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Published by achinipoornika13, 2022-05-14 23:20:19

ECO

ECO

Eco Scope

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Eco Scope

Table of Contents

Leo Club of University of Kelaniya
Message from the Club President
Message from the Immediate Past President
Message from Co-directors of Environmental Conservation Avenue
Eco Scope
Eco Scope Family
Habitat Fragmentation Matters to Birds
Climate Change Conference
X - Press Pearl Ship Disaster
Poem
Bird Photography
Environmental Conservation and The Role of the Central
Environmental Authority
Wildlife Photography
Marine and Coastal Ecosystems; Understanding to Secure the Future of
the Planet
Elephant Conflict in Sri Lanka
How to Reduce Marine Pollution
Thuru
Sustainable Management and Use of Natural Resources
Rabbits
Main Issues of Climate Changes
ZeroTrash
Water Scarcity
Photographs
Eco Fun
Environmental Calender
Eco Scope Competition Winners
Editors' Note

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Eco Scope

Leo Club of University of Kelaniya

LEO, a global platform which truly stands behalf of
Leadership, Opportunities and Experience where the
enthusiastic young individuals can make the lives of people
better while enhancing their own interpersonal skills and
make connections worth for life time and much more.
In University of Kelaniya, our club is an Omega Leo Club in Leo District 306 B2,
standing with a contributing bunch of youngsters across all the faculties. Under
the guidance of the inspiring Executive Board, initiated by our beloved Avenue
Directors, each member give their utmost support sharing the happiness of
making someone smile.

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Eco Scope

Message from the Club President

Environment is the life of earth. The green we see, the blue we breath and the
yellow we feel is the basement of the life we experience on earth. Environment is
the factor that has made the earth is the only living planet in the solar system.
From the very beginning of the life on earth up to date, environment gave air to
breath, water to survive and food to grow. Not only that but also, environment is
the reason that the planet earth has become such a beautiful place and a cure to
eyes. As Leos our main objective is producing leaders who can contribute to make
this world a better place to live, make the society where everyone smiles. But this
duty is not limited for those with voices, also for all the living beings with no
voice, with no power to stand against the human. Eco Scope will be a spoon to
feed the security of the environment and to uplift the knowledge of the society
about the values of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and the biosphere around us. It
will enlighten the reader’s minds about how beautiful the surrounding is. Not
only that, but also it will create and feed a new culture of loving the nature as a
true leader.

This beautiful effort taken by the Leos of Environmental Conservation Avenue of
Leo Club of University of Kelaniya should be highly appreciated and their
beautiful art we explore inside should be recognized as a true and pure hearted
work. All the artists , writers and background makers including the co-directors of
Environmental Conservation Avenue, the editors, designers, content writers and
everyone who contributed to make this a success should be encouraged to do
more wonderful things in the future.

Leo Navod Dunusinghe
President 2021/22
Leo Club of University of Kelaniya

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Eco Scope

Message from the Immediate Past
President

Being a Leo made me who I am today. I believe the best way to find yourself is to
lose yourself in the service of others. By doing small acts to spread kindness, to
spread love, to give hopes, and to save lives can make someone’s day better, It’s
the best feeling that any Leo can ever gain. That’s why I continued to be a Leo
even after my term ends. All the experience that I have got, all the people that I
have met, all the memories that I have created and all the skills that I have
developed during my journey is one of the most rewarding experiences in my life.
As the former President of the Leo Club of University of Kelaniya, I need you all to
be a part of this amazing journey where you will be gone through only once in
your lifetime.
As the former president of the Leo Club of University of Kelaniya, I would express
my heartfelt gratitude to the Environmental Conservation Avenue and all its
members for taking a step forward to bring Eco Scope Magazine to the
community. I believe this initiative will helps to make people aware about
wonder of ecosystems and address timely issues that we are currently facing as a
society. So, I would love to add my heartfelt gratitude to “Eco Scope Magazine
Team” for their effort to bring this magazine to our hands.

Leo Kasun Balasooriya
Immediate Past President (2021/22)
Leo Club of University of Kelaniya

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Eco Scope

Message from Co - Directors of
Environmental Conservation Avenue

The magazine “Eco Scope” was initiated to create a platform to gather many
environmental facts into a bunch and to make the readers aware of the
miracles of nature through this reputable magazine. As co-directors, we would
proudly illustrate the fact that “Eco Scope” was able to achieve its goal to the
greatest extend. This magazine elaborates many points of nature through articles,
poems and photographs. The members of the Environmental Conservation
Avenue of Leo Club of University of Kelaniya were able to come up with this
significant magazine with a very short period. The magazine has reached many
honored environmentalists, writers, photographers and artistic undergraduates
to enrich the content of the magazine. An immeasurable appreciation goes to all
the individuals who were engaged in the compiling of the magazine and to all
those who contributed their best on behalf of the magazine, “Eco Scope”.

Finally, we invite you all to turn the pages of this prestigious magazine and
improve your knowledge while being aware of the amazing environmental facts.
Moreover, as youth, let’s identify the environmental issues which are highlighted
through the magazine and let's come up with innovative solutions. Nature is the
greatest treasure in the world. Accordingly, let’s make a space where nature
doesn’t need protection.

Leo Ranindu Pabasara Leo Achini Poornika
Co -Director 2021/22 Co -Director 2021/22
Environmnetal Conservation Avenue
Environmnetal Conservation Avenue Leo Club of University of Kelaniya
Leo Club of University of Kelaniya

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Eco Scope

ECO SCOPE

Is it just another magazine ?
Stating a big no, this is an important project in which the outcome is an E-
magazine with some beautiful creations reserved for our mother nature.
Initiated by the Environmental Conservation Avenue of Leo Club of
University of Kelaniya, this resulted by the motives of addressing
environment related issues, raising awareness while giving the best
platform to bring out the creativity of people in all the universities.
Organized under the categories of poetry, articles and drawings, this was a
gifted chance for them to showcase their efforts in a well recognized club
magazine.
Moreover, some of the popular environment related organizations and
individuals contributed to our magazine expressing their gratitude for
organizing such a valuable project. Their contribution brought so much
value in the magazine, which led to the success of our whole project.

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Eco Scope

ECO SCOPE Family

Guided by the love towards greenery, we are truly a family of green
hearts contributed our best under the immense support of our co-
directors. Amidst many challenges and time barriers but with the never
missed laughter, finally we have created an inspiring magazine full of
worth ideas collected from all over the country.

Leo Lochan Thiyanithi Leo Chintha Nirmalie Leo Dinithi Amasha
Project Co-Chair Project Co-Chair Secretary





Leo Varuni Rathnayake Leo Sureshika Gunawardhana Leo Achini Samarathunga
Editor Editor Editor




Leo Dilki Abewardhana Leo Sandares Ambagahawatta Leo Nisansala Ranasingha
Editor
Designer PR Coordinator

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Eco Scope

HABITAT FRAGMENTATION MATTERS

TO BIRDS:

LESSON

S FROM PAST AND PRESENT

The fragmentation of habitats leads to loss of species as
a recent research demonstrates. As a result, it is a main
issue in conservation biology. The effects of habitat
fragmentation can be seen clearly from avian species
because they are conspicuous species and because
(despite their high mobility) they are poor
dispersers.Recent research shows that there is
increasing evidence that habitat fragmentation severely
affects the distribution and abundance of certain
species of birds.Research also shows that maintaining

corridors that connect two fragments is
an effective way to reduce the loss of
species given the increasing demand for
land use by increasing human
populations.

This article addresses the issue of habitat
fragmentation with special reference to
birds: how and why they are affected,
and possible measures of mitigating the
effects of habitat fragmentation

Habitat Fragmentation

Habitats that were earlier existed as a single continuous
body are increasingly increasingly divided into many
smaller units, or fragments (islands) of the original large
habitat due to human activity such as agriculture and
development. As a result of habitat fragmentation, there
can be a reduction of the total area of the habitat
available to a certain species. It also increases the
amount of edge. This results in the phenomenon known
as edge effect. Because when this happens the natural
boundary is now disturbed by an unnatural system, the
natural ecosystem will be affected to a great extent for
some distance.Therefore,the smaller fragment,this effect

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Eco Scope

may be more serious. On the other fragment in a more or less even way –
hand, there is evidence from studies species that are not restricted to a
on birds that this edge effect allows certain part of the fragment) and a
more species diversity by including very low evenness. (e.g. rare species)
species that are characteristic of both In contrast, a fragment is very likely
systems. (Wijesundara and de Silva, to have only the common species (i.e.,
2005) .This is specially true in areas species with rather high evenness).

This is because, when a large habitat
gets fragmented, very often species
with a low evenness (i.e., species
which are restricted to a certain area
of that habitat) have a very high
probability to get exterminated
(Magurran, 1988).

Furthermore, if we consider species
with a very large home range, for
example the elephants, it can be
perceived very clearly that the
smaller fragments would be unlikely
to contain these types of species.

where the resulting habitat is a forest According to Hunter (1996), it also
analog (e.g., certain types of home applies to species that have rather
gardens in Sri Lanka harbor many limited home ranges, but still avoid
types of woody plants that are small fragments. Some small birds
originally forest species. So, this such as ovenbirds and scarlet
supports the increased bird diversity tanagers have home ranges of only a
in these edges.) hectare or two, but are usually not
found in forest fragments less than 10

Large fragments have more species ha in size. These species are called
than small fragments because of area sensitive species.

several reasons. (Hunter, 1996): Large In addition, uncommon species, even
fragments often possess a greater though they may not be area
variety of habitats than small sensitive, are also unlikely to occur in
fragments. As a result, these habitats a small patch by chance alone.
will provide more niches for several Smaller fragments have smaller
species, which otherwise will be numbers of species as is explained by
unable to survive in the smaller the Theory of Island Biogeography.
habitats, just because they don’t have (MacArthur and Wilson, 1967)
niche spaces to occupy. A large

fragment may have species that are

both common and rare, or it may have

species both with a high evenness (i.e.

species that are distributed over a

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Eco Scope

"Did You Know?

The Road Runner!


The bird 'Road Runner' (chaparral

bird/chaparral cocks), mostly known as the
main character of The Road Runner Show
cartoon. They live in the deserts of the
United States and Mexico. They are
omnivorous and feed on insects, reptiles,
small mammals, and fruits. They can also
run at speeds of up to 42 kilometers per
hour.

Birds are an important group of fragmentation causes loss of individuals.
animals to study the effects of They also argue that it is more important
habitat fragmentation. than habitat loss in landscapes with a
structurally similar matrix. Yamaura et al.
Loss of habitats is a major threat to (2006) reports that flycatchers and certain
biodiversity (Fletcher et al., 2018). Many species of tree nesters were highly affected
ecologists believe that birds disappear from by habitat fragmentation.
tropical forest fragments because they are
poor dispersers (Van Houtan et al., 2007). Van Houtan et al. (2007) found that bird
Therefore, this group of animals could be species which disappear from fragments
an important indicator of fragmentation move extensively between (potential) plots
and extinction of species. before isolation, but not after. Van Houtan
et al. (2007) also reports that these birds
There is growing evidence to support the often disperse to longer distances in
fact that habitat fragmentation severely continuous forest than in fragmented
affects the distribution and abundance of forest. Furthermore, these species also have
certain species of birds. Korfana et al. a preference to emigrate from smaller to
(2012) found that, in the Usambara larger fragments, with no preference to
Mountains, Tanzania, there was continuous forest. Species that stick to
significantly lower survival and population fragments are generally less mobile and
growth rates in small fragments of forest. often do not cross gaps, but after
Yamaura et al. (2006) hypothesize that fragmentation, they disperse further than
habitat before. Van Houtan et al. (2007)

12

suggests that tropical forest birds may be Eco Scope
better dispersers than was previously
assumed. A study of the effects of an open and a
closed (rarely used) road through the
Ferraz et al. (2003) found that a 10-fold undisturbed Amazonian forest reveals that
decrease in the rate of species loss requires trees along the closed road formed a partial
a 1000-fold increase in its area. They found canopy connecting the two sides of the
that small fragments of 100 ha or less will road, while along the open road (which
lose about one half of their total number of was used frequently and hence had a lot of
bird species in less than 15 years. Ferraz et human activity), birds were less likely to
al. (2003) further notes that this short cross the road (Develey and Stouffer, 2001).
Furthermore, Develey and Stouffer (2001)
time period may not be sufficient to conclude that bird flocks respond to a road
implement any effective conservation as they would to a long linear gap.
measures. Therefore, keeping track of bird
species in a forest is of utmost importance, Watson et al. (2005) suggests that bird
especially when there is increasing human communities in woodlands have a varying
activity in the habitat. response to habitat fragmentation in
different landscapes. Watson et al. (2005)
Studies made using recorded calls of report that the kind of landscape pattern
songbirds show that they are more likely may have a significant influence on how
(about twice as likely) to travel through 50 bird
m of woodland than through 50 m in the
open to reach the recording (Desrochers species are affected by woodland
and Hannon, 1997). According to fragmentation in southeastern Australia.
Desrochers and Hannon (1997), woodland Githiru and Lens (2006b) suggest that the
links significantly facilitate movements of effect of fragmentation may depend on the
birds across fragmented landscapes. A demographic attributes of discrete
similar study shows similar results subpopulations. Smaller populations living
(Creegan and Osborne, 2005). Roads which in tiny habitat fragments could play an
run through forests in effect create important role in increasing the long-term
fragments (linear disturbances). survival of spatially structured
populations.

It has been recorded previously that bird
species that are most sensitive to habitat
fragmentation are ground or open-nesters
nesting in shrubs or trees (Lampila et al.,
2005). Lampila et al. (2005) further reports
that resident species are equally sensitive
to fragmentation vin the Nearctic and
Palearctic regions, but Nearctic migrants
are more sensitive than Palearctic
migrants.

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Eco Scope

Furthermore, Old World species were less I and Lens (2006a) also support the idea of
sensitive than New World species, and this connection between fragments. They found
prediction was based on the history of forest that the survival probability of the white-
fragmentation on these two areas. starred robin Pogonocichla stellata in the
highly fragmented Taita Hills in Kenya was
Mitigating the effects of habitat similar among fragments, but turnover
fragmentation rates were different, indicating that
different processes caused removal from
In Conservation Biology, the use of the patches. Jansen (2005) report that in
corridors to reduce the effects of habitat Australia the use of corridors has been
fragmentation has become a major focus successful in the conservation of certain
(Castellón and Sieving, 2006). Castellón avian species. Two fragments of tropical
and Sieving (2006) conducted a rainforest were connected using a
translocation experiment of Chucao replanted corridor of about 1.5 km in
Tapaculo (Sclerochilus rubecula), a forest length. Within a relatively short period of
understory bird endemic to South time (i.e., about 3 years) of planting, the
American temperate rainforest, to test the replanted sites were becoming similar to
importance of corridors to birds. They the nearby rainforest sites in terms of avian
tested the effects on three habitat types: species composition. There is also further
open habitat, shrubby secondary evidence that corridors direct movements
vegetation, and wooded corridors. Their of various types of organisms including
results show Chucao dispersal is birds causing higher movement between
significantly limited by open habitats but connected than between unconnected
not so through wooded corridors and fragments (Haddad et al., 2003).
shrubby secondary vegetation. Githiru
On the other hand, there is evidence that
corridors may not always work in avian
conservation. For example, Hannon and
Schmiegelow (2002) suggest “that corridors
may be useful to retain resident birds on
harvested landscapes, but that corridors
connecting small reserves of forest are
unlikely to offset the impacts of
fragmentation for most boreal birds.”
Hannon and Schmiegelow (2002) tested the
effectiveness of corridors by examining the
changes in abundance of boreal birds pre-
and post-logging in experimental 10-ha and
40-ha reserves that were isolated or
connected by corridors, relative to their
abundance in continuous forest (reference
sites). Their results indicated that the

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Eco Scope

abundance of forest species was higher in can attract edge
reference sites than in isolated or connected
reserves after harvest. However, as a group, and introduced
resident species were more common in
reference and connected reserves than in species (e.g.
isolates. This indicates that corridors might
benefit these species. forest corridors

Weldon (2006) shows that corridors have a high
increased nest predation rates in indigo
bunting (Passerina cyanea) in connected fraction of edge
fragments in contrast to unconnected
fragments with lower edge:area ratios. habitat so they
Weldon (2006) suggests that, due to the edge
effects incurred through the addition of a can attract edge-
corridor, predator activity can increase.
inhabiting pred-
Simberloff et al. (1992) and Simberloff and
Cox (1987) discuss the biological -ators). Field data is still lacking in most of
disadvantages of corridors, such as for these areas; therefore, further
example: spread of catastrophes (fires, investigation is necessary.

Overall, habitat fragmentation is a serious
issue in avian conservation: it leads to loss
of species and may have long-terms effects
on the smooth operation of fragile
ecosystems such as tropical rainforests.
There may be some solutions to reduce
these effects, even though some of these
are rather controversial.

diseases, and harmful alien invasive
species); genetic and demographic costs and
benefits (e.g. the higher possibility of loss of
alleles to drift in a group of refuges); the
possibility of corridors to act as traps or
sinks (thereby decreasing the size of a
metapopulation); corridors

15

Literature Cited Eco Scope

Castellón, T.D. and Sieving, K.E. 2006. An Demography of an Afrotropical passerine in a
experiment test of matrix permeability and highly fragmented landscape. Animal
corridor use by an endemic understory bird. Conservation 9: 21 – 27
Conservation Biology 20 (1): 135 – 145 Haddad, N.M., Bowne, D.R., Cunningham, A.,
Creegan, H.P. and Osborne, P.E. 2005. Gap- Danielson, B.J., Levey, D.J., Sargent, S. and
crossing decisions of woodland songbirds in Spira, T. 2003. Corridor use by diverse taxa.
Scotland: an experimental approach. Ecology 84 (3): 609 – 615
Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 678 – 687 Hannon, S.J. and Schmiegelow, F.K. 2002.
Desrochers, A. and Hannon, S.J. 1997. Gap Corridors may not improve the conservation
crossing decisions by forest songbirds value of small reserves for most boreal birds.
during the post-fledging period. Ecological Applications 12 (5): 1457 – 1468
Conservation Biology 11 (5): 1204 – 1210 Hunter, M.L. 1996. Fundamentals of
Develey, P.F. and Stouffer, P.C. 2001. Effects Conservation Biology. Blackwell Science,
of roads on movements by understory birds Cambridge, Massachusetts. xiv+482 pp.
in mixed-species flocks in central Jansen, A. 2005. Avian use of restoration
Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology 15 plantings along a creek linking rainforest
(5): 1416 – 1422 patches on the Atherton Tablelands, North
Ferraz, G., Russel, G.J., Stouffer, P.C., Queensland. Restoration Ecology 13 (2): 275 –
Bierregaard, R.O., Pimm, S.L., and Lovejoy, 283
T.E. 2003. Rates of species loss from Lampila, P., Mönkkönen, M., and Desrochers,
Amazonian forest fragments. PNAS 100: A. 2005. Demographic responses by birds to
14069 – 14073 forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology
Fletcher, R. J., Didham, R. K., Banks-Leite, C., 19 (5): 1537 – 1546
Barlow, J., Ewers, R. M., Rosindell, J., Holt, R. MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. 1967. The
D., Gonzales, A., Pardini, R., Damschen, E. I., theory of island biogeography. Princeton
Melo, F. P. L., Ries, L, Prevedello, J. A., University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 203
Tscharntke, T., Laurance, W. F., Lovejoy, T., pp.
and Haddad, N. M. 2018. Is habitat Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity
fragmentation good for biodiversity? and Its Measurement. Croom Helm, London
Biological Conservation 226: 9-15 and Sydney. 192 pp.
Simberloff, D. and Cox, J. 1987. Consequences
Githiru, M. and Lens, L. 2006a. Annual and costs of conservation corridors.
survival and turnover rates of an Conservation Biology 1 (1): 63 – 71
Afrotropical robin in a fragmented forest. Simberloff, D., Farr, J.A., Cox, J., and
Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 3315 – Mehlman, D.W. 1992. Movement corridors:
3327 conservation bargains or poor investments?
Githiru, M. and Lens, L. 2006b. Conservation Biology 6 (4): 493 – 504

16

Van Houtan, K.S., Pimm, S.L., Halley, J.M., Eco Scope
Bierregaard, R.O., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2007.
Dispersal of Amazonian birds in continuous Yamaura, Y., Katoh, K. and Takahashi, T.
and fragmented forest. Ecology Letters 9: 1 – 2006. Reversing habitat loss: deciduous
11 habitat fragmentation matters to birds in a
Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker, R.J., and larch plantation matrix. Ecography 29: 827 –
Freudenberger, D. 2005. Bird community 834
responses to habitat fragmentation: how
consistent are they across landscapes? Chaminda S. Wijesundara
Journal of Biogeography 32: 1353 – 1370
Weldon, A.J. 2006. How corridors reduce Department of Zoology, University of Peradeniya,
indigo bunting nest success. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Conservation Biology 20 (4): 1300 – [email protected]
1305Wijesundara, C. and de Silva, M. 2005.
Species diversity, abundance, and some
aspects of the ecology of birds in selected
habitats in the hill region of Sri Lanka.
Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological
Sciences) 33: 15 – 31

"

Did You Know?

The most successful hunter in the

animal kingdom!

You would be surprised to hear that the most
successful hunter in the animal kingdom is an
insect. This insect, known as the dragonfly, is
almost unknown. The dragonflies are the most
successful hunters because they show a 95%
success rate in hunting. This value is about
22% for a hawk and 30% for a lion. Even the
most successful land hunter, the hyena, has a
67% chance of succeeding.

17

Eco Scope

දේශගුණික විපර්යාස හමුවේ මිහිතලයේ අනාගතය...
රියෝ, පැරිස් සිට ග්ලාස්ගෝ දක්වා නූතන පරිසර
සංරක්ෂණය.
f.
da,Sh WKqiqu" foaY.=‚l úm¾hdi"

yß;d.dr jdhqka" yß;d.dr wdprKh"
iajNdúl wdmod" foaY.=‚l wkd:hska
foaY.=‚l yÈis ;;a;ajh jeks joka rdYshla
miq.sh oYl 2-3 ;=< wfma jokafldaIhg tl;=
ù we;af;a fï jk úg b;d oreKq f,i
f,dalh u mdßißl wk;=rlg f.dÿre ù we;s
ksid h' f,dal ld¾ñl úma,jfha m%;sM,hla
f,i jeä jYfhka fmdis, bkaOk oykh"
jkdka;r ydhkh ksid fufia f.da,Sh WKqiqu
by< f.dia we;s w;r" tys ksh; m%;sM,h
foaY.=‚l úm¾hdihkag f,dalh f.dÿre ùu
h' ksula ke;s .xj;=r" wfkdard jeiai"
kdhhdï" wl=Kq wk;=re" kshÕ" mdkSh c,
ysÕlu" wdydr ksIamdokh ì| jeàu" ffcj
úúO;aj ydhkh" .a,eishr Èhùu" uqyqÿ
uÜgu by< hdu" ¥m;a hg ùu jeks oreKq
jHikhlg f,dalh f.dÿre ù we;af;a
ñksidf.au wufkda{ ls%hdl,dmh fya;=fjks'

tneúka f,dalh wo udkjhd we;=¿ ish¨
Ôùkag l=uk fudfydf;a fyda urKh lekaok
úkdYfha f;da;ekakla njg m;aj ;sfí' th
fl;rï ìhlre ;;a;ajhla o h;a wo Èkfha
isg f,dalh iïmQ¾Kfhka u fmdis, bkaOk
oykh kj;d oeuQj;a ;j;a wjqreÿ iShhla
olajdj;a wk;=re lekaodf.k tkakg ;rï
fï olajd ñksid úiska isÿ lr we;s úkdYh
n,j;a nj ms<s.ekSu hs'

tfiakï" ;jÿrg;a ñys;,h WKqiqï ùu
j<ld .ksñka yd fï olajd isÿ lr we;s
úkdYfhka o f,dalh .,jd .ekSu m%Yakhg

18

úi÷u f,i oeka f,dalh u ms<s.;a i;Hh Eco Scope
fõ' fï i|yd jir .Kkdjl isg jir
50la muK" tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixúOdkfha fujr yd 2015§ m%xYfha mej;s
ueÈy;a ùu u; f,dal kdhlhska tla /ia md¾Yjlrejkaf.a 21jeks iuq¿fjka o
lr .kakd ,o ;Skaÿ ;SrK o .xj;=fr u wjOdrKh lr isákafka ñksiqka we;=¿ uq¿
.idf.k .sfha h' uy;a Ôú iuQyhdg u fuu mDÓú f.da,fha
hy;ska Ôj;a ùug wjYH kï yß;d.dr
tkuq;a" 2015oS m%xYfha meßia kqjr § mej;s jdhq úfudapkh wvq lsÍfuka ñys;,fha
foaY.=K úm¾hdi ms<sn| tlai;a cd;Skaf.a WIaK;ajh jeä ùu mQ¾j ld¾ñl hq.hg
rduq.; iïuq;sfha md¾Yajldr rgj, 21 idfmalaIj wxYl 1'5l iSudfõ j;a
jeks iuq¿fõ §" mj;ajdf.k hdfï b,lalh 2025 fyda
2030jk úg imqrd imqrd,sh hq;= nj h'
(United Nations Framework Convention on ieneúka u fuh b;d wmyiq b,lalhla ù
Climate Change – UNFCCC – 21th we;af;a ;jÿrg;a n,.;= ld¾ñl rgj,a
Conference of the Parties - COP 21) ;u l¾udka; we;=¿ ld¾ñl lafIa;%h i|yd
Ndú; flfrk fmdis, bkaOk oykh wju
foaY.=‚l úm¾hdi wju lr.ekSu i|yd lsÍu i|yd olajk l=iS; nj yd WodiSk
we;s lr.kakd ,o tlÕ;d hï M,odhs Ndjh hs' tkï" ld¾ñl n,j;=ka ;u rgj,
;;a;ajhlg meñ‚fha h' meßia iïuq;sh ldnka mshigyka wju lr .ekSug wlue;s
kï jk fuys oS ;srir ixj¾Ok wruqKq ùu hs' kuq;a ienEj kï tA wlue;s ùu
17la iy b,lal 169la" mfil ,d f,dalh /l .ekSug jydu ls%hd
l< hq;= j we;s nj hs'
(Sustainable Goals and Targets)
tfia fyhska WIaK;ajh ;j;a fikaá.af.%â
bgqlsÍu i|yd tlÕ;djla we;s lr .kakd wxYl 1'5lska by< hdug fkd§ /l.kakg
,§' tA wkqj YS% ,xldj o md¾Yajlrejka fkdyels jqjfyd;a" .a,eishr Èh ù f.dv
195la w;r ;j;a tla md¾Yajlrejl= njg ìï hgjkjdg wu;r j" fmr lS iajNdúl
m;aj isà' muKla fkdj fmr lS ;srir wdmodjkag f.dÿrej" wm fndfyda fofkl=
ixj¾Ok b,lal yd wruqKq bgqlsÍu i|yd foaY.=‚l wkd:hska njg m;aùu
ne£ isà' fkdje<elaúh yels jkjd w;ru" tA olajd
u fldúâ jix.;h jeks udrdka;sl
miq.sh Tlaf;daïn¾ ui 31 isg fkdjeïn¾ jix.;o me;sr hkafka kï fudk;rï
ÿlaÅ; ;;a;ajhla f,dalhg we;s jkafka o
ui 12 olajd iafldÜ,ka;fha .a,diaf.da hkak wuq;=fjka lsj hq;a;la fkdfõ'

k.rfha mej;s" rgj,a 195l rdcH fï j.lSu ordf.k 2015§ ckdêm;s
ffu;s%md, isßfiak uy;d úiska w;aika
kdhlhska we;=¿ úoaj;=kaf.a lrk ,o meßia iïuq;sfhka miq" wmf.a
ó<Õ md¾Yajldr kdhlhd f,i .a,diaf.da
iyNd.S;ajfhka meje;s foaY.=K úm¾hdi iuq¿jg ckdêm;s f.daGdNh rdcmlaI
uy;d iyNd.S jQ w;r" tys rdcH kdhl
ms<sn| tlai;a cd;Skaf.a rduq.; iïuq;sfha iuq¿fõ § t;=uka úiska YS% ,xldjg yd tA

md¾Yajlrejkaf.a 26 jeks iuq¿fõ §

(United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change – UNFCCC - 26th

Conference of the Parties - COP 26)

;jÿrg;a foaY.=‚l úm¾hdi wju

lr.ekSu yd wkqyqre ùu i|yd jk

;ukaf.a b,lal hdj;ald,Sk lr .ekSu

i|yd md¾Yjlrejkaf.a ls%hdl,dmh

wjOdrKh lrk ,§'

19

Eco Scope

kuq;a" ieneúka u f.da,Sh WKqiqï ùu
je<elaùug wod< mshjr fï md¾Yajldr
rdcHhka ;=< ls%hdfjka isÿjkafka oehs mila
lsÍu h' YS% ,xldj ñïula f,i f.k
we;a;g u f,dalfha isÿjkafka l=ula o
hkak ms<sn| j ukskakg o wjYH kï fï
wkqj wmg yels h'

Tiafia f,dalhg wod< m%jdyk" n,Yla;s"
lDIsld¾ñl" jk ixrlaIK hkd§ ;sridr
ixj¾Ok ls%hdud¾. /ila ms<sn|
wjOdrKh lrk ,§' kuq;a m%Yakhlg
we;af;a fujka iuq¿ láka n;, fld<
isgqjk l;d u¨ njg fndfyda úg m;ajk

"

Did You Know?

Climate change is creating

a refugee crisis!


As global temperatures increase, millions

of people are fleeing their homes to avoid

the impacts of droughts and extreme storms.
And these numbers are set to rise. The
International Organization on Migration
estimates that up to 200 million people could
be displaced by climate change by 2050.
Around 50% of all carbon emissions are
emitted by the richest 10% of the world’s
population. Yet global warming is making
climate change refugees of the world’s
poorest.

20

Eco Scope

නූතන පරිසර සංරක්ෂණය හා නූතන පරිසර සංරක්ෂණයේ
ලෝකය
පුරෝගාමියෝ

mßirh fuka u mßirh ixrlaIKh mßirh iy mßir ixrlaIKh hk kQ;k
j¾;udkfha f.da,Sh ud;Dld njg m;a j joka YíofldaIhg tla l< uyd mßir
;sfí' ñksidg Ôj;a ùug we;s w;HjYH úkdYhkag tfrysj y~ ke.+ /fp,a
myiqlï oeä f,i iSudfjñka mej;Su;a" ld¾ika iy .af,daí fk,aika .ek o hula
mßir ¥IKfha iy iajNdúl iïm;a i|yka lrkq jákafka wo mßirh /l
wêmßfNdackfha m%;súmdl weia mkdmsg u .ekSu i|yd tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixúOdkh
foaY.=‚l úm¾hdi njg m;a ù iajNdúl we;=¿ f.da,Sh ixúOdk .kq ,nk
wdmod ks¾udKh lsÍu;a" tA ksid u Èk Èk ls%hdud¾. iy mßir Èk ñysl; iuq¿
foaY.=‚l wkd:hska ìys ùu;a Bg fya;=j we;=¿ ieureï ish,a,la u ìys jkafka
hs' Tjqkaf.a ls%hdl,dmh ksid h' ñksidg
iqjodhs f,i mßirh mßyrKh lsÍfï

fï ksid wo f,dalh u mßirh .ek;a" j.lSu f,dal kdhlhkag fmkajd ÿka
mßir ixrlaIKh .ek;a Ôj;aùu i|yd kQ;k udkjhska Tjqka h'

iïm;a ;sridr Ndú;h .ek;a mq¿,a ld¾ñl yd yß; úma,j hk ys§ f,dalhg
wjOdkhla fhduq lrhs' fkdfyd;a wo m<sfndaO kdYl y÷kajd fok úg
;srir ixj¾Okhla .ek l;d lrkafka u weußldfõ u;aiH iy jkÔù wdh;kfha
fï Nhdkl wk;=r wm bÈßfha fyd,auka id.r úoHd{jßhl f,i fiajh l<"
lrk ksidu h' ld¾ñl úma,jfha iy rfpf,a ld¾ika fukúh" wefußldkq
yß; úma,jfha ksh; m%;sM, f,i fufia m<sfndaO kdYl iud.ï u.ska ìys lr
f,dalhg ¥IKh iy iïm;a wê mßirhg uqod y< ã'ã'à iy ms'iS'î' hk
mßfNdackh ,efnoa§ ld¾ñl yd yß; m<sfndaO kdYlj, ls%hdldÍ;ajh ms<sn| j
úma,j ìys ù b;d flá ld,hlska u wOHhkh l<d h' fuu lDñ kdYl

fufia mßir ixrlaIKhla .ek l;d fya;=fjka ñhhk lDóka" l=re,a,ka"
lrkakg fuu úma,jhkaf.a u u;aiHhska we;=¿ mßir moaO;s úkdYh

ks¾ud;Djreka jk wefußld iy hqfrdamd .ek w;aÿgq wehf.a mÍlaIK wjidkfha §

m%cdjgu isÿ ùu tl w;lska wefußldj fy,aÆ

ffohsfjdam.; isÿùuls' kQ;k mßir “Silent Spring”

ixrlaIKh iy ;srir Ndú;h fyj;a" lD;sfhka weh tAjd mdGl wjOdkhg f.k

wmrÈ. mßir ixrlaIK ixl,amh wdjd h' m<sfndaO kdYl iy tAjd

ìysjkafka tA wkqj h' kuq;a tA kslkau Ndú;fhka isÿjk mdßißl úkdYh fï

fkdfõ' tA i|yd o wr., l< ñksiqka u.ska fy<sorõ flß‚' 1962§ t<s oelajqKq

ksid h' yeg oYlh wjidkfha § fuu lD;sh u.ska m<s fndaOkdYl iud.ï

wefußldfjka u ke.S isá f.af,daâ wkaoukao jQ w;r Tjqka l;=jßh y÷kajk

fk,aika iy /p,a ld¾ika jekakjqka ksid ,oafoa Wu;= ia;s%hl jYfhks' fuu

fufia kQ;k mßir ixrlaIK ixl,amh iud.ïj,g mlaI udOH mjd weh oeä
uy fmdf<dfõ ia:dms; jQfha hehs mejiSu f,i úfõpkhg ,la lf<a h' flfia fyda

ksjerÈ l;dj fõ' 21

fuu .%ka:h wefußldkq ck;dj w;r Eco Scope
ñ,shk Nd.hlg jeä wf,ú m%idohla ,enQ
w;r .%ka:h yd l;=jßh o tjl wefußldfõ Ñkafldkais m%dka;fha fifkÜ
wefußldkq rdcH kdhlhska fia ls%hd l< iNslfhla o wdKavqldrjrhd o jYfhka m;a
fcdaka t*a' flkä" tAn%yï ,skalka hk ù miqj yeu wefußldkq fikÜ uKav,fha
whf.a o m%idohg ,la jq‚' iNslfhla fiau lghq;= l< fk,aika l=vd
l, isg u ixrlaIKh .ek úYajdifhka
fujka úma,jfha y~la mßirh fjkqfjka lghq;= l< wfhls' cd;sl foaYmd,kh
ke.S /fp,a ld¾ika ;u .%ka:h ksl=;a lr kHdhm;%hg ixrlaIKh hkak we;=<;a
jir foll § tkï 1964§ ms<sld frda.hg lsÍug ;Èka fjfyiqKq Tyq Bg wod< m<uq
f.dÿrej ñh .shd h' tfy;a weh mshjr ls%hd;aul lrkq ,nkafka 1962§ h'
úoHd{jrshl f,i wefußldkq nyq cd;sl ckdêm;s fcdaka t*a'flkä rgmqrd ixrlaIK
iud.ï bÈßfha uqo,g o‚ka fkdjeà pdßldjlg le|jdf.k f.dia mßir
ridhksl ¥IKfhka f,dj u .,jd.kakg ixrlaIKh ms<sn| wOHkhla we;s lr th
ke.+ y~ f,dl= mßir ixúOdk ìys lsÍfï cd;sl m%uqL;djhlhg f.k tkakg lghq;=
uQ, îch jemqrejd h' tmuKla fkdj lf<a h'
mßirh hk wd.ka;=l jpkh f,dal Yío
fldaIhg tl;= lrkakg wehf.a fuu පරිසර දිනයේ බිහිවීම
.%ka:h yd weh úiska mj;ajkakg fhÿKq
iSudiys; foaYk ud,dj iu;a úh' flfia fyda fujka Woafõ.lr Woafhda.su;a
ieneúkau wo mßir ixrlaIKh .ek l;d ke.Sisá ke.sàï ld¾ñl úma,jh iy
lrkafk kï tA /fp,a ld¾ika ke.+ y~ weußldkq fukau wksl=;a ld¾ñl n,j;=ka o
ksid ksidu h' ld¾ñl úma,jh úkdYldÍ iir l<dg iel ke;' mßirh iy
mßir ls%hdjkag tfrysj o~q uq.=re tijQ ixrlaIKh i|yd t;eka mgka mokï
mqfrda.dó kQ;k udkjhd weh jk ksid h' jefgkakg mgka .kS' tA wkqj 1972 cqks ui
tfy;a wog;a mßir ¥IKfhka wxl tl 5jeks od iaùvkfha iafgdlafydaï kqjrg
ia:dkh jecfnk wefußldj kï ;u /iajQ tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ls%hdldÍyq mßir
ud;DN+ñh fï jHikfhka fírd .ekSug úkdYh" OrŒh ixj¾Okh yd mßir
/fp,ag fkdyels jQ kuqÿ /fp,a ld¾ika ixrlaIKh" È<s÷ nj ;=rka lsÍu hkd§
f.kd hIaáh /f.k ;j;a wefußldkqjl= lreKq j,g wod< udkj mßirh kñka
1970§ ,laI ixLHd; ckldhla iuÕ mßir iuq¿jla mj;ajkakg fhÿ‚' c.;a mßir
jHikhg tfrys j ùÈ neiafia h' ld¾ñl Èkh iudrïNh bkamiq 1973 cqks ui mia
úma,jh miqmi tk fuu mßir jHikhg jeksodg jd¾Isl j c.;a mßir Èkh ieuÍu
tfrys j ùos igka weú, jQ fyf;u wdrïN flß‚'
f.af,daâ fk,aika h'
t;eka mgka 2021 jir olajd mßirh Èk
48la f,dal ckhd iurd we;' ñys;, Èkh
iurkakg mgkaf.k 2021 jirg jir 51ls'
/fp,a ld¾ikaf.a wdkafoda,kd;aul .%ka:h
“Silent Spring”

22

ksl=;a ù yrshgu wv ishjila f.ù wjidkh' Eco Scope
tfy;a wm ;du;a mßir ixrlaIKh" ;sridr
ixj¾Okh ms<sn| idlÉPd" iïuka;%K ms<sn| tfy;a ixj¾Okh hkq udkj j¾.hdf.a
foaYk mj;ajñka isà isákafkuq' tkuq;a meje;au f,i ms<s.kakjd fjkqjg Wmßu
iïm;a iQrdlEu" mdßißl ¥IKh" È<s÷ nj" ,dNdxY wfmalaIdfjka n,h w;g .;a
f,v frda." n,Yla;s w¾nqoh" iajNdúl úm;a" ld¾ñl rgj,a fuka u nyq cd;sl iud.ï
;=kajeks f,dalh we;=¿ È<s÷ rgj, wo

olajd u iQrd lñka isáhs' wdydr" bkaOk"
T!IO" ck iïm;a ;d" bkaOk" T!IO" ck
yß;d.dr jdhq úfudapkh jeks uyd jHik iïm;a" ;dlaIKh jeks lafIa;% j, fï nj
wm f.hs fodrlvg meñK mE, fodßka msgux ;Èka u ;yjqre jk w;r jd;h"
fjñka ;sfí' mßir ixrlaIKh" ;sridr f.dvìu" c,h" ¥IKh yd iïm;a wê
ixj¾Okh mqyq joka ud,djla njg m;a ù mßfNdackh w;ska o fï nj meyeÈ,s j
;sridr ixj¾Ok iuq¿ yqÿ ld,h yd iïm;a olakg ,efí'
ld ouk fmÜá njg m;aj ;sfí'

පරිසරය සුරැකීමේ කතන්දර චාරිකාව ÿmam;alu ;=rka lsÍu" úIu;dj wju

mßir ixrlaIKh ms<sn|j f,dal kdhlhskaf.ka lsÍu yd f,dal nyq;rhla jQ ÿmam;=kaf.a
l;kaor pdßldj .ek ;j;a lshkakg lreKq
we;' 1962§ iaùvkfha iafgdlafydaï k.rfha § uQ,sl wjYH;djhka imqrd,Su ;sridr
meje;s udkj mßirh ms<sn| tlai;a cd;Skaf.a
iuq¿fjka miq mßirh yd ;sridr ixj¾Okh ixj¾Ok b,lal imqrd .ekSfï w;HjYH
ms<sn| jeo.;a ;Skaÿ ;SrKj,g meñK nj ienE
h' tAjd ls%hd;aul ùfï § mj;sk miqnEu;a fuu fldkafoaishla hkak o fuys§ idlÉPd
iuq¿ ;rugu mq¿,a yd iqúi,a jk w;r 1992§
niS,fha ßfhdao fckhsfrda rgj,a 182l flß‚' tfia jqj o j¾;udkfha È<s÷ nj
iyNd.S;ajfhka ßfhda iuq¿j werfUkafka
iafgdlafydaï iaïuq;sh mokaï jYfhks' mßirh .S>%fhka by< hoa§ ÿmam;alu ixfla;j;a
yd ixj¾Okh ms<sn| tlai;a cd;Skaf.a iuq¿j
f,i ye¢kafjk fuys § Bg wod< jeo.;a lreKq lrk tAâia" laIh frda.h" fvx.="
y;la ms<sn|j idlÉPd lrñka" 21jeks ishjfia
kHdh m;%h kñka m%ldYkhla o t<s olajk ,§' tA uef,aßhd" fld,rdj" mdpkh"
óg oYl follg by;§ h' tfy;a lK.dgqfjka
jqj o m%ldY lsÍug we;af;a by; i|yka ukaofmdaIKh jeks frda.S ;;a;ajhkag
fmdfrdkaÿ miq.sh ld,h mqrdjg u bgq jQfha kï
f,dj mqrd fujka mdßißl úkdYhla iy f,dj mqrd fjfik ÿmam;=ka jeä jYfhka
foaY.=‚l úm¾hdihla fuka u oßo;djh úiska
fu;rï nrm;< f,i f,dalh .s, .ekSulao isÿ f.dÿre fjñka mj;S' tfy;a Okj;=ka yd
fkdjk nj hs' සuq¿fõ § .kakd ,o m%Odk
fmdfrdkaÿ yf;ka m%uqL jQfha udkj j¾.hd ;u nyq cd;sl iud.ï fï j¾Ifha ì,shk
meje;au yd ;sridr ixj¾Okh fjkqfjka
ie,ls,su;a úh hq;= h hkak hs' kSfrda.S yd .Kklska ,dN Wmhñka isá;s'
M,odhS Ôú;hla .; lsÍu i|yd f,dj ish¨
fokdg whs;sh we; hkak o Bg we;=,;a úh' ñys;,h jákd mßir moaO;Skays
hymeje;au" ixrlaIKh yd m%;sIaGdmkh
i|yd ish¨ u cd;Ska iyfhda.fhka
lghq;= l< hq;= h hkak t<UqKq ;j;a
tlÕ;djhls' tA fjkqjg mßir moaO;s
úkdYfha wka;hgu f,dalh meñK we;'

mdßißl jYfhka jeo.;a jkakdjQ
ldrKdjh ldrKdj, § tA ms<sn|
ie,ls,a, olajkakdjQ rgjeishkaf.a
iyNd.S;ajh iys; hym;a fufyhqï
ls%hdj,shla ls%hd;aul l< hq;= h hkak
o ;sridr ixj¾Okhla i|yd ldka;d

23

Eco Scope

odhl;ajh ,nd.ekSu;a ;reKshkaf.a u tlÕ;djfhka lghq;= lsÍu mßir
ks¾udKYS,S;ajh ffO¾h yd woyia o lafIa;%fha lemS fmfkk iqúfYaIS;ajhla o
iajfoaYsl yd wdÈjdiS ckhdf.a oekqu o fõ' wefußldj o Bg iydh m< lf<a h' tA
;sridr ixj¾Okh i|yd w;HjYH lreKq yefrkakg tf;la fuf;la uq¿ÿka mdßißl
f,i fuys§ tlÕ;djhlg .kq ,enq‚' tfy;a lafIa;%fha idlÉPd" iïuka;%K" foaYk yd
mßir ys;jd§ ixj¾Ok udÈ,sh fjkqjg n,j;a rgj, odhl;ajh ,eî we;af;a w,am
iq¿;rhla úiska .%du yd iïm;a iQrdlk jYfhks' fï l=uk tlÕ;d iïuq;s
ixj¾Ok ls%hdoduhka isÿjk olakg ,efí' iïuka;%Kh meje;ajqj o f,dalh fmf<k
tfia u ldka;djo Y%u yd ,sx.sl iQrd lEug

,la lsÍu;"a ;reK woyia .re fkdlsÍu;a" by; .eg¨j, ksula ke;' Èfkka Èku

/lshd úhqla;shla f,dj mqrd olakg fkd,efí mdßißl úkdYfha iy ÿmam;alfï f,dalh
[email protected] .sf,k w;r ;j;a w;lska f,dalhg ord.;

1992oS fufia fmdfrdkaÿ m%ldrj úisÍ .sh fkdyels wkaofï iajNdúl úm;a iuÕ

mßir ys; ys;ldó" 2022 wf.daia;=fõ rgj,a ;j;a ishjia lsysmhlaj;a ksjeros l<
100l muK rdcH kdhlhska" ks,OdÍka" fkdyels mßÈ foaY.=‚l úm¾hdi kï
iafõÉPd ixúOdk ksfhdað;hska" udOHfõ§ka oejeka; Wl=, f,dalh u meg,S we;' 2012§
msßila msßjrd ol=Kq wms%ldfõ fcdyekian¾.a ;sridr ixj¾Okh ms<sn| f,dal iuq¿j
kqjr § ßfhd oi jir ;sridr ixj¾Okh ßfhda úis jir kñka n%iS,fha ßfhdao
ms<sn| iuq¿fõ § yuqjkafka fmdfrdkaÿ lv ckhsfrdays§ u uq¿ fokafka tjka jgmsgdjla
l< msßila jYfhks' kej; jrla mDÓú mßir ;=< h' iuq¿j ksfhdackh lrk ishhg wêl
moaO;sh úkdYfhka fírd .ekSu iy Bg wod< rgj,a w;r YS% ,xldj o tla rgla jk w;r"
fjk;a .eg¨ ksrdlrKh wruqKq lr .;a

OrŒh ixj¾Okh ms<sn| f,dal kHdh iuq¿j Tn;a yß; wd¾Ólhlg we;=<;a o hk
jYfhka /iajk fuys§;a wefußldj ;=< by< f;audj Tiafia YS% ,xldj o iyNd.s úh'
fmf<a ld¾ñl ¥Ilhska iuq¿jg ksjerÈ
ksfhdackh ,ndfokafka ke;' wk;=rej 2015§ m%xYfha meßia kqjr § f,dal
Bg by; 1997 ls%hdjg ke.=Kq ñys;,h kdhlhska f.da,Sh WKqiqu fikaáf.%aâ
WKqiqï ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq lrñka wxYl1'5lska by< hdu kj;ajd f.k hdug
cmdkfha lsfhdaf;da ys § uqyqK ÿka f,dal wod<j ;sridr ixj¾Ok b,lal yd wruqKq
foaY.=‚l iïuq;shg wkqj 2002 olajd tlÕ;djhlg" meßia iïuq;sh tlajk w;r
wefußldj we;=¿ ld¾ñl rgj,a lsysmhla fujr tys È.=jla f,i iafldÜ,ka;fha
lsfhdf;da iuq¿jg tlÕ;djh m< lr Bg .a,diaf.da iuq¿jg tla úh'

w;aika ;enqfõ ke;' jdhqf.da,h WKqiqï lrk

yß;d.dr jdhq úfudapkh md,kh lsÍu tys

wruqK hs' tA;a wo olajd;a wefußldj Bg

iydh m< lr ke;' 1999§ wefußldfjka

wdrïN jQ ´fidaka ia:rh laIh ùu md,kh

lsÍu ms<sn| fudkaÜ%ßh,a ixúOdkhg yd ජගත් කණහැරආරච්චි
iïuq;shg muKla f,dalh
දිවයින විශේෂාංග කතෘ හා පරිසර සංස්කාරක

24

X-PRESS
PEARL
20


MAY
2021




MARITIME DISASTER

Justice to the environment and Eco Scope
people affected by the X-Press
Pearl Ship Disaster For anyone who visit the coastline from
Chilaw to Kalutara the damage by plastic
The X-Press Pearl disaster is the most pellet is evident. Carcasses of turtles are
miserable destructive chemical ship accident lying and decaying on the beach is a
in the world. When it caught fire off the common site. Death of molluscs, crabs and
coast northwest of Colombo port on May much small fish are often neglected. In
20th, 2021, it had 1486 containers loaded addition to plastic nurdles, burnt plastic
with a variety of goods, such as; bunker fuel pieces, logs with burnt plastic, can be
oil, hazardous and noxious substances visually observed.
including nitric acid, caustic soda, methanol,
potentially toxic epoxy resins, and several Moreover, the “Blue machine” operated by
types of plastic pellets, other chemicals, and the Sri Lankan inventor Mr. Chinthaka
cosmetics. It also had environmentally Waragoda separated greenish solidified
hazardous Lithium-Ion batteries, Bright pieces and fine plastic chips deposited
Yellow Sulphur, lead, and lubricating oil, among sand. There’s no study revealing
gear oil, and potentially harmful aluminum potentially harmful chemicals bound with
products etc... These are now either burnt, these or at least say otherwise. There’s no
evaporated, mixed into waters or are still study revealing whether the sands of this
lying on the bottom of our sea bed. coastline are free from potentially harmful
chemicals came with the accident, specially
This incident caused damage to the marine because the sand contain tiny pieces of
environment and aquatic resources due to plastic came with the accident. Yet,
the plastic waste, chemicals, and potential authorities make people engage in hand
oil spill. According to the reports by the end sorting plastic pellet from the sand!
of July, eight whales, 48 dolphins, and 417
turtles died due to the X-Press Pearl Plastic pellets, are easily carried by the tide
accident. These numbers are increasing day and end up on the beaches with other
by day. marine debris. If they contain any harmful
chemical, they can contaminate people
living near the affected coastal area, and
beach visitors who touch these pellets.
Plastic pellets and plastic waste will disturb
the beach, destroying former beauty of the
Sri Lankan coastline and also damage the
breeding grounds of marine life such as
crabs, turtles, fish, and prawns. Low density
pellets that float over the water can adsorb
other toxins present in the water. Marine
animals such as turtles, crabs, fish, and
seabirds mistakenly consume them for food,
damaging their digesting rack resulting
starvation and even death due

26

Eco Scope

contamination cause by the accident. At
least announce whether the fish or other
food coming from the sea are safe to
consume. Unaware of any consequences, Sri
Lankans continue to consume fish and other
food. Perhaps it is safe. Yet, no study revels
it.

to blockage of the intestinal tract. Toxins Oil spills from ships can damage marine life
adsorbed onto pellets can even leach out and bleach the coral reefs by cutting off
inside their bodies. Seabirds, fish, and oxygen and sunlight. It can also cause bad
turtles can easily be exposed to chemicals temperature fluctuations for marine animals
leaching out from plastic pellets into their and lead to the death of aquatic life. Turtles
bodies, and can even have negative effects mistake spilled oil for food, and they become
such as disruption to hormone function trapped. Dolphins can inhale oil that can
and failure in reproduction. affect their respiration, immunity and
reproduction. Shellfish, plankton, and larvae
are all affected by oil toxicity as well. Oil
spills from ships can make fish and shellfish
unsafe for human consumption.

Some of the chemicals, metals, and plastic The ship has already hit the bottom of the
waste from ships cause particular concern ocean. It could cause further damage to the
due to their abundance, durability, and reefs in the region. The pellet, chemical, and
persistence in the marine environment. oil spills have already done a lot of damage
Various hazardous chemicals that come to the marine ecosystems, the sea, the beach,
from ship incidents can cause toxic effects and humans. This chemical spill can have a
on marine animals such as, dolphins, long-term impact on marine animals,
turtles, crabs, fish, marine mollusks etc. humans, as well as the fishing and tourism
industries.
Lead is an environmentally persistent,
toxic heavy metal that can have acute and
chronic toxic effects on marine life and
humans . This is a chemical that can affect
the reproduction ability of animals
threatening the whole generation of an
animal. A human could easily get exposed
to lead, if they are present in sea food.

Up until now, Sri Lankan authorities have
failed to reveal the general public on exact

27

The Centre for Environmental Justice Eco Scope
together with local fishermen groups
already filed a fundamental rights About us; Centre for Environmental
application seeking compensations for all Justice (CEJ) is a national level
affected parties including fishermen and the environmental organization working for
environment, from the owners of the MV X- the promotion of Environmental Good
Press Pearl container vessel, its agents for all Governance, Environmental Justice, and
the destruction caused on the environment environmental democracy through
as well as livelihoods. The case also pleaded science and law since 2004. CEJ also works
for the formulation of a national on chemical governance, forest
contingency plan to promptly respond to governance, climate change, international
any future maritime disaster. CEJ also filed a environmental negotiations, single use
Writ case praying to issue an order in the plastics, genetically modified foods, and
nature of a Writ of Mandamus to conduct an supports community in their
independent and impartial investigation environmental struggles.
into the said fire on MV X-Press Pearl.

Harshani Abayawardhana,
Environmental Office, CEJ

"

Did You Know?
Our oceans are dying!

The UN has warned that marine life faces

irreparable damage from the millions of tonnes of
plastic waste that ends up in the oceans every year.
Half of the world’s coral reefs have died in the last
30 years, and two-thirds of the Great Barrier Reef
have been damaged by coral bleaching – this
happens when the sea temperature is too high.
Hundreds of thousands of marine mammals such as
whales, dolphins, porpoises, and sea lions are
accidentally caught or critically injured by fishing
gear every year.

28

Eco Scope

කෝ අම්මි දිය කඳුර...

tl;= ù wmf. w;eÕs,s
rka yqfhka ne÷Kq
tA fid÷re od isg

f.jq‚ o jir oyhla
,syS fkdf.dia ne¢ rka yqh

ÿjf. lsß iskd olskd i|
fid÷re fkdfjo Ôú;h u



Zu;l o ñysrx.
wfma fmï mqrd j;
ljod o we/UqfK
fld;ekos o we/UqfK
u;l o Thdg tA fid÷re u;lh



Zwehs wu;l ìïis
neÉ mdá bjrfj,d
myqfjkso wms wdj á%ma tl

isxyrdfcg
wo jf.a u u;lhs ug



Zhuqo wdmyq isxyrdfcg

ÿj;a tlal,d u
fmkakuq wms fl,a,g

;d;a;hs wïuhs
uqK .eyqKq ;ek

yß; jk ueo
ySka yçka

.,d jegqKq Èh l÷r



Zwfka Tõ ñysrx.
wms huq weksj¾ißhla fi,sfí%Ü lrkak

ÈhKs j; msmqKq iskd u,
yß fyd|hs Th fokakd

ug á%ma tlla weksj¾ißhg



29

f.jd ÿre l;r
msúiS isxyrdchg
yß; jk ueo ySka yçka
weo jegqKq Èh l÷r
ks,amdg uy le,h
fkdwefik fkdfmfkk
Zflda wïñ Èh l÷r
flda ;d;a;s ks,a mdg uy lef,a
t<sfmfy<s l< jk ueo
wyia bu fidhd b.s< ke.s
;drld fyda fydag,hls
fï oji
Èh‚ j; u, mr ù
tu; jegqKq msks l÷<ls''

බුද්ධදාස ගලප්පත්ති
m%ùK idys;Hfõ§

30

කුරුල්ලනේ නුඹලගෙ සන්තෝෂය මදකට අපට දියව්...

Tn;a lsishï Èfkl l=re,af,l= fuka hdug wjYHu jkafka ke;' Tn Tnf.a
f.j;af;a u th wdrïN lrkak' th
ksoyfia .s,syS hkakg we;s kï hehs is;d iqÿiq u yd myiq u uQ,sl mshjr hs'
hqfrdamfha § fuh y÷kajkq ,nkafka
we;s nj kï fkdwkqudkh' l=re,a,ka
“Start From Your Home Garden”
tfia;a ke;akï mlaISka i;=áka isákjd
f,iskah'
fukau Tjqka oelSfuka wm o i;=gq jk nj
l=re,a,ka ms<sn| .fõIKh lrk úg
Tjqka fkdokakjd jkakg mq¿jk' YS% wmsg idudkHfhka f.j;a;g meñfKk
l=re,a,ka j¾. folla Tiafia y÷kajd
,xldfõ ckau ,dNh ,enQ wmg fokakg mq¿jk' tkï"

fidndoyñka ,enqKq uyÕ= odhdohla f,i 01. නිතරම අප අවට පරිසරය ගැවසෙන
කුරුල්ලන්
l=re,a,ka y÷kajd fokakg mq¿jk' isxy,"
fudjqka wmg tÈfkod mßirh olakg
oñ<" uqia,sï" n¾.¾ wm ieug u wmf.a yelshdjla we;s w;r ckjdß isg
foieïn¾ olajd wjqreoafoa ´kEu ld,hl
wd.ñl mßirhla iuÕ mlaIshd b;d § fuu mlaISka wmf.a fk; .efÜ'

ióm i;ajfhla' isxy, yd yskaÿ w¨;a උදාහරණ - මයිනා, ගිරවා, කොට්ටෝරුවා

wjqreoao <Õ <Õu meñfKk njg

ish,a,g u fmr wm j oekqj;a lrkafka

fldyd h' tneúka mlaIshd hkq wmf.a

Ôú; j,g b;du;a ióm i;a;aj

fldÜGdihla hkak ;jÿrg;a ;yjqre

fjkjd' tmuKla fkdj wmg YS% ,xldfõ

.%dóh fukau kd.ßl mßirfha o

l=re,a,ka olakg ,eîu Nd.Hla fldg

ie,lsh yels hs' j¾;udkfha ;dlaIKh

b;d ÈhqKq uÜgul mj;sk fyhska kQ;k

cx.u ÿrl:khlska jqjo Tnf.a

f.j;a;g meñfKk l=re,af,l=

PdhdrEm.; lsÍfï yelshdj wo wm

ldg;a ,eî we;'

we;af;ka u l=re,a,ka keröu lsisÿ
úhoula ke;=j i;=gla ,nd.; yels
ud¾.hls' tfuka u úfkdaodxYhls'
fndfyda fokd úfõl iqjh ú|.kakg
fhdod .kakd tla l%uhla f,i l=re¿
PdhdrEmlrKh y÷kajd fokakg mq¿jks'
l=re,a,ka krUkakg fukau PdhdrEm .;
lrkakg wmg hd," l=uk fyda ú,am;a;=

31

Eco Scope

fjkqfjka /l §u wmf.a j.lSuls'
tneúka ksy~;djh /lf.k lghq;= lsÍu
w;sYh jeo.;a h'

l=re,a,kaf.a iajNdúl yeisÍï rgdjg
lsisÿ ndOdjla fkdúh hq;= h

02. වසරේ සමහර කාලවල පමණක් දැකිය by; i|yka l< mßÈ u l=re,a,kaf.a
හැකි කුරුල්ලන් ksoyig ndOd jk wdldrhg lghq;= lsÍu
u.ska th Tjqkag fukau wmgo wjdisodhl
fuu mlaISka ks;ru wm mßirfha olakg h' we;eï rgj, leo,sj, isák l=re,a,ka
fkdyels h' j¾Ifha tla ld,hl § muKla keröug bv ,enqK;a PdhdrEm .;lsÍu
oel.kakg wjia:dj ,efí' fudjqka fndfyda ;ykï fõ'
ÿrg ixl%u‚l mlaISka jYfhka y÷kajkakg
o mq¿jk' Tn olsk l=re,af,la lgq igykalska jQ
Ñ;%hg k.d .ekSu jeo.;a
WodyrK- iqÿ frÈ fydrd" wúÉÑhd
tmuKla fkdj l=re¨ PdhdrEmlrKh ms<sn| l=re,a,ka PdhdrEm .; lsÍfï§ tu
yodrk úg Bg we¨ï lrk yd tA ms<sn| i;ajhdf.a hï wdl¾YkSh bßhõjla
Wkkaÿjla olajk Tn oek .; hq;= lreKq PdhdrEmhg k.d .ekSu b;d jeo.;a
lsysmhla mj;S' tkï"

l=re,a,kag wkjYH mßÈ <x ùu iqÿiq
ke;

ukao h;a wmj oelSfï l,n,hg m;a j tu
ia:dkfhka bj;a j hdug jeä bvla mj;sk
neúks' túg th l=re,a,kag ysßyerhla
fukau Tjqka PdhdrEm.; lrkakg n,d isák
Tng o wjdis iy.;h'

ksy~;djh /l .ekSu b;du;a jeo.;a

wkjYH f,i Yío lsÍug hdfuka
l=re,a,kaf.a ksoyia p¾hdjka PdhdrEm .;
lr .ekSug wm wmyiq fõ' l=re,a,ka ms%h
lrkafka ksoyig h' tu ksoyi Tjqka

32

Eco Scope

Tn l=re¨ PdhdrEmlrKhg fhduqùfï
woyilska miqfõ kï l=re,a,ka PdhdrEm.;
lsÍug wdrïNhla f,i ñ, wêl ldp ñ,g
.ekSï w;HjYH ke;' Tn i;=j mj;sk
cx.u ÿrl:kfhka iq¿ mßudKfhka
w;aoelSula ,nd .kakg yd hï wjfndaOhla
,nd .kakg j¾;udkfha yelshdjla mj;shs'
flfia kuq;a wju jYfhka ñ,s óg¾ 300l
kdys ÿrla iys; ldphla fyda Tn i;=j mj;S
kï th jvd;a jdisodhl fõ'

l=re,af,la keröfuka fukau PdhdrEm.;
lsÍfuka o wmf.a uQ,sl wNs,dIh jkafka i;=g
,nd .ekSu hs' tu ksid uf.a leurdj fyd|u
leurdj" uf.a ldp fyd|u ldph f,iska is;d
wm iqkaor ks¾udK pdßldjla wdrïN lruq'

මොහාන් නාත් හත්නාපිටිය

m%ùk PdhdrEm Ys,amS

33

Eco Scope

Environmental Conservation and
the Role of the

Central Environmental Authority

The oppression on the natural resources of Environment Impact Assessment are most
the earth has become higher in current significant juridical tools in the environment
populous, uncertainty and inconstant world. conservation process and further, it seems
It is a challenge that has to confront the that CEA contributes many ways to the
human requirements together with restoring environment.
and conserving the earth and should be
considered the requirements of the future Industrial process that is based on science
generations that upgrading economic and technology is a decisive factor of
development and quality of lives. It is a economical context in a country and in such
considerable message on implementation of a context mitigate environmental impacts
conservation strategies on environment and should be considered.
utilize the existing resources economically,
abates the activities that caused to Thus Environmental Protection Licensing
environment pollution and hazards as process could be identified as a juridical
human well-being are comprised in this approach which was said earlier and it is
context. encouraging the industrialists to adapt the
environmental policy similarly they have
In such context, science and technology their economic structure, technological
generated by the human brain, are process and policy of their identities. It is
obligatory concepts in the current possible to control the environmental
development context in the globe. It is pollution caused by the industries by
observed negative and positive impacts of monitoring, given guidance to the
that technology on the environment and the industrialists to implement appropriate
whole human society. However, attention environmental management methodologies
should be paid to mitigate that negative as well as issuance of Environment
impact, and also it should be an inevitable Protection License (EPL).
responsibility of the institutional framework.
Industries and activities which required an
Accordingly, the Central Environmental EPL are listed in Gazette Notification No
Authority (CEA) is a national regulatory 1533/16 dated 25.01.2008 and classified
institution which was established under the under 3 lists, i.e., List "A","B" and "C"
provisions of National Environmental Act depending on their pollution potential.
No. 47 of 1981 and it is a juridical approach
to conserving the environment in Sri Lanka. Part "A" comprises of 80 significantly higher
Under these provisions CEA has a major role polluting industrial activities and Part "B"
in managing and conserving the comprises of 33 numbers of medium level
environment, upgrading the quality of the polluting activities. EPL for industries in lists
environment, control environmental "A" and “B” have to be obtained from the
pollution as a regulatory body. Similarly, relevant Provincial Offices or District Offices
Environmental Protection License and of the CEA.

34

Eco Scope

Part "C" comprises of 25 low polluting The prescribed projects are listed in the
industrial activities which have been gazette No 772/22 of 24th June 1993, 859/14
delegated to Local Government Authorities, of 23rd February 1995, 1104/22 of 5th
namely Municipal Councils, Urban Councils November 1999 and 1108/1 of 29th
and Pradeshiya Sabhas. The Local Authorities November 1999.
carry out issuing of EPLand related functions
such as follow up, monitoring and law The importance of the EIA as an effective
enforcement.
tool for the purpose of integrating
In the EPL procedure, the CEA has issued
national discharge and emission standards to environmental considerations into
prevent or minimize the release of discharges
and emissions into the environment from development planning is highly recognized
industrial activities. Thereby it is conduced to
control pollution that caused by the in Sri Lanka. The EIA helps to identify the
discharges to air, water, land, such all media
of environment from industrial processes. likely effects of a particular project on the
And also CEA is guided by adapting new
pollution abatement technology and new environment, at an early stage. It also finds
knowledge as cleaner production, waste
minimization etc. ways to reduce unacceptable impacts and to

Likewise, environmental impact is a focal shape the project so that it suits the local
point in the current development projects
and the Environment Impact Assessment environment. It helps to officials to make
(EIA) process that implemented by the CEA in
collaborated with other relevant regulatory decisions about a project and helps the
institutions is consequential in the context on
sustainable development in Sri Lanka. project proponent achieve his aims more

success. Thus the EIA can be considered as a

major planning tool and one of the key

techniques to achieve sustainable

development.

The National Environmental (Amend) Act No. Although EIA is effective in addressing the
56 of 1988 introduced EIA, as a part of the environmental impacts at project level, it
strategy to achieve sustainable development often fails to take into account cumulative
for the entire country and the CEA was impacts of several projects. Strategic
assigned as the regulatory body. Environmental Assessment (SEA) could
prove to be a more effective tool in this
Part IV C of the amendedacts mandated that regard, as SEA is applied at a higher strategic
all "prescribed" development projects are level, thereby ensuring that possible
required to be subjected to EIA. Only large environmental impacts of a policy plan or
scale development projects that are likely to program are addressed at the strategic level.
have significant impacts on the environment
are listed as prescribed projects. In addition,
"prescribed projects" if located in
"environmentally sensitive areas" are
required to undergo EIA irrespective of their
magnitude.

35

Eco Scope

Besides Environment Recommendation caused by the industries who are discharging
(ER) process is also given significant hazardous waste regularly.
contribution to mitigate environmental
impact and in here ER are issued for the In as much abate the utilization of non-
activities which are not prescribed as degradable plastic and polythene is topical
granting EIA. The impacts that may be requirement and control measures have been
caused by these projects could be taken to reduce manufacturing and utilization
identified at the initial stage and it would them by the CEA.
be better to have appropriate control
measures on the environment. Under the provisions of the National
Environmental Act CEA has promulgated
So as the responsibility for conserving regulations concerning air quality, noise, water
viable natural ecosystems that rich of Sri quality, waste management, etc. It could be
Lanka is unavoidable of all the human acquainted as a good effort on responsibility
being and the institutions. Accordingly for conserving the environment of CEA as a
declare an environment protection area, leading national institute regarding
issuance of ER for non- prescribed projects, environmental matters.
implementation of the National Wetland
Action Plan, and issuance of guidelines for As we know the inter-relationship between the
managing eco systems are taken the human and the nature is tenable. It occurs the
plunge by the CEA. impact on environment caused by the human
activities have increased and juridical and
Upgrading the sustainable management of technological methodologies are not adequate
environmental resources CEA provides its to control those impacts. So social approach
considerable contribution as recognize and that changing personal attitudes and
prioritize significant environmental issues behavioral systems are aimed is essential for
which leads to the degradation of the conserving the environment.
quality of the environment of the country.
In this manner mitigation of According to this requirement to societal the
environmental degradation and develop environmental literacy and direct to human
criteria for sustainable development of the behavior towards protecting the environment,
environment by way of conducting, the number of programs are implemented by
promoting, facilitating and research the CEA as a leading government institute. That
through application of Geo-Information is a significant contribution to conserve the
Technologies. environment which collaborates with the
public who are involved with children of
At the present hazardous waste has preschool, students of school, undergraduates,
become a drastic problem to the government and private officials, youths,
environment. If not appropriate discharge community based organizations as such target
methods are implemented in the industrial groups through the environmental education,
process human health will be threatened awareness and promotional programs.
as well as the environment. So CEA has
been implemented the Scheduled Waste Furthermore the activities done by the
Management Licensing Procedure to individuals, private and government sectors
mitigate the environmental impacts that towards environmental conservation should

36

be assessed and responsible regulatory Eco Scope
bodies have a significant role to encourage
them. In this context CEA also accomplish every citizens also has a significant role to
that responsibility, exerting Presidential reserve a better environment, especially for
Environmental Awarding system annually. future generation and government
This awarding system is an influential institutional bodies should have a major
methodology for economic sectors obtained responsibility to direct them to change their
industries, hotels, plantations, hospitals, attitudes, behavior and activities.
etc., media sector and schools to adapt
them for environment friendly manners in The CEA has been executed this
their own policies. responsibility as described above adapting
multidisciplinary approaches. It should be a
Impacts of environmental degradation better approach towards sustainable
which have to confront future generations development in the country and it may be a
as well as contemporary society are substantial platform to achieve Sustainable
unavoidable as said earlier. In that manner Development Goals around the globe.

Sujeeva Udayanganee Perera,

Senior Environmental Officer,
Environment Promotion Unit,
Central Environmental Authority.

"

Did You Know?

Fungi play a highly vital role in

the environment!

Fungi do almost everything in managing the
environment. fungi play a major role as
decomposers and recyclers. It makes other
kingdoms to be supplied with nutrients and
live. They digest minerals out of rocks
formations, consume fossil fuel spills, and
even de-radiate an environment, for
instance, the de-radiation of the Chernobyl
nuclear accident disaster.

37

වනජීවීන් හා ඡායාරූපකරණය
හදුනාගනිමු.

fuf,dj Wm; ,enQ iqkaor u Ôúhd jk foi n,uq' f,dj lsisjla ks;H fkdfõ hk nqÿ
ñksidg Wm;ska u ysñ jQ weia ;=<ska fuys jokska wms th wrUuq' mßirfhys
fjfik l=re,a,ka" laISrmdhska Wr.hska" wks;HNdjh .ek ;ud wm fuf;la by;
lDóka tfukau jDlaI,;d" we< fod<" .x.d" woyia oelajQfha'
uqyqÿ" wyi foi iqmÍlaIdldÍ f,i n,f;d;a
fï iEu Ôúfhl=g u úúO ffcj úfYaI jkÔù hkqfjka ks¾jpkh jkafka"
we;' wms th ffcj úúO;ajh f,i o
y÷kajuq' tAjd iÔù foaj,a nj úlaIKSh f,i (Flora & Fauna)
ñksiqka jYfhka wújdofhka f;drj wmg
jegfy'a fï ish,a, Ôùka hkqfjka úoHdfõ jkfha we;s jDlaI,;d iajNdúlj jkh ;=<u
ye¢kafõ' fuu Ôùka ;u ;ukag Ôj;a ùug yefok w;r Ôùka hkq tu jkh ;=< u ñksia
;u ;ukag msgqjy,a jk úfYaI ,laIKhka n,mEulska f;drj ksoyfia jik i;a;aj
orñka ñksid iuÕ fuf,dj Ôj;a fj;s' fldÜGdihg h'

ish¨ Ôù j¾. jefv;s' fudar;s' úhm;a fj;s' fuu w,xldrj;a jkh;a" i;a;aj Ôùkqla ;j
kej; Wm§''' tfll=g tfia;a ke;skï bÈß mrmqrg oel
n,d .ekSug yels tlu l%uh PdhdrEm
Ôúhl=f.a Wm; iy wjidkh fyj;a urKh Ys,amhhs' .ia fld<ka" w;= je,a jkfhka bj;a
w;r f.jk ld, m%udKh Ôj ld,h f,i lr k.r fyda ksjdi w,xldr w,xldrhg
y÷kaj hs' we;eï Ôùkag tu ld,h mehla isgqùfuka th jkhla fkdjk w;r jkfha
úh yels w;r we;eï Ôùkag tu ld,h jir i;=ka" l=re,a,ka" iuk¨ka w,a,df.k weú;a
.Kkdjla úh yel' fï w;r oYl myla l+vq lr isák i;afjdaoHdk fyda ;u ksjfia
fyda yhla tyd Ôj;a jk ñksid" bínd" ;nd .ekSu jkÔù fkdjk nj cd;Hka;r
w,shd jeks Ôù j¾. o isá;s' Ôù j¾. PdhdrEm ix.ï
jefv;au YÍrh m%udKfhka úYd, fj;s'
iajrEmh iy yevh" meyeh" j¾K l%ufhka (FIAP, PSA, RRS)
fjkia fõ' ñksid fukau i;ajhska o úhm;a
jk úg weia fmkSu" weiSfï Yla;sh ySk ùu" w.kd f,i ks¾jpkh lr we;'tAjd
YÍrfha fli"a f,dï wjmeyehg fyda wka;¾cd,h Tiafia wOHkh l< yel'
l%ufhka me,Sug Ndckh ùu isÿ fõ'
(Definition of nature photography PSA, FIAP)

fyd|hs' wms oeka fï l;d l< fjkia mßirh
yd tys jik Ôùkaf.a ks;H fkdjk yeisÍï

38

Eco Scope

PdhdrEm Ys,amshl= leurdfõ l%shdldÍ bjiSfï l%shdoduhla
Wmdx. ish,a, ishhg iShla wOHkh l< o
jkÔù PdhdrEm Ys,amsfhl= úh fkdyel' (The Game of Patience)
thska Tn leurd Ys,amsfhl= úkd bka Tíng
hdug kï fuu ,smsfha uq,a wÈhr f;areï jkÔù PdhdrEm Ys,amsfhl= i;= by<u
.; hq;= h' tla tla i;a;ajhska Tjqkag u .=Kdx.h jkafka bjiSuhs' fuh
wdfõksl jQ l%shdldrlï" wdydr nqÈk m%dfhda.slj m%.=K l< yel' .il jid
wdldrh" m%ckkh" igka l%u" i;=gq jk isák Wl=iafil= ;ekam;aj isák úg
wdldrh" ovhï lsÍu iy ;u jmißh wkdjrKh lsÍu ld yg;a f,fyis
fjkalr .ekSu jeks ,laIK my< lrhs' ld¾hhla jk w;r th fmdÿ PdhdrEmhla
jkq we;' kuq;a Tnf.a p¾hd wOHhkh
කැමරාව මෙහෙයවීම wkqj Tn" ùugh hk foa .ek
wjfndaOfhka isà kï wfmalaIs; rduqj
leurdfõ oajdr fõ.h wjYH jkafka l=uk ksielju ,efnkq we;' tkï Wl=iaid
wjia:dfõ wjia:dfõ§ o' tkï b;d wêl mshEöug fmr wjia:dfõ isg mshdUd
p,khla we;s uqjka Èjhk wjia:d" fkdfmkS hk wjia:dj olajd È.gu
l=re,a,ka mshdUd hk wjia:d wmg wkdjrKh l< yel' fuu wjia:dfõ
fmkajdÈh yel' Tn wdOqkslfhl= kï uq,a ;;amrhg jeä rEm m%udKhla .; yels h'
wÈhfr §
(FPS) (Continues Shoot – CH).
S-MODE (Nikon Camera)
fï .ek wjfndaOh ke;s wh Wl=iaid
Ndú;d l< yel' fkdfi,aù isák wjia:dfõ§ o by;
tkï by< oajdr fõ.hla f;dard .;fyd;a
1 isg1000g by<" ldp ùjrh .ek is;Sug Continues Shoot
Tng wjYH ke;' tkï th iajhxl%Shj
wdf,dal uÜgï uÜgug wkqj ielfikq oud wkdjrKh lrkq ,nhs' th jkÔù
we;' whs'tia'T w.ho iajhxl%Sh uÜgfï PdhdrEm Ys,amsfhl=f.a ysia nj ukdj
;sîu Tng wkdjrKfha § wjOdkh ms<sìUq lrhs'
leurdjg jvd rduqj kdNs.; lsÍug
buy;a msgqjy,la jkq we;';u yDo කාච භාවිතය (Lens)
idlaIshg tlÕj jkhg iy i;=kg wdorh
lrk Tng b;d m%hxl bßhõ we;s rduq fldmuK wêl ñ,la úhoï lr leurdjla
ksielj fmkakqï lrhs' fuu ;;a;ajh .;a; o ldph iqÿiq fkdfõ kï Tng
Wm;ska ke;s jqk;a PdhdrEm Ys,amh ;=<ska jkÔù PdhdrEm Ys,amsfhl= ùug fkdyel'
wmg yqre lr.; yels fohls' Tn wdOqkslfhl= kï

DX – Half Frame

j¾.fha ´kEu leurdjla iqÿiq hehs ug
isf;a' tfukau 70-300" 200-500" 150-600
jeks hquqjq ldp ñf,kao remsh,a ,laI
folg wvqùu o" fuu ã'tlaia' leurd n|g
;j;a jdishla f.k fok

Crop Sensor

iqixfhdackfhka rEm rduqj ;j;a ióm
rEmhla lr Tng ,nd fohs'

39

Eco Scope

fï ldp uola mq¿,a rEm o" ióm rEm o Tng වනයට සුදුසු බුද්ධිමත් භාවය
f.k fokq ,nhs ' Tnf.a ldpj, M, Tn oek (Intelligence)
isáh hq;= h' iómhg hd fkdyels l=re¨ l+vq
o" lsß fndk isõmdjqkaf.a o iómhg fuu ishhg yegl m%;sY;h wkqj ;ud
fkdhkak' th Tjqkg o ndOdjla fukau nqoaêu;a jkÔú ks,OdÍka ìys ù we;af;a
jkÔù PdhdrEmlrK lafIa;%hg o tkï jfkdaoHdkh;a" i;ajhska iy Tjqkaf.a
iodpdrd;aul fkdjkq we;' ksc ìï ms<sn| oekqu wkqj i;=ka fidhd
hEuhs'
iajNdúl jfkdaoHdkhl wm flfiao
ÿ¾,N i;=ka wkdjrKh lr [email protected] WodyrK" fmr fia md igyka Tiafia fidhd
hk úg fldáfhl= md igyk wjika jk
wm ÿ¾,N wjia:djla f,i y÷kajkafka ;ek .ig ke. isáfha hehs is;uq' fldáhd
fldáhl=" j,fil=" o< wef;l= jeks i;=kaf.a isákjd ÿgqfõ ijia jrejl kï jQ
l%shdodu PdhdrEmlrKh hs' wms fuh ishhg wksjd¾fhka iji jk úg j;=r îug ìug
m%;sY;hla f,i .;fyd;a ishhg úiaila neish hq;= h' tA wjia:dfõ is;shu u.ska
yuqjk ÿ¾,N wjia:d" ÿrl:k weu;=ï u; fyda WmfoaYl uy;df.ka wi< u we;s jej
r|d mj;shs' ishhg oyhla je,s udjf;a we;s fyda ú,la fyda we;s ;ek fidhd .; hq;= h'
md i,l=Kq ÈYdjka Tiafia .uka lsÍu o .fia ,e. bkakd fldáhd úúO bßhõ
^fuhg jkh ;=< ud¾. is;shu m%fhdackj;a fkdfoa kï rduq lsysmhlska wkdjrKh lr
fõ'& tfukau ksy~j jkfha i;=kaf.a y~j,a t;ekska bj;aj ú, wi,g tkak' úkdä
j,g weyqïlï §u fõ';j;a ishhg oyhla lsysmhla bjiSfuka bkak' ksielj u
wyUq f,i iqÿiq fj,dj wkqj laI‚lj fuu fldáhd <Õu we;s j,g j;=r îug ths'
ÿ¾,N i;=ka yuq jk w;r b;sß ishhg yeg tu wjia:dj m%:ufhka wkdjrKh lrkafka
l=ula úh [email protected]

40

Eco Scope

Tn hs' lsuo úkdä .Kkdjlska ÿrl;k iq<Õska wjysr;d ksid mßirhg ffjrhla
weu;=ï hdfuka" i*dß Ôma msÍ b;sÍ hdfuka we;slr .kshs' fï iEu ÿIalr wjia:djla u
tu iqmsß wjia:dj Tng wysñ jkq we;' mi Tn iqkaor l< hq;= hs' túg tA ;=<ska úúO
Èkh o Wfoa jrefõ tA wi<u .ejiSfuka PdhdrEm wkdjrKh Tng ,efí'fmr iQodkula
kej; Tng tu fldáhd u ,eîfï ishhg f,i ;u ksji wjg l=re,a,ka" lDók"a
ye;a;Emyl wjia:djla ysñjkq we;' Wr.hska wkdjrKfha fhfokak' miqj
i;afjdaoHdkh ;=<g hkak' tfukau ksjig
jkÔù PdhdrEmlrKh b;d ÿIalr kqÿre jeõ wi,g f.dia úfõlSj l=re¿
l¾;jHhls PdhdrEmlrKfha fhfokak' Tnf.a oelau"
rduqj fyd¢ka ilid .kak' miqj wkdjrKh
mßirhg wdorh fkdlrk mqoa.,hdg fuh kej; kej; mÍlaId lrñka wkdjrKfha
;j;a wñysß h' tkï" i;=ka wkdjrKh fhfokak' tfukau yS,E lrk ,o i;=ka u.ska
lsÍug fkd,eîfuka uki ;=< w;Dma;sh;a" o Tng wkdjrKfha fhfokakg wjia:djla ysñ
;o j¾Idfjka" wêl ysre rYañfhka" ;o fõ' kuq;a fï iqr;,a i;=kaf.a pdhdrEm jkÔù
PdhdrEm f,i bÈßm;a l< fkdyels nj u;l
;nd .kak'

රොහාන් ෆොන්සේකා

වනජීවී ඡායාරූපකරණ ශිල්පී

41

Eco Scope

Marine and Coastal Ecosystems; Understanding to
Secure the Future of the Planet

The past decade was all about us, Our lives depend on these above-mentioned
questioning whether our efforts are services. Half of the world’s Gross Domestic
adequate to conserve what is left on the Product (GDP) is dependent on nature and
planet. Now, the United Nations have every US dollar invested in restoration created
declared this decade (2021-2030) on up to 30 US dollars in economic benefits
ecosystem restoration, highlighting the (Verdone and Seidl, 2017)1Simply, ecosystem
importance of taking immediate action services are important to the survival of every
towards conservation. This is the decade of one of us.
generation restoration because it is us who
need to take charge in conserving our There are many types of ecosystems on this
environment. But some of you might still
wonder why do we need to protect the planet. But this article will be putting the
ecosystems?
spotlight on marine and coastal ecosystems.
An ecosystem is a fundamental
environmental unit where both biotic and What you see on land- the animals and plants,
abiotic components interact with each other
to provide habitats, circulate nutrients and all emerged from the ocean billions of years
energy and maintain the balance between its
components. We, humans, depend on the ago. Because the ocean covers more than 70%
ecosystems and their services. Each
ecosystem plays a major role in providing of the planet, it can be known as the biggest
regulatory, provisioning, cultural and
supporting services. aquatic ecosystem on Earth. And let us not

forget that around 80% of it, is yet to be

explored and studied. There are five types of

marine ecosystems in the world that harbor all

kinds of life, namely, the neritic zone, oceanic

zone, supralittoral zone, Intertidal/ littoral zone

and sublittoral zone. "

Did You Know?

Red Beach


Red Beach is a volcanic sand beach on the Aegean

island of Santorini. The beach is called the Red Beach
because of its appearance. Redness is caused by a
species of seaweed that grows in saline-alkaline
soils. This weed species begin to grow in March-April
and appear green throughout the summer. But with the
onset of autumn, it turns bright red.

42

From the beautiful coral reeves to majestic Eco Scope
whales and the mysterious bottom dwellers
hiding in seagrass beds; every marine life marsh are known as the biggest contributors
you are imagining right now can be found in of Blue Carbon. The value and the
these zones. Apart from these, the other importance of the marine and coastal
important coastal ecosystems are ecosystems are indescribable at one go but to
mangroves, estuaries and lagoons. We talk grasp the gist of it, the total value of their
about the importance of terrestrial services is valued at 29.5 trillion US dollars
ecosystems and their services, but try to per year. And right now, all these ecosystems
imagine the services provided by this big are under threat due to many anthropogenic
blue ecosystem! Let us dive deep into the activities.
importance of services provided by our
marine and coastal ecosystems. 1 Verdone, M. and Seidl, A., 2017. Time,
space, place, and the Bonn Challenge global
Marine and coastal ecosystems are home to forest
thousands of flora and fauna species. It is restoration target. Restoration ecology, 25(6),
also one of the main income generators for pp.903-911.
humans. Fish harvests, providing material 2 Barbier, E.B., 2017. Marine ecosystem
for various productions, tourism and services. Current Biology, 27(11), pp.R507-
maritime transport are some of the main R510.
economic contributors related to marine
ecosystems. Other than those, oceans Protecting an ecosystem can be done in
provide many regulatory and supporting many ways. Understanding their importance
services such as carbon sequestration, storm play a bigger role in their conservation as
protection, flood control, habitat creation lack of awareness is the cause behind their
and many others (Barbier, 2017) 2. 83% of demise. 'Awareness is the key to
the global carbon cycle is circulated through conservation. To find the solution, you must
the ocean. Even though the coastal regions have a comprehensive understanding of the
only represent around 2% of the total ocean problem. Hence, the importance of
area, they are responsible for half of the total awareness cannot be stressed enough.
carbon sequestered in ocean sediments. Secondly, remember that ‘A little goes a long
Hence mangroves, seagrasses and tidal way’. Whatever you do today creates an
impact on your surroundings. Whenever you
enjoy the beauty, serenity of the ocean,
remind yourself only to leave your footprints
behind. Pollution is the biggest threat to our
marine and coastal ecosystems. Therefore,
you must not become a part of the problem.
Say no to plastic; refuse before reducing!
Thirdly, be a part of a community that works
towards the protection of our marine
ecosystems. Remember, a healthy
environment is your right and also it is your
responsibility.

43

At the very beginning, this article Eco Scope
discussed how the United Nations have
declared this decade on ecosystem The amazing oceans, mangroves, estuaries
restoration. It is time for us, to restore the and lagoons are the home for many living
destroyed. There are thousands of marine beings; and you can protect them. All of us
and coastal ecosystems that are degraded are a part of the environment. We are just
by the negligence of people. Reviving a another species on this planet. With or
dead ecosystem gives hope for the future. without us, nature will go on, but for us to
We live in an era where we cannot survive, we will need to protect it. On the
overlook the destroyed ecosystems- brink of facing the sixth mass extinction,
restoration is a must! Hundreds of the young generation is the hope for the
organizations, thousands of volunteers are future of this planet!
working together to bring life into the
destroyed ecosystems around us. As the Pavithra Attanayake
young generation of the country, we all
have a role to play in conservation. Our Coordinator
marine and coastal ecosystems are under The Youth Wing of the Wildlife and
threat as we speak, and if we act starting Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka.
from today, we will create that positive
change the world needs.

"

Did You Know?
78% of marine mammals are

at risk of choking on
plastic!


Seventy-eight percent of marine mammals are at

risk of accidental deaths, such as getting
caught in fishing nets. Plastic bags and other
plastic garbage that ends up in the ocean kill
over 1,000,000 sea animals every year.

44

Elephant Conflict in Sri Lanka



Human elephant conflict has become a major
conservation concern in Sri Lanka. Though there are
various strategies have been introduced and
practiced to this conflict in different scales, yet it has
become an unsolved social issue. Due to this conflict
the number of deaths reported due to the attack of
wild elephants are comparatively high.
Transformation of forest landscapes for human
habitation, putting humans and elephants for ever
proximity for cultivation or large scale
developmental projects are the clear reasons for this
conflict.

It is reported, to exist an elephant, nearly five square
kilometers are needed to keep the balance in
between the elephant and the dry zone. And
According to this data the current population of 3,
5000 elephants occurrent population of 3,500
elephants requires around 17,500 km2 or 27 per
cent of the total land area while the protected areas
in Sri Lanka covers only 12.5 per cent of the land
area (or 8,200 km2). Annually it documents over 70
human and 200 elephant mortalities are reported
within Sri Lanka. Generally elephants are long –
lived animals and their survival depends upon
migration as they need to seek the essential needs as
food, water. In this situation due to the limitation of
territory.

The conflict between wild elephants and humans still
remains as the majority of strategies oriented are
short term solutions and specified from place to
place. Human elephant conflict can be affected for
the development process of the country cynically.
Farmers in rural areas are highly affected due to the
planting fields adjacent to water sources digging
holes to access ground water and fencing
agricultural areas.

45

To mitigate this conflict a requirement of Eco Scope
innovative strategies to manage conflict is
essential, physical exclusion methods such Wild elephants destroys impoverished
as electric fences and trenches are used to farmer’s crops by also inheriting them the
dodge elephants from entering forms and mortality also, Ecotourism can combat this
human settlements. To reduce the elephant reaction by assigning a monetary value to
influence for plantations, there is a wild life. Eco tourism can support to
possibility to activate acoustic deterrent enhance tourism while providing additional
and light based deterrents can be utilized. opportunities and a boost for the local
Farmers guard crops and scare away crop economy. So it is clear the elephant and
raiding elephants by yelling, setting of fire villagers conflict has raised more attention
crackers, hitting metal objects and also recent years but yet it has not sorted out due
light bon fires and use of flaming torches to some reasons and loopholes in the
,flash lights to guard crops. administration. Above mentioned strategies
can utilize to solve this conflict and the
Apart from the above mentioned strategies sustainability within Life on land should
implement while distribution of equality
agriculture based deterrents like chili – among all animals on land.

grease covered fences can use. Also early

deterrents and warning technique by using

mobile phones among farmers to facilitate

co –operation will be potential since the

devices require interring connectivity or

network coverage the practicality will be

less. Habit enrichment or planting folder

tress in the elephant forest areas will be a

long term apprentices. Organizing and

mobilizing farmers in conflict villagers and

raising deep awareness program.

Protected areas and ecologies

corridors will be eligible to mitigate

the issue.

Samadhi Wijethunga,

University Ambassador for SDG 15
University of Kelaniya

46

HOW MPOALRLIUNTEION ?marinepollution
TO

REDUCE

“How inappropriate to call this planet harmful consequences to the ocean and
Earth when it is clearly Ocean.” marine life. It can cause a hazardous situation
Arthur C. Clarke to marine species, their habitats, ecosystems,
water surface, economies, and the
The ocean covers approximately 71% of the atmosphere. Marine pollution is combined
Earth’s surface and is considered the largest with two components as chemicals and
oxygen producer on the globe. With their marine debris. Chemical or nutrient pollution
incompatible biodiversity, oceans have occurs with the use of agricultural fertilizers,
become an important component of the industrial chemical runoff to waterways,
Earth’s ecosystem. It is the heart of our domestic disinfectants, etc, and their washed
planet that drives the climate and weather away to the ocean. Marine debris brings up
conditions together with the absorption of trashes and other manufactured items to the
the largest amount of carbon dioxide ocean. Plastic items, shopping bags, food
emissions of the atmosphere. It is home to a wrappers, cigarette butts, and fishing gear are
large variety of marine species from the some common marine debris that is added to
smallest microscopic species to the largest the ocean. Plastics have become the most
animal on the earth and more than 880 severe marine pollutant since it lasts
million population depend on the ocean for hundreds of years without decomposing.
their livelihoods. Moreover, the ocean is Microplastics are tiny elements of broken-
significant in several aspects of providing down plastics with toxic chemicals and
renewable energy, source of food, they’ve been a huge threat to marine life since
transportation, producing anti-biotic and they entered the food chains.
anti-inflammatory substances, maintaining
the balance of the ecosystem, and many Marine Pollution is the largest threat to our
more economic purposes. oceans during the century and it affects
marine life as they are the major victims of
Even though the ocean occupies such a pollution. Oil spills cause seabirds unable to
prominent place in the earth, marine fly and cause other species cancers and
pollution has become a devastating threat reproductive issues. Turtles, fish, sharks,
within the contemporary global system. seabirds, dolphins, and other marine animals
Marine pollution can be simply identified as mistake plastic debris for food and it is a
the disposal of substances by human beings disastrous situation and those harms were
to the marine environment that results in entered into humans too via food chains.

47

Eco Scope

Marine debris takes a long period to The importance of reducing marine
degrade and they use oxygen for that and it
causes oxygen depletion in seawater and pollution can be witnessed with the
death of marine life. In addition, marine
pollution destructs coral reefs and increases concern of Life below water through the
ocean acidity. Marine pollution destructs
the habitats of marine organisms, coasts, United Nation Sustainable Development
and ecosystems, lowers the pH level of
water, and makes the ocean an unsuitable Goals. SDG 14 depicts to conserve and
place to live.
Since the ocean is one of the major sources sustainably use the oceans, seas, and
of our lives and it plays a vital role in the
balance of the earth and the ecosystem, it is marine resources for sustainable
essential to reduce marine pollution and
conserve our oceans. development.

As human beings, we are the cause of To reduce marine pollution, there are
marine pollution while conserving the
ocean is also in the hands of us. several steps we can follow.

▪ Minimize the use of chemical fertilizer

and try organic methods

▪ Recycle and reuse
▪ Proper disposal of garbage
▪ Reduce single usage of plastics
▪ Beach cleanups
▪ Less usage of energy
▪ Sustainable eating of seafood
▪ Reduce the carbon footprint
▪ Use ocean-friendly products
▪ Volunteer and advocate others

Therefore, as individuals, it’s our duty to
take care of our oceans by reducing the
most devastating threat of marine pollution
and let’s get together and make our ocean a
better place for marine life and repay the
mother ocean for the love, care, and
endurance she shared with us so far.



“Don’t treat Oceans as Universal Garbage
Cans – Let’s take hands and get together

to Save our Oceans”

K.G. Sanduni Hansika Gimhani

Department of International Studies
University of Kelaniya

48

Eco Scope

Thuru

Thuru in Sri Lankan local language means
‘trees’. Thuru is a social innovation that
introduces new technologies to accelerate
reforestation. We started our initiative from Sri
Lanka and we have already moved to Nepal as
well. We will expand into the region and other
countries soon.

In 1990 there was 37% forest coverage in Sri
Lanka and by beginning of 2016 it has reduced
down to 28%, which is below world average
(31%). So Sri Lanka is no longer a green
country. Below 25% of forest coverage, Sri
Lanka will face irreversible impact to its
Biodiversity. To increase forest coverage we
need both crowd support and technology.
Hence, we started our App and the
organization, Thuru to get crowd engagement
for reforestation.

We started our initiative from Sri Lanka and
we have already moved to Nepal and Bhutan as
well. Thuru Volunteer Network is now 60
people strong and our plan is to develop it up to
300 people from each country that we operate.
Each Thuru volunteer needs to organize one
event in his area every quarter.

A few trees taller than 30 feet will produce
enough oxygen daily, equivalent to the intake of one adult. So we all have a responsibility to
grow at least one tree and take care of it until it grows into a big tree. Our goal is to plant 2
million trees through the thuru platform. To achieve our goals we have already partnered
with many organizations and like-minded people. One of our main goal is to make tree
planting a trend among youth.

49

OUR TECHNOLOGY & Eco Scope

PRODUCT

Thuru developed the technology to plant • Thuru partnered with Sarvodaya to promote
trees with drones and successfully did a Miyawaki Reforestation Method in Sri Lanka
few trials with Department of Forestry. where we could grow a rainforest in 15 years
Initially we developed two drones and compared to usual 100+ years.
added automated pilot features as well.
• Thuru App is now available in Google Play
Thuru became the partner for SLINTEC Store and App Store. Thuru app is a free app to
seedpod technology and so far sold around show the trees you planted. It is like a
30 000 seedpods around the country. facebook for trees. You can plant a tree and
upload.
Hasanka Padukka,
• You can be a volunteer by planting ten trees
Social Entrepreneur & Co- and upload our app OR by participating two or
Founder of Thuru more events organized by Thuru Volunteer
Network.

"

Did You Know?

FROZEN FROG


The North American wood frog survives the winter with a

heart-stopping strategy. To survive winter's freezing
temperatures, the frog doesn't fight the temperatures; it
just keeps its body frozen for seven months of the year, and
its heart stops beating, its kidneys stop functioning, and its
respiration ceases for months. After the end of winter, the
body warms up and recovers.

50


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BUKU PROGRAM MAJLIS SAMBUTAN HARI RAYA & HARI GURU 2022