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Published by nuan garcia, 2020-07-27 15:45:36

PLANTAIR PROJECT

PLANTAIR PROJECT

UNIP - Universidade Paulista
Campus - Chacara Santo Antonio

Architecture and Urbanism
Nuan Garcia Ferreira

Student number: C7319J-1

PlantAiR - Vertical Farm

Sao Paulo
2018

Nuan Garcia Ferreira
C7319J-1

PlantAiR
Vertical Farm

“Graduation Project to obtain the title of Barchelor
in Architecture and Urbanism, from Universidade
Paulista-UNIP.”
Advisor Professor: Marcelo Afonso D`Avilla

Sao Paulo
2018

Nuan Garcia Ferreira
C7319J-1

Approved in: PlantAiR
Vertical Farm

EXAMINATION BOARD
_________________________________________/__/___

Prof. Advisor Marcelo Afonso D’Avilla
Universidade Paulista – UNIP

_________________________________________/__/___
Prof. Edison Hiroyama

Universidade Paulista – UNIP

_________________________________________/__/___
Prof. Invited _________________________

“Graduation Project to obtain the title of Barchelor
in Architecture and Urbanism, from Universidade
Paulista-UNIP.”
Advisor Professor: Marcelo Afonso D`Avilla

Sao Paulo
2018

CIP - Cataloging in Publication

Ferreira, Nuan Garcia
PlantAiR - Vertical Farm / Nuan Garcia Ferreira. - 2018.
98 f. : il. color

Graduation Project (Barchelor) presented to the Institute of Science
and Technology Universidade Paulista - UNIP, Sao Paulo, 2018.

Concentration Area - Architectural Design
Professor Advisor: Professor Master Marcelo D’Avilla.

1. urban vertical farm. 2. environment. 3. sustainability. I. D’Avilla,
Marcelo (Advisor). II. Title.

Prepared by the System of Automatic Generation of Catalog Data from
Universidade Paulista with the data provided by the author.

“Architects have to dream. We have to search for our Atlantises, to be explorers, adventurers,
and yet to build responsibly and well.”

Renzo Piano



ABSTRACT

This monograph presents Project PlantAiR, a vertical farm that incites the introduction
of new technologies as alternative ways to supply the great urban centres.

According to Despommier (2010, p.24), this technology brought the possibility of
transforming cities based on sustainable strategies, such as energy production through
disposal waste, water collection and new forms of agriculture. From the research, mapping
the logistics of distribution centres to the final consumer, the author analyzes the case
studies of SOA, OMA and SPARK offices related to vertical farms. Gathering the guidelines
presented during this course and based on the materials studied, the project emphasizes the
importance of the conscious use of architecture in favour of sustainability and environmental
balance.

Keywords: Vertical farm, technology, sustainability, agriculture.

ACRONYM LIST

FAO - United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
FAOSTAT - United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database
GHG - Greenhouse Gas
SIRENE - Supplementary Information Request at the National Entries
MPA - Movimento dos Pequenos Agricultores (Small Farmers Movement)
SDG - Sustainable Development Goals
MMA - Ministério do Meio Ambiente (Environment Ministry)
EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Brazilian Agricultural Research
Corporation)
IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and
Statistics)
CEASA - Centrais de Abastecimento (Supply Centers)
FLV - Fruits and Vegetables
WHO - World Health Organization
QA-SA - Quadro Analítico-Santo Amaro (Analytical Framework - Santo Amaro)
MSP - Municipality of Sao Paulo
SVMA - Secretaria Municipal do Verde e Meio Ambiente (Green and Environment Secretariat)
MEM - Macroárea de Estruturação Metropolitana (Metropolitan Structuring Macro Area)
PDE - Plano Diretor Estratégico do Município de São Paulo (Strategic Master Plan for the
Municipality of Sao Paulo)
PA-SA - Perímetros de Ação-Santo Amaro (Action perimeters - Santo Amaro)
PIU - Projeto de Intervenção Urbana (Urban Intervention Project)
ACJ - Arco do Jurubatuba (Jurubatuba Arch)

FIGURE LISTFIGURE LIST

FIGURE: 1...................................................14 FIGURE: 43.................................................75
FIGURE: 2...................................................15 FIGURE: 44.................................................76
FIGURE: 3...................................................16 FIGURE: 45.................................................76
FIGURE: 4...................................................18 FIGURE: 46.................................................77
FIGURE: 5...................................................18 FIGURE: 47.................................................79
FIGURE: 6...................................................20 FIGURE: 48.................................................79
FIGURE: 7...................................................21 FIGURE: 49.................................................80
FIGURE: 8...................................................22 FIGURE: 50.................................................81
FIGURE: 9...................................................24 FIGURE: 51.................................................83
FIGURE: 10.................................................30 FIGURE: 52.................................................84
FIGURE: 11.................................................32 FIGURE: 53.................................................84
FIGURE: 12.................................................34 FIGURE: 54.................................................85
FIGURE: 13.................................................35 FIGURE: 55.................................................87
FIGURE: 14.................................................36 FIGURE: 56.................................................87
FIGURE: 15.................................................38 FIGURE: 57.................................................88
FIGURE: 16.................................................40 FIGURE: 58.................................................88
FIGURE: 17.................................................40 FIGURE: 59.................................................89
FIGURE: 18.................................................42 FIGURE: 60.................................................90
FIGURE: 19.................................................43 FIGURE: 61.................................................92
FIGURE: 20.................................................46 FIGURE: 62.................................................95
FIGURE: 21.................................................48 FIGURE: 63.................................................97
FIGURE: 22.................................................50 FIGURE: 64.................................................99
FIGURE: 23.................................................52 FIGURE: 64.................................................103
FIGURE: 24.................................................54 FIGURE: 65.................................................105
FIGURE: 25.................................................56 FIGURE: 66.................................................107
FIGURE: 26.................................................58 FIGURE: 67.................................................107
FIGURE: 27.................................................59 FIGURE: 68.................................................159
FIGURE: 28.................................................60 FIGURE: 69.................................................161
FIGURE: 29.................................................61 FIGURE: 70.................................................163
FIGURE: 30.................................................61 FIGURE: 71.................................................165
FIGURE: 31.................................................62 FIGURE: 72 ...............................................167
FIGURE: 32.................................................64 FIGURE: 73.................................................168
FIGURE: 33.................................................64 FIGURE: 74 ...............................................169
FIGURE: 34.................................................64 FIGURE: 75.................................................170
FIGURE: 35.................................................65 FIGURE: 76 ................................................170
FIGURE: 36.................................................67 FIGURE: 77.................................................171
FIGURE: 37.................................................68 FIGURE: 78 ................................................171
FIGURE: 38.................................................68 FIGURE: 79.................................................172
FIGURE: 39.................................................69 FIGURE: 80.................................................172
FIGURE: 40.................................................71 FIGURE: 81.................................................174
FIGURE: 41.................................................72
FIGURE: 42.................................................73

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 11
2. URBANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE................................................................................. 13

2.1. THE FUTURE OF FOOD............................................................................................. 14
2.2. THE WASTE PATH..................................................................................................... 18
2.3. FOOD IN BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO......................................................................... 19
3. NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS......................................................................................... 24
3.1. THE MUNICIPALITY OF SANTO AMARO................................................................ 25
3.2. REGIONAL PLANNING.............................................................................................. 28

3.2.1. MACRO-AREAS OF SANTO AMARO............................................................ 29
3.2.2. LAW OF LAND SUBDIVISION, USE............................................................... 31

AND OCCUPANCY OF SOIL.......................................................................... 31
3.2.3. EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC.................................................................. 33

ACTIVITY........................................................................................................ 33
3.2.4. GREEN AREAS BY INHABITANTS................................................................ 35
3.3. ARCO DO JURUBATUBA........................................................................................... 36
4. URBAN CONTEXT.............................................................................................................. 38
4.1. URBANISTIC PARAMETERS..................................................................................... 39
4.2. BUILDING SITE AND SECTIONS.............................................................................. 41
4.3. PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY........................................................................................ 43
5. MAPS AND DIAGNOSTICS............................................................................................... 46
5.1. ZONING....................................................................................................................... 47
5.2. USE OF THE SOIL....................................................................................................... 49
5.3. MAXIMUM HEIGHT................................................................................................... 51
5.4. WAYS AND LOGISTICS............................................................................................. 53
5.5. HYPSOMETRY............................................................................................................ 55
6. VERTICAL FARMS ............................................................................................................ 58
6.1. PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND ................................................................................... 59
TECHNIQUE................................................................................................................ 59
6.2. SUSTAINABILITY....................................................................................................... 61
7. CASE STUDY ..................................................................................................................... 64
7.1. SOA - TOUR VIVANTE................................................................................................ 65
7.1.1. FLOWCHART................................................................................................... 67
7.1.2. PROGRAM....................................................................................................... 68
7.1.3. SITE PLAN....................................................................................................... 69
7.1.4. SECTION.......................................................................................................... 71
7.1.5. FLOOR PLANS................................................................................................ 72
7.2. OMA - WEST LOUISVILLE FOOD PORT................................................................... 73
7.2.1. FLOWCHART................................................................................................... 75
7.2.2. PROGRAM....................................................................................................... 76
7.2.3. SITE PLAN....................................................................................................... 77
7.2.4. FLOOR PLANS................................................................................................ 79
7.3. SPARK - HOME FARM................................................................................................ 81
7.3.1. FLOWCHART................................................................................................... 83

7.3.2. PROGRAM....................................................................................................... 84
7.3.3. SITE PLAN....................................................................................................... 85
7.3.4. FLOOR PLANS................................................................................................ 87
7.3.5. SECTION AND PLANTATION........................................................................ 88
7.4. STRUCTURAL REFERENCES.................................................................................... 89
8. THE PROJECT ................................................................................................................... 92
8.1. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT................................................................................... 93
8.2. DESIGN PARAMETERS............................................................................................. 94
8.3. PRODUCTION CALCULATION.................................................................................. 96
8.4. SECTORS AND DEPARTMENTS............................................................................... 97
8.5. FLOWCHART.............................................................................................................. 99
8.6. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN...................................................................................... 102
8.6.1. TECHNICAL INFORMATION......................................................................... 106
8.7. SITE PLAN.................................................................................................................. 109
8.8. SECTOR PLAN............................................................................................................ 111
8.9. GERMINATION AND SOWING PLAN....................................................................... 113
8.10. PRODUCTION AND CULTIVATION PLAN............................................................. 115
8.11. FOOD PROCESSING PLAN...................................................................................... 117
8.12. DOCKS AND REFECTORY PLAN............................................................................. 119
8.13. SUPPLY AND STORAGE TANKS PLAN........................................................................ 121
8.14. ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING PLAN............................................................................ 123
8.15. ADMINISTRATIVE 1º FLOOR PLAN............................................................................. 125
8.16. ADMINISTRATIVE 2º FLOOR PLAN............................................................................. 127
8.17. COMERCIAL FLOOR PLAN.......................................................................................... 129
8.18. SITE AND BUILDING PLAN......................................................................................... 131
8.19. SECTION A-A 1º SECTOR..................................................................................... 133
8.20. SECTION A-A 2º SECTOR..................................................................................... 135
8.21. SECTION B-B 1º SECTOR..................................................................................... 137
8.22. SECTION B-B 2º SECTOR..................................................................................... 139
8.23. SECTION B-B 3º SECTOR..................................................................................... 141
8.24. SECTION C-C 1º SECTOR..................................................................................... 143
8.25. SECTION C-C 2º SECTOR..................................................................................... 145
8.26. SECTION C-C 3º SECTOR..................................................................................... 147
8.27. SECTION D-D............................................................................................................ 149
8.28. SECTION E-E............................................................................................................ 151
8.29. RIGHT AND LEFT ELEVATIONS............................................................................. 153
8.30. FRONTAL AND BACK ELEVATIONS...................................................................... 155
8.31. ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.................................................................................... 157
8.32. PERSPECTIVES....................................................................................................... 159
8.33. PHOTO MONTAGE.................................................................................................. 167
8.34. MODEL...................................................................................................................... 169
9. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................................ 173
10. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES..................................................................................... 175

1. INTRODUCTION

The theme of urban vertical farms emerged from the current scenario of the cities
and their accelerated development, which harm the environment and as a consequence the
entire population of the planet.

In references to cities, in the book “The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st
Century” by Professor of Columbia University Dickson Despommier, they must have their
own ecosystem and function like nature, where, the waste that becomes turned into energy,
the water supply does not need major infrastructure works and the food is obtained in the
region itself, exempting the extraction of these from the surrounding municipalities, thus
making them more sustainable.

However, currently, urban centres rely solely on food grown in neighbouring cities for
their supply and it is at this time that vertical farms appear as an option for the agricultural
system.

To exemplify what happens in the City of Sao Paulo, waste from cultivation to food
distribution is shown schematically, thus clarifying the logic of vertical farms in this context.

As they use new technology and are protected by patent laws, there was some difficulty
in presenting a wider range of case studies as design references. The main reference
used in this project was the vertical farm AeroFarms that uses the aeroponics technology
(cultivation of vegetables where the suspended roots receive droplets in a mist of nutrient
solution through micro-sprinklers).

As design references, the case studies of urban vertical farms, Tour Vivante of the SOA
group, a multifunctional building surrounded by hydroponic agriculture, the West Louisville
Food Port of the OMA office, a complex organized by supermarket, vertical farm, bar, a
square of food and space for rent and, finally, the multifunctional building for residential
use and living for the elderly, where the residents themselves can grow their food, the Home
Farm, located in Singapore and designed by the SPARK office.

Based on the studies reported throughout this monograph, I present the PlantAiR project,
an urban vertical farm, located in the Santo Amaro neighbourhood that seeks to rescue the
region’s roots, where in the 19th-century agricultural trade was its main characteristic.

This monograph translates urban planning with a focus on the environment and shows
that vertical farms can become an option for urban agriculture, in addition to reducing the
carbon footprint of food consumed in the city of Sao Paulo.

12

2. URBANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE

the current population scenario and the agriculture

PEOPLE IN MILLION - Estimation and Projection2.1. THE FUTURE OF FOOD

In Brazil, the current population exceeds 209 million people with an exponential growth
scenario. Every day, rural areas are being devastated by urbanization, which often goes
beyond areas of environmental preservation with deforestation.

According to a population comparison chart between urban and rural population
(Figure 1) obtained by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO, it
is possible to imagine the scenario we are building for the near future.

“To feed this larger, urban and wealthy population, food production is expected to
increase by 70%”, (Alan Bonjanic, 2017)

According to FAO Representative in Brazil, Alan Bojanic, in 2050 the population will be
9.8 billion, 29% more than the current number and the biggest growth will be in developing
countries. (FAO, 2017)

Urban
Poputation

FIGURE: 1 Rural
Poputation

Source: FAOSTAT (Nov16,2018)

14

The climatic factor is in fact a threat to food, we can also mention the degradation of
the soil, water resources and the emission of gases from the agricultural sector.

According to a report released by FAO it is estimated that 22% of all damage caused
by natural disasters, such as droughts, floods by storms or tsunamis, fall on the agricultural
sector. (FAO, 2018)

“Agriculture, and everything that is included, is not only essential for our food supply, but also continues
to be the main source of livelihood across the planet. Although being a sector at risk, agriculture can also be
the basis on which we build societies that are more resilient and capable of dealing with disasters ”, said FAO
director general, Brazilian José Graziano da Silva. (FAO, 2018)

GHG emissions related to the agricultural sector:

RICE CULTURE CANE BURNING
(1,90%) (1,50%)

ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
(4,80%)

AGRICULTURAL SOILS ENTERIC FERMENTATION
(35,90%) (55,90%)

FIGURE: 2 Source: SIRENE (September, 2018)

In Brazil, the agricultural sector was responsible for 12% of greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions in 2010 (SIRENE, 2018). In 2012, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector
accounted for 37% of total emissions, being mainly related to nitrous oxide (N2O) and
methane (CH4) emissions (BRAZIL, 2018) In 2017, the agricultural activities that most
generated GHG emissions were soil management (fertilization and soil preparation) and
enteric fermentation of animals (Figure 2).

According to Dickson Despommier, biologist and professor at Columbia University in
his book “The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century”, he argues that without
the interference of man, life would continue in an equitable way, with all forms of life living
harmoniously within of a given ecological zone. Man has always been part of this chain,
but recently we have become aware of this intimate connection from a formal scientific
perspective.

Currently, we are embarrassed and wonder if it is fair to the other forms of life on the
planet (Despommier, 2010)

Mankind is depleting the world’s food production areas, triggering effects such as
climate change that result in incalculable environmental disasters, threatening the species
itself.

“Commercial agriculture in the region cannot continue to grow at the expense of the region’s forests and
natural resources,” explained Jorge Meza, FAO’s forestry director.

FIGURE: 3 Source: MPA (October, 2018)

FAO warned between 1990 and 2005, in addition to grazing, commercial cultivation was
responsible for about 10% of deforestation in Brazil in the analyzed period, while other forms
of land exploration, small-scale cultivation, mixed agriculture, infrastructure accounted for
the rest together 10%. (FAO, 2016)

16



2.2. THE WASTE PATH

Worldwide, it is estimated that approximately 1.3 billion tons of food are lost each year.
This represents more than 30% of all world food production for human consumption. All that
food would be more than enough to feed the 821 million people who are still hungry in the
world.

In Brazil, according to United Nations data, in 2013, 26.3 million tons of available food
was lost. Products such as rice, corn, tomatoes and onions are the most wasted in the
country.

The theme is of fundamental humanitarian importance worldwide and was
incorporated into the 2030 Agenda by the Sustainable Development Goal 12.3, which poses
the global challenge of reducing food waste in the face of the challenge of contributing to
the eradication of hunger in the world present in the SDG 2, depicted on the Hunger Map
monitored by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Source: MMA

FIGURE: 4 WORLDWIDE: 1,3 BILLION TONS OF FOOD WASTED PER YEAR (2013)
795 MILLION PEOPLE GOING HUNGRY
TIME TO TURN THE TABLE
BRAZIL: 26,3 MILLION TONS OF FOOD WASTED PER YEAR (2013)*
Source: *IBGE 7,2 MILLION PEOPLE GOING HUNGRY**
**EMBRAPA

Source: FAO (United Nations Food and
Agriculture Organization)

FIGURE: 5

THE ROUTE: FROM HARVEST TO CONSUMPTION

10% 50% 30% 10%

of all the waste still occurs in handling and occurs at the supply are shared between
occurs in the harvest transportation centers supermarkets and
(CEASA)
Source: Authorial consumers

18

2.3. FOOD IN BRAZIL AND SAO PAULO

In Brazil, the Ministry of Health establishes official guidelines for the promotion of
healthy eating. Among them, the one that highlights the increase in the consumption of
fruits and vegetables (FLV) stands out, considering that the current levels are well below the
recommended. (BRASIL, 2006).

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum daily consumption of
400 g per capita or the equivalent of 5 servings of 80 g on average per day of fresh fruits
and vegetables to achieve its healthy and protective effect against chronic diseases. (WHO,
2003).

In fact, the analysis of the evolution of the participation of FLV in the total calories
of the diet, determined by the acquisition of food at home in the metropolitan regions of
the country, revealed that it has not changed substantially in the last three decades. It is
also worth mentioning the effect of income on the participation of these foods in the diet:
the consumption of FLV in the lower-income classes (from 1 to 4 of the minimum wages
per capita) is 4.5 times lower than that of the classes with higher income ( more than 5
minimum wages per capita), (MONTEIRO; MONDINI; LEVY-COSTA, 2000; LEVY-COSTAet al.,
2005). therefore, we conclude from the map to the side (figure 6), which are the potential
neighbourhoods that will be related in the proposed implantation.

Households with an income of 20 or
more minimum wages

FIGURE: 6 DISTRICTS

COVERAGE AREA IN %
up to 10.00
from 10.01 to 20.00
from 20.01 to 30.00
from 30.01 to 45.00
45.01 more

Kilometers

Source: IBGE 2010 Demographic Census. Statistical Projection of the Sample

20

Table 1: Percentage of individuals who consume five or more daily proportions of fruits and
vegetables, by sex, according to age and years of schooling.

Age in years Years of schooling Total
24,4%
18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 65 + 0 to 8 9 to 11 12 + 19,4%
19,7% 23,0% 30,8% 28,7%
Total 20,7% 22,5% 23,6% 25,9% 28,6% 28,2% 14,7% 18,7% 25,4%
Male 19,7% 19,5% 16,6% 19,9% 20,9% 21,9% 24,0% 27,0% 35,1%
Female 21,9% 25,3% 29,5% 30,6% 34,0% 32,0%

Source: Vigitel Adapted, 2016.

Population proportion aged 18 and over
with completed high school

DISTRICTS
SUB-DISTRICTS

COVERAGE AREA IN %

FIGURE: 7 Kilometers

Source: IBGE. 2010 Demographic Census. Statistical Projection of the Sample

In the Table shown (Table 1), elaborated from data obtained in the Ministry of Health
program called Vigitel, compared with the data from the maps below for teaching and ageing
of the population, the potential neighbourhoods that consume fruits and vegetables in the
Municipality prove to us from Sao Paulo.

In view of the established scenario, the need to implement actions aimed at promoting
the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the Brazilian population as a whole is evident.
However, it seems to be a priority for actions that include, among the urban population, male
individuals and those with low education.

Population proportion by age group

FIGURE: 8 DISTRICTS

DISTRICTS IN %

up to 14.00
from 14.01 to 23.00
from 23.01 to 37.00
from 37.01 to 55.00
from 55.01 to 80.00
80.01 more

Kilometers

Source: IBGE. 1991, 2000, 2010 Demographic Census.
Statistical Projection of the Sample

22



3. NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

talking to the surroundings

FIGURE: 9 Source: PMSP (Modified)

24

3.1. THE MUNICIPALITY OF SANTO AMARO

1552 the first record of occupation in the region was an
indigenous village, on the banks of the Jurubatuba River, which
facilitated the irrigation of agriculture.

It passed through parish, village and province, and in 1832,
it became a municipality. Keeping food production strong as;
cassava, rice, beans and etc.

With the large volume of food produced, it is the main
agricultural supplier to the Capital São Paulo in the 19th century.

In 1883 “the way of the Santo Amaro ox cart” begins to
receive new projects idealized by Kulhman. Facilitating food
transport.

In 1913 the railway was replaced by trams bringing more
consumers from other regions making Santo Amaro a strong
commercial centre.

From 1960 onwards, with the industrial boom, unbridled
expansion began and the agricultural areas of Santo Amaro
were reduced and gave rise to industrialization in the region.

At the end of the 19th century, the Santo Amaro village became the major supplier
of agricultural products to the city of Sao Paulo, all the staples: cassava, corn, beans, rice,
potatoes were bought from Santamarenses; there were 640 sqm of fertile land, numerous
rural properties dedicated to raising livestock and poultry, donkey troops and ox cart brought
to the capital the woods, coal and food in general, which would be sold in the central market.

This transport between the towns of Sao Paulo and Santo Amaro, over time, became
known as “The way of the Santo Amaro ox cart” and it was so, until 1883. This is one of the
reasons that lead some engineers, having in front of him Alberto Kulhmann, projecting an
extensive railway, which starting from the Center and Vila Mariana, penetrated in the south
of the Province of Sao Paulo, going until Santo Amaro.

In 1913 trains were replaced by trams. In 1935, the federal interventionist, Armando
Sales de Oliveira, issued a decree that annexed the city of Santo Amaro to the Capital and,
thus, Santo Amaro, who for centuries had taken care of himself without guardianship,
became part of the capital’s municipality. A vast rural area was included in the municipal
territory of São Paulo, bordering the municipalities of São Vicente and Itanhaem.

Since then, trams have become the main link between capital and Santo Amaro. Along
its path, farms and farms were subdivided and the region underwent rapid urbanization,
giving rise to several neighbourhoods in the 1960’s; with the automobile-oriented transport
policy, the tram was extinguished on March 27, 1968.

These allotments were arranged in such a way that the lots with areas between 10,000
and 20,000 sqm and those with more than 20,000 sqm occupied the banks of the Pinheiros
River and the Jurubatuba River, where several industries were implanted in the region.
degraded with the departure of many of these large companies in the region.

26



3.2. REGIONAL PLANNING

Santo Amaro occupies a total area of ​3​ 7.5 sq km, housing a population of 238,025
inhabitants. It is limited, to the north, by the Subprefectures Pinheiros and Vila Mariana; to
the east, with the Subprefectures Jabaquara and Cidade Ademar; to the south, with the Sub-
Prefecture of Capela do Socorro; and to the west, with the sub-prefectures of M’Boi Mirim
and Campo Limpo. The Pinheiros and Jurubatuba Rivers are a strong physical element that
defines the limits to the southwest of this sub-prefecture.

It has an extensive area occupied by strictly residential use, in which the aquifer of the
Córrego do Cordeiro Sub Basin stands out. Also noteworthy is the recent implementation
of large commercial, service and leisure developments along the Marginal do Rio Pinheiros
and Nações Unidas Avenue.

The presence of green areas is quite significant, both as arboreal patches and as
associated with large equipment - schools, clubs, cemeteries - and also in exclusively
residential neighbourhoods. (QA-SA, 2016)

Due to its vast green area, small producers are still found in the regions of farms, but
none of them with sufficient productivity to supply the extension of the neighbourhoods
itself. The power of the big industries took over the land of the small ones, and they are
losing their cultivation areas every day, allowing big companies to seize the soil making it
impossible to cultivate.

28

3.2.1. MACRO-AREAS OF SANTO AMARO

Subprefecture Santo Amaro is part of the South Macro region 2 of the Municipality of
Sao Paulo, together with Campo Limpo, Capela do Socorro, Cidade Ademar, M’Boi Mirim
and Parelheiros. Together, they house 22.6% of the total population of the Municipality of
Sao Paulo in an area of 6​​ 54.7 sq km, corresponding to 43% of the total territory of the city.

The Metropolitan Structuring Macro Area - MEM comprises the sectors of the
development axes associated with the Urban Operation Águas Espraiadas / Chucri Zaidan
and the Arco Jurubatuba, also including the Historic Center of Santo Amaro. These sectors
cover areas with intense potential for urbanization and requalification, concentrated in
the lanes along the main roads that structure the territory of the Subprefecture - Marginal
Pinheiros, Nações Unidas Avenue, Eusébio Stevaux, Jornalista Roberto Marinho and Nossa
Senhora do Sabará. (QA-SA, 2016)

The study of these Macro Areas allows an amplified view of issues addressed for the
implementation decision, focusing on places of urban requalification and easy access, to
serve the surrounding neighbourhoods, makes it inviting.

FIGURE: 10 Source: QA-SA, 2016.
METROPOLITAN STRUCTURING
MACROAREA URBAN CONTENT AND SUSTAINABLE USE
MACROAREA
CONSOLIDATED URBANIZATION PRESERVATION OF NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS
MACROAREA MACROAREA

URBANIZATION QUALIFICATION AREA OF PROTECTION AND RECOVERY OF
MACROAREA FOUNTAINS
LIMIT OF MACROZONE
REDUCING OF URBAN VULNERABILITY LIMIT OF MACROREGIONS
MACROAREA LIMIT OF SUBPREFECTURE
HYDROGRAPHY
REDUCING OF URBAN VULNERABILITY METROPOLITAN URBAN STAIN
AND ENVIRONMENTAL RECOVERY
MACROAREA 30

CONTROL OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALIFICATION MACROAREA

3.2.2. LAW OF LAND SUBDIVISION, USE
AND OCCUPANCY OF SOIL

In the recent approved Zoning (Law Nº 16,402/16), occupation guidelines for the
structuring and qualification strategies in line with the provisions of the PDE are verified
for the territory of Subprefecture Santo Amaro. The zones were defined according to the
characteristics of the territory in which they operate, reflecting the growth dynamics and
recent occupation trends of this Subprefecture. (QA-SA, 2016).

The restructuring and qualification of the Santo Amaro areas become an incentive for
the creation of new projects, as a neighbourhood only tends to win when new ideas that
add value to it are put into practice, regardless of whether it is a public idea or private, being
functional and adding value to the neighbourhood becomes relevant.

FIGURE: 11 Source: QA-SA, 2016.
QUALIFICATION AREAS
PRESERVATION TRANSFORMATION

AREAS AREAS

LIMIT OF SUBPREFECTURE
LIMIT OF THE MUNICIPALITY
METROPOLITAN URBAN STAIN
HYDROGRAPHY

32

3.2.3. EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC
ACTIVITY

The income profile of residents is one of the highest in the city, with per capita household
income above R$ 3,000 per month (2010).

The population of the Subprefecture Santo Amaro remained stable between 1980 and
2010, reaching 238,025 inhabitants in the last Census. The population growth rate, which
showed negative rates from 1980 to 2000, in the period from 2000 to 2010 showed a growth
of 0.9%, higher than the rate of the municipality (0.8%). The demographic density in 2010
(81.67 pop/ha) was lower than that of the municipality (102.02 pop/ha).

The degree of development is also indicated by the provision of education, socio-
assistance, health and sports-cultural services, most of the time with higher standards than
the average for the municipality. (QA-SA, 2016)

According to the related data, it can be concluded that the Santo Amaro region has a
favourable profile and fits FLV consumers with an income equivalent to that mentioned in
the previous study.

Belo 16% Santo Amaro 25%
35%
38% 4%
5% 14% 5%
6% 6%
7% Source: QA-SA, 2016. 6
13%

FIGURE: 12

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
ACCOMMODATION AND FOOD
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
RETAIL BUSINESS
EDUCATION SERVICES
CONSTRUCTION
PAPER AND GRAPHIC INDUSTRY
OTHERS

34

3.2.4. GREEN AREAS BY INHABITANTS

The vegetation of Santo Amaro covers the total area of tree and undergrowth classified
by satellite image. The Parks and Green Areas Index considers the totality of the existing
municipal and state park areas, in addition to the garden areas in squares, flowerbeds,
avenues.

Emphasizing green areas, one of the guidelines proposed by the Subprefecture of
Santo Amaro is to improve the offer of green areas for public use with the implementation
of parks and urban afforestation; and, also, the implementation of social programs aimed at
homeless people and precarious housing. (QA-SA, 2016)

Keeping the data covered in this chapter and seekiSnugbtporiemfepirtouvrea iSt,AtNheTcOoAncMeAptRoOf the
project that I discuss in the following chapters starts from the principle of maintaining the

Coebxeirsttuinragvveeggeetatal etioánreianstvheerdloets, ppúrebsliecravsinpgorghreabenitaanrteea,s20a1n4d increasing the permeability rate of
Cotbheertsuorail,vaedgdeitnalgtgoatarldeconnssaidnedratraeeásretahetolatanlddsecavpegee. tação arbórea e rasteira classificada por
imagem de satélite. O Índice de Parques e Áreas Verdes considera a totalidade das áreas dos parques
municipais e estaduais existentes, além das áreas ajardinadas em praças, canteiros, avenidas e em
próprios municipais.

SQUARE METERS 180
155,0

160

140

120

100

80 33,7 23,9
54,0 14,1

60
40

20 2,3

0 PUBLreICasGveRrEdEeNs pAúRblEicAaSs pPoErRhaINbiHtaAnBteITANT
VEGCEobTeArTtuIOraNveCgOetVaEl pRoPr hEaRbIitNaHntAeÁBITANT

MSP Sul 2 Sub SA

Fonte: SVMFAIGURE: 13 Source: SVMA

fios vão além do alcance do próprio à mobilidade, com o incentivo ao uso do transporte
polando seu território. Sua política coletivo e investimento em segurança no trânsito, além

3.3. ARCO DO JURUBATUBA

The PIU Arco do Jurubatuba ACJ Urban Intervention project is part of the Railroad and
Riverfront Sector of the Metropolitan Structuring Macro Area - MEM defined by the Strategic
Master Plan - PDE, Law No. 16.050 / 2014. It has great potential for urban transformation
and has a strategic role in the restructuring of the Municipality. This condition results
from successive public and private investments that provided it with a complex system
of infrastructures, such as canalized rivers, railways and structural roads capable of
articulating the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo and made possible the municipality’s
industrialization process. Today, in this strategic territory, there are already processes of
economic transformation and patterns of land use and occupation that should be conducted
in a structured way. (PIU-ACJ, 2017)

As an intervention, it provides for large-scale productive activities with a high intensity
of knowledge and technology that will generate new jobs in the area, which presupposes an
increase in the flow of people through public spaces and means of transport. (PA-SA, 2016)

The expanding region turns the chosen lot into the ideal place, in this context an
agricultural history is resumed in an innovative way, redrawing the origins of Santo Amaro.

FIGURE: 14 Source: PA-SA, 2016

36



4. URBAN CONTEXT

knowing the location

FIGURE: 15 Source: QA-SA, 2016

38

4.1. URBANISTIC PARAMETERS

Land Use and Occupation Zoning - Law 16.402 / 16
Zoning: ZC (Centrality Zone)

• Total land area: ..................................................................................... 30,784.89 sq m
• CO (COEFFICIENT OF OPERATION) basic: 1 ....................................... 30,784.89 sq m
• OR (OCCUPANCY RATE) for lots larger than 500 sq m: 0.7 ................ 21,549.42 sq m
• Permeability Rate: 0.25 ........................................................................ 7,696.22 sq m
• Maximum height gauge: ...................................................................... 48 m
• Front section: ....................................................................................... 5 m
• Lateral and deep sections: .................................................................. N/A
• Environmental qualification: ................................................................ PA 4
• Minimum QA score: ............................................................................. 0.78
• Vegetation cover: ................................................................................. 0.5
• Drainage: .............................................................................................. 0.5

MAP OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAP OF THE DISTRICT OF
SAO PAULO SANTO AMARO

FIGURE: 16 Source: Authorial

LOT INTERVENTION AREA BUILDING SITE

FIGURE: 17 Source: Authorial

40

4.2. BUILDING SITE AND SECTIONS

Lot limit

Lot limit Jurutatuba River
Nações Unidas Av.
Central bed
Nações Unidas Av.
CPTM rail
CPTM rail
Bike lanes

Jurutatuba River

SITE PLAN

Lot limit

Lot limit FIGURE: 18
Rua Benedito
Source: Authorial
Fernades
42

4.3. PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Access to Socorro Station
located at Rua Florenville.

In this photo taken at
the corner of Rua Benedito
Fernandes, we can see the good
width of the two-way road, the
good width of the pavement and
the good afforestation of the
road.

Another neighbouring
development is Sam’s Club
supermarket. This can create
good market visibility for the
urban farm, allowing Sam’s Club
customers to become PlantAiR
customers.

This is an old vehicles
entrance of the company that
worked in the place. Once again
we face a lack of accessibility
and the creation of a barrier
for crossing pedestrians with
disabilities.

FIGURE: 19

Source: Authorial

In this photo taken at The Building of the World
the corner of Rua Benedito Church of the Kingdom of God
Fernandes, we can see the lack which, during worship hours, will
of a disabled access ramp at the impair the circulation of vehicles
pedestrian crossing. with the temporary increase in
traffic in the region.
This commercial building
is located next to the building Also along the pavement
site and represents great of Avenida Nações Unidas, we
potential for the movement of can see the precariousness
the vegan snack bar present in in their conservation and the
the PlantAiR project program. danger of accidents that can
bring for the pedestrians in the
On the pavement along region.
Avenida Nações Unidas, it is
possible to verify two points In this photo taken from
of vulnerability of the site, the corner of Rua Brasílio Luz,
which are: the lack of visual we can highlight the future
permeability caused by the Shopping 25 de Março building
wall and the lack of public that will be built on the site. This
lighting that makes the region will be a strong attraction in
dangerous for pedestrians at the region and will enhance the
night. visibility of the PlanAiR project.

With this photo taken 44
from Avenida Nações Unidas,
we can conclude that because
it is a high traffic route, the
place suffers during peak hours
an intense influence of noise
pollution and concentration of
air pollution.



5. MAPS AND DIAGNOSTICS
exploring the implantation site

FIGURE: 20 Source: Google Earth (Modified)

46

5.1. ZONING

The importance of this map is to show the relationship of the surroundings and how
it affects the implementation of the chosen lot. It is an area of urban restructuring, the lot
located on Avenida das Nações Unidas in Santo Amaro which, being a Centrality Zone,
presents parameters favourable to the construction of the PlantAiR project.

Analysis area Source: Authorial
Chosen building site
ZC - Centrality Zone 48
Square / Flowerbed

FIGURE: 21

5.2. USE OF THE SOIL

Land use in the region is predominantly commercial and in a second moment we saw
that residential use occurs in small lots in the inner area of the blocks. We can also analyze
the existing green areas in the surroundings, bringing environmental comfort to the chosen
lot.


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