St Cuthbert Mayne School Knowledge Organiser
Year 8 Autumn Term
“If you’re not willing to learn no one
can help you. If you’re determined
to learn no one can stop you.”
Christ is our Cornerstone
Instructions for completing your Home LDeAYarning
This booklet provides you with all of the KNOWLEDGE that you will need to Read The definition a
succeed in your learning this term. The minimum requirement from you is one couple of times
full A4 page or 30 minutes per subject, every night. Your Home Learning will be
checked every morning by your form tutors.
Contents Page Cover The Page
Art 3 History 19
Computing 5 Maths 21 Remember The definition,
Write think about it
Drama 6 Music 24 Repeat Wyoruitreewmheamt ber
Each step until you
Design and Technology 7 PE 26 can write the
English 11 Religious Education 27
French 14 Science 33
Login to your
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Maths RE Technology Science
PE History Developmental Geography IT
Drama Studies Art Music
= SUM Adds a range of cells together What is a Function? A function is a standard routine used to perform common
= AVERAGE Finds an average for a range of cells tasks. It represents a complex formula that uses reserved
= MIN Returns the smallest value in range words e.g. VLOOKUP, IF. A function performs a specific set of
= MAX Returns the highest value in a range operations on its input values to produce a single output value.
= COUNT Counts cells if they meet a condition
What is a Formula? Using formulas in spreadsheets can allow you to quickly
make calculations and get totals of multiple cells, rows, or col-
umns in a spreadsheet.
Conditional Formatting is a tool that allows you to apply formats to a cell or range of
cells, and have that formatting change depending on the value
of the cell or the value of a formula. For example, you can have
a cell appear bold only when the value of the cell is greater
one of the logical functions, to return one value if a
IF condition is true and another value if it's false. For
example: =IF(A2>B2,"Over Budget","OK") =IF
Count IF =COUNTIF (Where do you want to look?, What do Advanced spreadsheets—you will need to familiarise yourself
you want to look for?) with the ‘Function Wizard’ and use the ‘Logical’ functions.
Auto SUM Excel automatically enters a formula (that uses Extra Reading
the SUMfunction) to sum the numbers
= COUNT Counts cells if they meet a condition http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/modelling/0spreadsheetsrev1.shtml
Physical Checklist Vocal Checklist Drama Year 8: Term 1
1. Facial Using your face to communicate emotions 1. Volume Loud/quiet
2. Pitch High/low Performance Skills
2. Body Language Using your body to communicate thoughts
and feelings 3. Pace Speed, Still Image/ A moment of action
fast/slow Freeze frozen in time, like a
3. Gesture Using your body, head or hands to express Frame photograph.
emotion/meaning A temporary
4. Pause stop
4. Eye Contact Looking at another person or the audience to Narration An actor describing
communicate a message what is
5. Tone Pitch, strength, Thought happening/telling the
quality of voice Tracking story
5. Levels Positioning on stage to communicate 6. Projection Strength of Cross When an actor speaks
6. Posture status/meaning speaking, loud Cutting their inner thoughts
7. Movement and clearly and feelings on stage,
Position you hold your body upright when Role Play all other actors are
standing/sitting 7. Articulation Clear and frozen on stage.
How you move your body in speech Split stage, action on
one side and frozen on
Challenge Tasks the other. You can
● Research the term peer pressure and create a poster highlighting the meaning then create drama that
goes forwards and
Further research use of body in performance - http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zpfk6sg/revision backwards in time.
● Create a physical warm up for actors
Scenes which include
Further research use of voice in performance - http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z3c2yrd/revision speaking and
● Practice vocal warm ups for actors movement to
Design and Technology: Food Technology – Knowledge organiser Year 8
Protein Fats Carbohydrates Dietary fibre ( NSP) Function of water
Function: Protein is needed for Function: Fats provide energy, Function: Carbohydrates provide Dietary fibre: keeps digestive ● Cells and body tissues
growth, repair and maintenance insulation and fat soluble Vitamins energy. There are 2 main types: system working properly ● Chemical reactions
Food sources: Meat, fish, poultry, A&D Starch: Potatoes, bread, pasta, rice Food sources: veg, fruit, brown ● Body temperature
eggs, cheese, milk, soya, quinoa, Food sources: Meats. oily fish, Sugar: white sugar, cakes, biscuits, bread, lentils,beans, nuts, seeds ● Body fluids
peas, lentils, nuts, seeds, beans milk. cheese, butter, marg, veg oils desserts, fruit wholegrain bread/rice/pasta/flour, ● Absorption of nutrients
Food safety Sensory vocabulary Eatwell Guide Key words
Bacteria growth factors: Odour .n The bridge hold
• Aromatic; smells strongly The claw grip
Time Moisture Food Warmth • Bland; dull, insipid,lacking Aesthetics
High risk foods are ready-to-eat flavour Dry frying
foods that, if not stored correctly, • Tart; agreeably sharp or acidic Simmering
could grow harmful bacteria.. They Baking
tend to be moist and high in Taste Safety checks
protein. • Mild; Not sharp, spicy, or bitter Macronutrients
High risk foods include: Meat, fish, • Hot; burning sensation, spicy
dairy, prepared salads, cooked • Strong; very flavoursome
pasta and cooked rice, sauces and
Avoid cross contamination: When • Stringy; string like pieces
working with food, it’s really easy to • Crumbly; breaks apart easily
pass bacteria from raw food to • lumpy; not smooth consistency
work surfaces, equipment, and
your hands. Texture
• Tender; easily broken, soft
• Brittle; Likely to break/snap
• Smooth; Having no lumps
Where in my fridge? Teenage dietary
Ensure that raw requirements Key Temperatures
meat and fish are
kept in sealed • Teenagers should eat a balanced 100’C - boiling water ( bacteria are
containers at the diet and use the Eatwell Guide to dead
bottom of the help them make healthy food 75°C – (food must reach this
fridge. choices temperature for 30 seconds to kill
Milk and other • Rapid growth spurts happen during 63°C – TOP OF THE DANGER
liquids should be puberty, so protein is needed to ZONE - bacteria starting to die
stored in the support these growth spurts (hot holding temperature)
fridge door 37°C – human body temperature
• Nutrients needed by teenagers in (bacteria heaven! Bacteria multiply
Clean fridge good supply include: Protein, Iron, rapidly at this temperature)
handles Vitamin C, Calcium and Vitamin D 5°C – BOTTOM OF THE DANGER
regularly. ZONE - highest fridge temperature
Heat Transfer Sensory Evaluation
Radiation Grilling Sight Touch
Conduction Dry frying Smell Hearing
Design and Technology: Year 8 Textiles Knowledge organiser
Safety rules in Textiles Processes Tools and equipment
To work safely in Textiles and to prevent accidents from Measuring head Cutting out fabric
occurring, safety rules need to be followed at all times: Pining
* Walk around the classroom, do not run Pins To temporarily secure
• Keep bags and chairs out of the walk ways patterns and fabric in place
• Hold scissors with the blades closed
• Be careful when using needles and pins Scissors To cut out fabric accurately
• Always put equipment away in the correct place
• Wear goggles when machine sewing Cotton To sew material together,
• Only one person at the machine reel applique and sew buttons on
• Concentrate at all times, especially when using the machine
• Be careful with the hot iron
• Turn off all electrical equipment when finished
• Sensible behaviour at all times
Washing labels Applique Machine sewing Needle To tack and sew material
together by hand sewing
Goggles To wear when machine
Pom pom making Textiles LED
Sewing To machine sew material
Conductive Allows electric current to
thread travel through to LED
The 6 R’s Fibres and fabrics: Wool & Fleece
RETHINK: Do we make too many products ? Design in a way that Natural fibres: Wool. The Manmade fibres: Fleece. The
considers people & the environment. properties of wool are: soft, properties of fleece are:
REFUSE:Don’t use a material or buy a product if you don’t need it, or and very warm, however it can Warm, durable, cheap to
if it is not good for people or the environment shrink when washed and is not manufacture, stretchy due to
REDUCE: Cut down the amount of material and energy you use, as as durable & long lasting as it being a non woven fabric
much as you can other fibres/fabrics. Products and soft. Products made
REUSE: Use a product to make something else with using all the made from wool include from fleece are soft toys,
parts or some of them. jumpers, blankets, coats, suits sweatshirts, hats & scarves
RECYCLE: Reprocess a material or product and make something else. .
REPAIR: When a product breaks down or doesn’t work properly, fix
English KS3, Unit 4 – Year 8: Reading Poetry
Poetry Vs. Prose How to study a poem ☺
Poetry (sometimes called verse) is Prose is any writing that is not poetry. SMI L E
writing that has been deliberately
structured to achieve an effect on Prose writing must obey certain rules Structure Meaning Imagery Language Effect
the reader. such as those to do with punctuation
and grammar. • How many • What is it • What do I • What For
This might mean that the line ends picture language everything
before the sentence does or that Prose is usually laid out so that the stanzas? about? when I read devices are you notice,
some words rhyme. It could also be writing runs from the left side of the • How long • When was ask yourself
that words are chosen because of page to the right without any breaks. it? used? ‘why?’ How
the number of syllables (beats) they are the it written • What do • Are there does it make
contain. Prose is usually divided up into you feel?
paragraphs and sometimes will have lines? and does the words any similar What does it
You can usually recognise poetry headings or sub-headings. You might • Does it mean? words? make you
from the way it is laid out on the think of it as ‘normal writing’. this • How does it • Are any think? What
page. rhyme? make me words is it’s effect?
• What’s the matter? feel? repeated?
Structure Terminology Language Terminology
Meter/Rhythm The number of syllables (beats)in a line of poetry. Song Onomatopoeia A sound written down so that the word sounds like the sound
writers use rhythm to make the words fit to the music. it denotes (e.g. ‘boom’)
Where the line of poetry ends before the sentence or Oxymoron Where two words with opposite meanings are placed next to
clause does. You can usually identify this from the lack of each other. (e.g. ‘heavy lightness’)
punctuation at the end of the line.
Enjambment Euphemism Using different words to make something unpleasant or rude
End-stop Where a line of poetry ends with a punctuation mark that sound nicer. (e.g. when someone dies and we say they
causes the reader to pause. ‘passed away’.)
Hyperbole Over exaggeration for effect.
Caesura Where a pause is created in the middle of a line of Symbol/ Using one thing to represent something else. For example,
Rhyme poetry, often by a punctuation mark. symbolism your school blazer symbolises that you are prepared to learn.
When two words sound the same (e.g. tea and bee). Imagery Words or phrases that help the reader to imagine what is
Rhyme at the end of a line is called ‘external’ or ‘male’ Mood being written about. They create ‘pictures’ in our minds.
rhyme. Rhyme within a line is called ‘internal’ or ‘female’ Tone/Voice
rhyme. The atmosphere of the writing. The way that it makes you
A paragraph in poetry. You can identify them as they
have spaces before and after them. A stanza can be a s The feeling the writer is conveying. Whether the writing is
short as one line (or even, one word). serious or light-hearted, positive or negative, funny or
English - KS3, Unit 4 – Year 8: Writing Letters and Diaries (Inform & Advise)
Address/es Features of a letter Facts Features of Information
Date All letters should have your name and address in the top, 5Ws &H Fact are things that can be proven to be true. These are
right-hand corner of the page. A formal letter will also have often backed up with statistics or numbers . Sometimes
Salutation the name and address of the person you are writing to on the Straightforward facts are backed up by saying where the information
Body left-hand side, below your address. language came from (e.g. An Ipsos MORI survey).
Closing All letters should have a date. This goes below your address Third Person Information should tell you What, When, Where, Why ,
on the right hand side. Headings & Who and How. For example, Obesity (What)has risen in
Formal/ Subheadings the last 30 years(when) in Britain(where). Children
informal The way you greet your recipient. E.g. ‘Dear Mr Smith’, ‘Dear (who) are the worst affected and it is thought this is
language. Miss Jones’, ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ etc. ‘To whom it may concern’ due to an increase in fast food consumption.(why)
is considered rude. which contains high levels of sugar and fat (how)
The paragraphs that make up the main part of your letter. Straightforward language is words that the intended
audience will be able to understand easily. This might
The way you finish your letter. E.g. ‘Yours sincerely’ – formal if be different for children or adults for example.
you wrote to a named person; ‘Yours faithfully’ – formal, if
you wrote to dear sir/madam; ‘love from’ – informal, to a Uses the pronouns ‘he’, ‘she’, they’ etc.
friend or relative.
These are useful to help readers to easily find the
A formal letter (e.g. a job application or complaint) should use particular bit of information they need. You might use
formal language. An informal letter (to a friend or relative) them to separate the writing into topics.
can be less formal or chatty.
Features of Advice
Date Features of a diary/log Modal Verbs
Second person/ These are choice or option words rather than
Location Every new entry should have a date to show when it direct address. commands (imperatives). They include words such as:
was written. ‘might’, ‘should’, ‘could’ and ought.
First person Authoritative tone
Informal/chatty Just like the date, diaries and logs should say where the Uses the pronouns ‘you’, ‘your’ etc. Talks directly to
writer is at the time of writing. This is especially Positive mood the reader.
style important for travelogues .
Objective opinion When giving advice you should try to sound like you
Chronological Uses the pronouns ‘I’, ‘my’, ‘me’, ‘mine’, ‘we’, ‘our’ etc. know what you’re talking about. Avoid phrases such as
structure ‘I think’ and ‘I believe’. These phrases suggest you could
A diary is personal and therefore informal. Writers be wrong.
often use humour and anecdote to make the writing
more interesting. Try to remain upbeat. Remind the reader of why
following your advice will improve the situation.
A diary is written in the order that events happened in
time. They tend not to rely on techniques such as Being objective means being able to consider
flashback /flash forward. everyone’s point of view instead of taking sides. Try to
do this when giving advice.
Tested in your 18/09/’17- 02/10/’17- Spellings 06/11/’17- 20/11/’17- 04/12/’17-
skills lesson 29/09/’17 13/10/’17 17/11/’17 01/12/’17 15/12/’17
Suffixes – words Suffixes – doubling Suffixes – comparing Superlatives Silent letters ‘i’ before ‘e’.
Spellings that link to ending in ‘y’ letters things
the rule • If a root word These words tell us Some words contain You’ve probably
If a root word ends Most short words can what is the most, silent letters and heard ‘i’ before ‘e’
Commonly misspelt ends with a with a single have the suffix ‘er’ biggest, best or least unfortunately there except after ‘c’. This
words for you to consonant then consonant and the added to them to of something. To aren’t any rules for is a good way to
learn this week ‘y’, change the ‘y’ suffix begins with a show comparison avoid haviung to use these words. You just remember it but it
to an ‘I’ before vowel, then you (e.g. ‘smart’ becomes these adjectives have to learn and only works if the
adding the usually double the ‘smarter’). /adverbs, with short remember them. word rhymes with
suffix(1-5) last letter of the root words, we can add ‘bee’. If the word
• Unless the suffix is word before adding Some words change the suffix ‘est’ to 1. Muscle doesn’t rhyme with
‘ing’ (6-7) the suffix. (1-7) completely. (9&10) them. You might 2. Fascinating ‘bee’ the rule is the
• If a root word Don’t do this, if the need to use one of 3. Scent other way around. ‘e’
ends with a vowel root word ends with 1. Smarter the other rules for 4. Knowledge before ‘i’ except after
then ‘y’, leave the a double consonant. 2. Slower words ending in ‘e’ or 5. Knock ‘c’. You can see this
‘y’. (8-10) (8-10) 3. Higher ‘y’. 6. Parliament in the words below.
4. Thicker 7. Doubt
1. Heavier 1. Regretting 5. Taller 1. Fastest 8. Desperate 1. Hygiene
2. Burial 2. Forgotten 6. Colder 2. Cutest 9. Whether 2. Achieve
3. Mysterious 3. Beginner 7. Brighter 3. Trendiest 10. Separate 3. Perceive
4. Earlier 4. Upsetting 8. Darker 4. Bravest 4. Receipt
5. Angrily 5. Equipped 9. Better 5. Ugliest cious or –tious 5. Deceit
6. Crying 6. Occurring 10. Less 6. Simplest 1. vicious 6. Foreign
7. Worrying 7. Bitten 7. Friendliest 2. precious 7. Forfeit
8. Boyish 8. Stomped 1. restaurant 8. Glummest 3. conscious 8. Weird
9. Relayed 9. Jumped 2. rhyme 9. Windiest 4. delicious 9. Ancient
10. Joyful 10. Acted 3. rhythm 10. Tiniest 5. malicious 10. Society
4. sacrifice 6. suspicious
1. mischievous 1. physical 5. secretary 1. sufficient 7. ambitious cial/tial
2. muscle 2. prejudice 6. shoulder 2. suggest 8. cautious 1. official
3. necessary 3. privilege 7. signature 3. symbol 9. fictitious 2. special
4. neighbour 4. profession 8. sincere(ly) 4. system 10. infectious 3. artificial
5. nuisance 5. programme 9. soldier 5. temperature 4. partial
6. occupy 6. pronunciation 10. stomach 6. thorough 5. confidential
7. occur 7. queue 7. twelfth 6. essential
8. opportunity 8. recognise 8. variety 7. initial
9. parliament 9. recommend 9. vegetable 8. financial
10. persuade 10. relevant 10. vehicle 9. commercial,
French Module 1: Branché.
les émissions programmes adorer to love d’habitude usually
la lecture reading quelquefois sometimes
les livres books aimer to liker souvent often
tous les jours everyday
lire to read détester to hate tous les soirs every evening
faire to do tous les mois every evening
envoyer to send être to be d’abord firstly
jouer to play après after
aller to go être fan de to be a fan of avant before
discuter to talk ensuite then
tcahtter to chat (on line) avoir to have puis next
télécharger to download
avoir une passion pour to have a passion for
avoir horreur de to loathe
French Unit 2: Paris.
Faire to do adorer to love d’abord firstly
Aller to go aimer to liker après after
Retrouver to meet up détester to hate avant before
Voir to see ensuite then
Prendre to take amusant fun puis next
Manger to eat bien good finalement finally
Visiter to visit bizarre weird
Regarder to watch barbant boring
Rencontrer to meet chouette great
Year 8 Geography Knowledge Organiser 2: Our Risky Planet Convection Currents
Heat from the core causes
No land is created and no land The Earth’s Crust convection currents in the
is destroyed mantle. These cause the
The crust is broken up into plates called tectonic mantle to move as it heats
Plates moving at different speeds plates. and cools. These currents
slowly move the crust.
Plates get stuck, then lurch There are two type of plate - OCEANIC &
free causing earthquakes CONTINENTAL @stcmhumanities
Plates moving in the same direction Oceanic Plates carry the oceans – they are thinner
but more dense than continental plates
Continental Plates carry the land – they are thicker
but less dense than oceanic plates.
Plates moving apart Volcanoes often KEY TERMS
Plate found in the gap
NATURAL HAZARD - are natural
New land is formed (as opposed to man-made) events
that kill people or damage property
Plates being pulled apart Magma rises in the gap or the environment.
by convection currents
TECTONIC PLATE – a slab of the
Magma forces its way to the Earth’s crust that floats on the
surface through volcanoes mantle
Rock grinds its way down, The Earth is made up of three layers: PLATE MARGIN – the place where
causing earthquakes plates meet
The CRUST – this is the layer we live on. It can be 8-65km thick
CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE – where
The MANTLE – this forms about half of the Earth. The upper mantle is two plates move towards each other
hard, but the soft rock below is hot and soft
DESTRUCTIVE PLATE – where two
The CORE – this is mainly iron. The outer core is liquid, the inner core is plates move away from each other
solid. The inner core can be up to 5500°C hot.
CONSERVATIVE PLATE – where
two plates slide past each other
Plates Moving towards each other
Year 8 Geography Knowledge Organiser 3: Our Risky Planet
EARTHQUAKES Measuring Earthquakes – The Richter Scale @stcmhumanities
An earthquake is the shaking or vibration of TSUNAMIS
the Earth’s crust due to pressure at a plate These are a series of ocean waves which are caused
boundary. when earthquakes or other disturbances underwater.
They can travel up to speeds of up to 800 kph
Earthquakes can happen at any plate Tsunamis are barely noticeable in water but get larger
boundary. and more powerful as they approach land.
Tsunami can have devastating effects on countries
Plates do not always move smoothly which are hit by them.
alongside, under or beneath each other.
They sometimes get stuck. When this
happens pressure builds up and, when this
pressure is released, an earthquake occurs.
Every earthquake has an epicentre and
The focus is the point in the Earth’s crust
where the pressure between the two plates
is released. It is underground.
The epicentre is the point on the surface of
the crust above the focus
FAULT A tropical storm is an intense low pressure
weather system that can last for days to
FOCUS weeks within the tropical regions of our
They are known by many names, including
HURRICANES (North America),
CYCLONES (India) and TYPHOONS (Japan
and East Asia
The eye of the storm is very calm with clear
skies, no rain or wind.
Mary I (Mary Tudor): The Early Years Did you know?
Dates of Reign: July 1553 - November 1558 The famous nursery rhyme, “Mary, Mary, quite
Parents: Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon contrary” was written during the reign of Mary.
Early Life:Dominated by tragedy. Her parents divorced in It is mocking her inability to produce children and
1533 and she was declared illegitimate. She was stopped her love of Catholic ceremony.
from seeing her mother by her father. Her mother died in
1536. This all resulted in Mary turning to the Catholic Mary is known to history as Bloody Mary. This was
religion for solace. a result of her ‘burnings’. However she had fewer
Mary became the first female monarch in English history people executed in her reign than her father,
when her half brother, Edward VI, died in 1553. brother or sister!
On her accession she was incredibly popular.
Key Question: How did Mary lose the support of her Monarch Ruler of a country - a king or
1. She married Philip II of Spain. Her subjects wanted Catholic Followed the Roman Catholic
her to marry an Englishman. They were worried church led by the Pope
Philip would use England for his own benefit.
Protestant Followed the ideas of the CoE
2. Religion. Mary was a devout Catholic. She was led by the monarch
desperate to reverse her father’s Reformation. She
decided the best way to do this was to ‘encourage’ Heretic Did not follow teachings of the
people to convert by threatening to burn them. She church
burned over 280 people, however the Protestant
faith remained popular. Deep Learning Questions:
● Do the Tudors deserve their reputation as the greatest dynasty in English History?
3. Foreign Policy. Despite her people's’ protests, Mary ● Did the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth challenge attitudes to gender in the 16th
entered into war with Philip against Spain. It was a century?
disaster. England lost its final possession in ● Was there really a Golden Age during the late Tudor period?
France, Calais, in 1558. It seemed to many of her
subjects she ignored what they wanted in her own
Elizabeth I: The Early Years Problem One: Elizabeth created a ‘Middle Way’ with the
Born: 1533 Religion Act of Settlement in 1559. This aimed to
Reign: 1558 - 1603 please the majority of her subjects and
Parents: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. avoid violence.
Like her sister, Elizabeth had a difficult childhood.
Born a princess, she lost everything when her Problem Two: This was Elizabeth's cousin. This meant she
mother was executed in 1536. Mary, Queen of had a claim to the throne of England. She
She later spent a year under arrest by Mary on Scots was also a Catholic. She became involved in
suspicion of treason. It is possible that her sister a number of plots. Elizabeth had her
nearly signed her death warrant in 1557! executed.
However she survived these issues to become
queen in 1558 on the death of Mary. Problem Three: Due to execution of MQS, the Reformation
The Armada and English piracy, Philip of Spain
launched the Armada. Elizabeth inspired
her men and relied on their superior skills.
The Armada was destroyed in 1588
Reformation When the religion Problem Four: Women were expected to marry in the 16th
of England Marriage century. Elizabeth also needed to produce
Dynasty changed from an heir to continue the dynasty. However
Propaganda Catholic to her solution was simple - she was ‘married
Protestant to England’. This resulted in her nickname
the Virgin Queen.
The name of a king
/ queen’s family Problem Five: As a woman, Elizabeth understood the need
Image for creating the correct image. She did this
The use of through propaganda and a careful control
information to http://tudorhistory.org/ of her image through portraits.
control what http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/history/tudors_stuarts
people believe / Take your learning to the next level...
YEAR 8 AUTUMN
G4 G5 G6
Year 8 Geography Knowledge Organiser 1 – Impossible Places
VOLCANOES - Found at destructive and constructive plate margins. YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO @stcmhumanities
At destructive margins, the oceanic plate goes underneath the Much larger than standard volcanoes EASTER ISLAND (Rapa Nui)
continental plate They are found at destructive plate margins
Yellowstone National Park is on top of a supervolcano Admiral Roggeveen discovered Easter Island
The oceanic plate moves down into the mantle, where it’s melted 7 Supervolcanoes are located around the world. The last on Easter Day 1722.
A pool of magma forms
The magma rises through the cracks in the crust called vents. one erupted 74,000 years ago. He found an island that was almost
The magma erupts onto the surface (where it’s called lava) forming a uninhabited (had very few people living on it).
volcano The people that did live there had a very basic
At constructive margins, the magma rises up in the gap created by o Magma rises up through the cracks in the crust to form a life and lived in caves. They even ate each
large magma basin. The pressure of the magma creates other! Yet they had created these fantastic
the plates moving apart, forming a volcano a bulge stone statues.
o The bulge eventually cracks creating vents for the lava to Easter Island is famous for having 887
escape massive statues, called moai, which were
sculpted and erected by the early Rapa Nui
o As the magma empties the bulge is no longer held up so people. But in the end the increasing
it collapses numbers and ambitions of the islanders
proved too great for the limited resources
o When the eruption is finished there’s a large crater left available to them. When the environment was
ruined by the pressure, the society very
Message for Planet Earth
Like Easter Island the earth has only limited
resources to support our society and all its
demands. Like the islanders, the human
population of the earth has no practical
means of escape. We must look after our
planet and its resources!
PHYSICAL EDUCATION YEAR 8 KS3 KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER - FITNESS TESTING
RE Year 8 Autumn Term: Life Times The Court of the Women
Women and children were not allowed to go beyond this
Jesus’ life in Israel. area. It was a favourite meeting place for families when they
came to Jerusalem on pilgrimage.
Jesus was born in Bethlehem. He lived as The Court of the Israelites
a faithful Jew. He worshipped as a Jew Only Jewish men were allowed to enter here. They could
and obeyed the Jewish Law. It was in the see the altar of sacrifice and the offerings being made to
synagogue that he learned the law. God. At the time of Jesus, animal sacrifices were an
When he was 12 he went with his important part of Temple worship.
parents to the Temple in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is and was the capitol of Israel.
The Temple The Court of Priests
The Temple in Jesus’ time was a very large and beautiful building. King Herod
had built it in place of King Solomon’s temple, which had been destroyed by This was exclusively reserved for
the Babylonians. The Jewish Council, the Sanhedrin, met there. The Sahedrin priests. In this area was the alter on
controlled religious matters and acted as a criminal court. It was made up of which the birds and animals were
Sadducees, Pharisees and Scribes. The leader of the Sanhedrin was the High sacrificed. Only domestic animals could
Priest. be sacrificed. This included pigeons and
It was in the Temple in Jerusalem, not the local synagogue, that sacrifice was doves, the offerings of poor people.
offered. Only priests could enter the holiest part of the temple and only the
High Priest could enter the holy of holies, the most sacred area of all. The Holy of Holies
The Outer Court: the Court of the Gentiles This was the innermost and most sacred part of the Temple. A
Gentiles, non-Jews, were not allowed beyond this court. large veil covered its entrance. Only the High Priest was
Traders could be found here selling birds and animals to allowed to enter, and he only went in once a year, on the Day
be used for sacrifices. It was also a place to change of Atonement, Yom Kippur. He offered sacrifices and asked
Roman money into Temple money. God’s forgiveness in the name of all the people. On this day
only he spoke aloud, in full, the name of God. This day marked
a new start, a renewal of faithfulness to the laws of God.
Politics at the time of Jesus Zealots
Jesus was born and brought up in an occupied land. Palestine was part of the Roman
Empire. When Jesus was born, Herod the great was king. He ruled the whole of They were nationalists and
Palestine, but when he died the territory was split between three of his sons. The hated the Roman
roman Emperor refused to give them the title of king, and eventually he replaced conquerors. They were
Archaeleus, ruler of the southern province, with a Roman governor. When Jesus waiting for the Messiah to
began his mission this governor was Pontius Pilate. (Read Luke 3: 1-3.) The Romans lead them in battle against
allowed the Jews to practise their own religion and so the Jews had their own the Romans. They wanted to
religious authorities based in Jerusalem. The main Council was the Sanhedrin. This set up God’s Kingdom, and
Council decided religious matters and acted as a law court. It could punish people to do this they were willing
who broke the religious law, but could not put a person to death. to put up armed resistance
against the Romans. To the
Romans they were terrorists,
but many Jews saw them as
Spotlight on religious groups Extension Challenge
They were the strictest in keeping the Law. The name means Most of them lived in the dessert where
‘separated one’. They would have nothing to do with Gentiles or they followed a strict religious life, like the
sinners. They not only tried to keep every part of the Torah, they monks of later times. They were even
studied it and added new interpretations. They usually took a leading stricter than the Pharisees and tried to keep
part in running the synagogues. the Jewish religion pure. They believed that
they alone were the true people of God. A
Sadducees collection of scrolls was found in the desert
at Qumran, north of the Dead Sea, in 1948.
They were a small, powerful and influential group. They were often These are probably part of their library.
the wealthy, upper-class Jews, conservative in matters of religion.
Unlike the Pharisees, they accepted only the Torah and refused to
accept new interpretations of the Law. Many of the Sadducees held
powerful positions in the Sanhedrin. They were friendly towards the
Romans in order to keep their position, and so were mistrusted by
They were also known as doctors of the Law, rabbis or lawyers. The
Scribes became teachers of Judaism and interpreted the Law for
people. Many of the Scribes were Pharisees.
In the footsteps of Jesus He performed his first miracle – John 2 1-11, Cana.
Jesus probably never travelled more On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there, and Jesus and
than 200 miles from Bethlehem. For his disciples had also been invited to the wedding. When the wine was gone, Jesus’ mother said
the first 30 years of his life he to him, “They have no more wine.” “Dear woman, why do you involve me?” Jesus replied. “My
probably lived in Nazareth and was time has not yet come.” His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.” Nearby
a carpenter. It was only during the stood six stone washing jars, the kind used by the Jews for ceremonial washing, each holding
last 3 years of his life that he began from twenty to thirty gallons. Jesus said to the servants, “Fill the jars with water”; so they filled
travelling around Palestine (Israel) them to the brim. Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the master of the
preaching and teaching. He was banquet.” They did so, and the master of the banquet tasted the water that had been turned into
about 30 when he began his mission wine. He did not realise where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water
to bring the Good News (Gospel) to knew. Then he called the bridegroom aside and said, “Everyone brings out the choice wine first
everyone he met. and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the
Here are some examples of how he best till now.” This, the first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee. He thus
brought good news to people. revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him.
He healed the servant of a Roman centurion - He called his first disciples - Matthew 3 18-22, Sea of Galilee.
Matthew 8 5-15, Capernaum. As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon
When Jesus had entered Capernaum, a centurion came to called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for
him, asking for help. “Lord,” he said, “my servant lies at they were fishermen. “Come, follow me,” Jesus said, “and I will make you
home paralyzed and in terrible suffering.” Jesus said to him, fishers of men.” At once they left their nets and followed him.
“I will go and heal him.” The centurion replied, “Lord, I do
not deserve to have you come under my roof. But just say He met Zacchaeus – Luke 19 1-9, Jericho.
the word, and my servant will be healed. For I myself am a
man under authority, with soldiers under me. I tell this one, Jesus entered Jericho and was passing through. A man was there by the
‘Go,’ and he goes; and that one, ‘Come,’ and he comes. I say name of Zacchaeus; he was a chief tax collector and was wealthy. He
to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.” When Jesus heard wanted to see who Jesus was, but being a short man he could not,
this, he was astonished and said to those following him, “I because of the crowd. So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore-fig tree
tell you the truth, I have not found anyone in Israel with to see him, since Jesus was coming that way. When Jesus reached the
such great faith. I say to you that many will come from the spot, he looked up and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down
east and west, and will take their places at the feast with immediately. I must stay at your house today.” So he came down at once
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. But and welcomed him gladly. All the people saw this and began to mutter,
the subjects of the kingdom will be thrown outside, into the “He has gone to be the guest of a ‘sinner’.” But Zacchaeus stood up and
darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of said to the Lord, “Look, Lord! Here and now I give half my possessions to
teeth.” Then Jesus said to the centurion, “Go! It will be the poor, and if I have cheated anybody out of anything, I will pay back
done just as you believed it would.” And his servant was four times the amount.” Jesus said to him, “Today salvation has come to
healed at that very hour. the house, because this man, too, is a son of Abraham.
The Fall, Sin and Salvation and Vocation
Baptism Being saved from sin and welcomed into God’s family
Lamb of God Jesus as the perfect and ultimate sacrifice for our sins
Crucifixion: A way of executing someone by nailing them to the cross and living them to die.
Resurrection: When someone comes back to life after their death.
Salvation Being saved from sin and restoring the broken relationship between God and mankind
Saviour Jesus is believed to be able to save humanity from sin
Messiah anointed one (Kings were anointed with oil, to show they had been chosen by God)
Sin Something that is against the will of God
Son of God Jesus was God incarnate (meaning in human form)
atonement the death of Jesus makes amends for the sin of humans
Saviour Someone who saves
Grace God’s love for humans is what saves them from their sin (not how good they have been)
Ransom Christians believe the sacrifice of Jesus by dying on the cross was like him paying for the sins of the world
Vocation Profession, job or trade someone follows; God’s call in each person’s life
Quality A strength, way of behaving or attitude a person has
Talent A quality or gift a person has and works at or develops
Skill An ability a person develops in order to do a particular job
Gifted Having a quality, talent or skill that comes naturally
Self-esteem A sense of personal value
Self-knowledge The ability to know your own strengths and weaknesses
Self-confidence The quality of being at ease and using your talents
Sin and the Fall
What is original sin?
Original sin is a Christian teaching that says that everyone is born sinful. This means that they are born with a built-in urge to do bad things
and to disobey God. It is an important doctrine within Christianity.
Original sin is not just this inherited spiritual disease or defect in human nature; it's also the 'condemnation' that goes with that fault.
An explanation for the evils of the world
Some Christians believe that original sin explains why there is so much wrong in a world created by a perfect God, and why people need to
have their souls 'saved' by God.
A condition you're in, not something you do
Original sin is a condition, not something that people do: It's the normal spiritual and psychological condition of human beings, not their bad
thoughts and actions. Even a new-born baby who hasn't done anything at all is damaged by original sin.
The sin of Adam
In Christian teaching, original sin is the result of Adam and Eve's disobedience to God when they ate a forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.
Effects of original sin
Original sin affects individuals by separating them from God, and bringing dissatisfaction and guilt into their lives. On a world scale, original
sin explains such things as genocide, war, cruelty, exploitation and abuse, and the "presence and universality of sin in human history".
How to cure original sin
Some Christians believe that human beings can't cure themselves of original sin. The only way they can be saved from its consequences is by
the grace of God.
The only way people can receive God's grace is by accepting his love and forgiveness, believing that Jesus Christ died on the cross to
redeem their sins, and getting baptised.
Jesus and Salvation
Who do Christians believe Jesus was?
Christians believe that Jesus was the chosen one, the saviour, who through his death on the cross and resurrection, restored the relationship
between God and humans and allowed people to get forgiveness for their sins. Jesus’ death on the cross earned humans forgiveness for their
Why is resurrection important to Christians?
Resurrection is a proof that life after death exists and gives hope to Christians for an ultimate reward for following Christian teachings in
Resurrection is also a miracle and as only God can perform a miracle it is a proof that Jesus is a son of God.
The resurrection is a confirmation of Gods power.
The belief in resurrection is a pillar of Christian faith; if you do not accept the resurrection you cannot accept the existence of God and Jesus.
Resurrection is a symbol of the new beginning for the human race where they can ask God for the forgiveness for their sins.
It is also a symbol of Jesus victory over the death and promise of afterlife for all people.
Christians believe that everyone was created to have a relationship with God. Some Christians believe that because Adam and Eve sinned all
humans are automatically sinful and need to be saved. Other Christians believe that humans are born without sin but will sin at some point
in their lives. Sin is believed to be doing wrong by going against the law of God – The 10 commandments. Christians believe that God sent
Jesus to die on the cross to forgive this sin and restore the relationship between humans and God. The Bible says that as well as following the
10 commandments people must also follow Jesus’ teachings to achieve salvation.
- John 3:16: “For God so loved the world, that He gave His [a]only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have
eternal life.” Key passage Christians use to show the idea of Jesus dying on the cross so that humans could be forgiven and go the
- Romans 3:23: “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God”
- Romans 6:23: “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
- Ephesians 2:8-9: “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works,
so that no one may boast.”
The idea of vocation is central to the Christian belief that God has created each person with gifts and talents oriented toward specific
purposes and a way of life.
In the broadest sense, as stated by the Catholic Church, "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being". More
specifically, in some Churches, this idea of vocation is especially associated with a divine call to service to the Church and humanity through
particular life commitments, such as marriage to a particular person, consecration as a religious, ordination to priestly ministry in the
Church and even a holy life as a single person.
In the broader sense, Christian vocation includes the use of one's gifts in their profession, family life, church and civic commitments for the
sake of the greater common good.
Stretch and Challenge: 1. Read Genesis 3 and identify the characters and what role each has in the Fall.
2. Look up other interpretations of that chapter.
3. Find out about Saint Teresa of Calcutta’s vocation to work with and serve the poor.
Contact Forces Science Y8 Pressure
When the resultant force on an object is zero, it is in equilibrium and does not Pressure acts in a fluid in all directions. It increases with depth due to the
move, or remains at constant speed in a straight line. One effect of a force is increased weight of fluid, and results in an upthrust. Objects sink or float
to change an object’s form, causing it to be stretched or compressed. depending on whether the weight of the object is bigger or smaller than the
In some materials, the change is proportional to the force applied.
Different stresses on a solid object can be used to explain observations
where objects scratch, sink into or break surfaces.
For more detailed For more on
knowledge → this topic look
● Equilibrium: State of an object when opposing forces are balanced. ● Fluid: A substance with no fixed shape, a gas or a liquid.
● Deformation: Changing shape due to a force.
● Linear relationship: When two variables are graphed and show a ● Pressure (N/m² or Pa): The ratio of force to surface area and how it
straight line which goes through the origin, and they can be called causes stresses in solids.
directly proportional. ● Upthrust: The upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body
● Newton: Unit for measuring forces (N).
● Resultant force: Single force which can replace all the forces acting floating in it.
on an object and have the same effect. ● Atmospheric pressure (Pa): The pressure caused by the weight of
● Friction: Force opposing motion which is caused by the interaction of
surfaces moving over one another. It is called ‘drag’ if one is a fluid. the air above a surface.
● Tension: Force extending or pulling apart.
● Compression: Force squashing or pushing together.
● Contact force: One that acts by direct contact.
Electromagnets Science Y8 Magnetism
An electromagnet uses the principle that a current through a wire causes a Magnetic materials, electromagnets and the Earth create magnetic fields
magnetic field. Its strength depends on the current, the core and the number which can be described by drawing field lines to show the strength and
of coils in the solenoid. direction.
1. The greater the number of coils the stronger the electromagnet The stronger the magnet, and the smaller the distance from it, the greater the
2. The greater the current the stronger the electromagnet force a magnetic object in the field experiences.
3. Using an iron core increases the strength of an electromagnet
Two ‘like’ magnetic poles repel and two ‘unlike’ magnetic poles attract.
The magnetic field of an electromagnet decreases in strength with distance.
Field lines flow from the north-seeking pole to the south-seeking pole.
Key Words Key Words
● Electromagnet: A non-permanent magnet turned on and off by ● Magnetic force: Non-contact force from a magnet on a magnetic
controlling the current through it. material.
● Solenoid: Wire wound into a tight coil, part of an electromagnet. ● Permanent magnet: An object that is magnetic all of the time.
● Core: Soft iron metal which the solenoid is wrapped around. ● Magnetic poles: The ends of a magnetic field, called north-seeking
(N) and south-seeking poles (S).