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การจัดการศัตรูพืชเพื่อการผลิตสับปะรดคุณภาพ

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การจัดการศัตรูพืชเพื่อการผลิตสับปะรดคุณภาพ

การจัดการศัตรูพืชเพื่อการผลิตสับปะรดคุณภาพ

Keywords: การจัดการศัตรูพืช,สับปะรด

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Ananas d$atinuinianiii Ananas comosus (L.) 01ZuoLJ

Merr. 41% Ananas bbdau18ln~ln~al-na $9b'&A$0d F i T f l u a d Bromeliaceae ~d%:u161b1,400 rGa

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excelling n?ufragrance (Collins, 1960)~YI1ua9d~ab~A~nanas Firasf.?lAu'-u9-.uaannaiu"11~ad~G'bilu"b~d3r~u

~ i l 2u~$I.J~I~;~BW~~~I%U n?oGaantinuil 6 ~ ~ r i r s a r ~ . 6 " a ~ u ~ u % u ~ u r ~ u d s r ~ u r p(Cao"llnin~s,~ n i a ~ i

I. Fi,d&u~daauriiauu~um111 (terrestrial 1960)

plants) !aruuain~~5n~a~lu~ G~u~ ~ 5 1 ~ m~ i1u9 9 1 3 ~ - I ~ ~ I L L ~ ~ P ? - I J qM n%~~ nWi a n 5A. comosus

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Liua (Bartholomew and Malezieux, 1994)

3.3 asadssm (sunlight)

i i l l d z s m i l d a 6 a i o ~ n i s ~ ~ a ~~~i~omnmi s ~ i ~ y

L G E I I ~ Y O J ~ I ~ U ~ I ~ ~ " W M I ~ ~ ~ L L6A~d~ nUGAnis

~ a ~ y a B ~ l b a n i ~ ~ i 68u-14~ %~G~ouadaasioonmanGm

walf?Laa15-7&OW(Kerns et a/., 1936) LL~ljl~l~jlli;3
u-rariouiu 7 ~ d upm~qJ~~atna'4'iuruuorGulrii

$w%wadonis~a3y1ftu~m~~arnis~fiwawGmuo~

iYudzsauinnii~~a~~~~mi i imi i d i u ^ a G u ~ ~ a m ~ l f i ~ G u i i

i i u d r s m i ~ lt3~~u~rn~uaniw!6?uiG,~oau~ariiluuia

~ ~ a r + ~ i u aL ~L ~$~uU ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ & ? ' U L L R J B J I ~ ~ U O L ~ L M : O E ~
dabbm9 ~ ~ n r i j n a i u ~ ~ 4 d(~ ~besyt~a/n.,i1i987)uonain

CkudzsmddRnlu~niWw~IJLLRJ 50% nis~l3y~G.u

b l l ~ d ?6dL;OULL.~~B.RJ 20% ~ l ~ ~ % ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~ ~ L l ~ l ~

iidszGn%niw8ihu(Connelly, 1972) siut5~dzsmI.u

5ruc 3-4 ~$opariauosnmonniniiniswsi~~~70a%d

szoonmon%niidnGdszuim 5 ~ ~ 1 ~o 3 uui r n t ~ a ~ i

4rl6?udasa$isman~~atw~aiaulunis~duuuimwa

~ d ~ i l u m s d u ~ i u ~ u ~ % u u i m(~Barethioolournew

and Malezieux, 1994)

naiuijadnGun~~n~udtsn~'.onisdnaiu~n

~na10J~~~u~n"udaJiijaniwoiniL8[L$~oLuL L ~ J L L ~ ~

awmd~mwu~udraml&?ulusrut~~snuo~nisW"wuimon

u a ~ i i w a d o p r n n ~ i i u o ~ w a ~ u d6t~s~ar i i w a d a n i s

~diyB.uba~a:?mniwuo~waRudrspmrnnqijpdau Gdiin~sd~nriudrsmGmian'u~a7i'Iu s r i i

~ i ~ n i 3 ~ a ^ 4 y ~ G uW F bA' m lu~d~riiswaa"h~dursmgnun;

umm$m~iu!d lmu~awizlu$asI5.00 u.azii%G~d!on ln'naiupmunu;s&uo~Guama9 liudrsmszli~a3~

aa!~GLLsrL&wa~duniu nid%nsrmialun$i ~ i l u L G U ~ Rm s ~ w i ~ i n ~ r ~ a r m o ~ r i i ~ u e l ~ a a ~ p a ~ ~ n

i q u j ~ ~~ mi l u n i s ~ ~ un6iui l~%u~ m n d ~ n l ~ ~ afiiglfuiGyy~"R~duniu<mqia~a'otiims~du^ownit~un'su

riil~3uiiudrsmvio$uwadausJ"~~a~aarG~ afiilfi~ffo ~ q d o d ? u d ~ G~ ud nuia~u6uiiudfsm6 ~ 1 53-4
~ G o ouw~a"a!nnau~inlusairdmrrndnn;nuaz6uyuninePsuuGu
~ E I d r s m r n n l w 6(Gortner, 1960)
sli ( m a uarnmr, 2539) uensin2u'srGupm~qiiuo~

Gusrniid 25-30 oswi~.aa~Guawziilfi~udzamaii~

~ u u a m m d u ~ u ~ s z5u%i m(Ravoof, I973)

Kudrsnbiwnusli~nd~ ~ ~ i l u n r i w ~ ~ a r idwuwainda7u 6 9 nyn nriiu(smooth cayene) n?a Gun

!li&.u;n uanuinurwnu$ius:~iidniuw"ufb6a~~"b~ ni?!di~ w"u{~nmifiu%uuiawaI.o-2.5 EIan?uan;

LuGn $~ornstfii~6adsduauTunisd?ud~9w"u{ a ~ a u ~ n ~ n i i E < u a ~ < u s z u r(~sp;ancing) na;
nisn5i~niuw"pa$n6i1 ~ilumaiuwuiuiu~a~Cnd?u67uauGudaaw" udn L L A OWud~na~~"a~a~iuaudanis~a3y

vT"fiimdisin~nvmrd~nisa~smn~u~uun"iulw;~auddmuau n s d ~ u ~ b ~ 3 ~ L R u ~ m b ~ u ~ c d d 3 E
I,,,I ~~~~~~d~~80~-100
~ilu4iuauuinr l i ~ ~ ~ i m i n u a ~ w a ~ u d t s n a LauaR~s ; ~

(Collins, 1960) ~~fu6bumZsuni7 D-leaf naiun~i9~udscui4m-5

~ud:snwifdd;n~iluniirii&a!d Gnaqunmn lau61ums iinanliau~aiuI50 nandada $salu

(Spanish) ~da%u;h (Pernarnbuco) uar uai6hui ~ ~ n n i i d a u h u w a

(Mordilona) dnRgudrsnW"Pa{9mmi~4uorGpn~kus!n~dua

1~~33m&d:[email protected]$d5 nfju wuh nk$n:'u~~?~ ijlluln 0.5-1.5 ~Yillla~naluuia~maiwa (eye) i u

uar idaiCuy1n i n a i u a n n d i ~ n i d ~ m ~ i u ~ ~ u 7 o!r~i~7isluia~dBanwa~da~uG'iiu~aduaInaiiiu~6ua

Q ~ r u~aruu~&ALI ium~w"u;nssud~di~nuanii s r ~ d d u u ~ i l u 8 ~ n B a ~ a u d u . u i ~ a m daaduwiai o r
nijunudu8a aa: u a i 6 l a u i (Coppens d' riluwagu ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ B ~ ~ d a u ~ s : o : d.a~ ~ ~ B a ~ ~ $

Eeckenbrugge eta/.. 1997) h~?~w"~{g~ldd:~nnd;ngnrn~$e3dvulu2aariuanijun d d a l u (fiber) d i u

Iudsrawar%wu4ia~un!G3n+ua; n a i ~i o u $ 7 ~ k 7 i isn"67Fi~aunaiuGd5uimnsn

4.1 nSumzdw ~ ~ a r & m i aI2-16 OSBIIEI~~GC ~ L L ~ L ~ U G J Q

u u ~ ~ i u t ~ u ~ ~ u a1I8.0a-2"1~0ai ua(iKems eta/.,1936)

~ i l u n i j u d d ~ n ~ i l u n i s 6 1 u iLnn~u~Tranu
riudrsnnijunriiu d ~ p n I u ~ c m d n u u i n d r l n

h n i u ~ i l u i m ~ 6 u t A a b ~ ~ i u ~ m a i n n s sGuu~t~ d s ~ d

Wa Gu{9mmi~iud~aEunmiuvin~$iduu dgnnw













rnul3nflwui nis~~?y~Rulmse~GuGud:3a;nBin"a

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ijnaiuds:Gn nis!nGuGas3n 25-30 ~6auG~um3
iii~?uGufaudun~n9i,uiwxuwd [email protected]:~mui

ssaiu 9 3 stGa~In3n45-50 ~~luGbumb3~a:a:bfk~

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w ndialnunpl niz~AuuGudgnGudt~ws:$a~

(mother stump) ~<nwm:~un$iun%tuou47a 20-30 wv

iibfiunism7uGumou

I) wa"undinudgnKudcsa ldnrilllu~~a:Gu

~u~1:3m I ~ G a u ~ i l u o e i i ~ ~ a u ~ A ~o m7i nn~ u

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2) ~dniiiai~~unlu~$~ni3lninii~~liluu

i a 4 a ~ s ~ u ~ ~ d i ~ i n n l h ~ aaat:ri~v,i~o l G G u

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Vbna%shjban(glyphosate 48% aoabbon) Ems? 600

"ba" d 64117-10 a"pa

~ a ~ i q j l % W80~ ~ z ~i ~ U W U 1W

m3) In& minftu 7-10 ~uwmu In& u h

nnn~nusnnnn~rrmAs~TiiKud:mua:i"114ayn~Gn

d ~ ~ ~onane!d~i wlilaluuon~~dad









ua:mniiu~6ualm?uaa~ilnK~~u~anilu"nuisamniyu
nisersm aaa:ailu?"bisnscoiu W A wGm(bG~ud:sm
nueunisafiuaifua nisdgn~unJolis~umon!6ads
siydgn 8-12 aiou a~u~~nawawm6niu14lu-16
aiau (nsu?%inisbnwms2,545)

--ywkf l4unindgnriud:sn~do~iluim~lu

hn?u~nainnnnbbds~d~nwya6 nmdwiawuomuo~
era C ~ I M G15~0-350 nio n;oaaiu 200-300 nio
~aiuuim~ndr~ui:ao~o~in~ntsI8a0ainiuu4ild
4~muisolis~umnn~dooiy1~0-g14naiou ~6u~du-r
!'niulu 16-20 alou Bmas6muuim?nwit$ss"Cuuim
lnKbG~sKu ~ 6 a a i u i s n l i a ~ u m o n ! 6 w 4 a u K u

niuviu (boom sprayer) ~deAmKai?vun"s:I%i?vuais
iiiCmi~4.na ~ iAa u o s : ~ n " u ~ ~ u a n " s : A m m ~ w i u ~ i ~ ~ u ~
wswBw 6 u n i i aiuwiudaut~uaiufa (harvester)

nis~isZdudesdgn6aslfiaam?u~uan'so-siioua:

q d ~ ~ d d ~ : ~ f ~j ~~m>:d~ oi ~ ~ i m u n a i u n k ~ i o

bdodiiu!duiu 3-4 2 dss:~oudasuaran~uubbdasdgn

l n i (?umii~2,541 ; ??as, 2545)











wouauosionis~AulGAob ~ u n G ~ l u( u~ gw2)u wd wd du

n i s d g m i u d r s n i s ~ d u o f T ur i n u i n a i y o i ~ i s ~ a ? ~

(micronutrient) r$u bM$n (Fe) &9n:+ (Zn) Wn9bbn9

(CU)saa:lusou (B) ( ~ u n i ? 2~5,41)

~ i l d m d l % ~ a e i u i u ~ a irui u~s~i no dug n i i ~ ~ i i u ~ h a

A o d s t u i m 14-18 L&M ~ i n i s 1 a " n o dI~ % o i s f i s n ' u ~ u d : s n u i a n i y ! u ~ n s ~ s u s:iioinis'Lu

nod 2 iis:l%~aeiuiu 4-5 4d Lun9Issblde~dgnlMa.vi iiM ~ ~ Q o sGlun!ojas?i-ga?uln w a i i ~ m ~ $~tn.nn~Pdo
'Lssa.iPa"ou ba4sl"7"b?u!u~nsbsuuin~iiunaiu6osnis

s : i i l $ ~ i h . ~ (fascination) ~ % i i ~ i a i u ?(nmultiple

crown) sinisuinai?vlonvlo?a Ao d s i u l u l ~ a . 7'Lu

~LnuEua6"waEud:sn~~ri%iiuuimaSn ~ ~ a n s 4 i ~ i n

I w w a t Q u un i s u i n a i y ~ v i S 1nu " a ~ Q o lsnuia ~ i o

d ~ ~ " n o ~ n d s : B t B u ab . ~ w u ~ i l u ~7d 'oLuu u d a ~

a

i i u d t z m d ~ u ~ u h u~i n~ a ~ u ~ ~ w P i i ~ ~ n ~ s o u d

A'd I!i.ir~ud:antn N

'LuwundgnEud:sa

P205 K 2 0 CaO an: MgO b V i 1 t - h 32.8 9.3 62.9 !u~nswa:auluwn~u~l:sa~ilu39q~i6iK~uo~nis
uds;dEud:mn3tilo~ (dsrt.fis~,2546 ; fiGwd,
19.4 ~ba: 6.7 iilan?u n i u i i 6 u ssinwIuwd I win
2539 ; Su and Huang, 1956)
~%udt3n!n?ia: 8.8 61.4a i y s i n i s N P205 K20

CaO be: MgO s:n~'Luwawgn brii6u 6.9 2.6 21.0

2.7 bba: 1.6 iibaniu niui16u (Martin - Prevel, 1961)











5. a u ~ r i s K u f a m r i n u d g n 6 2 u d o a t i f f a

knorgDaGuu (80% GuutaC) w

80-100 n&eielii20

Bms aa~~?wu$2i-~6 n~ G o 8ui!iflnis~uniaw"ufriou

dgn ~ v i v i u & u m m & n h a l n 7 2-3 affsu n+ese~dsd

dumnuindoa6asn"u

;mnqD 9 sil.s~iraaaquni 3 r 3 o ~ n i r n i s w " w u i u I ~ n o
o~

1.m uiadswa&udrsmn~u~~niw~mn~~dn?ka!d

8.2 b ~ n w r i s r r iwi a r k ?uanu~(?butt rot, s i r n s ~ s n s t b u i h(Ri ohrbach and Schmitt, 1998)

base rot, fruit rot, white leaf spot)

2
k & r i n M g b~msinannsCi halara paradoxa
(De Seyn.) Sacc., M?o Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De

Seyn.) Hohn. (Rohrbach and Schmitt, 1998) wuka

b33a~'Zfl?

~ n w m z a i n i , a i n i s ~ i o ~ ~i iE m ~ d o ~ s i n

m s l i i n r i s w i f n ? o ? n r j u i nsdrau!i~dnsnd;nlu

nrnwdiinaiu2suy I fi v i ia i u a2u oda unia uaaar
~roilr

ssuawadbu?nw"ufn+o~iow"unf? o s i m s I s n s r waanu (marblingdisease, marble

r=in8.3
aRnnkd;n&udrsm!diuiu souuwathdGmirisil

da41 oinis2uois!i~uus~8i2anoiiaiuaawirri7u~2uo fruit, bacterial fruit rot)

d d, 2dd P, a f i m m n d ~ ~ ~ u i f a u s r n iIi d b n o
~ u o n o o u 4 u~us~uonau'dus~niiotndnor$ioiiudrsa
b8eaiawq

a i u i s n ~ 9 5 %~?Iubm%~6~ d i d d s tnGi w~~fPJiinrio abun?~8 u Erwinia herbicola var Ananas <ua n i w bbam

dn?IaaazLftmii&uarmnaJIn(Rohrbach, 1983) o i n i s ajud~dluuuda~!doiidsam~iral i l K n i s a l i y a R u

sruima~in& u ~r u d s ua wa Gdui a n i w n 2 u ~ ~ ~bui ~otw a c i u ~em a ~l u u a ~ ~a ~ n(snzm~i"aui n~i'su

~ nw rmu ai

srw"i‘L4' wa I u aaar&.uPdi6au bnBm%,2546; Rohrbach, 1983)

oiniswaariii;u (water blister) M+EI a i l 4 1 a"nwmzainis bsnwaabnu~ 9 u o i n i s ~ i i m u i n l u

(black rot) 19uoimaIandriimn"~luw~dan"uai/uaa~b~sr"uarwabari dsruim 7-10 ~uhuafibudnua B

~daniw

waaii6u f l n ~ u n ~oinnisa$ulinsnu~mWwan+o o i n i ~ ~ d d u w ~ ~ d a ~ o d i t s aiamuanf*uaniilpi$uuaz

~nuuwa~uiuIrmi ~ IIv idl u ~ ~ ~ ~ ~aaa~r i iliui ~ dn ~i sIl iei p~? n n w I i q n G o ~a$umsaawu s i n i s ~ iof

ii7n?uoinis~u?muia(white spot) B ~ a i l u ~ m j u i id s r u i m 1 L ~ B ~ T ~ B ~ L(?R$uU ~L a~rUn m? r2.546)

8.4 knsindu (root knot)

~iluls~diil&iimnaiu~Su~iub~Ti&ud:~muin

~ u n a i u u w i r d p nriuua$si?iu dni3s:uimp~~srl

lug n . ~I.920-1950 bmu~awi:Iu~un~:3mmoi Ibba:

mod 2 i d s ~ i i n b n n n d u ~ b $sa:nnb$aimwol~snh

*

bzi~-sinbzi~i $ ~ P j i i a i u ~ i(~7G%u~ba:nm:, 2546)

riiu'bdni3~%msrii~m~a~a~uia.s~ud:sm~7~sw'muni i w ~ii~msin!~~$oudounndMu elodogym
ws ~~u~w$vilfimeiniswa~~nulG
w?sln&n"u~i?ua (Treub) Chetwood B s a i C u I u ~ ubu:raw<
javanica
ni=iwmaosuas~ni?iuaw"ubbb"a:nm: (2543) wuji
A' s:lnm~h~m.sdaiu~in~ud:sm(caswell et a/.,

E l l l l 1 3 ~ ~ b b n ~2b.0~-5~.0Y%~ ~ ~ a i n i s f i u a i s ~ i ~ m
1990)
OIOIOI

%~dua:u:was~lsnuman 2 ~ $ o ~u~a:Tiau1,n"ub6ua

Pjiiaiu!$~$oudau winwuGuEud:sm~~aasoinisl19"

~mAuarnn&ud:smaon'bdbwiPjiiaiuuon~~draios u
d;nnaseuGu9jin2aG~uaisGuinoudm.mPI uP n ~ s o i l i i

w

$4. (Nernagon D.D. Mixture DBCP) 2-3 n?d i19n"u 7-

l o %A hsmarO I - w4 aua:%d$um~uiib~u:di (CwuL

2542; ^a%uua:nm:, 2546 ; Caswell et a/., 1990)

(fruitlet core rot, black spot) -pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-2 (PMWaV-

2) 6u~~ld:smd!msu~Xna PMWaV-2 ~:bb~mdainis~~n

PI bfimoinaXansi Penicillium l i o a uei6u~ud:smd!~iu~$WD PMWaV-1!S.%lbg~&WDd
~~amsainislsnaAuLaL ~ & ~nm!6oin6ugudzsm!i
agoariasrlcq! ~ o ? y R u l m ~ n $ s u & u d n 6n?n i w ~ d u < w a w ~ m ~ u

funiculosum Thom ~ $ 9Fusarium moniliforme J. ~ud:sm6~d;neio~ridup9iuuianoiwnw8mo:ana~

Sheld uin~uKudzsm6uwa(Sether and Hu, 2002)

~ n w m z a i n i slsn7msii~Am5uwagud:smwd

buyn iiwaan~duumn2i~iu-nilu2i~na8soi!~~ii

naiuaah~auan $ i o ~ ial" u4d u4w ~ " u u a ~ ~ w s n ~ ~ ~ 8 0 d u u w a

yn Psunainisiiwmi~iu:agreen eye' ~daden~d~an

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&!nisejiwamium Xd
~~L~P~L~WDLUWDWB~~~~L~IA~~~

!dluwa ~ i i m i a d 3 1 ~ b ~ a : Z ~ $ u2l u u a ~ ~ n a ~ i ~ ~ w ~ n

w a i o u ! i u u ~ u h i i l ~ s ~ m ~ G(Quwua17, 2542)

8.6 hnadua (mealybug wilt)

n i s ~ ~ w < s ~buiiu~wm~m~$a!aiabmu~2wau

llqd 2 WD LW2auu ~ % ~ uDYys?micoccusbrevipes

(Cockerell) Lla.zlw3aull~d2ilwiD. neobrevipes

(Carter, 1933) Beardsley b ~ u w i n bzmu~um<u!d Solenopsis sp.

Y bba: umKabm Pheidole sp. b~u~awiL3wauu~ddLnaou
deannp? IsmAoaiiud~s m iin~~n~~f i moin
~iunn6u# ~ 9 u lWs n0 6 u~~d:s mdn il n$ ~L ~L ~ :u ~
~2a o h i aB~iimiutYufiu$5ul ~ $ ~ L b(p~indeapple u4 a- . aaw n b ~ u u~~uai~ u"ua d um bba:b w ~ u b b
a~~sdd~a
mealybug wilt-associated virus) Lilur?ian~unaWD~
(Bos, 1999)
~moIs(closterovirus) ii~dii.suuuiauaianm

"uwndsruimI,200-12 ui~u~umuws ins:oiuoinu~

uiu~awi:lun~u~aaBpiaai~iauastYud:sm

~$a!ainrn~n~lsn~dua~u~:sdm w ~ I u a i ? i u
na:~~~d~dd gns&uh7n ii 2 nQmi s pineapple

mealybug wilt-associated virus-I (PMWaV-1) LLaz











u ~ a ~ Z m ~ i i & t - g ~ a udsand~s2u~ ~ d z ~ a ~a~aa:s7n$~ld:%@L L $ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~(uho;nweydMew~) ~ u
r41l~~6nsiiidnnyuu?baam2n~wau~b~d4w1"%7'~~u
9,
~~and3nbb~:$~"s31:$bb8d!i!6
9.1 awihks& (pineapple mealybug)

nu7R1a n f Dysrnicoccus brevipes ~ I ~ L L W < $ % P Ib~w~<ubb&~ dun~iluwi~:$au

$;iu(cockerell) ow& urdm?ud'-J~61d7 "ui?lJ6~$¶Jd~lUGQl Z
Pseudococcusbrevipes (Cockerell)

o ~ % u a d Pdseudococcidae i?u&u Homoptera 6u$ud:rn6uoud 7 bw$uaildbbn:unuida~m~:o~

Snwmziimuai6i bw2auuilsiYa~6uTu~war~Ziu i2unilmuwA~w7e~Gu$dn"u~~a:n"uum.~:=hu$nro~
~w<unll~s7nk~assua78677udnr:!6~avla7uue~
sdiid;d!i risu$i~nsui~&uiads:u7m 2.3-3.0
bw2nuuild~ilueimms($MI u n r ~ ~ r2n54.3) um9:niu
ija&.umswriJB7&dnnyu62u!"u~~ildg"uiasou 7 &u
iYadou"uos~w<u~~ildaI"!udd!-Yinud:m Gadou
$i~ii,idsrnou&u!"u~~il~~4 ~4 u- anw m:~il uL~ i~ f~i uu"l i~n2a bm~ un~zmu
1 r i ~ ~ i l ~ d o i 6 7 u n i u i 7ui Yi aan i i ~a u ~ s i n s ~ n $ u d : a n a u b ~ ? ~
LK~P ~~JG~ UdGIJ
d uaa:niuiw&uil~doiu?nms7n!d!-Ydlnumulu

MWa. 1 $ 7 ~ 3 ~ d $ ~ d8 ldlgo~d?Y~7 ~ 7 7 f i ~ a
9lnsiwMildduj~n6u~i(lBdeardsley, 1959) bwiu
( Y ~ W Ibb0dkFl1, 2543)
~ ~ i I s w ~ 1 u i n h ~ i o u u n~s~7an:u~ ~ u a n a ~ ~ ~ o b $ 7 @ ~
YI
wq5nxirr~n 7 ~ f i i a q~~I , ~ ~ ~ ~ I N L ~ U WliqIuUquu ~w&~~ilre:liu,n$um7ufiuimumnidumn

bw<urLila'nauw D. brevipes biluh2876n~"uod u7nB7uau~w2t4fJ bbgdb b W ~ ~ ( p 7 5 l t W @ l W(dn3~~"117~14

$ud:sm ~ w & ~ ~ i l ~ ~ m i i u ~ i b ~ a ~ n $ u d : s m d b~niwl umlss, 2n546)

~du2uhdiouthdGufiudtand~d"bib9ub~rnhlli bw<uuild wuynu~8ddgn$ud:sn d d i l t d $ ~
bw2w ~bbgd&lu; bbW: bw2A ~bbild'nbnl D. neobrevipes
$ud:~m4",wb~u2~lbao~iino7nis~bd$uoa!a?aifuaiuisn
wq8n~~uss~iw$u~~il~~.au;asus~piuu?~amiiau
m%a~wu$dlu$ud:~md~ilulsa~$~uba:q7n~w$ubbild

(Hu et a/., 1996) wq8nssu&dnin"uodbw<ubbildi7 i~7~&~d~n ~i ~an~i iuuh u ~ w <u~~il~'nm7anuo7Guoiu3~am

m ~ u ~ ' i u ~ i u l v i n u n ~ ~ d ~ n ~ u d : sLna: l u u dau;nae:wnriud:sn Gao7Gu~s~2~wauub9dd676~

~ a i u u ~ i ~ d g n r i u d : s m " u o d l a(Znirnmerman. 1948) Go $udtsn n$au 6ou digu o i n i ~ Ki u TaGdu

-I

~ a ? a $ s s i i u ~ o n ~ n u ~ w $ u b ~ i l d d a : u47 mL ~ O U Pandey and Johnson (2006) wua"aGauin

(Dilokkunanant et a/., 1996) iYadoubb~:&ab~u~ubwR
~duuod~2wsuuiillr:?nRu"~A7'~auou^s~adnumulun i l 15 aiin dudwssu 7 i~deodgn$ud:sm r ~ u ~ ~ e u
~ D U ~ ~ P ~ L I " ~ S ~ L ~ d<o~?Li~ImUTOa;Jld~ 6~~~: ;


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