show n in the
M ulticlassing Ex a m p l e Character A dvancem ent table in chapter 1, not your level
Gary is playing a 4th-level fighter. When his character earns in a particular class. S o, if you are a cleric 6/fighter 1,
enough experience points to reach 5th level, Gary decides you must gain enough X P to reach 8th level before you
that his character will multiclass instead of continuing to can take your second level as a fighter or your seventh
progress as a fighter. Gary’s fighter has been spending a lot level as a cleric.
of time with Dave’s rogue, and has even been doing some
jobs on the side for the local thieves’ guild as a bruiser. Gary H it P o in t s a n d H it D ice
decides that his character will multiclass into the rogue class,
and thus his character becomes a 4th-level fighter and 1st- Y ou gain the hit points from your new class as d escribed
level rogue (written as fighter 4/rogue 1). for levels after 1st. You gain the 1st-level hit points for a
class only w hen you are a 1st-level character.
When Gary’s character earns enough experience to
reach 6th level, he can decide whether to add another You add together the Hit D ice granted by all your
fighter level (becoming a fighter 5/rogue 1), another rogue classes to form your p ool o f Hit Dice. If the Hit D ice are
level (becoming a fighter 4/rogue 2), or a level in a third the sam e die type, you can simply pool them together.
class, perhaps dabbling in wizardry thanks to the tome of For example, both the fighter and the paladin have a
mysterious lore he acquired (becoming a fighter 4/rogue 1/ d 10, s o if you are a paladin 5/fighter 5, you have ten d 10
wizard 1). Hit D ice. If your classes give you Hit D ice o f different
types, keep track o f them separately. If you are a paladin
5/cleric 5, for exam ple, you have five d 10 Hit D ice and
five d8 Hit D ice.
P r o ficien cy B o n u s
Your proficiency bonus is always based on your total
character level, as sh ow n in the Character Advancem ent
table in chapter 1, not your level in a particular class.
For exam ple, if you are a fighter 3/rogue 2, you have the
proficiency bonus o f a 5th-level character, w hich is +3.
P ro ficien cies U n arm o red D efense
W h en you gain a level in a class other than your first, If you already have the Unarmored D efense feature, you
you gain only som e o f that class’s starting proficiencies, c a n ’t gain it again from another class.
as show n in the M ulticlassing P roficiencies table.
Sp e l l c a s t in g
M u lticla ssin g Pr o f ic ien c ies Your capacity for spellcasting depends partly on your
com bined levels in all your spellcasting classes and
Class Proficiencies Gained partly on your individual levels in those classes. O nce
you have the Spellcasting feature from m ore than one
Barbarian Shields, simple weapons, martial weapons class, use the rules below. If you m ulticlass but have the
Spellcasting feature from only one class, you follow the
Bard Light armor, one skill of your choice, one rules as described in that class.
musical instrument o f your choice Spells Known and Prepared. You determine
what spells you know and can prepare for each class
Cleric Light armor, medium armor, shields individually, as if you w ere a single-classed m em ber of
that class. If you are a ranger 4/w izard 3, for example,
Druid Light armor, medium armor, shields (druids you kn ow three 1st-level ranger sp ells ba sed on your
levels in the ranger class. A s 3rd-level w izard, you know
will not wear armor or use shields made of three w izard cantrips, and your spellbook contains ten
w izard spells, tw o o f w hich (the tw o you gained w hen
metal) you reached 3rd level as a w izard) can be 2nd-level
spells. If your Intelligence is 16, you can prepare six
Fighter Light armor, medium armor, shields, simple wizard spells from your spellbook.
weapons, martial weapons Each spell you know and prepare is associated with one
o f your classes, and you use the spellcasting ability o f that
Monk Simple weapons, shortswords class when you cast the spell. Similarly, a spellcasting
focus, such as a holy symbol, can be used only for the
Paladin Light armor, medium armor, shields, simple spells from the class associated with that focus.
Ranger weapons, martial weapons Spell Slots. You determine your available spell slots
Light armor, medium armor, shields, simple by adding together all your levels in the bard, cleric,
druid, sorcerer, and w izard classes, half your levels
weapons, martial weapons, one skill from the (rounded down) in the paladin and ranger classes, and
a third o f your fighter or rogue levels (rounded down)
class’s skill list if you have the Eldritch Knight or the Arcane Trickster
feature. Use this total to determine your spell slots by
Rogue Light armor, one skill from the class’s skill list, consulting the Multiclass Spellcaster table.
thieves’ tools If you have m ore than one spellcasting class, this table
might give you spell slots o f a level that is higher than
Sorcerer — the spells you know or can prepare. You can use those
Warlock slots, but only to cast your lower-level spells. If a lower-
Light armor, simple weapons level spell that you cast, like burning hands, has an
enhanced effect w hen cast using a higher-level slot, you
Wizard — can use the enhanced effect, even though you don’t have
any spells o f that higher level.
C lass F eatures
For example, if you are the aforementioned ranger 4/
W h en you gain a n ew level in a class, you get its features w izard 3, you count as a 5th-level character w hen
for that level. A few features, however, have additional determ ining your spell slots: you have four 1st-level
rules w hen you ’re m ulticlassing: Channel Divinity, Extra slots, three 2nd-level slots, and tw o 3rd-level slots.
Attack, Unarm ored Defense, and Spellcasting. However, you don’t know any 3rd-level spells, nor do you
know any 2nd-level ranger spells. You can use the spell
C h a n n e l D iv in it y slots o f those levels to cast the spells you do know —and
If you already have the Channel Divinity feature and gain potentially enhance their effects.
a level in a class that also grants the feature, you gain the
Channel Divinity effects granted by that class, but getting Pact Magic. If you have both the Spellcasting class
the feature again doesn’t give you an additional use of feature and the Pact M agic class feature from the w arlock
it. You gain additional u ses only w hen you reach a class class, you can use the spell slots you gain from the Pact
level that explicitly grants them to you. For example, if Magic feature to cast spells you know or have prepared
you are a cleric 6/paladin 4, you can use Channel Divinity from classes with the Spellcasting class feature, and you
tw ice betw een rests because you are high enough level can use the spell slots you gain from the Spellcasting
in the cleric class to have m ore uses. W henever you use class feature to cast w arlock spells you know.
the feature, you can ch oose any o f the Channel Divinity
effects available to you from your two classes.
Extra A ttack
If you gain the Extra Attack class feature from m ore
than one class, the features don’t add together. You
can’t m ake m ore than tw o attacks with this feature
unless it says you do (as the fighter’s version o f Extra
Attack does). Similarly, the w arlock’s eldritch invocation
Thirsting Blade d oesn ’t give you additional attacks if you
also have Extra Attack.
M u lticlass S pellc a ster: • C lim bing d oesn ’t halve your speed.
• You can make a running long jum p or a running high
S pell S lo ts per S pell Level
jum p after moving only 5 feet on foot, rather than
Lvl. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10 feet.
1st 2 — — — — — — — — A ctor
2nd 3 — — — — — — — — Skilled at m im icry and dram atics, you gain the
follow ing benefits:
3rd 4 2— — — — — — —
• Increase your Charisma score by 1, to a m axim um o f 20.
4th 4 3 — — — — — — — • You have advantage on Charisma (Deception) and
5th 4 3 2 — — — — — — Charisma (Perform ance) checks when trying to pass
yourself off as a different person.
6th 4 3 3 — — — — — — • You can m im ic the speech o f another person or the
sounds made by other creatures. You must have
7th 4 3 3 1 — — — — — heard the person speaking, or heard the creature
m ake the sound, for at least 1 minute. A su ccessfu l
8th 4 3 3 2 — — — — — W isdom (Insight) check contested by your Charisma
(D eception) check allow s a listener to determ ine that
9th 4 3 3 3 1 — — — — the effect is faked.
10th 4 3 3 3 2 — — — — C harger
11th 4 3 3 3 2 1 — — — W hen you use your action to Dash, you can use a
bonus action to m ake one m elee w eapon attack or to
12th 4 3 3 3 2 1 — — — shove a creature.
13th 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 — — If you m ove at least 10 feet in a straight line
immediately before taking this bonus action, you either
14th 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 — — gain a +5 bon u s to the attack’s dam age roll (if you c h ose
to m ake a m elee attack and hit) or push the target up
15th 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 — to 10 feet away from you (if you ch ose to shove and
16th 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 —
C rossbow Expert
17th 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1
Thanks to extensive practice with the crossbow , you
18th 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 gain the follow ing benefits:
19th 4 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 • You ignore the loading quality o f crossbow s with
w hich you are proficient.
20th 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1
• B eing within 5 feet o f a hostile creature d oesn ’t
Feats im pose disadvantage on your ranged attack rolls.
A feat represents a talent or an area of expertise that gives • W hen you use the Attack action and attack with a one-
a character special capabilities. It em bodies training, handed w eapon, you can use a bonus action to attack
experience, and abilities beyond what a class provides. with a loaded hand crossbow you are holding.
At certain levels, your class gives you the Ability Score D efen sive D u elist
Improvement feature. Using the optional feats rule, you
can forgo taking that feature to take a feat o f your choice Prerequisite: Dexterity 13 or higher
instead. You can take each feat only once, unless the
feat’s description says otherwise. W hen you are wielding a finesse weapon with which
you are proficient and another creature hits you with
You must m eet any prerequisite specified in a feat a m elee attack, you can use your reaction to add your
to take that feat. If you ever lose a feat’s prerequisite, proficiency bonus to your AC for that attack, potentially
you can ’t use that feat until you regain the prerequisite. causing the attack to m iss you.
For example, the Grappler feat requires you to have a
Strength o f 13 or higher. If your Strength is reduced DualWi e l d e r
below 13 som ehow —perhaps by a w ithering cu rse—
you can’t benefit from the Grappler feat until your You master fighting with tw o w eapons, gaining the
Strength is restored. following benefits:
A lert • You gain a +1 bonus to AC while you are w ielding a
separate m elee w eapon in each hand.
Always on the lookout for danger, you gain the
following benefits: • You can use two-w eapon fighting even w hen the one-
handed m elee w ea p on s you are w ielding aren’t light.
• You gain a +5 bonus to initiative.
• You can’t be surprised w hile you are conscious. • You can draw or stow two one-handed w eapons when
• Other creatures don’t gain advantage on attack rolls you w ould normally be able to draw or stow only one.
against you as a result of being hidden from you.
A th lete
You have undergone extensive physical training to gain
the follow ing benefits:
• In crease your Strength or D exterity sco re by 1, to a
maximum of 20.
• W hen you are prone, standing up uses only 5 feet of
D ungeon D elver • W h en you roll a Hit D ie to regain hit points, the
m inim um num ber o f hit points you regain from
Alert to the hidden traps and secret d oors found in many the roll equals twice your Constitution modifier
dungeons, you gain the follow ing benefits: (m inim um o f 2).
• You have advantage on W isdom (Perception) and Elem ental A dept
Intelligence (Investigation) checks made to detect the
presence of secret doors. Prerequisite: The ability to cast at least one spell
• You have advantage on saving throws made to avoid W hen you gain this feat, ch oose one o f the follow ing
or resist traps. dam age types: acid, cold, fire, lightning, or thunder.
• You have resistance to the dam age dealt by traps. Spells you cast ignore resistance to dam age o f the
• You can sea rch for traps w hile traveling at a norm al chosen type. In addition, when you roll dam age for a
spell you cast that deals dam age o f that type, you can
pace, instead o f only at a slow pace. treat any 1 on a dam age die as a 2.
D urable You can select this feat multiple times. Each time
you do so, you must ch oose a different dam age type.
Hardy and resilient, you gain the follow ing benefits:
• In crea se y ou r C onstitution s c o r e by 1, to a
maximum of 20.
G rappler Inspirin g L eader
Prerequisite: Strength 13 or higher Prerequisite: Charisma 13 or higher
Y ou’ve developed the skills n ecessa ry to hold your You can spend 10 minutes inspiring your com panions,
ow n in close-quarters grappling. You gain the sh orin g up their resolve to fight. W h en you d o so, c h o o s e
following benefits: up to six friendly creatures (which can include yourself)
• You have advantage on attack rolls against a creature within 30 feet of you w ho can see or hear you and w ho
can understand you. Each creature can gain temporary
you are grappling. hit points equal to your level + your C harism a modifier.
• You can use your action to try to pin a creature grap- A creature ca n ’t gain tem porary hit poin ts from this feat
again until it has finished a short or long rest.
pled by you. To do so, make another grapple check. If
you succeed, you and the creature are both restrained K een M ind
until the grapple ends.
• Creatures that are one size larger than you d on ’t auto- You have a mind that can track time, direction,
matically succeed on checks to escape your grapple. and detail with uncanny precision. You gain the
follow ing benefits.
G reat W eapon M aster
• In crease your Intelligence sc o r e by 1, to a m axim um
Y ou’ve learned to put the w eight o f a w eap on to your of 20.
advantage, letting its m om entum em p ow er your strikes.
You gain the following benefits: • You always know which way is north.
• You always know the num ber o f hours left before the
• O n your turn, w hen you sco re a critical hit w ith a
m elee w eap on or redu ce a creature to 0 hit points next sunrise or sunset.
with one, you can make one m elee weapon attack as a • You can accurately recall anything you have seen or
heard within the past month.
• Before you make a m elee attack with a heavy weapon
that you are proficient with, you can ch oose to take a L ig h tly A r m o r e d
- 5 penalty to the attack roll. If the attack hits, you add
+10 to the attack’s dam age. You have trained to master the use of light armor,
gaining the follow ing benefits:
• In crease your Strength or D exterity s co re by 1, to a
You are an able physician, allowing you to m end wounds maximum of 20.
quickly and get your allies back in the fight. You gain the
following benefits: • You gain proficiency with light armor.
• W h en you u se a h ealer’s kit to stabilize a dying crea- L in g u ist
ture, that creature also regains 1 hit point.
You have studied languages and cod es, gaining the
• A s an action, you can spend on e use o f a h ealer’s kit to following benefits:
tend to a creature and restore 1d6 + 4 hit poin ts to it,
plus additional hit points equal to the creatu re’s m ax- • Increase your Intelligence score by 1, to a m aximum o f 20.
im um num ber o f Hit D ice. The creature can’t regain • You learn three languages of your choice.
hit points from this feat again until it finishes a short • You can ably create written ciphers. O thers ca n ’t d eci-
or long rest.
pher a code you create unless you teach them, they
H eavily A rm ored succeed on an Intelligence check (DC equal to your
Intelligence score + your proficiency bonus), or they
Prerequisite: Proficiency with medium armor u se m agic to deciph er it.
You have trained to m aster the use of heavy armor, Lucky
gaining the follow ing benefits:
You have inexplicable luck that seem s to kick in at just
• Increase your Strength score by 1, to a m axim um o f 20. the right moment.
• You gain proficiency with heavy armor.
You have 3 luck points. W henever you make an attack
H eavy A rmor M aster roll, an ability check, or a saving throw, you can spend
one luck point to roll an additional d20. You can choose
Prerequisite: Proficiency with heavy armor to spend one o f your luck points after you roll the die,
but before the outcom e is determined. You choose which
You can use your arm or to deflect strikes that w ould kill o f the d20s is used for the attack roll, ability check, or
others. You gain the following benefits: saving throw.
• In crease your Strength score by 1, to a m axim um o f 20. You can also spend one luck point w hen an attack
• W hile you are w earing heavy armor, bludgeoning, roll is made against you. Roll a d20, and then choose
w hether the attack u ses the attacker’s roll or yours.
piercing, and slashing dam age that you take from non
m agical w eap on s is reduced by 3. If m ore than one creature spends a luck point to
influence the ou tcom e o f a roll, the poin ts can cel each
other out; no additional dice are rolled.
You regain your expended luck points w hen you
finish a long rest.
M age Slayer • W hen you use the Dash action, difficult terrain d oesn ’t
cost you extra m ovem ent on that turn.
You have practiced techniques useful in m elee com bat
against spellcasters, gaining the follow ing benefits: • W hen you make a m elee attack against a creature, you
don’t provoke opportunity attacks from that creature
• W hen a creature within 5 feet of you casts a spell, you for the rest o f the turn, w hether you hit or not.
can use your reaction to make a m elee weapon attack
against that creature. M oderately A rmored
• W hen you dam age a creature that is concentrating on Prerequisite: Proficiency with light armor
a spell, that creature has disadvantage on the saving
th row it m akes to maintain its concentration. You have trained to master the use o f m edium armor
and shields, gaining the follow ing benefits:
• You have advantage on saving throws against spells
cast by creatures within 5 feet of you. • In crease your Strength or Dexterity sc o r e by 1, to a
maximum of 20.
M agic In itiate
• You gain proficiency with m edium arm or and shields.
C hoose a class: bard, cleric, druid, sorcerer, warlock, or
w izard. You learn tw o cantrips o f your choice from that M ounted C om batant
cla ss’s spell list.
You are a dangerous foe to face while mounted. W hile
In addition, c h o o s e on e 1st-level spell from that sam e you are m ounted and aren’t incapacitated, you gain the
list. You learn that spell and can cast it at its low est follow ing benefits:
level. O n ce you cast it, you must finish a lon g rest before
you can cast it again. • You have advantage on m elee attack rolls against any
unm ounted creature that is sm aller than your mount.
Your spellcasting ability for these spells depends
on the class you chose: Charisma for bard, • You can force an attack targeted at your m ount to tar-
sorcerer, or warlock; W isdom for cleric or druid: or get you instead.
Intelligence for wizard.
• If your m ount is su bjected to an effect that allow s it to
M a r tial A dept make a Dexterity saving throw to take only half dam -
age, it instead takes no dam age if it su cce e d s on the
You have martial training that allow s you to saving throw, and only h alf dam age if it fails.
perform special com bat maneuvers. You gain the
follow ing benefits: O bservant
• You learn two maneuvers of your choice from among Quick to notice details o f your environment, you gain
those available to the Battle M aster archetype in the the following benefits:
fighter class. If a maneuver you use requires your tar-
get to m ake a saving th row to resist the m aneuver’s • In crease your Intelligence or W isd om sco re by 1, to a
effects, the saving throw DC equals 8 + your profi- maximum of 20.
ciency bonus + your Strength or Dexterity modifier
(your choice). • If you can see a creatu re’s m outh w hile it is sp eak in g
a language you understand, you can interpret what it’s
• If you already have superiority dice, you gain one saying by reading its lips.
m ore; otherwise, you have one superiority die, which
is a d6. This die is used to fuel your maneuvers. A • You have a +5 bonus to your passive W isdom
superiority die is expended w hen you use it. You (Perception) and passive Intelligence (Investigation)
regain your expended superiority dice when you scores.
finish a short or long rest.
Polearm M aster
M ed iu m A rm or M aster
You can keep your en em ies at bay with reach w eapon s.
Prerequisite: Proficiency with medium armor You gain the follow ing benefits:
You have practiced m oving in m edium arm or to gain the • W hen you take the Attack action and attack with only
follow ing benefits: a glaive, halberd, or quarterstaff, you can use a bonus
action to make a m elee attack with the opposite end of
• W earing medium arm or doesn’t im pose disadvantage the w eapon. The w ea p on ’s dam age die for this attack
on your Dexterity (Stealth) checks. is a d4, and the attack deals bludgeoning damage.
• W h en you w ear m edium arm or, you can add 3, • W hile you are w ielding a glaive, halberd, pike, or quar-
rather than 2, to your AC if you have a Dexterity of terstaff, other creatures provoke an opportunity attack
16 or higher. from you when they enter your reach.
M obile R esilien t
You are exceptionally speedy and agile. You gain the C hoose one ability score. You gain the follow ing benefits:
• In crease the ch osen ability sco re by 1, to a m axim um
• Your sp eed in creases by 10 feet. of 20.
• You gain proficiency in saving th row s using the
ch osen ability.
R itu a l C a ste r it must have the ritual tag. The p r o ce s s o f cop yin g the
spell into your ritual book takes 2 hours per level o f the
Prerequisite: Intelligence or Wisdom 13 or higher spell, and costs 50 gp per level. The cost represents
material com ponents you expend as you experiment
You have learned a num ber o f spells that you can cast as w ith the spell to m aster it, as w ell as the fine inks you
rituals. T h ese spells are written in a ritual book, which n eed to record it.
you must have in hand w hile casting one o f them.
Savag e A t t a c k e r
W hen you ch oose this feat, you acquire a ritual book
holding tw o 1st-level spells o f your choice. C hoose one O nce per turn when you roll damage for a m elee w eapon
of the following classes: bard, cleric, druid, sorcerer, attack, you can reroll the w eapon ’s dam age dice and use
warlock, or wizard. You must choose your spells either total.
from that cla ss’s spell list, and the spells you ch oose
must have the ritual tag. The class you ch oose also Se n t in e l
determ ines your spellcasting ability for these spells:
Charisma for bard, sorcerer, or warlock; W isdom for You have mastered techniques to take advantage
cleric or druid; or Intelligence for wizard. o f every drop in any enem y’s guard, gaining the
follow ing benefits:
If you com e across a spell in written form, such as a
m agical spell scroll or a w iza rd ’s sp ellbook , you might • W h en you hit a creature with an opportu nity attack,
be able to add it to your ritual book . The spell m ust be the creatu re’s sp eed b e c o m e s 0 for the rest o f
on the spell list for the class you chose, the spell’s level the turn.
can be no higher than h alf your level (rounded up), and
• Creatures within 5 feet of you provoke opportunity • W hen you cast a spell that requires you to m ake an
attacks from you even if they take the Disengage attack roll, the sp ell’s range is doubled.
action before leaving your reach.
• Your ranged spell attacks ignore half cover and
• W hen a creature within 5 feet of you m akes an attack three-quarters cover.
against a target other than you (and that target d oesn ’t
have this feat), you can use your reaction to m ake a • You learn one cantrip that requires an attack roll.
melee weapon attack against the attacking creature. C hoose the cantrip from the bard, cleric, druid, sor-
cerer, w arlock, or w izard spell list. Your spellcasting
Sh arpsh o o ter ability for this cantrip depends on the spell list you
chose from: Charisma for bard, sorcerer, or warlock;
You have mastered ranged weapons and can make W isdom for cleric or druid; or Intelligence for wizard.
shots that others find im possible. You gain the
follow ing benefits: T avern B rawler
• Attacking at long range doesn't im p ose disadvantage A ccustom ed to rough-and-tumble fighting using
on your ranged w eapon attack rolls. w hatever w eap on s happen to be at hand, you gain the
• Your ranged weapon attacks ignore half cover and
three-quarters cover. • In crease your Strength or Constitution sc o r e by 1,
to a maximum o f 20.
• B efore you m ake an attack with a ranged w eapon that
you are proficient with, you can ch oose to take a - 5 • You are proficient with im provised w eapons and
penalty to the attack roll. If the attack hits, you add +10 unarmed strikes.
to the attack’s dam age.
• Your unarm ed strike uses a d4 for damage.
Sh ield M a s t e r • W hen you hit a creature with an unarm ed strike or an
You use shields not just for protection but also for im provised w eapon on your turn, you can use a bonus
offense. You gain the follow ing benefits while you are action to attempt to grapple the target.
wielding a shield:
• If you take the Attack action on your turn, you can use
a bonus action to try to shove a creature within 5 feet Your hit point m axim u m in creases by an am ount equal
of you with your shield. to tw ice your level w hen you gain this feat. W henever
you gain a level thereafter, your hit point m axim um
• If you aren’t incapacitated, you can add your shield’s AC in creases by an additional 2 hit points.
bonus to any Dexterity saving throw you make against
a spell or other harmful effect that targets only you. War C aster
• If you are subjected to an effect that allow s you to Prerequisite: The ability to cast at least one spell
m ake a Dexterity saving throw to take only half dam -
age, you can use your reaction to take no damage if You have practiced casting spells in the midst of
you succeed on the saving throw, interposing your combat, learning techniques that grant you the
shield between yourself and the source of the effect. follow ing benefits:
Sk il l e d • You have advantage on Constitution saving throws
that you make to maintain your concentration on a
You gain proficiency in any com bination o f three skills spell when you take damage.
or tools of your choice.
• You can perform the som atic com ponents of spells
Sk u lk er even when you have w eapons or a shield in one or
Prerequisite: Dexterity 13 or higher
• W h en a hostile creatu re’s m ovem ent provok es an
You are expert at slinking through sh adow s. You gain opportunity attack from you, you can use your reac-
the follow ing benefits: tion to cast a spell at the creature, rather than m aking
an opportunity attack. The spell must have a casting
• You can try to hide w hen you are lightly obscured time o f 1 action and must target only that creature.
from the creature from which you are hiding.
W eapon M aster
• W h en you are hidden from a creature and m iss it with
a ranged w eapon attack, m aking the attack doesn't You have practiced extensively with a variety of
reveal your position. w eapons, gaining the follow ing benefits:
• Dim light d oesn ’t im pose disadvantage on your • In crease your Strength or Dexterity sc o r e by 1, to a
W isdom (Perception) checks relying on sight. maximum of 20.
Spell Sniper • You gain proficiency with four w eapons o f your choice.
Prerequisite: The ability to cast at least one spell
You have learned techniques to enhance your
attacks with certain kinds o f spells, gaining the
follow ing benefits:
C h a p t e r 7: U s i n g A b i l i t y S c o r e s
ISX ABILITIES PROVIDE A QUICK DESCRIPTION To determine an ability m odifier without consulting
o f every creature’s physical and mental the table, subtract 10 from the ability sco re and then
characteristics: divide the total by 2 (round down).
• Strength, m easuring physical pow er Because ability m odifiers affect alm ost every attack
• Dexterity, m easu ring agility roll, ability check, and saving throw, ability m odifiers
• Constitution, m easuring endurance co m e up in play m ore often than their associa ted scores.
• Intelligence, m easuring reasoning
and memory A dvantage and
• Wisdom, m easuring perception and insight
• Charisma, m easuring force o f personality D isadvantage
Is a character m uscle-bound and insightful? Brilliant S om etim es a special ability or spell tells you that you
and charm ing? Nimble and hardy? Ability scores have advantage or disadvantage on an ability check,
define th ese qualities—a creatu re’s assets as w ell a saving throw, or an attack roll. W hen that happens,
as weaknesses. you roll a second d20 w hen you make the roll. Use the
higher of the tw o rolls if you have advantage, and use
The three main rolls o f the gam e—the ability check, the lower roll if you have disadvantage. For example, if
the saving throw, and the attack roll—rely on the six you have disadvantage and roll a 17 and a 5, you u se the
ability scores. The b o o k ’s introduction d escribes the 5. If you instead have advantage and roll th ose num bers,
basic rule behind these rolls: roll a d20, add an ability you u se the 17.
m odifier derived from one o f the six ability scores, and
com pare the total to a target number. If multiple situations affect a roll and each one grants
advantage or im p oses disadvantage on it, you d on ’t roll
This chapter focuses on how to use ability checks m ore than one additional d20. If two favorable situations
and saving throws, covering the fundamental activities grant advantage, for example, you still roll only one
that creatures attempt in the game. R u les for attack rolls additional d20.
appear in chapter 9.
If circum stances cause a roll to have both advantage
A b ility Scores a n d and disadvantage, you are considered to have neither of
them, and you roll one d20. This is true even if multiple
M odifiers circum stances im pose disadvantage and only one grants
advantage or vice versa. In such a situation, you have
Each o f a creature’s abilities has a score, a num ber that neither advantage nor disadvantage.
defines the m agnitude o f that ability. A n ability score
is not just a m easure o f innate capabilities, but also W hen you have advantage or disadvantage and
e n com p a sses a creatu re’s training and com p eten ce in som eth in g in the gam e, su ch as the halfling’s Lucky
activities related to that ability. trait, lets you reroll the d20, you can reroll only one
of the dice. You choose which one. For example, if a
A s c o r e o f 10 or 11 is the norm al hum an average, but halfling has advantage on an ability check and rolls
adventurers and many m onsters are a cut above average a 1 and a 13, the halfling could use the Lucky trait to
in m ost abilities. A score o f 18 is the highest that a reroll the 1.
person usually reaches. Adventurers can have scores
as high as 20, and monsters and divine beings can have You usually gain advantage or disadvantage through
scores as high as 30. the use of special abilities, actions, or spells. Inspiration
(see chapter 4) can also give a character advantage on
Each ability also has a modifier, derived from the checks related to the character’s personality, ideals,
sc o r e and ranging from 5 (for an ability sc o r e o f 1) to or bonds. The DM can also decide that circum stances
+10 (for a score o f 30). The Ability S cores and M odifiers influence a roll in one direction or the other and grant
table notes the ability m odifiers for the range o f possible advantage or im pose disadvantage as a result.
ability scores, from 1 to 30.
A bility S c o r e s a n d M o d if ie r s
Characters have a proficiency bonus determined by
Score Modifier Score Modifier level, as detailed in chapter 1. M onsters also have this
+3 bonus, w hich is incorporated in their stat blocks. The
1 -5 16-17 +4 bon u s is u sed in the rules on ability checks, saving
+5 throws, and attack rolls.
2-3 -4 18-19
+6 Your proficiency bonus can ’t be added to a single die
4-5 -3 20-21 +7 roll or other number m ore than once. For example, if
+8 two different rules say you can add your proficiency
6-7 -2 22-23 +9 bonus to a W isdom saving throw, you nevertheless add
+10 the bonus only once w hen you make the save.
8-9 -1 24-25
Occasionally, your proficiency bonus might be
10-11 +0 26-27 multiplied or divided (doubled or halved, for example)
12-13 +1 28-29
14-15 +2 30
before you apply it. For exam ple, the rogu e's E xpertise is holding closed. In situations like these, the outcom e
feature doubles the proficiency bonus for certain ability is determ ined by a special form o f ability check,
checks. If a circum stance suggests that your proficiency called a contest.
bonus applies m ore than once to the sam e roll, you still
add it only on ce and multiply or divide it only on ce. Both participants in a contest m ake ability checks
appropriate to their efforts. They apply all appropriate
By the sam e token, if a feature or effect allow s you bon u ses and penalties, but instead o f com paring the
to multiply your proficiency bonus w hen m aking an total to a DC, they com pare the totals o f their two
ability check that w ouldn’t norm ally benefit from your checks. The participant with the higher check total w ins
proficiency bonus, you still don’t add the bonus to the the contest. That character or monster either succeeds
check. For that check your proficiency bonus is 0, given at the action or prevents the other on e from su cceedin g.
the fact that multiplying 0 by any num ber is still 0. For
instance, if you lack proficiency in the H istory skill, If the contest results in a tie, the situation rem ains the
you gain no benefit from a feature that lets you double sam e as it w as before the contest. Thus, on e contestant
your proficiency bonus w hen you make Intelligence m ight w in the contest by default. If tw o characters tie in
(History) checks. a contest to snatch a ring off the floor, neither character
grabs it. In a contest b etw een a m onster trying to open
In general, you d on ’t multiply your proficiency bon u s a door and an adventurer trying to keep the door closed,
for attack rolls or saving throws. If a feature or effect a tie m eans that the d oor rem ains shut.
allow s you to do so, these sam e rules apply.
Sk il l s
A bility C hecks
Each ability covers a broad range o f capabilities,
An ability ch eck tests a character’s or m on ster’s innate including skills that a character or a m onster can be
talent and training in an effort to overcom e a challenge. proficient in. A skill represents a sp ecific aspect o f an
The DM calls for an ability check w hen a character or ability score, and an individual’s proficiency in a skill
m onster attempts an action (other than an attack) that dem onstrates a focu s on that aspect. (A character’s
has a chance o f failure. W hen the outcom e is uncertain, starting skill proficien cies are determ ined at character
the dice determine the results. creation, and a m on ster’s skill proficiencies appear in
the m onster’s stat block.)
For every ability check, the DM decides which o f the six
abilities is relevant to the task at hand and the difficulty For example, a Dexterity check might reflect a
of the task, represented by a Difficulty Class. The m ore character’s attempt to pull off an acrobatic stunt, to palm
difficult a task, the higher its DC. The Typical Difficulty an object, or to stay hidden. Each o f these aspects o f
C lasses table show s the m ost com m on DCs. Dexterity has an associated skill: Acrobatics, Sleight of
Hand, and Stealth, respectively. S o a character w ho has
Ty p ic a l D if f ic u l t y C l a s s e s proficiency in the Stealth skill is particularly g o o d at
Dexterity checks related to sneaking and hiding.
Task Difficulty DC
Very easy 5 The skills related to each ability sc o r e are sh ow n in
Easy 10 the follow ing list. (N o skills are related to Constitution.)
S e e an ability’s description in the later section s o f this
Medium 15 chapter for exam ples o f how to use a skill associated
Hard 20 w ith an ability.
Very hard 25
Nearly impossible 30 Strength Wisdom
Athletics Anim al Handling
To make an ability check, roll a d20 and add the Insight
relevant ability modifier. As with other d20 rolls, apply Dexterity M edicine
bonuses and penalties, and com pare the total to the DC. A crob a tics Perception
If the total equals or exceeds the DC, the ability check Sleight of Hand Survival
is a su ccess—the creature overcom es the challenge Stealth
at hand. O therw ise, it’s a failure, w h ich m eans the Charisma
character or m onster m akes no progress toward the Intelligence D ecep tion
objective or m akes progress com bined with a setback Arcana In tim idation
determined by the DM. History Perform ance
C o n t e s t s _______________________________ Nature
S om etim es on e character’s or m on ster’s efforts are
directly op p osed to another’s. This can occu r w hen both Som etim es, the DM might ask for an ability check
o f them are trying to do the sam e thing and only one using a specific skill—for example, “M ake a W isdom
can succeed, such as attempting to snatch up a m agic (Perception) check.” At other times, a player might ask
ring that has fallen on the floor. This situation also the DM if proficiency in a particular skill applies to a
applies when one o f them is trying to prevent the other check. In either case, proficiency in a skill m eans an
one from accom plishing a goal—for exam ple, w hen a individual can add his or her proficiency bonus to ability
monster tries to force open a door that an adventurer checks that involve that skill. W ithout proficiency in the
skill, the individual m akes a norm al ability check.
For exam ple, if a character attempts to clim b up a character w h o lacks that proficiency ca n ’t help another
dangerous cliff, the D ungeon M aster might ask for a character in that task. Moreover, a character can help
Strength (Athletics) check. If the character is proficient only when two or m ore individuals w orking together
in Athletics, the character’s proficiency bon u s is added would actually be productive. Som e tasks, such as
to the Strength check. If the character lacks that threading a needle, are no easier with help.
proficiency, he or she just m akes a Strength check.
G roup C hecks
V a r ia n t : Sk il l s w it h D if f e r e n t A b il it ie s W hen a num ber of individuals are trying to accom plish
Normally, your proficiency in a skill applies only to a som ething as a group, the DM might ask for a group
specific kind o f ability check. Proficiency in Athletics, ability check. In such a situation, the characters w ho are
for example, usually applies to Strength checks. In som e skilled at a particular task help cover th ose w h o aren't.
situations, though, your proficiency might reasonably
apply to a different kind o f check. In such ca ses, the DM To m ake a group ability check, everyone in the group
might ask for a check using an unusual com bination of m akes the ability check. If at least h alf the group
ability and skill, or you might ask your DM if you can succeeds, the whole group succeeds. Otherwise,
apply a proficiency to a different check. For example, the group fails.
if you have to sw im from an offshore island to the
mainland, your DM might call for a Constitution check G roup ch eck s d on ’t co m e up very often, and they’re
to see if you have the stam ina to m ake it that far. In this m ost useful w hen all the characters succeed or
case, your DM might allow you to apply your proficiency fail as a group. For exam ple, when adventurers are
in Athletics and ask for a Constitution (Athletics) check. navigating a swamp, the DM might call for a group
S o if y ou ’re proficient in A thletics, you apply your W isdom (Survival) check to see if the characters can
proficiency bonus to the Constitution check just as you avoid the quicksand, sinkholes, and other natural
would normally do for a Strength (Athletics) check. hazards o f the environm ent. If at least h alf the group
Similarly, when your half-orc barbarian uses a display succeeds, the successful characters are able to guide
of raw strength to intimidate an enemy, your DM might their com panions out of danger. Otherwise, the group
ask for a Strength (Intimidation) check, even though stum bles into one o f these hazards.
Intimidation is norm ally associated with Charisma.
U sing Each A bility
Pa s s i v e C h e c k s
Every task that a character or m onster might attempt
A passive check is a special kind o f ability check that in the game is covered by one o f the six abilities. This
d oesn ’t involve any die rolls. Such a check can represent section explains in m ore detail what those abilities
the average result for a task done repeatedly, such as m ean and the w ays they are u sed in the gam e.
searching for secret doors over and over again, or can
be used when the DM wants to secretly determine St r e n g t h
w hether the characters su cceed at som eth in g without
rolling dice, such as noticing a hidden monster. Strength m easures bodily power, athletic training, and
the extent to w hich you can exert raw physical force.
H ere’s h ow to determ ine a character’s total for a
passive check: St r e n g t h C h e c k s
A Strength ch eck can m od el any attempt to lift, push,
10 + all modifiers that normally apply to the check pull, or break som ething, to force your body through a
space, or to otherw ise apply brute force to a situation.
If the character has advantage on the check, add 5. For The Athletics skill reflects aptitude in certain kinds of
disadvantage, subtract 5. The gam e refers to a passive Strength checks.
check total as a score.
Athletics. Your Strength (Athletics) check covers
F or exam ple, if a 1st-level character has a W isd om o f difficult situations you encounter w hile climbing,
15 and proficiency in P erception, he or she has a passive jum ping, or sw im m ing. Exam ples include the
W isd om (P erception ) sc o r e o f 14. follow ing activities:
The rules on hiding in the “D exterity” section below • You attempt to climb a sheer or slippery cliff, avoid
rely on passive checks, as do the exploration rules hazards w hile scaling a wall, or cling to a surface
in chapter 8. w hile som ething is trying to kn ock you off.
W o r k in g Together • You try to jum p an unusually long distance or pull
off a stunt midjump.
Som etim es two or m ore characters team up to attempt a
task. The character w h o’s leading the effort—or the one • You struggle to sw im or stay afloat in treacherous cur
with the highest ability m odifier—can make an ability rents, storm -tossed waves, or areas o f thick seaweed.
check with advantage, reflecting the help provided by Or another creature tries to push or pull you underw a
the other characters. In combat, this requires the Help ter or otherwise interfere with your swim ming.
action (see chapter 9).
Other Strength Checks. The DM might also call for
A character can only provide help if the task is on e that a Strength check w hen you try to accom plish tasks like
he or she could attempt alone. For exam ple, trying to the following:
open a lock requires proficiency with thieves’ tools, so a
• Force open a stuck, locked, or barred door Va r ia n t : En cu m bran ce
• Break free of bonds The rules for lifting and carrying are intentionally
• Push through a tunnel that is too sm all simple. Here is a variant if you are looking for m ore
• H ang on to a w agon w hile bein g d ragged behind it detailed rules for determ ining how a character is
• Tip over a statue hindered by the w eight o f equipment. W hen you use this
• Keep a boulder from rolling variant, ignore the Strength colum n o f the A rm or table
in chapter 5.
A tta ck R olls an d Dam age
You add your Strength m odifier to your attack roll and If you carry weight in excess o f 5 tim es your Strength
your damage roll w hen attacking with a melee weapon score, you are encumbered, which means your speed
such as a m ace, a battleaxe, or a javelin. You use drops by 10 feet.
m elee w eapon s to m ake m elee attacks in hand-to-hand
combat, and som e of them can be thrown to make a If you carry w eight in ex ce s s o f 10 tim es your
ranged attack. Strength score, up to your m axim um carrying capacity,
you are instead heavily encumbered, which m eans your
L if t in g a n d C a r r y in g speed drops by 20 feet and you have disadvantage on
Your Strength score determ ines the amount of weight ability checks, attack rolls, and saving throws that use
you can bear. The following terms define what you can Strength, Dexterity, or Constitution.
lift or carry.
D ex ter ity
Carrying Capacity. Your carrying capacity is your
Strength score multiplied by 15. This is the weight (in Dexterity m easures agility, reflexes, and balance.
pounds) that you can carry, w hich is high enough that
m ost characters d on ’t usually have to w orry about it. D e x t e r it y C h e ck s
A Dexterity check can m odel any attempt to move
Push, Drag, or Lift. You can push, drag, or lift a nimbly, quickly, or quietly, or to keep from falling
weight in pounds up to tw ice your carrying capacity on tricky footing. The Acrobatics, Sleight of Hand,
(or 30 times your Strength score). W hile pushing or and Stealth skills reflect aptitude in certain kinds o f
dragging w eight in ex ce s s o f your carryin g capacity, Dexterity checks.
your speed drops to 5 feet.
Acrobatics. Your Dexterity (Acrobatics) check covers
Size and Strength. Larger creatures can bear m ore your attempt to stay on your feet in a tricky situation,
weight, whereas Tiny creatures can carry less. For such as w hen y ou ’re trying to run a cross a sheet o f ice,
each size category above M edium , double the creatu re’s balance on a tightrope, or stay upright on a rocking
carryin g capacity and the am ount it can push, drag, or ship’s deck. The DM m ight also call for a Dexterity
lift. For a Tiny creature, halve these weights. (Acrobatics) check to see if you can perform acrobatic
stunts, including dives, rolls, som ersaults, and flips.
Sleight o fHand. W henever you attempt an act o f A rm or G lass
legerdemain or manual trickery, such as planting Depending on the armor you wear, you might add som e
som ething on som eone else or concealing an object on or all o f your Dexterity m odifier to your Arm or Class,
your person, make a Dexterity (Sleight o f Hand) check. as d escrib ed in chapter 5.
The DM might also call for a Dexterity (Sleight of Hand)
check to determ ine w hether you can lift a coin purse off In it ia t iv e
another person or slip som ething out o f another At the beginning o f every com bat, you roll initiative
person’s pocket. by m aking a Dexterity check. Initiative determ ines
the order of creatures’ turns in combat, as described
Stealth. M ake a D exterity (Stealth) ch eck w hen you in chapter 9.
attempt to conceal yourself from enem ies, slink past
guards, slip away without being noticed, or sneak up on C o n stitu tio n
som eone without being seen or heard.
Constitution m easures health, stamina, and vital force.
Other Dexterity Checks. The DM might call for a
Dexterity check w hen you try to accom plish tasks like C o n st it u t io n C h eck s
the following: Constitution checks are uncom m on, and no skills apply
to Constitution checks, because the endurance this
• Control a heavily laden cart on a steep descent ability represents is largely passive rather than involving
• Steer a chariot around a tight turn a specific effort on the part of a character or monster.
• Pick a lock A Constitution check can m odel your attempt to push
• Disable a trap beyond norm al limits, however.
• Securely tie up a prisoner
• W riggle free of bonds The DM might call for a Constitution check when you
• Play a stringed instrument try to accom plish tasks like the following:
• Craft a sm all or detailed object
• Hold your breath
A tta ck Rolls an d Dam age • M arch or labor for hours without rest
• Go without sleep
You add your Dexterity m odifier to your attack roll and • Survive without food or water
your damage roll w hen attacking with a ranged weapon, • Quaff an entire stein o f ale in one go
such as a sling or a longbow. You can also add your
Dexterity m odifier to your attack roll and your damage H it P o in t s
roll w hen attacking with a m elee w eapon that has the Your Constitution m odifier contributes to your hit
finesse property, such as a dagger or a rapier. points. Typically, you add your Constitution m odifier to
each Hit D ie you roll for your hit points.
When you try to hide, make a Dexterity (Stealth) check. Until If your Constitution m odifier changes, your hit point
you are discovered or you stop hiding, that check’s total is m axim um changes as well, as though you had the new
contested by the Wisdom (Perception) check o f any creature m odifier from 1st level. For example, if you raise your
that actively searches for signs o f your presence. Constitution score when you reach 4th level and your
Constitution m odifier in crea ses from +1 to +2, you
You can’t hide from a creature that can see you, and if you adjust your hit point m axim u m as though the m odifier
make noise (such as shouting a warning or knocking over a had always b een +2. S o you add 3 hit points for your
vase), you give away your position. An invisible creature can’t first three levels, and then roll your hit points for 4th
be seen, so it can always try to hide. Signs of its passage level using your n ew modifier. Or if you ’re 7th level and
might still be noticed, however, and it still has to stay quiet. som e effect low ers your Constitution score so as to
reduce your Constitution m odifier by 1, your hit point
In combat, most creatures stay alert for signs o f danger m axim u m is reduced by 7.
all around, so if you come out o f hiding and approach
a creature, it usually sees you. However, under certain In t e llig e n c e
circumstances, the Dungeon Master might allow you to stay
hidden as you approach a creature that is distracted, allowing Intelligence m easures mental acuity, accuracy o f recall,
you to gain advantage on an attack before you are seen. and the ability to reason.
Passive Perception. When you hide, there’s a chance In t e l l ig e n c e C h e c k s
someone will notice you even if they aren't searching. To An Intelligence check com es into play when you need
determine whether such a creature notices you, the DM to draw on logic, education, memory, or deductive
compares your Dexterity (Stealth) check with that creature’s reasoning. The Arcana, History, Investigation, Nature,
passive Wisdom (Perception) score, which equals 10 + the and Religion skills reflect aptitude in certain kinds of
creature’s Wisdom modifier, as well as any other bonuses Intelligence checks.
or penalties. Ifthe creature has advantage, add 5. For
disadvantage, subtract 5. Arcana. Your Intelligence (Arcana) check m easures
your ability to recall lore about spells, m agic items,
For example, if a 1st-level character (with a proficiency eldritch sym bols, m agical traditions, the planes of
bonus o f +2) has a Wisdom o f 15 (a +2 modifier) and existence, and the inhabitants of those planes.
proficiency in Perception, he or she has a passive Wisdom
(Perception) o f 14. History. Your Intelligence (History) check m easures
your ability to recall lore about historical events,
What Can You See? One o f the main factors in determining
whether you can find a hidden creature or object is how well
you can see in an area, which might be lightly or heavily
obscured, as explained in chapter 8.
legendary people, ancient kingdom s, past disputes, Fin d in g a H id d en O bject
recent wars, and lost civilizations. When your character searches for a hidden object such as
a secret door or a trap, the DM typically asks you to make a
Investigation. W h en you look around for clues and Wisdom (Perception) check. Such a check can be used to find
make deductions based on those clues, you make an hidden details or other information and clues that you might
Intelligence (Investigation) check. You might deduce the otherwise overlook.
location of a hidden object, discern from the appearance
o f a w oun d w hat kind o f w eap on dealt it, or determ ine In most cases, you need to describe where you are looking
the w eakest point in a tunnel that cou ld cau se it to in order for the DM to determine your chance o f success. For
collapse. P oring through ancient scrolls in search of example, a key is hidden beneath a set o f folded clothes in
a hidden fragment of knowledge might also call for an the top drawer o f a bureau. If you tell the DM that you pace
Intelligence (Investigation) check. around the room, looking at the walls and furniture for clues,
you have no chance o f finding the key, regardless o f your
Nature. Your Intelligence (Nature) ch eck m easures Wisdom (Perception) check result. You would have to specify
your ability to recall lore about terrain, plants and that you were opening the drawers or searching the bureau in
animals, the weather, and natural cycles. order to have any chance o f success.
Religion. Your Intelligence (R eligion) ch eck m easures For example, you might try to hear a conversation
your ability to recall lore about deities, rites and prayers, through a closed door, eavesdrop under an open window,
religious hierarchies, holy symbols, and the practices or hear m onsters m oving stealthily in the forest. Or you
o f secret cults. might try to spot things that are obscured or easy to
miss, whether they are orc s lying in ambush on a road,
Other Intelligence Checks. The DM might call for an thugs hiding in the sh ad ow s o f an alley, or candlelight
Intelligence check w hen you try to accom plish tasks like under a closed secret door.
Survival. T h e DM m ight ask you to m ake a W isd om
• Com municate with a creature without using w ords (Survival) check to follow tracks, hunt wild game, guide
• Estimate the value o f a precious item your group through frozen wastelands, identify signs
• Pull together a disguise to pass as a city guard that ow lbears live nearby, predict the weather, or avoid
• Forge a document quicksand and other natural hazards.
• R ecall lore about a craft or trade
• W in a game o f skill Other Wisdom Checks. The DM m ight call for a
W isdom check w hen you try to accom plish tasks like
Spe l l c a st in g A b il it y the following:
W izards use Intelligence as their sp ellcastin g ability,
which helps determine the saving throw D Cs of • Get a gut feeling about what course o f action to follow
spells they cast. • D iscern whether a seem ingly dead or living creature
W isd o m is undead
W isdom reflects how attuned you are to the world Sp e l l c a s t in g A b il it y
around you and represents perceptiveness and intuition. Clerics, druids, and rangers use W isdom as their
spellcastin g ability, w h ich helps determ ine the saving
W isd o m C h eck s throw DCs of spells they cast.
A W isdom check might reflect an effort to read body
language, understand s o m e o n e ’s feelings, n otice things C h a r ism a
about the environment, or care for an injured person.
The Anim al Handling, Insight, Medicine, Perception, Charisma m easures your ability to interact effectively
and Survival skills reflect aptitude in certain kinds of w ith others. It includes such factors as con fid en ce
W isdom checks. and eloqu en ce, and it can represent a charm ing or
com m anding personality.
Animal Handling. W h en there is any question
whether you can calm dow n a dom esticated animal, C h a r ism a C h eck s
keep a m ount from getting sp ooked , or intuit an anim al’s A Charisma check might arise when you try to influence
intentions, the DM might call for a W isdom (Animal or entertain others, when you try to make an im pression
Handling) check. You also make a W isdom (Animal or tell a convincing lie, or w hen you are navigating a
Handling) check to control your mount w hen you attempt tricky social situation. The Deception, Intimidation,
a risky maneuver. P erform an ce, and P ersu asion skills reflect aptitude in
certain kinds of Charisma checks.
Insight. Your W isd om (Insight) ch eck d ecid es w hether
you can determine the true intentions of a creature, such Deception. Your C harism a (D eception ) ch eck
as w h en search in g out a lie or predicting s o m e o n e ’s determ ines w hether you can convincingly hide the
next move. D oing so involves gleaning clues from body truth, either verbally or through your actions. This
language, speech habits, and changes in m annerism s. deception can encom pass everything from misleading
others through ambiguity to telling outright lies. Typical
Medicine. A W isd om (M edicine) ch eck lets you try to situations include trying to fast-talk a guard, con a
stabilize a dying com panion or diagnose an illness. merchant, earn money through gambling, pass yourself
o ff in a disguise, dull s o m e o n e ’s su sp icion s w ith false
Perception. Your W isd om (Perception) ch eck lets assurances, or maintain a straight face while telling
you spot, hear, or otherwise detect the presence of a blatant lie.
som ething. It m easu res your general aw areness o f
your surroundings and the keenness of your senses.
Intimidation. W h en you attempt to influence som eon e
through overt threats, hostile actions, and physical
violence, the DM might ask you to make a Charisma
(Intimidation) check. Exam ples include trying to pry
inform ation out of a prisoner, convincing street thugs
to back dow n from a confrontation, or using the edge of
a broken bottle to convince a sneering vizier to
reconsider a decision.
Performance. Your Charisma (Perform ance) check
determ ines how well you can delight an audience with
music, dance, acting, storytelling, or som e other form of
Persuasion. W hen you attempt to influence som eone
or a group o f people with tact, social graces, or good
nature, the DM might ask you to make a Charisma
(Persuasion) check. Typically, you use persuasion w hen
acting in g ood faith, to foster friendships, m ake cordial
requests, or exhibit proper etiquette. Exam ples of
persuading others include convincing a chamberlain to
let your party see the king, negotiating peace betw een
warring tribes, or inspiring a crow d of townsfolk.
Other Charisma Checks. Th e DM m ight call for a
Charism a check w hen you try to accom plish tasks like
• Find the best person to talk to for news, rumors,
• Blend into a crow d to get the sense o f key topics
o f conversation
Sp e l l c a s t in g A b il it y
Bards, paladins, sorcerers, and w arlocks use Charisma
as their spellcasting ability, w hich helps determ ine the
saving throw DCs of spells they cast.
Sa v in g T h r o w s
A saving throw —also called a save—represents an
attempt to resist a spell, a trap, a poison, a disease, or
a sim ilar threat. You don’t norm ally decide to m ake a
saving throw; you are forced to make one because your
character or m on ster is at risk o f harm.
To m ake a saving throw, roll a d20 and add the
appropriate ability modifier. For example, you use your
Dexterity m odifier for a Dexterity saving throw.
A saving throw can be modified by a situational
bonus or penalty and can be affected by advantage
and disadvantage, as determined by the DM.
E ach class gives proficiency in at least tw o saving
throws. The wizard, for example, is proficient
in Intelligence saves. A s with skill proficiencies,
proficiency in a saving throw lets a character add his
or her proficiency bonus to saving throws made using
a particular ability score. S om e m onsters have saving
throw proficiencies as well.
The Difficulty Class for a saving throw is determined
by the effect that ca u ses it. F or exam ple, the D C for a
saving throw allowed by a spell is determined by the
caster’s sp ellcastin g ability and proficiency bonus.
The result o f a su ccessfu l or failed saving throw is
also detailed in the effect that allow s the save. Usually,
a successful save m eans that a creature suffers no
harm, or reduced harm, from an effect.
C hapter 8: A dven turin g
DELVING INTO THE ANCIENT TOMB OF HORRORS. M ovement
slipping through the back alleys of
W aterdeep, hacking a fresh trail through S w im m in g a cross a rushing river, sn eaking dow n a
the thick ju n g les on the Isle o f D rea d—these dungeon corridor, scaling a treacherous mountain s lo p e -
are the things that D u n g e o n s & D r a g o n s all sorts o f m ovem ent play a key role in D&D adventures.
adventures are m ade of. Your character in
the game might explore forgotten ruins and The DM can sum m arize the adventurers’ movement
uncharted lands, uncover dark secrets and sinister without calculating exact distances or travel times: “You
plots, and slay foul m onsters. And if all goes well, your travel through the forest and find the dungeon entrance
character will survive to claim rich rewards before late in the evening o f the third day.” Even in a dungeon,
embarking on a new adventure. particularly a large du ngeon or a cave netw ork, the
This chapter covers the basics o f the adventuring life, DM can summ arize movement between encounters:
from the m echanics o f movement to the com plexities of “A fter killing the guardian at the entrance to the ancient
socia l interaction. The rules for resting are also in this dwarven stronghold, you consult your map, which leads
chapter, along with a discussion o f the activities your you through miles of echoing corridors to a chasm
character might pursue between adventures. bridged by a narrow stone arch.”
W hether adventurers are exploring a dusty dungeon
or the com plex relationships o f a royal court, the game S om etim es it’s im portant, though, to kn ow h ow long
follow s a natural rhythm, as outlined in the b o o k ’s it takes to get from on e sp ot to another, w hether the
introduction: answ er is in days, hours, or minutes. The rules for
determining travel time depend on tw o factors: the
1. T h e DM d escrib es the environm ent. speed and travel pace o f the creatures m oving and the
2. The players describe what they want to do. terrain they're m oving over.
3. The DM narrates the results o f their actions.
Typically, the DM uses a m ap as an outline o f the
adventure, tracking the characters’ progress as they Every character and m onster has a sp eed, w h ich is
explore dungeon corridors or wilderness regions. the distance in feet that the character or m onster
T h e D M ’s notes, including a key to the map, describe can w alk in 1 round. This num ber assum es short
what the adventurers find as they enter each new area. bursts of energetic m ovem ent in the m idst o f a life-
Som etim es, the passage of time and the adventurers’ threatening situation.
actions determine what happens, so the DM might
use a timeline or a flowchart to track their progress The following rules determine how far a character
instead o f a map. or m on ster can m ove in a minute, an hour, or a day.
T ime T r a v e l Pa c e
W h ile traveling, a group o f adventurers can m ove at a
In situations w here keeping track o f the passage of normal, fast, or slow pace, as show n on the Travel Pace
time is important, the DM determ ines the time a task table. The table states how far the party can move in a
requires. The DM might use a different time scale period o f time and whether the pace has any effect. A
depen din g on the context o f the situation at hand. In fast pace m akes characters less perceptive, w hile a slow
a dungeon environment, the adventurers’ movement pace m akes it p ossib le to sn eak around and to sea rch an
happens on a scale o f minutes. It takes them about a area m ore carefully (see the “Activity W h ile Traveling”
minute to creep dow n a long hallway, another minute section later in this chapter for m ore information).
to ch e ck for traps on the d oor at the end o f the hall, and
a good ten minutes to search the cham ber beyond for Forced March. The Travel Pace table assum es that
anything interesting or valuable. characters travel for 8 h ours in day. They can push on
beyon d that limit, at the risk o f exhaustion.
In a city or wilderness, a scale of hours is often more
appropriate. Adventurers eager to reach the lonely tower For each additional hour o f travel beyond 8 hours,
at the heart o f the forest hurry a cross th ose fifteen m iles the characters cover the distance shown in the Hour
in just under four hours’ time. colum n for their pace, and each character must make
a Constitution saving th row at the end o f the hour. The
For long journeys, a scale of days w orks best. D C is 10 + 1 for each hour past 8 hours. On a failed
Follow ing the road from Baldur’s Gate to W aterdeep, the saving throw, a character suffers one level o f exhaustion
adventurers spend four uneventful days before a goblin (see appendix A).
am bush interrupts their journey.
Mounts and Vehicles. For short spans o f tim e (up
In com bat and other fast-paced situations, the game to an hour), many anim als move much faster than
relies on rounds, a 6-second span of time described hum anoids. A m ounted character can ride at a gallop
in chapter 9. for about an hour, covering tw ice the usual distance for
a fast pace. If fresh m ounts are available every 8 to 10
m iles, characters can cover larger distances at this pace,
but this is very rare except in densely populated areas.
Characters in w agons, carriages, or other land DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle
vehicles ch o o se a pace as norm al. Characters in a (no taller than a quarter o f the ju m p ’s distance), su ch as
waterborne vessel are limited to the speed o f the vessel a h edge or low w all. O therw ise, you hit it.
(see chapter 5), and they don’t suffer penalties for a fast
pace or gain benefits from a slow pace. Depending on W h en you land in difficult terrain, you must su cceed
the vessel and the size o f the crew, ships might be able on a D C 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your
to travel for up to 24 hours p er day. feet. Otherwise, you land prone.
Certain special mounts, such as a pegasus or griffon, HighJump. W h en you m ake a high jum p, you leap
or sp ecial vehicles, such as a carpet o f flying, allow you into the air a num ber o f feet equal to 3 + your Strength
to travel m ore swiftly. T h e Dungeon Master’s Guide m odifier if you m ove at least 10 feet on foot im m ediately
contains m ore inform ation on special m ethods o f travel. before the jump. W hen you make a standing high jump,
you can jum p only half that distance. Either way, each
T r a v e l Pa c e foot you clear on the ju m p c o sts a foot o f m ovem ent. In
som e circum stances, your DM might allow you to make
Distance Traveled p e r... a Strength (Athletics) check to jum p higher than you
Pace Minute Hour Day Effect
Fast 400 feet 4 miles 30 miles -5 penalty to You can extend your arm s half your height above
passive Wisdom yourself during the jum p. Thus, you can reach above
Normal 300 feet 3 miles 24 miles (Perception) scores you a distance equal to the height o f the ju m p plus 11/2
Slow 200 feet 2 miles 18 miles tim es your height.
A c t iv it y W h ile T r avelin g
Able to use stealth
As adventurers travel through a dungeon or the
D ifficu lt T errain wilderness, they need to remain alert for danger, and
The travel sp eeds given in the Travel P ace table som e characters might perform other tasks to help
assum e relatively sim ple terrain: roads, open plains, the grou p’s journey.
or clear dungeon corridors. But adventurers often face
dense forests, deep swam ps, rubble-filled ruins, steep M a rch in g O rder
mountains, and ice-covered ground—all considered The adventurers should establish a m arching order.
difficult terrain. A m arch ing order m akes it easier to determ ine w hich
characters are affected by traps, w hich ones can spot
You m ove at h alf sp eed in difficult terrain—m oving hidden enemies, and which ones are the closest to those
1 foot in difficult terrain costs 2 feet o f speed—so you en em ies w hen a fight breaks out.
can cover only half the norm al distance in a minute,
an hour, or a day. A character might occupy the front rank, one or m ore
m iddle ranks, or the back rank. Characters in the front
Special Types of M o vem en t and back ranks need enough room to travel side by
side with others in their rank. W hen space is too tight,
Movement through dangerous dungeons or wilderness the m arching order must change, usually by m oving
areas often involves m ore than simply walking. characters to a m iddle rank.
Adventurers might have to climb, crawl, swim , or jum p
to get where they need to go. Few er Than Three Ranks. If an adventuring party
arranges its m arching order with only tw o ranks, they
C l im b in g , Sw im m in g , a n d C r a w l in g are a front rank and a back rank. If th ere’s only on e rank,
W hile climbing or swimming, each foot of movement it’s con sid ered a front rank.
costs 1 extra foot (2 extra feet in difficult terrain), unless
a creature has a clim bing or sw im m ing speed. At the St e a l t h
D M ’s option, clim bin g a slippery vertical su rface or W h ile traveling at a slow pace, the characters can m ove
one with few handholds requires a successful Strength stealthily. A s lon g as they’re not in the open, they can try
(Athletics) check. Similarly, gaining any distance in to surprise or sneak by other creatures they encounter.
rough water might require a successful Strength S e e the rules for hiding in chapter 7.
N o ticin g T hreats
Jum pin g Use the passive W isdom (Perception) scores o f the
Your Strength determ ines how far you can jump. characters to determ ine w hether anyone in the group
notices a hidden threat. The DM might decide that a
LongJump. W hen you m ake a long jum p, you cover a threat can be noticed only by characters in a particular
n um ber o f feet up to your Strength sc o r e if you m ove at rank. For example, as the characters are exploring a
least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. W hen m aze o f tunnels, the DM might decide that only those
you m ake a standing long jump, you can leap only half characters in the ba ck rank have a ch a n ce to hear or
that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the spot a stealthy creature follow ing the group, while
jum p costs a foot of movement. characters in the front and m iddle ranks cannot.
This rule assum es that the height o f your jum p W h ile traveling at a fast pace, characters take a - 5
doesn’t matter, such as a jum p across a stream or penalty to their passive W isdom (Perception) scores
chasm . At your D M ’s option, you must su cceed on a to notice hidden threats.
Encountering Creatures. If the DM determines S p l it t in g U p t h e Pa r t y
that the adventurers encounter other creatures while Sometimes, it makes sense to split an adventuring party,
they’re traveling, it’s up to both grou ps to d ecide w hat especially if you want one or more characters to scout ahead.
happens next. Either group might decide to attack, You can form multiple parties, each moving at a different speed.
initiate a conversation, run away, or wait to see what the Each group has its own front, middle, and back ranks.
other group does.
The drawback to this approach is that the party will be split
Surprising Foes. If the adventurers encounter a into several smaller groups in the event o f an attack. The
hostile creature or group, the DM determines whether advantage is that a small group o f stealthy characters moving
the adventurers or their foes might be surprised when slowly might be able to sneak past enemies that clumsier
com bat erupts. S ee chapter 9 for m ore about surprise. characters would alert. A rogue and a monk moving at a slow
pace are much harder to detect when they leave their dwarf
O t h e r A c t iv it ie s paladin friend behind.
Characters w ho turn their attention to other tasks as the
group travels are not focused on w atching for danger. For exam ple, a creature with a Constitution o f 14 can
T hese characters don’t contribute their passive W isdom hold its breath for 3 m inutes. If it starts suffocating, it
(P erception ) s c o r e s to the grou p’s ch a n ce o f n oticing h as 2 roun ds to reach air before it d rops to 0 hit points.
hidden threats. However, a character not watching for
danger can do one o f the follow ing activities instead, or V isio n a n d L ig h t
so m e other activity with the D M ’s perm ission .
The m ost fundamental tasks o f adventuring—noticing
Navigate. T h e character can try to prevent the group danger, finding hidden objects, hitting an enem y in
from becom ing lost, m aking a W isdom (Survival) check combat, and targeting a spell, to name just a few—
w hen the DM calls for it. (T he Dungeon Master’s Guide rely heavily on a character’s ability to see. D arkness
has rules to determ ine w hether the group gets lost.) and other effects that obscu re vision can prove a
Draw a Map. The character can draw a map
that records the group’s progress and helps the A given area might be lightly or heavily obscured. In
characters get back on course if they get lost. No ability a lightly obscured area, such as dim light, patchy fog,
check is required. or moderate foliage, creatures have disadvantage on
W isdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight.
Track. A character can follow the tracks o f another
creature, m aking a W isdom (Survival) check w hen the A heavily obscured area—such as darkness, opaque
D M calls for it. (The Dungeon Master’s Guide has rules fog, or dense foliage—blocks vision entirely. A creature
for tracking.) in a heavily ob scu red area effectively suffers from the
blinded condition (see appendix A).
Forage. The character can keep an eye out for ready
sou rces o f food and water, making a W isdom (Survival) The presence or absence o f light in an environment
ch eck w hen the DM calls for it. (T he Dungeon Master’s creates three categories of illumination: bright light, dim
Guide has rules for foraging.) light, and darkness.
T he Environm ent Bright light lets m ost creatu res see norm ally. Even
gloom y days provide bright light, as do torches, lanterns,
By its nature, adventuring involves delving into places fires, and other sources o f illumination within a
that are dark, dangerous, and full o f mysteries to be specific radius.
explored. The rules in this section cover som e o f the
m ost im portant ways in w hich adventurers interact with Dim light, also called sh adow s, creates a lightly
the environm ent in such places. T h e Dungeon Master’s obscured area. An area o f dim light is usually a
Guide has rules coverin g m ore unusual situations. boundary betw een a sou rce o f bright light, such as
a torch, and surrounding darkness. The soft light
Fa l l i n g o f twilight and dawn also counts as dim light. A
particularly brilliant full m oon might bathe the land
A fall from a great height is one o f the m ost com m on in dim light.
hazards facing an adventurer.
Darkness creates a heavily obscured area. Characters
At the end o f a fall, a creature takes 1d6 bludgeoning face darkn ess ou tdoors at night (even m ost m oonlit
dam age for every 10 feet it fell, to a m axim u m o f 20d6. nights), within the confines o f an unlit dungeon or a
T h e creature lands prone, u nless it avoids taking subterranean vault, or in an area o f m agical darkness.
dam age from the fall.
B l in d s ig h t
Su ffo c a t in g A creature w ith blindsight can perceive its surrou ndings
without relying on sight, within a specific radius.
A creature can hold its breath for a num ber o f minutes Creatures without eyes, such as oozes, and creatures
equal to 1 + its Constitution m odifier (m inim um with echolocation or heightened senses, such as bats
of 30 seconds). and true dragons, have this sense.
W h en a creature runs out o f breath, it can survive for D a r k v is io n
a num ber o f roun ds equal to its Constitution m odifier Many creatures in the w orlds o f D&D, especially those
(m inim um 1 round). At the start o f its next turn, it drops that dwell underground, have darkvision. W ithin a
to 0 hit points and is dying. sp ecified range, a creature w ith darkvision can see in
darkn ess as if the darkn ess w ere dim light, s o areas can. The D M determ ines an o b je ct’s A rm or C lass and
o f darkness are only lightly obscured as far as that hit points, and might d ecide that certain objects have
creature is concerned. However, the creature can’t resistan ce or im m unity to certain kinds o f attacks. (It’s
discern color in darkness, only sh ad es o f gray. hard to cut a rope with a club, for example.) Objects
always fail Strength and Dexterity saving throws, and
T r u e sig h t they are im m une to effects that require other saves.
A creature with truesight can, out to a specific range, W h en an object d rops to 0 hit points, it breaks.
see in norm al and m agical darkness, see invisible
creatures and objects, automatically detect visual A character can also attempt a Strength check to
illusions and succeed on saving throws against them, break an object. The DM sets the DC for any such check.
and perceives the original form of a shapechanger or
a creature that is transform ed by m agic. Furthermore, So cial Interaction
the creature can see into the Ethereal Plane.
Exploring dungeons, overcom ing obstacles, and slaying
Food and Water m onsters are key parts of D&D adventures. No less
important, though, are the social interactions that
Characters w ho don’t eat or drink suffer the effects of adventurers have with other inhabitants o f the world.
exhaustion (see appendix A). Exhaustion caused by lack
o f food or water can’t b e rem oved until the character Interaction takes on many forms. You might need
eats and drinks the full required amount. to convince an unscrupulous thief to confess to som e
m alfeasance, or you might try to flatter a dragon so that
Fo o d it w ill spare your life. The DM a ssu m es the roles o f any
A character needs one pound of food per day and can characters w ho are participating in the interaction that
m ake food last longer by subsisting on half rations. don ’t belon g to another player at the table. A n y such
Eating half a pound o f food in a day counts as half a day character is called a nonplayer character (NPC).
In general terms, an N P C ’s attitude toward you is
A character can go without food for a number of days described as friendly, indifferent, or hostile. Friendly
equal to 3 + his or her Constitution modifier (minimum NPCs are predisposed to help you, and hostile ones are
1). At the end o f each day beyon d that limit, a character inclined to get in your way. It’s easier to get what you
automatically suffers one level of exhaustion. want from a friendly NPC, o f course.
A norm al day o f eating resets the count of days Social interactions have two primary aspects:
without food to zero. roleplaying and ability checks.
Water R o leplayin g
A character n eed s one gallon o f water per day, or tw o
gallons per day if the w eather is hot. A character who R oleplaying is, literally, the act o f playing out a role.
drinks only half that much water must su cceed on a In this case, it’s you as a player determ ining h ow your
DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer one level of character thinks, acts, and talks.
exhaustion at the end o f the day. A character w ith a cce ss
to even less water automatically suffers one level of Roleplaying is a part o f every aspect o f the game,
exhaustion at the end o f the day. and it c o m e s to the fore during socia l interactions.
Your character’s quirks, m ann erism s, and personality
If the character already has one or m ore levels of influence how interactions resolve.
exhaustion, the character takes tw o levels in either case.
There are two styles you can use w hen roleplaying
In t e r a c t in g w it h O bjects your character: the descriptive approach and the active
approach. M ost players use a com bination o f the two
A character’s interaction w ith ob jects in an environm ent styles. Use whichever m ix of the two works best for you.
is often simple to resolve in the game. The player tells
the DM that his or her character is doing som ething, D e sc r ip t iv e A ppr o a c h t o R o l e p l a y in g
such a m oving a lever, and the DM d escribes what, if W ith this approach, you describe your character’s w ords
anything happens. and actions to the DM and the other players. Drawing on
your mental im age of your character, you tell everyone
F or exam ple, a character m ight d ecide to pull a lever, w hat your character d o e s and h ow he or she d o e s it.
w h ich might, in turn, raise a portcullis, cau se a ro o m to
flood with water, or open a secret d oor in a nearby wall. For instance, Chris plays Tordek the dwarf. Tordek
If the lever is rusted in position, though, a character has a quick tem per and blam es the elves o f the
m ight n eed to force it. In such a situation, the D M might C loa k w ood for his fam ily’s m isfortune. At a tavern, an
call for a Strength check to see whether the character obn ox iou s elf m instrel sits at T ordek ’s table and tries to
can w rench the lever into place. The DM sets the DC for strike up a conversation with the dwarf.
any such check based on the difficulty o f the task.
Chris says, “Tordek spits on the floor, growls an
Characters can also damage objects with their insult at the bard, and stom ps over to the bar. H e sits
w eapons and spells. O bjects are im mune to poison and on a stool and glares at the m instrel b efore ordering
psychic damage, but otherwise they can be affected another drink.”
by physical and m agical attacks much like creatures
In this exam ple, Chris has conveyed T ordek’s m ood
and given the DM a clear idea o f his character’s
attitude and actions.
W hen using descriptive roleplaying, keep the on your best bonuses and skills. If the group needs to
follow in g things in mind: trick a guard into letting them into a castle, the rogue
w h o is proficient in D eception is the best bet to lead the
• D escrib e your character’s em otion s and attitude. discu ssion . W h en negotiating for a h osta ge’s release,
• Focus on your character’s intent and how others the cleric with Persuasion should do m ost o f the talking.
m ight perceive it. R esting
• Provide as much embellishment as you feel
H eroic though they m ight be, adventurers ca n ’t spend
com fortable with. every hour o f the day in the thick o f exploration, social
interaction, and com bat. They need rest—time to
D on ’t w orry about getting things exactly right. Just sleep and eat, tend their wounds, refresh their minds
focus on thinking about what your character would do and spirits for spellcasting, and brace themselves for
and describing what you see in your mind. further adventure.
A c t iv e A ppro ach t o R o l e p l a y in g Adventurers can take short rests in the m idst of an
If descriptive roleplaying tells your DM and your fellow adventuring day and a long rest to end the day.
players what your character thinks and does, active
roleplaying shows them. Sh ort R est
W hen you use active roleplaying, you speak with your A short rest is a p eriod o f dow ntim e, at least 1 hour long,
character’s voice, like an actor taking on a role. You might during which a character does nothing m ore strenuous
even echo your character’s m ovem ents and body language. than eating, drinking, reading, and tending to wounds.
This approach is m ore im mersive than descriptive
roleplaying, though you still need to describe things A character can spend on e or m ore Hit D ice at the end
that can ’t be reasonably acted out. o f a short rest, up to the character’s m axim u m num ber
of Hit Dice, which is equal to the character's level. For
Going back to the example of Chris roleplaying Tordek each Hit Die spent in this way, the player rolls the die
above, h ere’s h ow the scen e m ight play out if Chris used and adds the character’s Constitution m odifier to it. The
active roleplaying: character regains hit points equal to the total. The player
can decide to spend an additional Hit Die after each roll.
Speaking as Tordek, Chris says in a gruff, deep voice, A character regains som e spent Hit D ice upon finishing
“I w as w on derin g w hy it suddenly sm elled aw ful in here. a long rest, as explained below.
If I w anted to hear anything out o f you, I'd snap your
arm and enjoy your scream s.” In his norm al voice, Chris L o n g R est
then adds, “I get up, glare at the elf, and head to the bar.”
A lon g rest is a p eriod o f extended dow ntim e, at least 8
R esults o f R o l e p l a y in g hours long, during w hich a character sleeps or perform s
The DM uses your character’s actions and attitudes to light activity: reading, talking, eating, or standing watch
determine how an NPC reacts. A cowardly NPC buckles for no m ore than 2 hours. If the rest is interrupted by a
under threats o f violence. A stubborn dw arf refuses to p eriod o f strenuous activity—at least 1 hour o f w alking,
let anyone badger her. A vain dragon laps up flattery. fighting, casting spells, or similar adventuring activity—
the characters must begin the rest again to gain any
W hen interacting with an N PC, pay close attention to benefit from it.
the D M ’s portrayal o f the N P C ’s m ood , dialogue, and
personality. You might be able to determ ine an N P C ’s At the end o f a long rest, a character regains all lost
personality traits, ideals, flaws, and bonds, then play on hit points. T h e character also regains spent Hit D ice, up
them to influence the N P C ’s attitude. to a num ber o f dice equal to h alf o f the character’s total
number o f them. For example, if a character has eight
Interactions in D & D are m uch like interactions in Hit Dice, he or she can regain four spent Hit D ice upon
real life. If you can offer N P C s som ething they want, finishing a long rest.
threaten them with som ething they fear, or play on their
sympathies and goals, you can use words to get almost A character ca n ’t benefit from m ore than on e long rest
anything you want. On the other hand, if you insult a in a 24-hou r period, and a character m ust have at least
proud w arrior or sp eak ill o f a n oble’s allies, your efforts 1 hit point at the start o f the rest to gain its benefits.
to convince or deceive w ill fall short.
Between A dventures
A b ility C h eck s
Between trips to dungeons and battles against ancient
In addition to roleplaying, ability ch eck s are key in evils, adventurers need time to rest, recuperate, and
determining the outcom e o f an interaction. prepare for their next adventure. Many adventurers also
use this time to perform other tasks, such as crafting
Your roleplaying efforts can alter an N P C ’s attitude, arms and armor, perform ing research, or spending
but there might still be an elem ent o f chance in the their hard-earned gold.
situation. For example, your DM can call for a Charisma
ch eck at any point during an interaction if he or she In som e cases, the passage o f time is som ething that
w ants the d ice to play a role in determ ining an N P C ’s occu rs with little fanfare or description. W hen starting
reactions. Other checks might be appropriate in certain a new adventure, the DM might simply declare that a
situations, at your D M ’s discretion. certain am ount of time has passed and allow you to
Pay attention to your skill proficiencies when thinking
o f h ow you want to interact with an NPC, and stack
the deck in your favor by using an approach that relies
describe in general term s what your character has P r a c t ic in g a P r o fe ssio n
been doing. At other times, the DM might want to keep You can w ork between adventures, allowing you to
track o f just how much time is passing as events beyond maintain a m odest lifestyle without having to pay 1 gp
your perception stay in motion. per day (see chapter 5 for m ore information on lifestyle
expenses). This benefit lasts as long you continue to
L ifestyle E x penses practice your profession.
Between adventures, you ch oose a particular quality If you are a m em ber o f an organization that can
o f life and pay the cost o f maintaining that lifestyle, as provide gainful employment, such as a temple or a
d escrib ed in chapter 5. thieves’ guild, you earn enough to support a com fortable
Living a particular lifestyle d oesn ’t have a huge effect
on your character, but your lifestyle can affect the way If you have proficiency in the Perform ance skill and
other individuals and groups react to you. For example, put your perform ance skill to use during your downtime,
w h en you lead an aristocratic lifestyle, it m ight be easier you earn enough to support a wealthy lifestyle instead.
for you to influence the nobles o f the city than if you
live in poverty. R e c u p e r a t in g
You can use downtime between adventures to recover
D o w n tim e A ctivities from a debilitating injury, disease, or poison.
Between adventures, the DM might ask you what your After three days of downtime spent recuperating,
character is doing during his or her downtime. Periods you can m ake a D C 15 Constitution saving throw.
o f downtim e can vary in duration, but each downtime On a successful save, you can ch oose one o f the
activity requires a certain num ber o f days to complete following results:
b efore you gain any benefit, and at least 8 h ours o f each
day must be spent on the downtim e activity for the day • End one effect on you that prevents you from regain
to count. The days do not need to be consecutive. If you ing hit points.
have m ore than the minim um amount of days to spend,
you can keep doing the sam e thing for a longer period • For the next 24 hours, gain advantage on saving
o f time, or switch to a new dow ntim e activity. throws against one disease or poison currently
Downtim e activities other than the ones presented
below are possible. If you want your character to spend R e se a r c h in g
his or her downtim e perform ing an activity not covered The time betw een adventures is a great chance to
here, d iscu ss it w ith your DM. perform research, gaining insight into mysteries
that have unfurled over the course o f the campaign.
C r a f t in g Research can include poring over dusty tom es and
You can craft nonm agical objects, including adventuring crum bling scrolls in a library or buying drinks for the
equipm ent and w orks o f art. You must be proficient locals to pry rum ors and gossip from their lips.
with tools related to the object you are trying to create
(typically artisan’s tools). You might also need a ccess to W hen you begin your research, the DM determ ines
sp ecia l m aterials or locations n ecessa ry to create it. F or whether the inform ation is available, how many days o f
exam ple, som eon e proficient w ith sm ith’s tools n eeds a dow ntim e it w ill take to find it, and w hether there are
forge in order to craft a sw ord or suit of armor. any restrictions on your research (such as needing to
seek out a specific individual, tome, or location). The
For every day of downtime you spend crafting, you DM might also require you to m ake one or m ore ability
can craft one or m ore items with a total market value checks, such as an Intelligence (Investigation) check
not exceeding 5 gp, and you must expend raw materials to find clues pointing toward the inform ation you seek,
w orth half the total market value. If som ething you or a Charism a (P ersu asion) ch eck to secu re so m e o n e ’s
want to craft has a market value greater than 5 gp, you aid. O nce those conditions are met, you learn the
m ake p rogress every day in 5-gp increm ents until you inform ation if it is available.
reach the market value o f the item. For exam ple, a suit
o f plate arm or (market value 1,500 gp) takes 300 days For each day o f research, you must spend 1 gp to
to craft by yourself. cover your expenses. This cost is in addition to your
n orm al lifestyle ex p en ses (as d iscu ssed in chapter 5).
Multiple characters can com bine their efforts toward
the crafting o f a single item, provided that the characters T r a in in g
all have proficiency with the requisite tools and are You can spend time between adventures learning a new
w orking together in the sam e place. Each character language or training with a set o f tools. Your DM might
contributes 5 gp worth of effort for every day spent allow additional training options.
helping to craft the item. For example, three characters
with the requisite tool proficiency and the proper First, you must find an instructor w illing to teach you.
facilities ca n craft a suit o f plate arm or in 100 days, T h e DM determ ines h ow lon g it takes, and w hether one
at a total co st o f 750 gp. or m ore ability checks are required.
W hile crafting, you can maintain a m odest lifestyle The training lasts for 2 5 0 days and co sts 1 gp per day.
w ithout having to pay 1 gp per day, or a com fortable After you spend the requisite amount o f time and money,
lifestyle at half the norm al cost (see chapter 5 for m ore you learn the new language or gain proficiency with
information on lifestyle expenses). the new tool.
C h apter 9: C o m b at opposing side. Any character or m onster that d oesn ’t
n otice a threat is su rprised at the start o f the encounter.
HT E CLATTER OF A SWORD STRIKING AGAINST
a shield. The terrible rending sound as If you ’re su rprised, you can ’t m ove or take an action
m onstrous claws tear through armor. A on your first turn o f the com bat, and you can’t take a
brilliant flash o f light as a ball o f flame reaction until that turn ends. A m em ber o f a group can
b lo ss o m s from a w iza rd ’s spell. T h e sharp b e surprised even if the other m em bers aren’t.
tang o f b lo o d in the air, cutting through
the stench o f vile m onsters. R oars o f fury, In it ia t iv e
shouts o f triumph, cries o f pain. Com bat in D&D can be
chaotic, deadly, and thrilling. Initiative determ ines the order o f turns during combat.
This chapter provides the rules you need for your W hen com bat starts, every participant m akes a
characters and m onsters to engage in combat, whether Dexterity check to determ ine their place in the initiative
it is a brief skirm ish or an extended conflict in a order. The DM makes one roll for an entire group of
dungeon or on a field o f battle. Throughout this chapter, identical creatures, so each m em ber o f the group acts at
the rules address you, the player or Dungeon Master. the sam e time.
The D ungeon M aster controls all the m onsters and
nonplayer characters involved in com bat, and each other The DM ranks the combatants in order from the one
player controls an adventurer. “You” can also mean the with the highest Dexterity check total to the one with
character or m onster that you control. the lowest. This is the order (called the initiative order)
in w hich they act during each round. The initiative order
T he O rder of C ombat rem ains the sam e from round to round.
A typical com bat encounter is a clash betw een two If a tie occurs, the DM decides the order am ong
sides, a flurry o f w eapon swings, feints, parries, tied DM -controlled creatures, and the players decide
footw ork, and spellcasting. The gam e organizes the the order am ong their tied characters. The DM can
chaos o f com bat into a cycle o f rounds and turns. A decide the order if the tie is betw een a monster and a
round represents about 6 secon d s in the gam e world. player character. Optionally, the DM can have the tied
D uring a round, each participant in a battle takes a characters and m onsters each roll a d20 to determine
turn. Th e order o f turns is determ ined at the begin ning the order, highest roll going first.
o f a com bat encounter, w hen everyone rolls initiative.
O nce everyone has taken a turn, the fight continues to Y our Turn
the next round if neither side has defeated the other.
On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed
Su rprise and take one action. You d ecide w hether to m ove first
or take your action first. Your sp eed —som etim es called
A band of adventurers sneaks up on a bandit camp, your w alking sp eed—is noted on your character sheet.
springing from the trees to attack them. A gelatinous
cube glides down a dungeon passage, unnoticed by The most com m on actions you can take are described
the adventurers until the cu b e en gu lfs one o f them. In in the “A ction s in C om bat” section later in this chapter.
these situations, one side o f the battle gains surprise Many class features and other abilities provide
over the other. additional options for your action.
The DM determines w ho might be surprised. If The “ M ovem ent and P osition” section later in this
neither side tries to b e stealthy, they automatically notice chapter gives the rules for your move.
each other. Otherwise, the DM com pares the Dexterity
(Stealth) checks o f anyone hiding with the passive You can forgo moving, taking an action, or doing
W isdom (Perception) score o f each creature on the anything at all on your turn. If you c a n ’t d ecide what to
do on your turn, consider taking the D odge or Ready
C om bat Step by Step action, as d escrib ed in “A ction s in C om bat.”
1. Determine surprise. The DM determines whether anyone
B o n u s A c tio n s
involved in the combat encounter is surprised. Various class features, spells, and other abilities let you
2.Establish positions. The DM decides where all the take an additional action on your turn called a bonus
action. The Cunning Action feature, for example, allows
characters and monsters are located. Given the a rogue to take a bonus action. You can take a bonus
adventurers’ marching order or their stated positions in action only w hen a sp ecia l ability, spell, or other feature
the room or other location, the DM figures out where the o f the game states that you can do som ething as a bonus
adversaries are— how far away and in what direction. action. You otherw ise don’t have a bonus action to take.
3. Roll initiative. Everyone involved in the combat encounter
rolls initiative, determining the order o f combatants’ turns. You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so
4.Take turns. Each participant in the battle takes a turn in you must choose which bonus action to use w hen you
initiative order. have m ore than one available.
5.Begin the next round. When everyone involved in the
combat has had a turn, the round ends. Repeat step 4 until You choose when to take a bonus action during your
the fighting stops. turn, u nless the bon u s action ’s tim ing is specified, and
anything that deprives you o f your ability to take actions
also prevents you from taking a bonus action.
O th e r A c t iv it y on Y ou r Turn On your turn, you can m ove a distance up to your
Your turn can include a variety of flourishes that require speed. You can use as m uch or as little o f your sp eed as
neither your action nor your move. you like on your turn, follow ing the rules here.
You can com m unicate however you are able, through Your m ovement can include jumping, climbing, and
brief utterances and gestures, as you take your turn. swim ming. These different m odes of movement can
be com bined with walking, or they can constitute your
You can also interact with one object or feature o f the entire m ove. H ow ever you ’re m oving, you deduct the
environment for free, during either your move or your distance o f each part o f your m ove from your speed until
action. For example, you could open a door during your it is u sed up or until you are done m oving.
move as you stride toward a foe, or you could draw your
w eapon as part o f the sam e action you use to attack. The “S p ecia l Types o f M ovem ent’’ section in
chapter 8 gives the particulars for jumping, climbing,
If you want to interact with a secon d object, you need and swimming.
to use your action. S om e m agic items and other special
objects always require an action to use, as stated B r ea k ing U p Y our M ove
in their descriptions.
You can break up your movement on your turn, using
The DM might require you to use an action for any som e of your speed before and after your action. For
o f these activities w h en it n eed s sp ecia l care or w hen it example, if you have a speed of 30 feet, you can move
presents an unusual obstacle. For instance, the DM 10 feet, take your action, and then m ove 20 feet.
could reasonably expect you to use an action to open a
stuck door or turn a crank to low er a drawbridge. M o v in g betw een A tta c k s
If you take an action that includes m ore than one
R eactio n s w eapon attack, you can break up your movement even
further by m oving between those attacks. For example,
Certain special abilities, spells, and situations allow a fighter w ho can make two attacks with the Extra
you to take a special action called a reaction. A reaction Attack feature and w ho has a speed o f 25 feet could
is an instant response to a trigger of som e kind, which m ove 10 feet, m ake an attack, m ove 15 feet, and then
ca n o c cu r on your turn or on som eon e e lse’s. The attack again.
opportunity attack, described later in this chapter, is the
m ost com m on type of reaction. U sin g D if f e r e n t Speeds
If you have more than one speed, such as your walking
W hen you take a reaction, you can’t take another one speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth
until the start o f your next turn. If the reaction interrupts between your speeds during your move. W henever you
another creatu re’s turn, that creature can continue its switch, subtract the distance you've already m oved from
turn right after the reaction. the new speed. The result determ ines how much farther
you can move. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the
M o v e m e n t a n d Po sit io n new speed during the current move.
In combat, characters and m onsters are in constant For example, if you have a speed of 30 and a flying
motion, often using movement and position to gain sp eed o f 60 b eca u se a w izard cast the fly spell on you,
the upper hand. you could fly 20 feet, then w alk 10 feet, and then leap
into the air to fly 30 feet m ore.
In ter a c tin g w ith O bjects A r o u n d You
Here are a few examples o f the sorts o f thing you can do in D ifficu lt T er r ain
tandem with your movement and action:
Com bat rarely takes place in bare room s or on
• draw or sheathe a sword featureless plains. Boulder-strewn caverns, briar-
• open or close a door ch oked forests, treach erou s sta irca ses—the setting o f
• withdraw a potion from your backpack a typical fight contains difficult terrain.
• pick up a dropped axe
• take a bauble from a table Every foot o f movement in difficult terrain costs 1
• remove a ring from your finger extra foot. This rule is true even if multiple things in
• stuff some food into your mouth a space count as difficult terrain.
• plant a banner in the ground
• fish a few coins from your belt pouch Low furniture, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs,
• drink all the ale in a flagon snow, and shallow bogs are exam ples o f difficult terrain.
• throw a lever or a switch The space o f another creature, whether hostile or not,
• pull a torch from a sconce also counts as difficult terrain.
• take a book from a shelf you can reach
• extinguish a small flame B ein g P rone
• don a mask
• pull the hood of your cloak up and over your head Combatants often find themselves lying on the ground,
• put your ear to a door either because they are knocked dow n or because they
• kick a small stone throw them selves down. In the game, they are prone,
• turn a key in a lock a condition described in appendix A.
• tap the floor with a 10-foot pole
• hand an item to another character You can drop prone without using any o f your
speed. Standing up takes m ore effort; doing so costs
an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For
exam ple, if your sp eed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet
o f m ovem ent to stand up. You ca n ’t stand up if you d on ’t
have enough m ovem ent left or if your sp eed is 0.
To m ove w hile prone, you must crawl or use m agic
such as teleportation. Every foot of movement while
craw ling costs 1 extra foot. Crawling 1 foot in difficult
terrain, therefore, costs 3 feet o f movement.
M o v in g A r o u n d O th e r
Y ou can m ove through a n on h ostile creatu re’s space.
In contrast, you can m ove through a hostile creature's
sp ace only if the creature is at least tw o sizes larger or
sm aller than you. R em em ber that another creatu re’s
space is difficult terrain for you.
W hether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t
w illingly end your m ove in its space.
If you leave a hostile creatu re’s reach during your
move, you provoke an opportunity attack, as explained
later in the chapter.
F l y in g M o v e m e n t
Flying creatures enjoy m any benefits o f mobility, but
they must also deal with the danger o f falling. If a flying
creature is knocked prone, has its speed reduced to 0, or
is otherw ise deprived o f the ability to move, the creature
falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is b ein g held
aloft by m agic, such as by the fly spell.
C r e a t u r e Size
Each creature takes up a different amount of space.
The Size Categories table show s how much space
a creature o f a particular size controls in combat.
O bjects som etim es use the sam e size categories.
S iz e C a t e g o r ie s
Tiny 21/2 by 2 1/2 ft
Small 5 by 5 ft.
Medium 5 by 5 ft.
Large 10 by 10 ft.
Huge 15 by 15 ft.
Gargantuan 20 by 20 ft. or larger
A creature's sp ace is the area in feet that it effectively
con trols in com bat, not an expression o f its physical
dim ensions. A typical M edium creature isn't 5 feet
w ide, for exam ple, but it d o e s con trol a sp ace that
wide. If a M edium hobgoblin stands in a 5-foot-wide
doorway, other creatures can’t get through unless the
hobgoblin lets them.
A creatu re’s sp ace also reflects the area it n eeds to
fight effectively. For that reason, there’s a limit to the
num ber o f creatures that can surround another creature
in combat. Assum ing M edium combatants, eight
creatures can fit in a 5-foot radius around another one.
B ecause larger creatures take up m ore space, fewer
o f them can surround a creature. If five Large creatures
Va r ia n t : P l a y in g o n a G r id C ast a Spell
If you play out a combat using a square grid and miniatures
or other tokens, follow these rules. Spellcasters such as w izards and clerics, as well as
many m onsters, have access to spells and can use
Squares. Each square on the grid represents 5 feet. them to great effect in com bat. Each spell has a casting
Speed. Rather than moving foot by foot, move square by time, w hich specifies whether the caster must use an
square on the grid. This means you use your speed in 5-foot action, a reaction, minutes, or even hours to cast the
segments. This is particularly easy if you translate your speed spell. Casting a spell is, therefore, not necessarily an
into squares by dividing the speed by 5. For example, a speed action. M ost spells do have a casting time of 1 action,
o f 30 feet translates into a speed o f 6 squares. so a spellcaster often uses his or her action in com bat
If you use a grid often, consider writing your speed in to cast such a spell. S ee chapter 10 for the rules
squares on your character sheet. on spellcasting.
Entering a Square. To enter a square, you must have
at least 1 square o f movement left, even if the square is Dash
diagonally adjacent to the square you’re in. (The rule for
diagonal movement sacrifices realism for the sake of smooth W hen you take the Dash action, you gain extra
play. The Dungeon M aster’s Guide provides guidance on using movement for the current turn. The increase equals
a more realistic approach.) your speed, after applying any m odifiers. With a speed
If a square costs extra movement, as a square o f difficult o f 30 feet, for example, you can move up to 60 feet on your
terrain does, you must have enough movement left to pay for turn if you dash.
entering it. For example, you must have at least 2 squares of
movement left to enter a square o f difficult terrain. Any increase or decrease to your speed changes this
Corners. Diagonal movement can’t cross the corner o f a additional movement by the sam e amount. If your speed
wall, large tree, or other terrain feature that fills its space. o f 30 feet is reduced to 15 feet, for instance, you can
Ranges. To determine the range on a grid between two move up to 30 feet this turn if you dash.
things— whether creatures or objects— start counting squares
from a square adjacent to one o f them and stop counting in Di s e n g a g e
the space of the other one. Count by the shortest route.
If you take the D isengage action, your m ovem ent doesn ’t
crow d around a M edium or sm aller one, there’s little provoke opportunity attacks for the rest o f the turn.
room for anyone else. In contrast, as many as twenty
Medium creatures can surround a Gargantuan one. D odge
Sq u e e zin g in t o a Sm a l l e r Space W hen you take the D odge action, you focus entirely on
A creature can squeeze through a space that is large avoiding attacks. Until the start o f your next turn, any
en ough for a creature one size sm aller than it. Thus, a attack roll made against you has disadvantage if you
L arge creature can sq u eeze through a pa ssa ge that's can see the attacker, and you make Dexterity saving
only 5 feet w ide. W hile squeezing through a space, throws with advantage. You lose this benefit if you are
a creature m ust sp en d 1 extra foot for every foot it incapacitated (as explained in appendix A) or if your
m oves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls sp eed d rop s to 0.
and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the
creature have advantage w hile it’s in the sm aller space. H elp
A ctions in C om bat You can lend your aid to another creature in the
com pletion o f a task. W hen you take the Help action,
W hen you take your action on your turn, you can take the creature you aid gains advantage on the next ability
one o f the actions presented here, an action you gained ch eck it m akes to perform the task you are helping with,
from your class or a special feature, or an action that provided that it m akes the ch eck before the start o f
you improvise. Many monsters have action options of your next turn.
their ow n in their stat blocks.
Alternatively, you can aid a friendly creature in
W hen you describe an action not detailed elsewhere attacking a creature within 5 feet of you. You feint,
in the rules, the DM tells you w hether that action is distract the target, or in som e other way team up to
possib le and what kind o f roll you n eed to m ake, if any, m ake your ally’s attack m ore effective. If your ally
to determ ine su ccess or failure. attacks the target before your next turn, the first attack
roll is made with advantage.
The m ost com m on action to take in com bat is the Attack
action, whether you are swinging a sword, firing an W hen you take the Hide action, you make a Dexterity
arrow from a bow, or brawling with your fists. (Stealth) check in an attempt to hide, follow ing the rules
in chapter 7 for hiding. If you succeed, you gain certain
With this action, you make one m elee or ranged benefits, as described in the “Unseen Attackers and
attack. S ee the “M aking an Attack” section for the rules Targets” section later in this chapter.
that govern attacks.
Certain features, such as the Extra Attack feature
o f the fighter, allow you to m ake m ore than one attack
with this action.
Im p r o v i s i n g a n A c t i o n
Your character can do things not covered by the actions in
this chapter, such as breaking down doors, intimidating
enemies, sensing weaknesses in magical defenses, or calling
for a parley with a foe. The only limits to the actions you can
attempt are your imagination and your character’s ability
scores. See the descriptions o f the ability scores in chapter 7
for inspiration as you improvise.
When you describe an action not detailed elsewhere in
the rules, the DM tells you whether that action is possible
and what kind o f roll you need to make, if any, to determine
success or failure.
Som etim es you want to get the jum p on a foe or wait for
a particular circum stance before you act. To do so, you
can take the Ready action on your turn so that you can
act later in the round using your reaction.
First, you decide what perceivable circum stance
w ill trigger your reaction. Then, you ch oose the action
you w ill take in respon se to that trigger, or you ch oose
to m ove up to your sp eed in resp on se to it. E xam ples
include “If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the
lever that op en s it,” and “If the goblin steps next to me,
I m ove away.”
W hen the trigger occurs, you can either take your
reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore
the trigger. R em em ber that you can take only one
reaction per round.
W h en you ready a spell, you cast it as norm al but
hold its energy, w hich you release with your reaction
when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must
have a casting time o f 1 action, and holding onto the
sp ell’s m agic requ ires concentration (explained in
chapter 10). If your concentration is broken, the spell
dissipates without taking effect. For example, if you are
concentrating on the web spell and ready magic missile,
your web spell ends, and if you take dam age before
you release magic missile with your reaction, your
concentration might be broken.
W hen you take the Search action, you devote your
attention to finding som ething. D epending on the
nature of your search, the DM might have you make
a W isdom (Perception) check or an Intelligence
U se a n O b je c t
You norm ally interact with an object w hile doing
som ething else, such as w hen you draw a sw ord as part
of an attack. W hen an object requires your action for
its use, you take the U se an O bject action. This action
is also useful w hen you want to interact with m ore than
one object on your turn.
M aking an A ttack
W h eth er you ’re striking w ith a m elee w eapon , firing a
w ea p on at range, or m akin g an attack roll as part o f a
spell, an attack has a simple structure.
1. Choose a target. P ick a target w ithin y ou r attack’s
range: a creature, an object, or a location.
2. Determine modifiers. The DM determ ines whether
the target has cover and whether you have advantage
or disadvantage against the target. In addition, spells,
special abilities, and other effects can apply penalties
or bon u ses to your attack roll.
3. Resolve the attack. You m ake the attack roll. On a
hit, you roll dam age, unless the particular attack has
rules that specify otherwise. S om e attacks cause
sp ecia l effects in addition to or instead o f dam age.
If th ere’s ever any question w hether som eth in g y ou ’re
doin g coun ts as an attack, the rule is sim ple: if you ’re
m akin g an attack roll, you ’re m aking an attack.
A tta ck Rolls
W hen you make an attack, your attack roll determines
whether the attack hits or m isses. To make an attack
roll, roll a d20 and add the appropriate m odifiers. If the
total o f the roll plus m odifiers equals or exceeds the
target’s A rm or C lass (AC), the attack hits. The AC o f a
character is determ ined at character creation, w h ereas
the AC o f a m onster is in its stat block.
M od ifiers t o t h e R o ll
W hen a character m akes an attack roll, the tw o most
com m on m odifiers to the roll are an ability m odifier
and the character’s proficiency bonus. W h en a m onster
m akes an attack roll, it u ses w hatever m odifier is
provided in its stat block.
A bility M odifier. T h e ability m odifier u sed for a m elee
w eapon attack is Strength, and the ability m odifier used
for a ranged w eapon attack is Dexterity. W eapons that
have the finesse or thrown property break this rule.
S om e spells also require an attack roll. The ability
m odifier used for a spell attack depends on the
spellcasting ability o f the spellcaster, as explained
in chapter 10.
P roficiency Bonus. You add your proficiency bonus
to your attack roll w hen you attack using a w eapon with
which you have proficiency, as w ell as w hen you attack
with a spell.
R ollin g 1 or 20
Som etim es fate blesses or cu rses a combatant, causing
the n ovice to hit and the veteran to m iss.
If the d20 roll for an attack is a 20, the attack hits
regardless o f any m odifiers or the target’s AC. In
addition, the attack is a critical hit, as explained later
in this chapter.
If the d2 0 roll for an attack is a 1, the attack m isses
regardless o f any m odifiers or the target’s AC.
U nseen A ttackers an d T argets
Combatants often try to escape their foes’ notice
by hiding, casting the invisibility spell, or lurking
W hen you attack a target that you can ’t see, you have
disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true whether
you ’re gu essin g the target’s location or you ’re targeting
a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn’t in
the location you targeted, you automatically m iss, but C o n t e s t s in C o m b a t
the DM typically just says that the attack m issed, not Battle often involves pitting your prowess against that of
w hether you g u essed the target’s location correctly. your foe. Such a challenge is represented by a contest. This
section includes the most common contests that require an
W h en a creature ca n ’t see you, you have advantage on action in combat: grappling and shoving a creature. The DM
attack rolls against it. can use these contests as models for improvising others.
If you are h idden—both u n seen and u nheard—w hen creature. T h e attack interrupts the provokin g creatu re’s
you m ake an attack, you give away your location when movement, occurring right before the creature
the attack hits or m isses. leaves your reach.
Ranged A t t a c k s You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by
taking the D isengage action. You also don’t provoke an
W hen you make a ranged attack, you fire a bow or a opportunity attack when you teleport or when som eone
crossbow , hurl a handaxe, or otherwise send projectiles or som ething m oves you without using your movement,
to strike a foe at a distance. A m onster might shoot action, or reaction. For exam ple, you don’t provoke an
spines from its tail. M any sp ells also involve m akin g a opportu nity attack if an explosion hurls you out o f a fo e ’s
ranged attack. reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.
R ange Two-W e a p o n F ig h t in g
You can make ranged attacks only against targets within
a specified range. W hen you take the Attack action and attack with a light
m elee w eap on that you ’re h olding in on e hand, you can
If a ranged attack, such as one made with a spell, has a use a bonus action to attack with a different light m elee
single range, you can’t attack a target beyond this range. w eap on that you ’re h olding in the other hand. You d on ’t
add your ability m odifier to the dam age o f the bonus
S om e ranged attacks, such as those made with a attack, unless that m odifier is negative.
longbow or a shortbow, have two ranges. The smaller
num ber is the norm al range, and the larger num ber is If either w eapon has the thrown property, you
the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage when can throw the weapon, instead of making a melee
your target is beyond norm al range, and you can’t attack attack w ith it.
a target beyond the long range.
G r a p p l in g
R a n g e d A t t a c k s in C lose C o m b a t W h en you w ant to grab a creature or w restle w ith it,
Aim ing a ranged attack is m ore difficult w hen a foe you can use the Attack action to make a special melee
is next to you. W hen you m ake a ranged attack with attack, a grapple. If you ’re able to m ake multiple attacks
a weapon, a spell, or som e other means, you have with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
disadvantage on the attack roll if you are within 5 feet
o f a hostile creature w ho can see you and w ho isn’t The target of your grapple must be no m ore than one
incapacitated. size larger than you, and it must be w ithin your reach.
U sing at least one free hand, you try to seize the target
M elee A ttacks by m aking a grapple check, a Strength (Athletics)
check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or
U sed in hand-to-hand combat, a m elee attack allows Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target ch ooses the
you to attack a foe within your reach. A m elee attack ability to use). If you su cceed, you subject the target to
typically uses a handheld w eapon such as a sword, the grappled condition (see appendix A). The condition
a warhammer, or an axe. A typical monster m akes a sp ecifies the things that end it, and you can release the
m elee attack w h en it strikes w ith its claw s, horns, teeth, target whenever you like (no action required).
tentacles, or other body part. A few spells also involve
m aking a m elee attack. Escaping a Grapple. A grappled creature can use its
action to escap e. To do so, it must su cce e d on a Strength
M ost creatures have a 5-foot reach and can thus (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by
attack targets within 5 feet of them w hen making a your Strength (Athletics) check.
m elee attack. Certain creatures (typically those larger
than Medium) have melee attacks with a greater reach Moving a Grappled Creature. W hen you move, you
than 5 feet, as noted in their descriptions. can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but
your speed is halved, unless the creature is tw o or more
W hen you are unarmed, you can fight in m elee by sizes sm aller than you.
m aking an unarm ed strike, as show n in the w eapon
table in chapter 5. Sh o v in g a C reatu re
Using the Attack action, you can make a special melee
O p p o r t u n it y A ttack s attack to shove a creature, either to k n ock it prone or
In a fight, everyone is constantly w atching for en em ies push it away from you. If you ’re able to m ake multiple
to drop their guard. You can rarely move heedlessly past attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces
your foes without putting yourself in danger; doing so one of them.
provokes an opportunity attack.
The target of your shove must be no m ore than one
You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile size larger than you, and it m ust be w ithin your reach.
creature that you can see m oves out o f your reach. To You make a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the
make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction target’s Strength (Athletics) or D exterity (A crobatics)
to make one m elee attack against the provoking
check (the target ch ooses the ability to use). If you win W hen attacking with a weapon, you add your ability
the contest, you either knock the target prone or push m odifier—the sam e m odifier used for the attack roll—
it 5 feet away from you. to the damage. A spell tells you w hich dice to roll for
damage and whether to add any modifiers.
If a spell or other effect deals dam age to more than
Walls, trees, creatures, and other obstacles can provide one target at the sam e time, roll the dam age on ce for
cover during combat, m aking a target m ore difficult all o f them. For exam ple, w hen a w izard casts fireball or
to harm. A target can benefit from cover only w hen an a cleric casts flame strike, the sp ell’s dam age is rolled
attack or other effect originates on the opposite side on ce for all creatures caught in the blast.
of the cover.
C r it ic a l H its
There are three degrees o f cover. If a target is behind W h en you sco re a critical hit, you get to roll extra dice
multiple sou rces o f cover, only the m ost protective for the attack’s dam age against the target. R oll all o f the
degree o f cover applies; the degrees aren't added attack’s dam age d ice tw ice and add them together. Then
together. For example, if a target is behind a creature add any relevant m odifiers as norm al. To sp eed up play,
that gives half cover and a tree trunk that gives three- you can roll all the dam age d ice at once.
quarters cover, the target has three-quarters cover.
For exam ple, if you sco re a critical hit w ith a dagger,
A target with half cover has a +2 bonus to AC and roll 2d4 for the dam age, rather than 1d4, and then add
Dexterity saving throws. A target has half cover if an your relevant ability modifier. If the attack involves other
obstacle block s at least h alf o f its body. The obstacle dam age dice, such as from the rogue’s Sneak Attack
might be a low wall, a large piece o f furniture, a narrow feature, you roll those dice tw ice as well.
tree trunk, or a creature, whether that creature is an
enem y or a friend. Dam age Types
Different attacks, damaging spells, and other harmful
A target with three-quarters cover has a +5 bonus effects deal different types o f damage. Damage types
to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has three- have no rules of their own, but other rules, such as
quarters cover if about three-quarters o f it is covered damage resistance, rely on the types.
by an obstacle. The obstacle might be a portcullis, an
arrow slit, or a thick tree trunk. The damage types follow, with examples to help a
DM assign a damage type to a new effect.
A target with total cover can’t be targeted directly
by an attack or a spell, although som e spells can reach Acid. T h e corrosiv e spray o f a black dragon ’s breath
such a target by including it in an area o f effect. A and the dissolving enzym es secreted by a black pudding
target has total cover if it is com pletely con cea led by deal acid damage.
Bludgeoning. Blunt force attacks—ham m ers, falling,
Dam age a n d H ealing constriction, and the like—deal bludgeoning damage.
Injury and the risk of death are constant com panions Cold. The infernal chill radiating from an ice devil’s
of those w ho explore the w orlds of D&D. The thrust of spear and the frigid blast o f a w hite dragon ’s breath
a sword, a well-placed arrow, or a blast of flame from a deal cold damage.
fireball spell all have the potential to dam age, or even
kill, the hardiest o f creatures. Fire. R ed dragons breathe fire, and m any spells
conjure flam es to deal fire damage.
H it Po in ts
Force. F orce is pure m agical en ergy focu sed into a
Hit points represent a com bination o f physical and dam aging form. M ost effects that deal force dam age are
mental durability, the w ill to live, and luck. Creatures spells, including magic missile and spiritual weapon.
w ith m ore hit points are m ore difficult to kill. T h ose
with fewer hit points are m ore fragile. Lightning. A lightning bolt spell and a blue dragon ’s
breath deal lightning damage.
A creatu re’s current hit points (usually ju st called hit
points) can be any n um ber from the creatu re’s hit point Necrotic. N ecrotic dam age, dealt by certain undead
m axim um dow n to 0. This num ber changes frequently and a spell such as chill touch, w ithers matter and
as a creature takes dam age or receives healing. even the soul.
W henever a creature takes dam age, that dam age is Piercing. P unctu ring and im paling attacks, including
subtracted from its hit points. The loss o f hit points has spears and m onsters’ bites, deal piercing damage.
n o effect on a creatu re’s capabilities until the creature
d rops to 0 hit points. Poison. V en om ou s stings and the toxic gas o f a green
dragon ’s breath deal p oison dam age.
Dam age R olls
Psychic. M ental abilities such as a m ind flayer’s
Each w eapon, spell, and harm ful m onster ability psionic blast deal psychic damage.
sp ecifies the dam age it deals. You roll the dam age die
or dice, add any m odifiers, and apply the dam age to Radiant. Radiant dam age, dealt by a cleric’s flame
your target. M agic w eapons, special abilities, and other strike spell or an angel’s sm iting w eapon , sea rs the flesh
factors can grant a bonus to damage. like fire and overloads the spirit with power.
Slashing. S w ord s, axes, and m on sters’ claw s deal
Thunder. A con cu ssive burst o f sound, such as the
effect o f the thunderwave spell, deals thunder dam age.
D a m a g e R esistan ce a n d D escrib in g th e Effects o f Dam age
Dungeon Masters describe hit point loss in different ways.
V u ln er a bility When your current hit point total is half or more o f your hit
point maximum, you typically show no signs of injury. When
S om e creatures and objects are exceedingly difficult or you drop below half your hit point maximum, you show signs
unusually easy to hurt with certain types of damage. o f wear, such as cuts and bruises. An attack that reduces you
to 0 hit points strikes you directly, leaving a bleeding injury or
If a creature or an object has resistance to a damage other trauma, or it simply knocks you unconscious.
type, dam age o f that type is halved against it. If a
creature or an object has vulnerability to a dam age D e a t h Sa v in g T h r o w s
type, dam age o f that type is dou bled against it. W h enever you start your turn with 0 hit points, you
must make a special saving throw, called a death saving
Resistance and then vulnerability are applied after throw, to determine w hether you creep closer to death
all other m odifiers to damage. For example, a creature or hang onto life. Unlike other saving throws, this one
has resistance to bludgeoning dam age and is hit by an isn’t tied to any ability score. You are in the hands o f fate
attack that deals 25 bludgeoning dam age. The creature now, aided only by spells and features that im prove your
is also within a m agical aura that reduces all dam age by chances o f succeeding on a saving throw.
5. T he 25 dam age is first reduced by 5 and then halved,
so the creature takes 10 dam age. R oll a d20. If the roll is 10 or higher, you succeed.
O therw ise, you fail. A su ccess or failure has no effect
Multiple instances o f resistance or vulnerability that by itself. On your third success, you becom e stable (see
affect the sam e damage type count as only one instance. below). On your third failure, you die. The su ccesses
For example, if a creature has resistance to fire damage and failures don't need to be consecutive; keep track
as w ell as resistance to all nonm agical damage, the o f both until you collect three of a kind. The num ber of
dam age o f a nonm agical fire is reduced by half against both is reset to zero w hen you regain any hit points or
the creature, not reduced by three-quarters. becom e stable.
H ealin g Rolling 1 or 20. W hen you m ake a death saving throw
and roll a 1 on the d20, it coun ts as tw o failures. If you
U n less it results in death, dam age isn’t perm anent. Even roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.
death is reversible through pow erful magic. Rest can
restore a creature's hit points (as explained in chapter Damage at 0 Hit Points. If you take any dam age while
8), and m agical m ethods such as a cure wounds spell or you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw
a potion o f healing can rem ove dam age in an instant. failure. If the dam age is from a critical hit, you suffer
tw o failures instead. If the dam age equals or exceeds
W h en a creature receives healing o f any kind, hit your hit point m axim um , you suffer instant death.
points regained are added to its current hit points. A
creatu re’s hit points ca n ’t ex ceed its hit point m axim um , St a b il iz in g a C r e a t u r e
so any hit points regained in ex ce s s o f this num ber are T h e best w ay to save a creature w ith 0 hit poin ts is to
lost. For exam ple, a druid grants a ranger 8 hit points of heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at
healing. If the ranger h as 14 current hit points and has a least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death
hit point m axim u m o f 20, the ranger regains 6 hit points saving throw.
from the druid, not 8.
You can use your action to administer first aid to an
A creature that has died can’t regain hit points until u n con sciou s creature and attempt to stabilize it, w hich
m agic such as the revivify spell has restored it to life. requ ires a su ccessfu l D C 10 W isd om (M edicine) check.
D ropping t o 0 H it P o in ts A stable creature d oesn ’t m ake death saving throw s,
even though it has 0 hit points, but it d o e s rem ain
W h en you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must
fall u nconscious, as explained in the follow ing sections.
In stan t D eath
M assive dam age can kill you instantly. W hen damage
redu ces you to 0 hit points and there is dam age
remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals
or ex ce e d s your hit point m axim um .
For example, a cleric with a m axim um of
12 hit points currently has 6 hit points. If she
takes 18 dam age from an attack, she is reduced
to 0 hit points, but 12 dam age rem ains. B ecau se
the rem aining dam age equals her hit point
maximum, the cleric dies.
Fa l l i n g U n c o n s c i o u s
If dam age red u ces you to 0 hit points and fails to kill
you, you fall u nconscious (see appendix A). This
u n con sciou sn ess ends if you regain any hit points.
start m aking death saving throw s again, if it takes any M o u n tin g a n d D ism o u n tin g
dam age. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains
1 hit point after 1d4 hours. O nce during your move, you can mount a creature that
is within 5 feet of you or dismount. D oing so costs an
M onsters an d D eath amount of movement equal to half your speed. For
M ost D M s have a m onster die the instant it d rops to example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15
0 hit points, rather than having it fall u n con sciou s and feet of m ovem ent to m ount a horse. Therefore, you can’t
make death saving throws. m ount it if you d on ’t have 15 feet o f m ovem ent left or
if your sp eed is 0.
Mighty villains and special nonplayer characters
are com m on exceptions; the DM might have them If an effect m oves your mount against its w ill while
fall unconscious and follow the sam e rules as you ’re on it, you m ust su cce e d on a D C 10 Dexterity
player characters. saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone in a
sp ace w ithin 5 feet o f it. If you ’re k n ock ed prone w hile
K n o ck in g a C reature O u t mounted, you must make the sam e saving throw.
Som etim es an attacker wants to incapacitate a foe, If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your
rather than deal a killing blow. W hen an attacker reaction to dism ount it as it falls and land on your feet.
redu ces a creature to 0 hit points with a m elee attack, O therw ise, you are dism ounted and fall prone in a
the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker sp ace w ithin 5 feet it.
can make this choice the instant the dam age is dealt.
The creature falls unconscious and is stable. C o n tr o llin g a M o u n t
T e m po r a r y H it P o in ts W hile you're mounted, you have two options. You
can either control the m ount or allow it to act
S o m e sp ells and sp ecial abilities con fer tem porary hit independently. Intelligent creatures, such as dragons,
points to a creature. Tem porary hit points aren’t actual act independently.
hit points; they are a buffer against dam age, a p o o l o f hit
points that protect you from injury. You can control a m ount only if it has been trained
to accept a rider. D om esticated horses, donkeys, and
W hen you have tem porary hit points and take damage, similar creatures are assum ed to have such training.
the tem porary hit points are lost first, and any leftover The initiative o f a controlled mount changes to match
d am age carries over to your norm al hit points. For y ou rs w hen you m ount it. It m oves as you direct it, and
exam ple, if you have 5 tem porary hit poin ts and take it has only three action options: Dash, D isengage, and
7 dam age, you lose the tem porary hit points and then Dodge. A controlled mount can move and act even on
take 2 damage. the turn that you m ount it.
B ecause tem porary hit points are separate from An independent m ount retains its place in the
your actual hit points, they can ex ceed your hit point initiative order. B earing a rider puts no restrictions on
m axim um . A character can, therefore, be at full hit the actions the m ount can take, and it m oves and acts
poin ts and receive tem porary hit points. as it w ish es. It might flee from com bat, rush to attack
and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against
H ealing ca n ’t restore tem porary hit points, and they your wishes.
ca n ’t b e added together. If you have tem porary hit points
and receive m ore of them, you decide whether to keep In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunity
the ones you have or to gain the new ones. For example, attack w hile y ou ’re on it, the attacker can target you
if a spell grants you 12 tem porary hit points w hen you or the mount.
already have 10, you can have 12 or 10, not 22.
U nderwater C ombat
If you have 0 hit points, receivin g tem porary hit points
doesn ’t restore you to consciou sness or stabilize you. W hen adventurers pursue sahuagin back to their
T h ey can still absorb dam age directed at you w hile undersea hom es, fight off sharks in an ancient
you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you. shipw reck, or find them selves in a flooded dungeon
room , they must fight in a challenging environment.
U nless a feature that grants you tem porary hit points U nderw ater the follow in g rules apply.
has a duration, they last until they’re depleted or you
finish a long rest. W h en m aking a melee weapon attack, a creature
that d oesn ’t have a sw im m ing speed (either natural or
M ounted C ombat granted by magic) has disadvantage on the attack roll
unless the w eapon is a dagger, javelin, shortsword,
A knight charging into battle on a warhorse, a wizard spear, or trident.
casting spells from the back of a griffon, or a cleric
soaring through the sky on a pegasus all enjoy the A ranged weapon attack automatically m isses
benefits of speed and mobility that a mount can provide. a target beyon d the w ea p on ’s n orm al range. Even
against a target within norm al range, the attack roll has
A w illing creature that is at least on e size larger than disadvantage unless the w eapon is a crossbow , a net, or
you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a a w eapon that is thrown like a javelin (including a spear,
mount, using the follow ing rules. trident, or dart).
Creatures and objects that are fully im m ersed in
water have resistance to fire damage.
C h a p t e r 10: Sp e l l c a s t i n g
MAGIC PERMEATES THE WORLDS OF D&D AND In every case, the number o f spells a caster can
m ost often appears in the form o f a spell. have fixed in m ind at any given tim e depen ds on the
This chapter provides the rules for character’s level.
casting spells. Different character
classes have distinctive ways of learning Spell Slots
and preparing their spells, and monsters
use spells in unique ways. R egardless o f its source, Regardless of how many spells a caster knows or
a spell follow s the rules here. prepares, he or she can cast only a limited num ber of
spells before resting. Manipulating the fabric of magic
W h a t Is a Spell? and chann elin g its energy into even a sim ple spell is
physically and mentally taxing, and higher-level spells
A spell is a discrete m agical effect, a single shaping are even m ore so. Thus, each spellcasting class’s
o f the m agical energies that suffuse the multiverse description (except that o f the w arlock) includes a table
into a specific, limited expression. In casting a spell, show ing how many spell slots of each spell level a
a character carefully plucks at the invisible strands of character can u se at each character level. For exam ple,
raw m agic suffusing the w orld, pins them in place in a the 3rd-level w izard Um ara has four 1st-level spell slots
particular pattern, sets them vibrating in a specific way, and two 2nd-level slots.
and then releases them to unleash the desired effect—in
m ost cases, all in the span o f seconds. W hen a character casts a spell, he or she expends
a slot o f that sp ell’s level or higher, effectively “filling”
Spells can be versatile tools, w eapons, or protective a slot with the spell. You can think o f a spell slot as a
w ards. Th ey can deal dam age or undo it, im p ose or g roove o f a certain size—sm all for a 1st-level slot, larger
rem ove conditions (see appendix A), drain life energy for a spell o f higher level. A 1st-level spell fits into a slot
away, and restore life to the dead. o f any size, but a 9th-level spell fits only in a 9th-level
slot. S o w hen Um ara casts magic missile, a 1st-level
Uncounted thousands of spells have been created spell, she sp en ds on e o f her four 1st-level slots and has
over the cou rse o f the m ultiverse’s history, and m any o f three remaining.
them are long forgotten. S o m e m ight yet lie record ed in
crum bling spellbooks hidden in ancient ruins or trapped Finishing a long rest restores any expended spell slots
in the m inds o f dead gods. O r they m ight som eday be (see chapter 8 for the rules on resting).
reinvented by a character w ho has am assed enough
pow er and w isdom to do so. S om e characters and m onsters have special abilities
that let them cast spells without using spell slots. For
Spell L evel example, a m onk w ho follow s the Way o f the Four
Elements, a w arlock w ho ch ooses certain eldritch
Every spell has a level from 0 to 9. A sp ell’s level is a invocations, and a pit fiend from the Nine H ells can all
general indicator o f h ow p ow erfu l it is, w ith the low ly cast spells in such a way.
(but still im pressive) magic missile at 1st level and
the earth-shaking wish at 9th. Cantrips—sim ple but C a s t in g a Spell a t a H ig h e r L e vel
pow erful spells that characters can cast alm ost by rote— W hen a spellcaster casts a spell using a slot that is o f a
are level 0. The higher a spell’s level, the higher level a higher level than the spell, the spell assum es the higher
spellcaster must be to use that spell. level for that casting. For instance, if Um ara casts magic
missile using on e o f her 2nd-level slots, that magic
Spell level and character level don ’t correspond missile is 2nd level. Effectively, the spell expands to fill
directly. Typically, a character has to be at least 17th the slot it is put into.
level, not 9th level, to cast a 9th-level spell.
S om e spells, such as magic missile and cure wounds,
K now n an d Prepared Spells have m ore pow erfu l effects w hen cast at a higher level,
as detailed in a sp ell’s description.
Before a spellcaster can use a spell, he or she must
have the spell firmly fixed in mind, or must have access C an trips
to the spell in a m agic item. M em bers o f a few classes,
including bards and sorcerers, have a limited list of A cantrip is a spell that can be cast at will, w ithout
spells they know that are always fixed in mind. The using a spell slot and without being prepared in
sam e thing is true o f many m agic-using m onsters. Other advance. R epeated practice has fixed the spell in the
spellcasters, such as clerics and wizards, undergo a caster’s m ind and in fused the caster w ith the m agic
process o f preparing spells. This process varies for needed to produce the effect over and over. A cantrip’s
different classes, as detailed in their descriptions. spell level is 0.
C a s t in g in A r m o r R itu als
Because o f the mental focus and precise gestures required
for spellcasting, you must be proficient with the armor you Certain spells have a special tag: ritual. Such a spell
are wearing to cast a spell. You are otherwise too distracted can be cast follow ing the norm al rules for spellcasting,
and physically hampered by your armor for spellcasting. or the spell can be cast as a ritual. The ritual version of
a spell takes 10 minutes longer to cast than norm al.
It also d oesn ’t expend a spell slot, w hich m ea n s the
ritual version o f a spell ca n ’t be cast at a higher level.
To cast a spell as a ritual, a spellcaster must have a
feature that grants the ability to do so. The cleric and the
druid, for example, have such a feature. The caster must
also have the spell prepared or on his or her list o f spells
known, unless the character’s ritual feature specifies
oth erw ise, as the w iza rd ’s does.
C a s t in g a Spell
W hen a character casts any spell, the sam e basic rules
are follow ed, regardless o f the character’s class or the
sp ell’s effects.
Each spell description in chapter 11 begin s with a block
o f inform ation, including the spell’s name, level, sch ool
o f magic, casting time, range, com ponents, and duration.
T he rest o f a spell entry d escribes the spell’s effect.
C a st in g T im e
M ost spells require a single action to cast, but som e
spells require a bonus action, a reaction, or much more
time to cast.
B on u s A c t io n
A spell cast with a bonus action is especially swift. You
must use a bonus action on your turn to cast the spell,
provided that you haven’t already taken a bon u s action
this turn. You can’t cast another spell during the sam e
turn, except for a cantrip with a casting time o f 1 action.
R e a c t io n s
Som e spells can be cast as reactions. These spells
take a fraction of a second to bring about and are cast
in response to som e event. If a spell can be cast as a
reaction, the spell description tells you exactly when
you can do so.
L o n g e r C a s t in g T im e s
Certain spells (including spells cast as rituals) require
m ore time to cast: minutes or even hours. W hen you
cast a spell with a casting time longer than a single
action or reaction, you must spend your action each
turn casting the spell, and you must maintain your
concentration while you do so (see “Concentration”
below). If your concentration is broken, the spell fails,
but you don’t expend a spell slot. If you want to try
casting the spell again, you must start over.
The target o f a spell m ust be w ithin the sp ell’s range.
For a spell like magic missile, the target is a creature.
F or a spell like fireball, the target is the point in sp ace
w here the ball of fire erupts.
M ost spells have ranges expressed in feet. Som e
spells can target only a creature (including you) that you
touch. Other spells, such as the shield spell, affect only
you. T hese spells have a range o f self.
Sp ells that create con es or lines o f effect that originate
from you also have a range o f self, indicating that the
origin point o f the sp ell’s effect must be you (see “A reas
o f Effect” later in the this chapter).
O nce a spell is cast, its effects aren’t limited by its The S c h o o ls of Ma g ic
range, unless the spell’s description says otherwise. Academies o f magic group spells into eight categories called
schools o f magic. Scholars, particularly wizards, apply these
C om ponents categories to all spells, believing that all magic functions in
essentially the same way, whether it derives from rigorous
A sp ell’s com pon en ts are the physical requirem ents you study or is bestowed by a deity.
m ust m eet in order to cast it. E ach spell’s description
indicates w hether it requ ires verbal (V), som atic (S), The schools of magic help describe spells; they have no
or m aterial (M ) com pon en ts. If you ca n ’t provide one rules of their own, although some rules refer to the schools.
or m ore o f a sp ell’s com pon en ts, you are unable to
cast the spell. Abjuration spells are protective in nature, though some
o f them have aggressive uses. They create magical barriers,
V erbal (V ) negate harmful effects, harm trespassers, or banish creatures
M ost spells require the chanting of mystic words. The to other planes o f existence.
w ord s them selves aren’t the so u rce o f the sp ell’s pow er;
rather, the particular com bination o f sounds, with Conjuration spells involve the transportation of objects
specific pitch and resonance, sets the threads of magic and creatures from one location to another. Some spells
in motion. Thus, a character w ho is gagged or in an area summon creatures or objects to the caster’s side, whereas
o f silence, such as one created by the silence spell, can’t others allow the caster to teleport to another location. Some
cast a spell with a verbal component. conjurations create objects or effects out o f nothing.
S o m a t ic (S) Divination spells reveal information, whether in the form of
Spellcasting gestures might include a forceful secrets long forgotten, glimpses o f the future, the locations
gesticulation or an intricate set of gestures. If a spell o f hidden things, the truth behind illusions, or visions of
requires a som atic com ponent, the caster must have free distant people or places.
use o f at least one hand to perform these gestures.
Enchantment spells affect the minds o f others, influencing
M a t e r ia l (M ) or controlling their behavior. Such spells can make enemies
Casting som e spells requires particular objects, see the caster as a friend, force creatures to take a course of
specified in parentheses in the com ponent entry. action, or even control another creature like a puppet.
A character can use a component pouch or a
spellcasting focus (found in chapter 5) in place of Evocation spells manipulate magical energy to produce a
the com ponents specified for a spell. But if a cost is desired effect. Some call up blasts o f fire or lightning. Others
indicated for a com ponent, a character must have that channel positive energy to heal wounds.
specific com ponent before he or she can cast the spell.
Illusion spells deceive the senses or minds o f others. They
If a spell states that a material com ponent is cause people to see things that are not there, to miss things
consum ed by the spell, the caster must provide this that are there, to hear phantom noises, or to remember
com ponent for each casting o f the spell. things that never happened. Some illusions create phantom
images that any creature can see, but the most insidious
A spellcaster must have a hand free to access these illusions plant an image directly in the mind o f a creature.
com pon en ts, but it can be the sam e hand that he or she
uses to perform som atic com ponents. Necromancy spells manipulate the energies o f life and
death. Such spells can grant an extra reserve o f life force,
D u r a tio n drain the life energy from another creature, create the
undead, or even bring the dead back to life.
A spell's duration is the length o f time the spell persists.
A duration can be expressed in rounds, minutes, hours, Creating the undead through the use of necromancy spells
or even years. S om e spells specify that their effects last such as animate dead is not a good act, and only evil casters
until the spells are dispelled or destroyed. use such spells frequently.
In sta n ta n e o u s Transmutation spells change the properties o f a creature,
Many spells are instantaneous. The spell harms, object, or environment. They might turn an enemy into a
heals, creates, or alters a creature or an object in a way harmless creature, bolster the strength o f an ally, make an
that can’t b e dispelled, because its m agic exists only object move at the caster’s command, or enhance a creature’s
for an instant. innate healing abilities to rapidly recover from injury.
C o n c e n t r a t io n Norm al activity, such as m oving and attacking, d oesn ’t
S om e spells require you to maintain concentration interfere with concentration. The follow ing factors can
in order to keep their m agic active. If you lose break concentration:
concentration, such a spell ends.
• Casting another spell that requires concentration.
If a spell must be maintained with concentration, You lose concentration on a spell if you cast another
that fact appears in its Duration entry, and the spell spell that requires concentration. You can’t con cen
sp ecifies h ow lon g you can concentrate on it. You can trate on tw o sp ells at once.
end concentration at any tim e (no action required).
• Taking damage. W henever you take dam age while
you are concentrating on a spell, you must m ake a
Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentra
tion. The D C equals 10 or half the dam age you take,
w hichever num ber is higher. If you take dam age from
multiple sou rces, such as an arrow and a dragon ’s
breath, you make a separate saving throw for each
source of damage.
• Being incapacitated or killed. You lose concentration
on a spell if you are incapacitated or if you die.
The DM might also decide that certain environmental position its point o f origin. Typically,
phenomena, such as a wave crashing over you while a point o f origin is a point in space, but
y ou ’re on a storm -tossed ship, require you to su cceed som e spells have an area w hose origin is a
on a DC 10 Constitution saving throw to maintain creature or an object.
concentration on a spell.
A sp ell’s effect expands in straight lin es from the point
Targets o f origin. If no unblocked straight line extends from the
point o f origin to a location w ithin the area o f effect, that
A typical spell requires you to pick one or m ore targets location isn’t included in the sp ell’s area. To block one o f
to be affected by the sp ell’s m agic. A spell's description these im aginary lines, an obstruction must provide total
tells you whether the spell targets creatures, objects, or cover, as explained in chapter 9.
a point of origin for an area of effect (described below).
Unless a spell has a perceptible effect, a creature A cone extends in a direction you ch oose from its point
might not k n ow it w as targeted by a spell at all. A n effect o f origin. A c o n e ’s w idth at a given point along its length
like crackling lightning is obvious, but a m ore subtle is equal to that poin t’s distance from the point o f origin.
effect, such as an attempt to read a creatu re’s thoughts, A c o n e ’s area o f effect sp ecifies its m axim u m length.
typically goes unnoticed, unless a spell says otherwise.
A c o n e ’s point o f origin is not included in the c o n e ’s
A C l e a r Pa t h t o t h e T a r g e t area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.
To target som ething, you m ust have a clear path to it,
so it ca n ’t be beh in d total cover. C ube
You select a cube’s point o f origin, which lies anywhere
If you place an area o f effect at a point that you ca n ’t on a face o f the cubic effect. T h e cu b e ’s size is ex p ressed
see and an obstruction, such as a wall, is betw een you as the length of each side.
and that point, the point o f origin com es into being on
the near side o f that obstruction. A c u b e ’s point o f origin is not included in the cu b e ’s
area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.
T a r g e tin g Y ourself
If a spell targets a creature of your choice, you can C ylin d er
choose yourself, unless the creature must be hostile or A cylinder’s point o f origin is the center o f a circle o f a
specifically a creature other than you. If you are in the particular radius, as given in the spell description. The
area of effect of a spell you cast, you can target yourself. circle m ust either b e on the grou nd or at the height o f
the spell effect. The en ergy in a cylinder expands in
A reas of E ffect straight lines from the point o f origin to the perim eter of
the circle, form ing the base o f the cylinder. The spell’s
S p ells such as burning hands and cone o f cold cover an effect then shoots up from the base or dow n from the
area, allow ing them to affect m ultiple creatu res at on ce. top, to a distance equal to the height of the cylinder.
A sp ell’s description sp ecifies its area o f effect, A cylinder’s point o f origin is included in the cylinder’s
which typically has one o f five different shapes: cone, area of effect.
cube, cylinder, line, or sphere. Every area o f effect has
a point o f origin, a location from w hich the spell’s
energy erupts. The rules for each shape specify how you
L in e Th e W eave o f M a g ic
A line extends from its point o f origin in a straight path
up to its length and covers an area defined by its width. The worlds within the D&D multiverse are magical places.
All existence is suffused with magical power, and potential
A lin e’s point o f origin is not included in the line’s area energy lies untapped in every rock, stream, and living
of effect, unless you decide otherwise. creature, and even in the air itself. Raw magic is the stuff of
creation, the mute and mindless will o f existence, permeating
Sph ere every bit o f matter and present in every manifestation of
You select a sp here’s point o f origin, and the sphere energy throughout the multiverse.
extends outw ard from that point. T h e sp here’s
size is expressed as a radius in feet that extends Mortals can’t directly shape this raw magic. Instead, they
from the point. make use o f a fabric o f magic, a kind o f interface between
the will of a spellcaster and the stuff o f raw magic. The
A sp h ere’s point o f origin is included in the sp h ere’s spellcasters o f the Forgotten Realms call it the Weave and
area of effect. recognize its essence as the goddess Mystra, but casters
have varied ways o f naming and visualizing this interface. By
Sa v in g T hrow s any name, without the Weave, raw magic is locked away and
inaccessible;the most powerful archmage can't light a candle
Many spells specify that a target can make a saving with magic in an area where the Weave has been torn. But
throw to avoid som e or all o f a spell’s effects. The spell surrounded by the Weave, a spellcaster can shape lightning
specifies the ability that the target uses for the save and to blast foes, transport hundreds o f miles in the blink o f an
what happens on a su ccess or failure. eye, or even reverse death itself.
The DC to resist one o f your spells equals 8 + your All magic depends on the Weave, though different kinds
spellcasting ability m odifier + your proficiency bonus + o f magic access it in a variety of ways. The spells o f wizards,
any special modifiers. warlocks, sorcerers, and bards are commonly called arcane
magic. These spells rely on an understanding— learned or
A tta c k R olls intuitive— o f the workings o f the Weave. The caster plucks
directly at the strands o f the Weave to create the desired
S om e spells require the caster to make an attack roll effect. Eldritch knights and arcane tricksters also use arcane
to determine whether the spell effect hits the intended magic. The spells o f clerics, druids, paladins, and rangers are
target. Your attack bonus with a spell attack equals your called divine magic. These spellcasters’ access to the Weave
spellcasting ability m odifier + your proficiency bonus. is mediated by divine power— gods, the divine forces of
nature, or the sacred weight o f a paladin’s oath.
M ost spells that require attack rolls involve ranged
attacks. R em em ber that you have disadvantage on a Whenever a magic effect is created, the threads o f the
ranged attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile Weave intertwine, twist, and fold to make the effect possible.
creature that can see you and that isn’t incapacitated When characters use divination spells such as detect magic or
(see chapter 9). identify, they glimpse the Weave. A spell such as dispel magic
smooths the Weave. Spells such as antimagicfield rearrange
C o m bin in g M a g ical Effects the Weave so that magic flows around, rather than through,
the area affected by the spell. And in places where the Weave
The effects o f different spells add together while is damaged or torn, magic works in unpredictable ways— or
the durations o f those spells overlap. The effects of not at all.
the sam e spell cast multiple tim es don't com bine,
however. Instead, the m ost potent effect—such as the
highest bonus—from those castings applies w hile their
For example, if two clerics cast bless on the sam e
target, that character gains the sp ell’s benefit only
once; he or she d oesn ’t get to roll tw o bonus dice.
C h a p t e r 11: S p e l l s
HT IS CHAPTER DESCRIBES THE MOST COMMON Hold Monster 1s t L e v e l
spells in the w orlds of DUNGEONS & Legend Lore Bane
D r a g o n s . The chapter begins with the Mass Cure Wounds Bless
spell lists o f the spellcasting classes. The Mislead Command
remainder contains spell descriptions, Modify Memory Create or Destroy Water
presented in alphabetical order by the Planar Binding Cure Wounds
nam e o f the spell. Raise Dead Detect Evil and Good
Scrying Detect Magic
B ard Spells Hold Person Seeming Detect Poison and Disease
Invisibility Teleportation Circle Guiding Bolt
C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Knock Healing Word
Blade Ward Lesser Restoration 6th Level Inflict Wounds
Dancing Lights Locate Animals or Plants Eyebite Protection from
Friends Locate Object Find the Path
Light Magic Mouth Guards and Wards Evil and Good
Mage Hand Phantasmal Force Mass Suggestion Purify Food and Drink
Mending See Invisibility Otto’s Irresistible Dance Sanctuary
Message Shatter Programmed Illusion Shield o f Faith
Minor Illusion Silence True Seeing
Prestidigitation Suggestion 2ND L evel
True Strike Zone o f Truth 7th L evel
Vicious Mockery Etherealness Aid
3rd Level Forcecage Augury
1s t L e v e l Bestow Curse Mirage Arcane Blindness/Deafness
Animal Friendship Clairvoyance Mordenkainen’s Calm Emotions
Bane Dispel Magic Continual Flame
Charm Person Fear Magnificent Mansion Enhance Ability
Comprehend Languages Feign Death Mordenkainen’s Sword Find Traps
Cure Wounds Glyph o f Warding Project Image Gentle Repose
Detect Magic Hypnotic Pattern Regenerate Hold Person
Disguise Self Leomund’s Tiny Hut Resurrection Lesser Restoration
Dissonant Whispers Major Image Symbol Locate Object
Faerie Fire Nondetection Teleport Prayer of Healing
Feather Fall Plant Growth Protection from Poison
Healing Word Sending 8t h L evel Silence
Heroism Speak with Dead Dominate Monster Spiritual Weapon
Identify Speak with Plants Feeblemind Warding Bond
Illusory Script Stinking Cloud Glibness Zone o f Truth
Longstrider Tongues Mind Blank
Silent Image Power Word Stun 3rd Level
Sleep 4th Level Animate Dead
Speak with Animals Compulsion 9th Level Beacon of Hope
Tasha’s Hideous Laughter Confusion Foresight Bestow Curse
Thunderwave Dimension Door Power Word Heal Clairvoyance
Unseen Servant Freedom of Movement Power Word Kill Create Food and Water
Greater Invisibility True Polymorph Daylight
2ND Level Hallucinatory Terrain Dispel Magic
Animal Messenger Locate Creature C l e r ic Sp ells Feign Death
Blindness/Deafness Polymorph Glyph o f Warding
Calm Emotions C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Magic Circle
Cloud o f Daggers 5t h L e v e l Guidance Mass Healing Word
Crown of Madness Animate Objects Light Meld into Stone
Detect Thoughts Awaken Mending Protection from Energy
Enhance Ability Dominate Person Resistance Remove Curse
Enthrall Dream Sacred Flame Revivify
Heat Metal Geas Spare the Dying Sending
Greater Restoration Thaumaturgy Speak with Dead
Spirit Guardians Gate Dispel Magic Mirage Arcane
Tongues Mass Heal Feign Death Plane Shift
Water Walk True Resurrection Meld into Stone Regenerate
Plant Growth Reverse Gravity
4th Level D r u id Sp e l l s Protection from Energy
Banishment Sleet Storm 8th Level
Control Water C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Speak with Plants Animal Shapes
Death Ward Druidcraft Water Breathing Antipathy/Sympathy
Divination Guidance Water Walk Control Weather
Freedom of Movement Mending Wind Wall Earthquake
Guardian of Faith Poison Spray Feeblemind
Locate Creature Produce Flame 4th L evel Sunburst
Stone Shape Resistance Blight Tsunami
5t h L e v e l Thorn Whip Conjure Minor Elementals 9th Level
Commune Conjure Woodland Beings Foresight
Contagion 1s t L e v e l Control Water Shapechange
Dispel Evil and Good Animal Friendship Dominate Beast Storm o f Vengeance
Flame Strike Charm Person Freedom of Movement True Resurrection
Geas Create or Destroy Water Giant Insect
Greater Restoration Cure Wounds Grasping Vine Pa l a d in Spells
Hallow Detect Magic Hallucinatory Terrain
Insect Plague Detect Poison and Disease Ice Storm 1s t L e v e l
Legend Lore Entangle Locate Creature Bless
Mass Cure Wounds Faerie Fire Polymorph Command
Planar Binding Fog Cloud Stone Shape Compelled Duel
Raise Dead Goodberry Stoneskin Cure Wounds
Scrying Healing Word Wall of Fire Detect Evil and Good
Jump Detect Magic
6th Level Longstrider 5t h L e v e l Detect Poison and Disease
Blade Barrier Purify Food and Drink Antilife Shell Divine Favor
Create Undead Speak with Animals Awaken Heroism
Find the Path Thunderwave Commune with Nature Protection from
Forbiddance Conjure Elemental
Harm 2nd Level Contagion Evil and Good
Heal Animal Messenger Geas Purify Food and Drink
Heroes’ Feast Barkskin Greater Restoration Searing Smite
Planar Ally Beast Sense Insect Plague Shield o f Faith
True Seeing Darkvision Mass Cure Wounds Thunderous Smite
Word of Recall Enhance Ability Planar Binding Wrathful Smite
Find Traps Reincarnate
7t h L e ve l Flame Blade Scrying 2nd Level
Conjure Celestial Flaming Sphere Tree Stride Aid
Divine Word Gust of Wind Wall of Stone Branding Smite
Etherealness Heat Metal Find Steed
Fire Storm Hold Person 6th Level Lesser Restoration
Plane Shift Lesser Restoration Conjure Fey Locate Object
Regenerate Locate Animals or Plants Find the Path Magic Weapon
Resurrection Locate Object Heal Protection from Poison
Symbol Moonbeam Heroes’ Feast Zone o f Truth
Pass without Trace Move Earth
8th L evel Protection from Poison Sunbeam 3rd L evel
Antimagic Field Spike Growth Transport via Plants Aura o f Vitality
Control Weather Wall o f Thorns Blinding Smite
Earthquake 3rd L evel Wind Walk Create Food and Water
Holy Aura Call Lightning Crusader's Mantle
Conjure Animals 7th L evel Daylight
9th Level Daylight Fire Storm Dispel Magic
Astral Projection Elemental Weapon
Magic Circle Plant Growth Sleep Greater Invisibility
Remove Curse Protection from Energy Thunderwave Ice Storm
Revivify Speak with Plants Witch Bolt Polymorph
Water Breathing Stoneskin
4th L evel Water Walk 2nd Level Wall of Fire
Aura o f Life Wind Wall Alter Self
Aura o f Purity Blindness/Deafness 5t h L e v e l
Banishment 4th Level Blur Animate Objects
Death Ward Conjure Woodland Beings Cloud of Daggers Cloudkill
Locate Creature Freedom o f Movement Crown of Madness Cone o f Cold
Staggering Smite Grasping Vine Darkness Creation
Locate Creature Darkvision Dominate Person
5t h L e v e l Stoneskin Detect Thoughts Hold Monster
Banishing Smite Enhance Ability Insect Plague
Circle o f Power 5t h L e v e l Enlarge/Reduce Seeming
Destructive Smite Commune with Nature Gust of Wind Telekinesis
Dispel Evil and Good Conjure Volley Hold Person Teleportation Circle
Geas Swift Quiver Invisibility Wall of Stone
Raise Dead Tree Stride Knock
Levitate 6th Level
R an ger Spells Sorcerer Spells Mirror Image Arcane Gate
Misty Step Chain Lightning
1s t L e v e l C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Phantasmal Force Circle o f Death
Alarm Acid Splash Scorching Ray Disintegrate
Animal Friendship Blade Ward See Invisibility Eyebite
Cure Wounds Chill Touch Shatter Globe o f Invulnerability
Detect Magic Dancing Lights Spider Climb Mass Suggestion
Detect Poison and Disease Fire Bolt Suggestion Move Earth
Ensnaring Strike Friends Web Sunbeam
Fog Cloud Light True Seeing
Goodberry Mage Hand 3rd L evel
Hail o f Thorns Mending Blink 7th L evel
Hunter’s Mark Message Clairvoyance Delayed Blast Fireball
Jump Minor Illusion Counterspell Etherealness
Longstrider Poison Spray Daylight Finger of Death
Speak with Animals Prestidigitation Dispel Magic Fire Storm
Ray o f Frost Fear Plane Shift
2nd Level Shocking Grasp Fireball Prismatic Spray
Animal Messenger True Strike Fly Reverse Gravity
Barkskin Gaseous Form Teleport
Beast Sense 1s t L e v e l Haste
Cordon o f Arrows Burning Hands Hypnotic Pattern 8th Level
Darkvision Charm Person Lightning Bolt Dominate Monster
Find Traps Chromatic Orb Major Image Earthquake
Lesser Restoration Color Spray Protection from Energy Incendiary Cloud
Locate Animals or Plants Comprehend Languages Sleet Storm Power Word Stun
Locate Object Detect Magic Slow Sunburst
Pass without Trace Disguise Self Stinking Cloud
Protection from Poison Expeditious Retreat Tongues 9th Level
Silence False Life Water Breathing Gate
Spike Growth Feather Fall Water Walk Meteor Swarm
Fog Cloud Power Word Kill
3rd Level Jump 4th Level Time Stop
Conjure Animals Mage Armor Banishment Wish
Conjure Barrage Magic Missile Blight
Daylight Ray of Sickness Confusion
Lightning Arrow Shield Dimension Door
Nondetection Silent Image Dominate Beast
Wa r l o c k Spells Dimension Door 1s t L e v e l Misty Step
Hallucinatory Terrain Alarm Nystul’s Magic Aura
C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Burning Hands Phantasmal Force
Blade Ward 5t h L e v e l Charm Person Ray of Enfeeblement
Chill Touch Contact Other Plane Chromatic Orb Rope Trick
Eldritch Blast Dream Color Spray Scorching Ray
Friends Hold Monster Comprehend Languages See Invisibility
Mage Hand Scrying Detect Magic Shatter
Minor Illusion Disguise Self Spider Climb
Poison Spray 6th L evel Expeditious Retreat Suggestion
Prestidigitation Arcane Gate False Life Web
True Strike Circle o f Death Feather Fall
Conjure Fey Find Familiar 3rd Level
1s t L e v e l Create Undead Fog Cloud Animate Dead
Armor of Agathys Eyebite Grease Bestow Curse
Arms o f Hadar Flesh to Stone Identify Blink
Charm Person Mass Suggestion Illusory Script Clairvoyance
Comprehend Languages True Seeing Jump Counterspell
Expeditious Retreat Longstrider Dispel Magic
Hellish Rebuke 7t h L e v e l Mage Armor Fear
Hex Etherealness Magic Missile Feign Death
Illusory Script Finger o f Death Protection from Fireball
Protection from Forcecage Fly
Plane Shift Evil and Good Gaseous Form
Evil and Good Ray of Sickness Glyph o f Warding
Unseen Servant 8th Level Shield Haste
Witch Bolt Demiplane Silent Image Hypnotic Pattern
Dominate Monster Sleep Leomund’s Tiny Hut
2nd Level Feeblemind Tasha’s Hideous Laughter Lightning Bolt
Cloud of Daggers Glibness Tenser’s Floating Disk Magic Circle
Crown of Madness Power Word Stun Thunderwave Major Image
Darkness Unseen Servant Nondetection
Enthrall 9th Level Witch Bolt Phantom Steed
Hold Person Astral Projection Protection from Energy
Invisibility Foresight 2nd Level Remove Curse
Mirror Image Imprisonment Alter Self Sending
Misty Step Power Word Kill Arcane Lock Sleet Storm
Ray of Enfeeblement True Polymorph Blindness/Deafness Slow
Shatter Blur Stinking Cloud
Spider Climb W iza r d Spells Cloud of Daggers Tongues
Suggestion Continual Flame Vampiric Touch
C a n t r i p s (0 L e v e l ) Crown of Madness Water Breathing
3rd L evel Acid Splash Darkness
Counterspell Blade Ward Darkvision 4th Level
Dispel Magic Chill Touch Detect Thoughts
Fear Dancing Lights Enlarge/Reduce Arcane Eye
Fly Fire Bolt Flaming Sphere Banishment
Gaseous Form Friends Gentle Repose Blight
Hunger o f Hadar Light Gust of Wind Confusion
Hypnotic Pattern Mage Hand Hold Person Conjure Minor Elementals
Magic Circle Mending Invisibility Control Water
Major Image Message Knock Dimension Door
Remove Curse Minor Illusion Levitate Evard's Black Tentacles
Tongues Poison Spray Locate Object Fabricate
Vampiric Touch Prestidigitation Magic Mouth Fire Shield
Ray of Frost Magic Weapon Greater Invisibility
4th Level Shocking Grasp Melf’s Acid Arrow Hallucinatory Terrain
Banishment True Strike Mirror Image Ice Storm
Blight Leomund’s Secret Chest
Locate Creature Sunbeam Spell D escriptions
Mordenkainen’s True Seeing
Wall o f Ice The spells are presented in alphabetical order.
Mordenkainen’s 7th L evel A cid Splash
Delayed Blast Fireball Conjuration cantrip
Private Sanctum Etherealness
Otiluke’s Resilient Sphere Finger of Death Casting Time: 1 action
Phantasmal Killer Forcecage Range: 60 feet
Polymorph Mirage Arcane Components: V, S
Stone Shape Mordenkainen's Duration: Instantaneous
Wall of Fire Magnificent Mansion You hurl a bubble of acid. C hoose one creature within
Mordenkainen’s Sword range, or ch oose tw o creatures within range that are
5t h L e v e l Plane Shift within 5 feet o f each other. A target must su cceed on a
Animate Objects Prismatic Spray D exterity saving th row or take 1d6 acid dam age.
Bigby’s Hand Project Image
CloudkilI Reverse Gravity T h is sp ell’s dam age in creases by 1d6 w hen you reach
Cone o f Cold Sequester 5th level (2d6), 11th level (3d6), and 17th level (4d6).
Conjure Elemental Simulacrum
Contact Other Plane Symbol A id
Creation Teleport 2 nd-level abjuration
Dream 8th L evel Casting Time: 1 action
Geas Antimagic Field Range: 30 feet
Hold Monster Antipathy/Sympathy Components: V, S, M (a tiny strip o f w hite cloth)
Legend Lore Clone Duration: 8 hours
Mislead Control Weather
Modify Memory Demiplane Your spell bolsters your allies with toughness and
Passwall Dominate Monster resolve. C hoose up to three creatures within range.
Planar Binding Feeblemind Each target’s hit point m axim u m and current hit points
Rary’s Telepathic Bond Incendiary Cloud increase by 5 for the duration.
Seeming Mind Blank A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using
Telekinesis Power Word Stun a spell slot o f 3rd level or higher, a target’s hit points
Teleportation Circle Sunburst increase by an additional 5 for each slot level above 2nd.
Wall of Force Telepathy
Wall of Stone Trap the Soul A larm
1st-level abjuration (ritual)
6th Level 9th Level
Arcane Gate Astral Projection Casting Time: 1 minute
Chain Lightning Foresight Range: 30 feet
Circle o f Death Gate Components: V, S, M (a tiny bell and a p iece o f
Create Undead Meteor Swarm fine silver wire)
Disintegrate Power Word Kill Duration: 8 hours
Drawmij’s Instant Prismatic Wall
Shapechange You set an alarm against unwanted intrusion. Choose
Summons Time Stop a door, a window, or an area within range that is no
Eyebite True Polymorph larger than a 20-foot cube. Until the spell ends, an alarm
Flesh to Stone Weird alerts you whenever a Tiny or larger creature touches
Globe o f Invulnerability Wish or enters the w arded area. W hen you cast the spell, you
Guards and Wards can designate creatures that w on ’t set off the alarm. You
Magic Jar also ch oose whether the alarm is mental or audible.
Move Earth A mental alarm alerts you with a ping in your mind
Otiluke’s Freezing Sphere if you are within 1 mile of the warded area. This ping
Otto’s Irresistible Dance awakens you if you are sleeping.
An audible alarm produces the sound of a hand bell
for 10 secon d s within 60 feet.
A lter Self
2 nd-level transmutation
Casting Time: 1 action
Components: V, S
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
You assum e a different form. W hen you cast the spell,
ch oose one o f the follow ing options, the effects o f which
last for the duration o f the spell. W hile the spell lasts,
you can end one option as an action to gain the benefits location, covering about 50 m iles per 24 hours for a
o f a different one. flying messenger, or 25 m iles for other animals.
Aquatic Adaptation. You adapt your body to an W h en the m essen ger arrives, it delivers your m essa ge
aquatic environment, sprouting gills and growing to the creature that you described, replicating the sound
w ebbing between your fingers. You can breathe of your voice. The m essenger speaks only to a creature
underwater and gain a sw im m ing speed equal to your matching the description you gave. If the m essenger
walking speed. d oesn ’t reach its destination before the spell ends, the
m essage is lost, and the beast m akes its way back to
Change Appearance. You transform your appearance. where you cast this spell.
You decide what you look like, including your height,
weight, facial features, sound of your voice, hair length, At Higher Levels. If you cast this spell using a spell
coloration, and distinguishing characteristics, if any. slot o f 3nd level or higher, the duration o f the spell
You can make yourself appear as a m em ber of another increases by 48 hours for each slot level above 2nd.
race, though none of your statistics change. You also
can’t appear as a creature o f a different size than you, A n im a l Shapes
and your basic shape stays the same; if you're bipedal, 8 th-level transmutation
you can’t use this spell to becom e quadrupedal, for
instance. At any time for the duration of the spell, you Casting Time: 1 action
can use your action to change your appearance in Range: 30 feet
this way again. Components: V, S
Duration: Concentration, up to 24 hours
Natural Weapons. You g row claw s, fangs, spines,
horns, or a different natural w eapon o f your choice. Your Your m agic turns others into beasts. C hoose any
unarm ed strikes deal 1d6 bludgeoning, piercing, or num ber o f w illing creatures that you can see within
slashing damage, as appropriate to the natural w eapon range. You transform each target into the form o f a
you chose, and you are proficient with your unarm ed Large or sm aller beast with a challenge rating of 4 or
strikes. Finally, the natural w eapon is m agic and you lower. On subsequent turns, you can use your action to
have a +1 b on u s to the attack and dam age rolls you transform affected creatures into new forms.
m ake usin g it.
The transformation lasts for the duration for each
A n im a l Friendsh ip target, or until the target drops to 0 hit points or dies.
1st-level enchantment You can ch oose a different form for each target. A
target’s gam e statistics are replaced by the statistics o f
Casting Time: 1 action the ch osen beast, though the target retains its alignm ent
Range: 30 feet and Intelligence, W isdom , and Charisma scores. The
Components: V, S, M (a m orsel o f food ) target a ssu m es the hit points o f its n ew form , and w hen
Duration: 24 hours it reverts to its n orm al form , it returns to the num ber
o f hit points it had before it transform ed. If it reverts as
Th is spell lets you con v in ce a beast that you m ean it no a result o f droppin g to 0 hit points, any e x ce s s dam age
harm. C h oose a beast that you can see within range. carries over to its norm al form. A s long as the excess
It must see and hear you. If the b ea st’s Intelligence is dam age d oesn ’t redu ce the creatu re’s n orm al form to 0
4 or higher, the spell fails. Otherwise, the beast must hit points, it isn’t k n ock ed u n con sciou s. T h e creature is
succeed on a W isdom saving throw or be charm ed lim ited in the actions it can perform by the nature o f its
by you for the spell’s duration. If you or one of your n ew form , and it ca n ’t sp eak or cast spells.
com panions harm s the target, the spells ends.
The target’s gear m elds into the n ew form . T h e target
At Higher Levels. W h en you cast this spell using ca n ’t activate, w ield, or oth erw ise benefit from any o f
a spell slot o f 2nd level or higher, you can affect one its equipment.
additional beast for each slot level above 1st.
A n im ate D ead
A n im a l M essenger 3rd-level necromancy
2 nd-level enchantment (ritual)
Casting Time: 1 minute
Casting Time: 1 action Range: 10 feet
Range: 30 feet Components: V, S, M (a drop o f blood , a piece o f flesh,
Components: V, S , M (a m orsel o f food)
Duration: 24 hours and a pinch o f bone dust)
By m eans o f this spell, you use an animal to deliver a
message. C hoose a Tiny beast you can see within range, This spell creates an undead servant. C hoose a pile
such as a squirrel, a blue jay, or a bat. You sp ecify a of bones or a corpse of a M edium or Sm all humanoid
location, w hich you must have visited, and a recipient within range. Your spell im bues the target with a foul
w ho matches a general description, such as “a man or m im icry o f life, raising it as an undead creature. The
w om an dressed in the uniform o f the town guard” or “a target becom es a skeleton if you chose bones or a
red-haired dw arf w earing a pointed hat.” You also speak zom bie if you ch ose a corp se (the DM has the creature’s
a m essage o f up to twenty-five words. The target beast game statistics).
travels for the duration o f the spell toward the specified
On each of your turns, you can use a bonus action
to mentally com m and any creature you made with
this spell if the creature is within 60 feet o f you (if you
control multiple creatures, you can com m and any or all are 3, and its C harism a is 1. Its sp eed is 30 feet; if the
o f them at the sa m e tim e, issuing the sam e com m a n d to object lack s legs or other appendages it can u se for
each one). You decide what action the creature will take locom otion , it instead has a flying sp eed o f 3 0 feet and
and w here it w ill m ove during its next turn, or you can can hover. If the object is securely attached to a surface
issue a general com m and, such as to guard a particular or a larger object, such as a chain bolted to a w all, its
cham ber or corridor. If you issue no com m ands, the sp eed is 0. It has blindsight w ith a radius o f 30 feet and
creature only defends itself against hostile creatures. is blind beyond that distance. W hen the anim ated object
O n ce given an order, the creature continu es to follow it d rops to 0 hit points, it reverts to its original object
until its task is com plete. form , and any rem aining dam age carries over to its
original object form.
The creature is under your control for 24 hours,
after w hich it stop s obeyin g any c om m a n d y ou ’ve given If you com m a n d an object to attack, it can m ake a
it. To m aintain control o f the creature for another single melee attack against a creature within 5 feet
24 hours, you must cast this spell on the creature o f it. It m ak es a slam attack w ith an attack bon u s and
again before the current 24-hour period ends. This bludgeoning damage determ ined by its size. The DM
use o f the spell reasserts your control over up to four might rule that a specific object inflicts slashing or
creatures you have animated with this spell, rather than piercing dam age based on its form.
animating a new one.
A t H igher Levels. If you cast this spell using a
A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using a spell slot o f 6th level or higher, you can animate two
spell slot o f 4th level or higher, you animate or reassert additional objects for each slot level above 5th.
control over two additional undead creatures for each
slot level above 3rd. Each o f the creatures must com e A ntilife Shell
from a different corpse or pile of bones. 5th-level abjuration
A n im a t e O bjects Casting Time: 1 action
5th-level transmutation Range: Self (10-foot radius)
Components: V, S
Casting Time: 1 action Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
Range: 120 feet
Components: V, S A shim m ering barrier extends out from you in a 10-foot
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute radius and m oves with you, remaining centered on
you and hedging out creatures other than undead and
O bjects c om e to life at your com m a n d . C h oose up to constructs. The barrier lasts for the duration.
ten nonm agical objects within range that are not being
w orn or carried. Medium targets count as two objects, The barrier prevents an affected creature from
Large targets count as four objects, Huge targets passing or reaching through. An affected creature
count as eight objects. You can’t anim ate any object can cast spells or make attacks with ranged or reach
larger than Huge. Each target anim ates and becom es a w eapons through the barrier.
creature under your control until the spell ends or until
redu ced to 0 hit points. If you m ove so that an affected creature is forced to
pass through the barrier, the spell ends.
As a bonus action, you can mentally com m and any
creature you m ade with this spell if the creature is A n t im a g ic F ield
within 500 feet o f you (if you control multiple creatures, 8 th-level abjuration
you can com m a n d any or all o f them at the sam e time,
issuing the sam e com m and to each one). You decide Casting Time: 1 action
w hat action the creature w ill take and w here it w ill Range: Self (10-foot-radius sphere)
m ove during its next turn, or you can issue a general Components: V, S, M (a pinch o f p ow d ered iron or
com m and, such as to guard a particular cham ber or
corridor. If you issue no com m ands, the creature only iron filings)
defends itself against hostile creatures. O nce given Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
an order, the creature continu es to follow it until its
task is complete. A 10-foot-radius invisible sphere of antimagic surrounds
you. This area is divorced from the m agical energy that
A n im a t e d O bject Statistics su ffu ses the multiverse. W ithin the sphere, sp ells ca n ’t
be cast, sum m oned creatures disappear, and even m agic
Size H P AC Attack Str Dex items b ecom e mundane. Until the spell ends, the sphere
4 18 m oves with you, centered on you.
Tiny 20 18 +8 to hit, 1d4 + 4 damage 6 14
10 12 Spells and other magical effects, except those created
Small 25 16 +6 to hit, 1d8 + 2 damage 14 10 by an artifact or a deity, are su p p ressed in the sphere
18 6 and ca n ’t protrude into it. A slot expen ded to cast
Medium 40 13 +5 to hit, 2d6 + 1 damage a suppressed spell is consum ed. W hile an effect is
su ppressed, it d oesn ’t function, but the tim e it spends
Large 50 10 +6 to hit, 2d10 + 2 damage suppressed counts against its duration.
Huge 80 10 +8 to hit, 2d12 + 4 damage Targeted E ffects. S p ells and other m agical effects,
such as magic m issile and charm person , that target
A n anim ated object is a construct with AC, hit points, a creature or an object in the sphere have no effect
attacks, Strength, and Dexterity determ ined by its size. on that target.
Its Constitution is 10 and its Intelligence and W isdom
Areas o fMagic. T h e area o f another spell or m agical m ove to the nearest safe spot from w hich it ca n ’t see
effect, su ch as fireball, ca n ’t extend into the sphere. the target. If the creature m oves m ore than 60 feet from
If the sphere overlaps an area o f magic, the part of the target and c a n ’t see it, the creature is no longer
the area that is covered by the sphere is suppressed. frightened, but the creature becom es frightened again if
For exam ple, the flam es created by a wall o f fire are it regains sight o f the target or m oves w ithin 60 feet o f it.
suppressed within the sphere, creating a gap in the wall
if the overlap is large enough. Sympathy. T h e enchantm ent ca u ses the sp ecified
creatures to feel an intense urge to approach the target
Spells. Any active spell or other m agical effect on a w hile w ithin 60 feet o f it or able to see it. W h en such a
creature or an object in the sphere is suppressed w hile creature can see the target or c o m e s w ithin 6 0 feet o f it,
the creature or object is in it. the creature must su cceed on a W isdom saving throw or
use its m ovem ent on each o f its turns to enter the area
Magic Items. T h e properties and p ow ers o f or move within reach o f the target. W hen the creature
m agic items are suppressed in the sphere. For has don e so, it ca n ’t w illingly m ove away from the target.
exam ple, a + 1 longsword in the sphere functions as a
nonm agical longsword. If the target dam ages or otherw ise harm s an affected
creature, the affected creature can make a W isdom
A m agic w eapon’s properties and pow ers are saving throw to end the effect, as described below.
su ppressed if it is u sed against a target in the sphere or
w ielded by an attacker in the sphere. If a m agic w eapon Ending the Effect. If an affected creature ends its
or a piece o f m agic ammunition fully leaves the sphere turn while not within 60 feet o f the target or able to see
(for example, if you fire a m agic arrow or throw a magic it, the creature m akes a W isd om saving throw. On a
sp ear at a target outside the sphere), the m a gic o f the successful save, the creature is no longer affected by
item ce a s e s to b e su ppressed as s o o n as it exits. the target and recognizes the feeling o f repugnance or
attraction as m agical. In addition, a creature affected by
Magical Travel. Teleportation and planar travel the spell is allowed another W isdom saving throw every
fail to w ork in the sphere, w hether the sphere is the 24 hours while the spell persists.
destination or the departure point for such magical
travel. A portal to another location, world, or plane of A creature that successfully saves against this effect
existence, as w ell as an opening to an extradim ensional is im m u ne to it for 1 minute, after w hich tim e it can be
sp ace such as that created by the rope trick spell, affected again.
tem porarily closes w hile in the sphere.
A r can e Eye
Creatures and Objects. A creature or object 4th-level divination
sum m oned or created by m agic temporarily winks out
o f existence in the sphere. S u ch a creature instantly Casting Time: 1 action
reappears once the space the creature occupied is no Range: 30 feet
longer within the sphere. Components: V, S, M (a bit o f bat fur)
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
Dispel Magic. S p ells and m agical effects such as
dispel magic have no effect on the sphere. Likew ise, the You create an invisible, m agical eye within range that
spheres created by different antimagic field spells d on ’t hovers in the air for the duration.
nullify each other.
You mentally receive visual inform ation from the eye,
A n tipath y/S ym path y w hich has norm al vision and darkvision out to 30 feet.
8 th-level enchantment The eye can look in every direction.
Casting Time: 1 hour A s an action, you can m ove the eye up to 30 feet in
Range: 60 feet any direction. There is no limit to how far away from
Components: V, S, M (either a lump o f alum soa k ed in you the eye can m ove, but it ca n ’t enter another plane
o f existence. A solid barrier b lock s the eye’s m ovem ent,
vinegar for the antipathy effect or a d rop o f honey for but the eye can pass through an opening as small as 1
the sympathy effect) inch in diameter.
Duration: 10 days
A rcane G ate
This spell attracts or repels creatures of your choice. 6 th-level conjuration
You target som ething within range, either a Huge or
sm aller object or creature or an area that is no larger Casting Time: 1 action
than a 200-foot cube. Then sp ecify a kind o f intelligent Range: 500 feet
creature, such as red dragons, goblins, or vampires. Components: V, S
You invest the target with an aura that either attracts or Duration: Concentration, up to 10 minutes
repels the specified creatures for the duration. C hoose
antipathy or sym pathy as the aura’s effect. You create linked teleportation portals that rem ain open
for the duration. C h oose tw o points on the ground that
Antipathy. T h e enchantm ent cau ses creatures o f the you can see, one point w ithin 10 feet o f you and one
kind you designated to feel an intense urge to leave the point within 500 feet o f you. A circular portal, 10 feet
area and avoid the target. W hen such a creature can in diameter, opens over each point. If the portal w ould
s e e the target or c o m e s w ithin 60 feet o f it, the creature open in the space occu pied by a creature, the spell fails,
must succeed on a W isdom saving throw or becom e and the casting is lost.
frightened. T h e creature rem ains frightened w hile it can
see the target or is w ithin 60 feet o f it. W h ile frightened The portals are two-dim ensional glowing rings
by the target, the creature m ust use its m ovem ent to filled with mist, hovering inches from the ground and
perpend icu lar to it at the poin ts you c h oose. A ring is A t H igher Levels. W h en you cast this spell using a
visible only from one side (your choice), which is the side spell slot o f 2nd level or higher, the dam age increases by
that functions as a portal. 1d6 for each slot level above 1st.
Any creature or object entering the portal exits from A stral P rojection
the other portal as if the two were adjacent to each 9th-level necromancy
other; passing through a portal from the nonportal side
has no effect. The mist that fills each portal is opaque Casting Time: 1 hour
and b lo ck s vision through it. On your turn, you can Range: 10 feet
rotate the rings as a bonus action so that the active side Components: V, S , M (for each creature you affect with
faces in a different direction.
this spell, you must provide one jacinth w orth at least
A rcane L ock 1,000 gp and one ornately carved bar of silver worth
2 nd-level abjuration at least 100 gp, all o f w h ich the spell con su m es)
Casting Time: 1 action
Range: Touch You and up to eight willing creatures within range
Com ponents: V, S, M (gold dust w orth at least 25 gp, project your astral bod ies into the Astral Plane (the
spell fails and the casting is w asted if you are already
which the spell consum es) on that plane). The material bod y you leave behind is
Duration: Until dispelled u n con sciou s and in a state o f su sp ended anim ation; it
d oesn ’t need food or air and doesn’t age.
You touch a closed door, window, gate, chest, or other
entryway, and it b e c o m e s lock ed for the duration. You Y our astral b od y resem b les your m ortal form in
and the creatures you designate w hen you cast this alm ost every way, replicating your game statistics and
spell can open the object normally. You can also set a possessions. The principal difference is the addition o f
passw ord that, when spoken within 5 feet o f the object, a silvery cord that extends from betw een your shoulder
su p p resses this spell for 1 minute. O therw ise, it is blades and trails behind you, fading to invisibility after
im passable until it is broken or the spell is dispelled or 1 foot. This cord is your tether to your material body. As
suppressed. Casting knock on the object suppresses long as the tether rem ains intact, you can find your way
arcane lock for 10 minutes. home. If the cord is cut—som ething that can happen
only w hen an effect sp ecifically states that it d o e s —your
W hile affected by this spell, the object is m ore difficult soul and body are separated, killing you instantly.
to break or force open; the D C to break it or pick any
lock s on it in crea ses by 10. Your astral form can freely travel through the Astral
Plane and can pass through portals there leading to any
A rm or of A gathys other plane. If you enter a new plane or return to the
1st-level abjuration plane you were on when casting this spell, your body and
possessions are transported along the silver cord, allowing
Casting Time: 1 action you to re-enter your body as you enter the new plane.
Range: Self Your astral form is a separate incarnation. Any damage
Components: V, S, M (a cup o f water) or other effects that apply to it have no effect on your
Duration: 1 hour physical body, nor do they persist w hen you return to it.
A protective m agical force surrounds you, manifesting The spell ends for you and your com panions when
as a spectral frost that covers you and your gear. you use your action to dism iss it. W h en the spell ends,
You gain 5 tem porary hit points for the duration. If a the affected creature returns to its physical body,
creature hits you with a m elee attack while you have and it awakens.
th ese hit points, the creature takes 5 cold dam age.
The spell might also end early for you or one o f your
A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using a com panion s. A su ccessfu l dispel magic spell used
spell slot o f 2nd level or higher, both the tem porary hit against an astral or physical body ends the spell for that
points and the cold damage increase by 5 for each slot creature. If a creatu re’s original b od y or its astral form
level above 1st. d rops to 0 hit points, the spell en ds for that creature. If
the spell ends and the silver cord is intact, the cord pulls
A rms of H adar the creatu re’s astral form ba ck to its body, ending its
1st-level conjuration state of suspended animation.
Casting Time: 1 action If you are returned to your body prematurely, your
Range: S elf (10-foot radius) com panions remain in their astral form s and must find
Components: V, S their own way back to their bodies, usually by dropping
Duration: Instantaneous to 0 hit points.
You invoke the pow er o f Hadar, the Dark Hunger. A ugury
Tendrils o f dark en ergy erupt from you and batter all 2 nd-level divination (ritual)
creatures w ithin 10 feet o f you. Each creature in that
area must m ake a Strength saving throw. On a failed Casting Time: 1 minute
save, a target takes 2d6 necrotic dam age and can’t take Range: Self
reactions until its next turn. On a su ccessfu l save, the Components: V, S, M (specially m arked sticks, bon es,
creature takes half damage, but suffers no other effect.
or sim ilar tokens w orth at least 25 gp)
By casting gem-inlaid sticks, rolling dragon bones, A w aken
laying out ornate cards, or em ploying som e other 5th-level transmutation
divining tool, you receive an om en from an otherworldly
entity about the results o f a specific cou rse o f action that Casting Time: 8 hours
you plan to take within the next 30 minutes. The DM Range: Touch
chooses from the following possible omens: Components: V, S, M (an agate w orth at least 1,000 gp,
• Weal, for g o o d results which the spell consum es)
• Woe, for bad results Duration: Instantaneous
• Weal and w oe, for both g o o d and bad results
• Nothing, for results that aren’t esp ecially g o o d or bad After spending the casting time tracing magical
pathways within a precious gemstone, you touch a Huge
The spell d oesn ’t take into account any possible or sm aller beast or plant. The target must have either
circum stances that might change the outcom e, such no Intelligence score or an Intelligence of 3 or less. The
as the casting o f additional spells or the loss or gain target gains an Intelligence o f 10. The target also gains
of a companion. the ability to speak one language you know. If the target
is a plant, it gains the ability to m ove its lim bs, roots,
If you cast the spell two or m ore tim es before vines, creep ers, and s o forth, and it gains se n se s sim ilar
com pleting your next long rest, there is a cumulative 25 to a hum an’s. Your DM ch ooses statistics appropriate
percent chance for each casting after the first that you for the awakened plant, such as the statistics for the
get a random reading. The DM m akes this roll in secret. awakened shrub or the awakened tree.
A u r a of L ife The awakened beast or plant is charm ed by you for
4th-level abjuration 30 days or until you or your com panions do anything
harm ful to it. W h en the ch arm ed condition ends,
Casting Time: 1 action the awakened creature ch ooses whether to remain
Range: S elf (30-foot radius) friendly to you, based on h ow you treated it w hile
Components: V it w as charm ed.
Duration: Concentration, up to 10 minutes
Ba n e
Life-preserving energy radiates from you in an aura with 1st-level enchantment
a 30-foot radius. Until the spell ends, the aura m oves
with you, centered on you. Each nonhostile creature Casting Time: 1 action
in the aura (including you) has resistance to necrotic Range: 30 feet
dam age, and its hit point m axim u m can't be reduced. In Components: V, S, M (a drop o f blood )
addition, a nonhostile, living creature regains 1 hit point Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
w hen it starts its turn in the aura with 0 hit points.
Up to three creatures o f your choice that you can see
A u ra of Pu rity within range must make Charisma saving throws.
4th-level abjuration W henever a target that fails this saving throw m akes
an attack roll or a saving throw before the spell ends,
Casting Time: 1 action the target must roll a d4 and subtract the num ber rolled
Range: Self (30-foot radius) from the attack roll or saving throw.
Duration: Concentration, up to 10 minutes A t H igher Levels. W hen you cast this spell using
a spell slot o f 2nd level or higher, you can target one
Purifying energy radiates from you in an aura w ith a additional creature for each slot level above 1st.
30-foot radius. Until the spell ends, the aura m oves
with you, centered on you. Each nonhostile creature Ba n ish in g Sm ite
in the aura (including you) ca n ’t b e c o m e diseased, 5th-level abjuration
has resistance to poison damage, and has advantage
on saving throw s against effects that cause any o f the Casting Time: 1 bonus action
following conditions: blinded, charm ed, deafened, Range: Self
frightened, paralyzed, poisoned, and stunned. Components: V
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
A u ra of V ita lity
3rd-level evocation T h e next time you hit a creature with a w ea p on attack
before this spell ends, your w eapon crackles with force,
Casting Time: 1 action and the attack deals an extra 5d10 force dam age to the
Range: S elf (30-foot radius) target. Additionally, if this attack reduces the target
Components: V to 50 hit points or fewer, you banish it. If the target is
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute native to a different plane o f existence than the one
you ’re on, the target disappears, returning to its h om e
H ealing energy radiates from you in an aura with a plane. If the target is native to the plane you’re on, the
30-foot radius. Until the spell ends, the aura m oves with creature vanishes into a harm less demiplane. W hile
you, centered on you. You can use a bonus action to there, the target is incapacitated. It rem ains there until
cause one creature in the aura (including you) to regain the spell ends, at w h ich point the target reappears in the
2d 6 hit points. sp ace it left or in the nearest u n occu p ied sp ace if that
space is occupied.
Ban ish m en t
Casting Time: 1 action
Range: 60 feet
Components: V, S, M (an item distasteful to the target)
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
You attempt to send one creature that you can see
within range to another plane of existence. The
target must su cceed on a Charism a saving throw
or be banished.
If the target is native to the plane o f existence y ou ’re
on, you banish the target to a harm less demiplane.
W hile there, the target is incapacitated. The target
rem ains there until the spell ends, at w hich point the
target reappears in the sp ace it left or in the nearest
unoccupied space if that space is occupied.
If the target is native to a different plane of existence
than the one you ’re on, the target is banish ed with
a faint popping noise, returning to its hom e plane.
If the spell ends before 1 minute has passed, the
target reappears in the sp ace it left or in the nearest
unoccupied space if that sp ace is occupied. Otherwise,
the target doesn't return.
A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using
a spell slot o f 5th level or higher, you can target one
additional creature for each slot level above 4th.
Ba rk sk in
2 nd-level transmutation
Casting Time: 1 action
Components: V, S, M (a handful o f oak bark)
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
You touch a w illing creature. Until the spell ends, the
target’s skin has a rough, bark-like appearance, and the
target’s AC ca n ’t b e less than 16, regardless o f w hat kind
o f arm or it is w earing.
Be ac o n of H ope
Casting Time: 1 action
Range: 30 feet
Components: V, S
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
T h is sp ell b estow s h ope and vitality. C h oose any
num ber of creatures within range. For the duration,
each target has advantage on W isdom saving throws
and death saving throws, and regains the maximum
num ber o f hit points p ossib le from any healing.
2 nd-level divination (ritual)
Casting Time: 1 action
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 hour
You touch a w illing beast. For the duration o f the spell,
you can use your action to see through the b e a st’s eyes
and hear w hat it hears, and continue to do s o until
you use your action to return to your norm al senses.
W h ile perceivin g through the b ea st’s sen ses, you gain the hand using your gam e statistics. O n a hit, the target
the benefits o f any special senses possessed by that takes 4d8 force damage.
creature, though you are blinded and deafened to your
own surroundings. Forceful Hand. T h e hand attem pts to push a creature
within 5 feet o f it in a direction you c h oose. M ake
B estow C urse a ch eck with the h and’s Strength con tested by the
3rd-level necromancy Strength (Athletics) ch eck o f the target. If the target is
M edium or smaller, you have advantage on the check. If
Casting Time: 1 action you succeed, the hand pushes the target up to 5 feet plus
Range: Touch a num ber of feet equal to five tim es your spellcasting
Components: V, S ability m odifier. The hand m oves with the target to
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute rem ain w ithin 5 feet o f it.
You touch a creature, and that creature must su cceed Grasping Hand. T h e hand attempts to grapple a H uge
on a W isdom saving throw or becom e cursed for the or sm aller creature w ithin 5 feet o f it. You use the h and’s
duration o f the spell. W hen you cast this spell, ch oose Strength score to resolve the grapple. If the target is
the nature o f the curse from the follow ing options: M edium or smaller, you have advantage on the check.
W hile the hand is grappling the target, you can use a
• C h oose one ability score. W hile cursed, the target bon u s action to have the hand cru sh it. W h en you do
has disadvantage on ability checks and saving throws so, the target takes bludgeoning damage equal to 2d6 +
made with that ability score. your spellcasting ability modifier.
• W hile cursed, the target has disadvantage on attack Interposing Hand. T he hand in terposes itself
rolls against you. betw een you and a creature you ch oose until you give
the hand a different com m and. The hand m oves to stay
• W hile cursed, the target must make a W isdom sav betw een you and the target, providing you with half
ing th row at the start o f each o f its turns. If it fails, it cover against the target. The target can't m ove through
w astes its action that turn doing nothing. the h and’s sp ace if its Strength sc o r e is less than or
equal to the h and’s Strength score. If its Strength sco re
• W hile the target is cursed, your attacks and spells is higher than the hand’s Strength score, the target can
deal an extra 1d8 necrotic dam age to the target. m ove toward you through the hand’s space, but that
space is difficult terrain for the target.
A rem ove curse spell ends this effect. At the D M ’s
option, you may ch oose an alternative curse effect, but At Higher Levels. W h en you cast this spell using a
it sh ou ld b e no m ore pow erfu l than th ose d escribed spell slot of 6th level or higher, the dam age from the
above. The DM has final say on such a curse’s effect. clenched fist option increases by 2d8 and the dam age
from the grasping hand increases by 2d6 for each slot
At Higher Levels. If you cast this spell using a spell level above 5th.
slot o f 4th level or higher, the duration is concentration,
up to 10 minutes. If you use a spell slot o f 5th level or Blade Barrier
higher, the duration is 8 hours. If you use a spell slot of 6 th-level evocation
7th level or higher, the duration is 24 hours. If you use
a 9th level spell slot, the spell lasts until it is dispelled. Casting Time: 1 action
Using a spell slot o f 5th level or higher grants a duration Range: 90 feet
that doesn’t require concentration. Components: V, S
Duration: Concentration, up to 10 minutes
B i g b y ’s H a n d
5th-level evocation You create a vertical wall of whirling, razor-sharp blades
made of m agical energy. The wall appears within range
Casting Time: 1 action and lasts for the duration. You can make a straight wall
Range: 120 feet up to 100 feet long, 20 feet high, and 5 feet thick, or a
Components: V, S, M (an eggshell and a ringed wall up to 60 feet in diameter, 20 feet high, and
5 feet thick. The wall provides three-quarters cover to
snakeskin glove) creatu res beh in d it, and its sp ace is difficult terrain.
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
W h en a creature enters the w a ll’s area for the first
You create a Large hand of shimmering, translucent time on a turn or starts its turn there, the creature must
force in an unoccupied space that you can see within make a Dexterity saving throw. On a failed save, the
range. The hand lasts for the sp ell’s duration, and it creature takes 6 d10 slashing damage. On a successful
m oves at you r com m and , m im ick in g the m ovem ents o f save, the creature takes half as much damage.
your own hand.
Th e hand is an ob ject that has AC 20 and hit points Abjuration cantrip
equal to your hit point m axim um . If it d rop s to 0 hit
points, the spell ends. It has a Strength o f 26 (+8) and a Casting Time: 1 action
D exterity o f 10 (+0). T h e hand d oesn ’t fill its space. Range: Self
Components: V, S
W hen you cast the spell and as a bonus action on your Duration: 1 round
subsequent turns, you can m ove the hand up to 60 feet
and then cau se on e o f the follow in g effects w ith it.
Clenched Fist. Th e hand strikes one creature or
object w ithin 5 feet o f it. M ake a m elee spell attack for
You extend your hand and trace a sigil of warding in the B lindness/D eafness
air. Until the end o f your next turn, you have resistance 2 nd-level necrom ancy
against bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing damage
dealt by w eapon attacks. Casting Time: 1 action
Range: 30 feet
B less Components: V
1st-level enchantment Duration: 1 minute
Casting Time: 1 action You can blind or deafen a foe. C h oose one creature that
Range: 30 feet you can see within range to make a Constitution saving
Components: V, S, M (a sp rinkling o f holy water) throw. If it fails, the target is either blinded or deafened
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute (your ch oice) for the duration. At the end o f each o f its
turns, the target can m ake a Constitution saving throw.
You bless up to three creatures of your choice within On a success, the spell ends.
range. W henever a target m akes an attack roll or a
saving throw before the spell ends, the target can roll A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using
a d4 and add the num ber rolled to the attack roll or a spell slot o f 3rd level or higher, you can target one
saving throw. additional creature for each slot level above 2nd.
A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using Blin k
a spell slot o f 2nd level or higher, you can target one 3rd-level transmutation
additional creature for each slot level above 1st.
Casting Time: 1 action
Bligh t Range: Self
4th-level necromancy Components: V, S
Duration: 1 minute
Casting Time: 1 action
Range: 30 feet R oll a d20 at the end o f each o f your turns for the
Components: V, S duration o f the spell. O n a roll o f 11 or higher, you
Duration: Instantaneous vanish from your current plane of existence and appear
in the E thereal P lane (the spell fails and the casting is
Necromantic energy w ashes over a creature of your w asted if you w ere already on that plane). At the start of
choice that you can see within range, draining moisture your next turn, and w hen the spell ends if you are on the
and vitality from it. T h e target m ust m ake a Constitution Ethereal Plane, you return to an unoccupied space of
saving throw. The target takes 8d8 necrotic dam age on your choice that you can see within 10 feet o f the space
a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful you vanished from. If no unoccupied space is available
one. This spell has no effect on undead or constructs. w ithin that range, you appear in the nearest unoccupied
sp ace (ch osen at random if m ore than one sp ace is
If you target a plant creature or a m agical plant, it equally near). You can dism iss this spell as an action.
m akes the saving throw with disadvantage, and the spell
deals m axim u m dam age to it. W hile on the Ethereal Plane, you can see and hear
the plane you originated from, w hich is cast in shades
If you target a n on m agica l plant that isn’t a creature, o f gray, and you ca n ’t see anything there m ore than 60
such as a tree or shrub, it d oesn ’t m ake a saving throw; feet away. You can only affect and be affected by other
it sim ply w ithers and dies. creatures on the Ethereal Plane. Creatures that aren’t
there can’t perceive you or interact w ith you, unless they
A t H igher L evels. W h en you cast this spell using a have the ability to do so.
spell slot o f 5th level or higher, the dam age increases by
1d8 for each slot level above 4th. Blur
2 nd-level illusion
B l in d in g Sm ite
3rd-level evocation Casting Time: 1 action
Casting Time: 1 bonus action Components: V
Range: Self Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute
Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute Your body becom es blurred, shifting and wavering to
all w ho can see you. For the duration, any creature has
The next time you hit a creature with a m elee w eapon disadvantage on attack rolls against you. An attacker
attack during this sp ell’s duration, your w eap on flares is im m une to this effect if it d oesn ’t rely on sight,
with bright light, and the attack deals an extra 3d8 as with blindsight, or can see through illusions, as
radiant dam age to the target. Additionally, the target with truesight.
must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or be
blinded until the spell ends. B r a n d in g Sm ite
2 nd-level evocation
A creature blinded by this spell m akes another
C onstitution saving th row at the end o f each o f its turns. Casting Time: 1 bonus action
O n a su ccessfu l save, it is n o lon ger blinded. Range: Self