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Lecturer's name: Miss Suhaida binti Halamy

Group members:
1) Siti Hajar binti Abdul Wahab
2) Zaty Amalia binti Ismail
3) Fatin Nur Insyirah binti Abdullah
4) Nur Zafirah binti Zainal Abidin
5) Siti Hawa binti Abdullah

Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Published by fatininsyirah5, 2022-07-12 09:15:02

LIFE OF RECORD e-magazine


Lecturer's name: Miss Suhaida binti Halamy

Group members:
1) Siti Hajar binti Abdul Wahab
2) Zaty Amalia binti Ismail
3) Fatin Nur Insyirah binti Abdullah
4) Nur Zafirah binti Zainal Abidin
5) Siti Hawa binti Abdullah



IN 2022

Success tips for you are
here! get success tips from
20 ideas


Efficiently record
planning lead to good


Good record management
create an excellent











A record-keeping magazine I'm pleased to share the I am immensely pleased to
always has the best content. go through with W team in
Because we believe our initiative with W Team for writing content of record. I
readers deserve the best, the hope the publication is well
Magazine team and I strive to giving me the chance to received and valuable to
provide up-to-date, in-depth everybody, particularly those
local and international record- express my creativity in in the business sector.
keeping information.
writing the magazine here. -FATIN NUR INSYIRAH-
I'm hoping everyone will have

positive things to say about

this magazine.


The best opportunity in my I feel grateful to have been allowed
life is I get a chance to
produce this magazine with to make this magazine. The
W team. The experience that I
gain in writing the content in opportunity to produce this
this magazine is memorable.
I hope the content can magazine was a great experience
improve the knowledge of the
reader. I hope they enjoy it for me. Thanks to my team who
helped a lot in producing this
magazine. I hope readers get good

info in our magazine and enjoy the

reading. -SITI HAWA-




There are three primary types of filing and classification systems: alphabetical,
numeric, and alphanumeric. Depending on the material being filed and
categorised, each of these classification systems offers advantages and
downsides. In addition, each form of file system can be subdivided into
subgroups. A successful filing classification system employs the most logical,
practical, and adaptable classification system for the information involved.

Alphabetical Topical Filing System 1

The topic labels are then filed in alphabetical order. In this system, related
topics are not stored together. Typically, this type of system is optimal
when dealing with tiny volumes of data. This form of filing and
classification system is occasionally referred to as a dictionary system.
When filing personal names, the last name is the primary identifier, with
the first name used solely in cases of duplicate last names.

Alphabetical Encyclopedia Filing

In a "encyclopaedia" file and classification system, information is first
organised by broad category, then alphabetically by subcategory. This
type of filing system is particularly beneficial for managing huge volumes
of information because users do not need to remember the name of a
specific file in order to locate it. Instead, users can begin by locating the
broad category and then search within it for the precise file they require.

Henttonen, P., & Kettunen, K. (2011). Functional classification of records and organisational structure. Records Management
Journal, 21(2), 86–103.

Credit Image : Canva

Alphabetical Geographic Filing

The alphabetical geographic filing system is Chronological Filing Systems
a subset of the filing and classification
system for encyclopedias. By location, the Chronological filing systems are a subtype of
major groups are subdivided in a geographic numerical filing systems in which files are
framework. You can utilize locations of any organised by date. Typically, files are
size or type, including countries, cities, and organised first by year, then by month, and
field offices. Users of this type of system last by day. This is the standard organisation
begin by selecting the geographical area of correspondence files, such as email lists,
pertinent to their inquiry, then search with the most recent data shown first.
alphabetically within that topic for the
desired information. Alphanumeric Filing Systems

Straight Numeric Filing Systems In alphanumeric filing systems, information
is categorized by category using both letters
Straight numeric filing and classification and numbers to represent categories. The
systems are extremely user-friendly, as they usage of both letters and numbers allows for
typically begin with the number one and a significantly larger number of categories
label each file with the next number. than the use of numbers alone. Thus, the
However, this type of system has limited alphabetic filing and categorization system
utility because it frequently requires an index of the Library of Congress permits a wider
to help users locate the desired files, and variety of categories than the Dewey
high-activity files can become congested in Decimal system, which is confined to ten
the same numeric region. primary categories.

Duplex Numeric Filing Systems

In duplex numeric filing systems, file folders are labeled with dual sets of numbers. This type of
filing system can accommodate voluminous amounts of data. Similar to the encyclopedia system
of filing and classification, the different sets of numbers can correlate to major categories and
subcategories. A disadvantage of such a system is that an index is necessary to determine what
each number grouping relates to. The Dewey Decimal system, which is used by most libraries to
catalog their collections, is a fairly well-known duplex numeric system.

Henttonen, P., & Kettunen, K. (2011). Functional classification of records and organisational structure. Records 2
Management Journal, 21(2), 86–103.

Credit Image: Canva

Business Continuity Disaster Recovery

Business continuity is concerned with After a disaster, disaster recovery
keeping a company running in the event focuses on restoring data access
of a crisis. and IT infrastructure.

Business continuity strategies do not Additional personnel safety
include any additional employee safety precautions may be implemented
considerations. as part of disaster recovery plans.

Effective business continuity strategies Effective disaster recovery plans
help to keep operations running keep systems from performing
smoothly. abnormally or inefficiently.

Communication techniques can be A disaster recovery strategy
ensured via a business continuity ensures that a company can resume
strategy. normal operations following a
Some companies include crisis recovery Disaster recovery is one phase in a
plans as part of their overall business larger process of preparing an
continuity strategy. organisation for any eventuality.

Timms, P. (2018). Business continuity and disaster recovery – advice for best practice. Network Security, 3
2018(11), 13–14.

Credit Image: Canva

in Business Continuity &
Disaster Recovery

Both are proactive measures that
assist an organisation in preparing for
abrupt, catastrophic disasters. Instead
of reacting to a calamity, both
disciplines use a preventative
approach, aiming to mitigate its
impacts before to its occurrence.

Both can be used to prepare
businesses for a variety of natural and
man-made disasters. Prepare for
pandemics, natural disasters, wildfires,
and even cyberattacks with the aid of
business continuity and disaster

Both must be reviewed on a regular
basis and, on occasion, revised to
ensure that they align with the
company's growing objectives. A leader
in emergency management will test
and revise these plans as necessary.

does it matter ?

Business Continuity:

Business continuity plans detail how a
company will operate during and after a

Disaster recovery: 4

The plans a company makes to respond to a
catastrophic catastrophe are referred to as
disaster recovery.

Timms, P. (2018). Business continuity and disaster recovery – advice for best practice. Network Security,
2018(11), 13–14.

Credit Image: Canva


keeping knowledge,

attitudes & practices

knowledge Knowledge is the awareness or acquaintance with a variety of
objects, events, concepts, or methods of action (Henriques,
2013). According Unegbu (2013), records management entails
record-keeping but also requires an understanding of how
records are to be handled.

Depending on the goal, environment, and context of the
services, records management differs in nature and scope in
different regions of the world. Employees must be aware and
familiar with the necessary standards for managing records,
such as the level of confidentiality, proper maintenance.

Staff development is crucial to the control of records
management in order to increase awareness and
understanding of records management and its role in service
delivery. The purpose is for knowledge to generate efficiency in
the daily operations of a business. Without management,
records have the potential to increase operating expenses and
unnecessarily expose enterprises to risk.

Knowledge includes benefits, confidentiality, findability, and

safety. Recordkeeping and management are straightforward

processes that provide a foundation for keeping, maintaining,

and disposing of all records. Institutional records help

employees maintain and improve services while maintaining

privacy. Such frameworks are administered under rules to

educate workers on professional record-keeping.

Lobres, D. C., Paduhilao, J. C., Jayne Rodelas, M. M., De Ocampo, L. G., Sausa, L. P., Joy Lopez, G. B., & Tanalas, L. C. (2020). Knowledge, Attitudes, and 5
Practices of Records Management among Bank Professionals: A Basis for a Competency Training Program. Human Behavior, Development and Society,
21(1), 56–67.

ATTITUDES Credit Image: Canva

The importance of attitudes in records
management cannot be overstated. ISO
15489 states that every businessperson is
responsible for creating and capturing
records. Every employee must know their
obligations (Oliver & Foscarini, 2014).

Administrative assistants must keep
correct records and update filing systems.
Every filing system needs a competent
operator. The operator should be confident
that any file requested can be obtained

Bad record-keeping and the absence of
policy standards in records management
programs have led to administrative
inefficiencies and loss of decision-making

Managers of records and information
should understand how the organisation
functions to better identify and regulate
intellectual and physical records.
Management must be aware of record-
keeping obligations, methods, and
procedures to assure staff compliance.


Even though record management is an integral
aspect of any institution, it is frequently undervalued
until the desired record cannot be retrieved. Record
management is the activity of properly maintaining
the records of organisations and institutions, from the
moment their foundations were laid to the time when
their disposal is thought appropriate. It is a
fundamental aspect of office administration. Better
customer service, legal defensibility, and increased
profitability are the results of a good record
management program (Betty, 2018; Unegbu, 2013).

Organizations understand the significance of
records management more and more frequently. It is
consequently the job of records managers to attract
the attention of organisational decision-makers.

Creation use maintenance disposition

Lobres, D. C., Paduhilao, J. C., Jayne Rodelas, M. M., De Ocampo, L. G., Sausa, L. P., Joy Lopez, G. B., & Tanalas, L. C. (2020). Knowledge, Attitudes, and 6
Practices of Records Management among Bank Professionals: A Basis for a Competency Training Program. Human Behavior, Development and Society,
21(1), 56–67.

Credit Image: Canva



There are a number of concerns related to records and
information management (RIM) that arise with out-of-date RIM
programs. And ignoring these dangers altogether could have
detrimental effects.

Here offers some suggestions on where you might want to start
if you've been meaning to take on this initiative but haven't exactly
prioritised it or weren't quite sure where to start.

The five areas listed below are where you should concentrate
your modernization efforts to avoid significant harm from outdated
RIM practices.


The first potential risk you may be incurring is to
ensure quality. This apathy could come back to
bother you if you're not diligent enough with
regard to records management practises. You've
likely heard the expression "Garbage In, Garbage
Out" Certainly, this holds true here. In today's
document-heavy, fast-paced world, effective
records management begins with accurate data
capture and filing. If you lack structure in the
data you record, its accuracy, storage locations,
and versioning controls, your system can rapidly
devolve into chaos.

Lemieux, V. L. (2010). The records-risk nexus: Exploring the relationship between records and risk. Records
Management Journal, 20(2), 199–216.

Credit Image: Canva


Without effective RIM, even Whether you manage

your most trustworthy medical data, legal

employees may unwittingly documents, or other types of

expose your firm to legal and personal and financial

compliance problems by information, a comprehensive

mishandling documentation. document retention strategy

Have you ever, for instance, is essential. Without it, you risk

discovered a vital form on hefty fines, especially if you

the office copier? Or dispose of data prematurely

provided files to a colleague or cannot produce them

without first verifying their during an audit. Keeping

permissions? Or perhaps records past their retention

you know someone who has dates may also expose you

discarded a document or to greater risk in the event of

record that was either a legal discovery or a data

securely retained or breach caused by

shredded. These mistakes negligence.

can endanger you and your



Natural disasters, floods, and fire can wreak havoc on a firm, destroying
irretrievably papers that have been incorrectly kept. Critical and
irreplaceable records should be kept in climate-controlled underground
vaults and professional records centers located in areas with minimal
environmental threats.


When firms maintain and handle records inefficiently, they
risk employees losing time and productivity as they search
for the information they need to complete tasks. All of this
work and effort has a direct impact on your bottom line.
Some workers claim to spend up to 15 percent of their
workweeks searching for misplaced paper documents.

Lemieux, V. L. (2010). The records-risk nexus: Exploring the relationship between records and risk. Records 8
Management Journal, 20(2), 199–216.

Registration Details:
- Malaysia
- Online

Registration Type:
Single Registration
Group Registration

Paper Record Variety of electronic documents is
larger than paper documents

or Ledgers, personnel files, notes, memoranda,
Electronic letters, articles, papers, and photographs are
examples of paper documents. This variety is
Record also available in digital format. However,
spreadsheets are far more complicated than,
By: Zaty Amalia say, a ledger. They may contain formulas,
charts, and databases, among other things. It
is simple and quick to make modifications to
an electronic document.

Credit: Google Electronic
documents last
Electronic longer than paper
documents are more documents
efficient than paper
documents Paper deteriorates over

time, and floods and

fires can destroy paper

Mail is used to deliver paper documents. Although

documents, which are then these factors have

filed in filing cabinets on site. analogies in electronic

A set of documents for each documents, for example,

accessing person is required a flooded computer

for multiple users to access loses its data, standard

documents at the same time. document backup

File cabinets are large and practises keep copies

take up a lot of space in the away from the "office."

office. It's difficult to search, Paper documents may

carry, copy, and modify paper enjoy the same

documents. Damaged, protection, but the

misfiled, or misplaced paper Electronic documents change frequency, extent and
faster, more frequently and
documents are common easier than paper documents usage of such backups is

occurrences. much reduced.

Making changes to an electronic document is simple and quick. The

Credit: Google reason is self-evident, all you have to do now is make the necessary
changes and save them. Changes to paper documents, however,

require retyping the whole document. There are many other reasons

. to the difference in speed and frequency. Documents can be dynamic,
as we have already mentioned. To facilitate change, web pages are
made dynamic.

Bunawan, A.-A., & Nordin, D. S. (2015). the Challenges in Preserving the Electronic Records Metadata. International 9
Journal of Information Systems and Engineering, 3(1), 11–17.


By: Zaty Amalia


The record manager is in charge of making sure

that records are created and received

appropriately. At this point, using the proper

format, the correct information can be delivered,

stored, and preserved. The process of creating

records can vary from organization to organization

and includes, but is not limited to, document

receipts, mail receipts, word processing of

documents, email creation and sending,

spreadsheet creation, meeting recording, and

entering transactions into enterprise systems. In RECORDS MAINTENANCE

this creation stage, a full and accurate record of all The responsibility of maintaining records in an
decisions, transactions, processes, activities made organisation so that users can access them safely
by the institution. Records must be created and easily falls to the record manager. They are
because, if properly managed, they will stop the also in charge of preserving the accuracy of the
creation of unimportant records, reducing the organization's records. The correctness,
amount of records that must be handled, timeliness, and relevance of the record to the
regulated, stored, and disposed of. Record organization's daily operations are all aspects of
generation is a specialised programme records integrity. Record managers must stay
component that is governed by elements such as current on events and developments inside the
form design, form management, form business in order to respond in an effective and
management for correspondence, report efficient manner. The development of filing and
management, management information system retrieval systems, management of files, mail, and
(MIS), and directive management. telecommunications, selection and management

distribution of office copying equipment, creation and upkeep
of vital records programmes and disaster
Distribution is the stage that records go through preparedness plans, running of records centres,
right after they are created. This stage focuses on and application of systems analysis, automation,
the ongoing distribution of records to users who and reprography to these processes are all
require them. The distribution of records is based covered in this stage.

on the type of users. People utilize those records

with significant security risks to deliver them since

they are far from where the records are

maintained. Records that are distributed manually

are typically delivered via messenger or postal

services. While using email, the internet, fax

machines, cassettes, and tapes all entail electronic

record dissemination. 10


protection After the initial use of the record, some are
retained for later use at the storage stage, typically
The safeguarding of records is a further phase of for legal, financial, or other administrative
the record life cycle. For a record to be secure, it purposes. Offsite or offline storage is typically
needs to be shielded from dangers including utilized to hold longer periods of time that are not
sabotage, natural disasters, theft, and human currently needed. This is done to lessen the
error. Records must be kept safe and secure from severe burden on the operating system's
physical dangers like floods and fire, as well as effectiveness and software storage capacity.
secure to retain the privacy of the data. Iron files, Records must be kept in a location where they
iron vaults, lamination of the record, repackaging may be quickly retrieved and shielded from the
in cassettes and films, placing the records inside elements. Records must be kept or saved in order
cabinets, and other methods are used to secure to be accessible when needed. Records that are
records. not frequently accessed or historical records must
be kept in a secure location and organized for
CONTROL easy retrieval. The sixth stage of the life cycle of
records is record storage, which marks the
While some records are quite "sensitive," others transition from record retention to record
are not. Some require only limited use or destruction.
utilization, while others do not. There should be
restrictions for records that are borrowed, such as DESTRUCTION
stating the record that is to be borrowed, knowing
who is borrowing them, the date and expiration Destruction is the final phase of the record life
date they are expected to return such record, and cycle. The organisation discards or destroys
that such record is returned in good form. records that are no longer needed. One method
of destroying records is by burning them, but
before doing so, the implications for the
environment must be considered. Information
and record managers have the responsibility of
deciding when records should be deleted and
keeping track of that destruction in order to
prevent environmental damage. There are several
methods for destroying records, including
shredding, burning, erasing electronic files, and
shredding optical discs. Records destruction
should be accurately and thoroughly documented,
according to the record manager or experts.
Records that relate to museum, historical archive,
or private person passes are disposed of.

Yusuf, S. K., & Adekoya, O. M. (2021). Trends in contemporary record management. Handbook of Research on Information and 11
Records Management in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, August, 326–343.

Do you do any of Records management shifts to
these Trends?
information governance which supports

creation, use and protection of digital

information Technology undoubtedly develops new

methods for information preservation.
It is inevitable that ICTs will be used in
record management. The widespread

use of ICTs in record management
necessitates the development of
flexible mindsets and skill sets.

Information that is organised or semi-
structured requires governance to
prevent unwanted access and to

manage disclosure and destruction
throughout its life cycle. Business
actions therefore frequently result in

data change. Organizations lack
confidence in their compliance
initiatives, e-discovery readiness, and

Credit: Bigstock the advancement of their electronic
records management programmes. As
a result, management needs to take a

proactive and comprehensive
approach to the transition of
information from the stage of creation

to the stage of record deletion.

Cloud storage and social

The development of information platforms render file and

and communication technology declare ineffective

(ICT) over the past two or three Cloud storage and social media
platforms are further record
decades has given management management developments. Platforms
based on the cloud are quickly
of records a new dimension. changing how work is done in
enterprises. It makes simple to access
The way things are done around

the world has been altered by

technology. According to

Information Management Credit: Canva

Services-Galaxy Consulting files and documents from anywhere at any time,
increasing staff effectiveness and productivity. Because
(2020), the following are the of the flexibility it offers for the future of document
management in businesses, especially libraries, cloud
latest record management storage is the go-to solution and well-known operational

.By: Zaty Amalia


Digital preservation forces Records Management is
itself onto the governance important keeping. Document
is everything you do
Professional record keepers and
managers work to overcome the Credit: Google
retention deadline barrier. the right
management of any organization or
business. Lewellen (2015) noted that
although digital papers and records
have their own life cycle, they are
currently thought to be of a high
quality standard with benchmarks. It is
important to remember that important
electronic records are not always
simple to retrieve, particularly when
using older or antiquated equipment.
Conversion and migration are used as
solutions in this case. Most
organizations, nevertheless, are
hesitant to update their records.

Open standards and open source
change the sourcing landscape

Governments around the world are
slow to implement open standards'
policies and practises. Open standards
and open sourcing, which have
dramatically reduced cost, platform
lock, vendor, and accessibility issues,
are, however, in high demand from the
public sector.

Continued education

Employers urgently make sure that
personnel involved in record and
information management continue
their education in cutting-edge
methods and capabilities. British
National Formulary [BNF] technologies
(2021) aid in long-term recordkeeper
training so that they can provide their
best to the fundamental recordkeeping
methods and practises that are out of
date with/in line with new trends.

Yusuf, S. K., & Adekoya, O. M. (2021). Trends in contemporary record management. Handbook of Research on Information and 13
Records Management in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, August, 326–343.

Facts About Record You

Should Know By: Zaty Amalia

Credit: Canva 1. general

"Record A record should accurately reflect what was communicated,
Management is decided, or done. It should be able to meet the demands of the
knowing what you company to which it is linked, as well as serve as a means of
have, where you accountability. The structure of a record, the business environment
have it and how in which the record was created, and the linkages between
long you have to documents should all be included in the record.

keep it" 2. Authenticity

Rich Lauwer An authentic record can be demonstrated to be exactly what it
claims to be, to have been generated or sent by the person who
claims to have created or transmitted it, and to have been created
or sent at the claimed time. Organizations should create and codify
rules and procedures that control the creation, receipt,
transmission, maintenance, and dispose of records to assure their

3. Reliability

A dependable record is one whose contents may be relied on in the
course of later transactions or activities as a complete and accurate
portrayal of the transactions, activities, or facts to which they attest.
Individuals with direct knowledge of the facts or instruments
frequently utilised inside the business to complete the transaction
should create records at the time of the transaction or occurrence
to which they pertain, or shortly thereafter.

4. integrity

A record's integrity refers to how comprehensive and unaffected it
is. It is required to secure a record from unauthorized modification.
Policies and procedures for records management should describe
what additions or annotations to a record may be made after it is
established, under what conditions additions or annotations may
be approved, and who is authorized to make them.

5. Useability

A record that can be found, retrieved, displayed, and interpreted is
a usable record. It should be able to be presented in the future as
being closely related to the business activity or transaction that
generated it. The information needed to comprehend the
transactions that created and utilized the records should be
conveyed via the contextual links of records.



Document management is a procedures for capturing, storing SYSTEM
and tracking documents in physical or electronic form that
businesses should follow. According to ISO 15489-1:2016, record management is a
It help the businesses to manage the lifespan of the field of management responsible for the efficient and
documents, from creation to archiving. systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance,
There are lots of benefits if the businesses using document use and disposition of records. It is also include the
management system in their organization. processes for capturing and maintaining evidence and
information about the organization activities and
Fast document retrieval transactions in the form of records.
Searching using document metadata and full-text search Record can be considered as an evidence in which took
allow us to find a document in second. place within the organization.

Real time collaboration These are the benefits of using record management system
A high-quality system will make it simple for the staff to in the organization.
exchange documents (internally and externally) and will
include sophisticated collaboration features like notes, stamps Effectively retrieval and disposition of records
and signatures. Spending too much time hunting for misfiled documents
can have serious effects; not only waste billable hours but
Audit trail also key clients. This is why it is critical to invest in a well-
Keep track of all the modifications and activities that occur designed file system that allows for easy retrieval and
on a document. disposal of data that have passed their end-of-life date.

OBJECTIVES Minimize litigation risks

Allow fast and easy way to locate documents Putting in place a record management system helps lessen
the risk of lawsuit and related penalties. A well-planned
Cost reduction and increased productivity and well-executed record management program can help
to decrease the risks connected with document disposal.
Physical storage and space reduction
Safeguard important information
Minimize the usage of paper based documents and
move into electronic forms Every firm, public or private, need a systematic policy for
safeguarding critical documents and information from
Streamline information and workflows disaster or theft. A record management system protects
and preserves the integrity and confidentiality of vital
documents according to established regulations.
Unauthorized users are prevented from interfering with
sensitive and essential documents.


Set the automatic retention periods

Protection and support in litigation
Improve transparency and accountability

Preserve records throughout their life cycle
Compliance with legislation and regulations

Credit: Canva

Calpin, J. C. (2016). Chapter 4. Document Management Systems 47 LIFE CYCLE DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR 15
CONSTRUCTION 4. Document Management Systems. 4(Löwnertz 1998), 47–74.;sequence=4


Records relating to the agency's beginning,
evolution, pursuits and successes. These Records of legal worth include those that provide
typically fall into two groups: policy records proof of the state's legally enforceable rights or
and operational records. responsibilities. Its including:

Policy Records Records relating to property rights: land,
probate, contracts, agreements, leases and
Records related to the organization, such as licenses.
strategies, tactics or regulations that the Records relating to citizenship rights: vital
organization has established to carry out its duties statistic, such as birth, death, marriage, some
and activities. It fall into three groups; legal proceedings and criminal cases.
organizational documents, governing documents Records related to employment: record of
and reporting documents. veterans involving legal rights attached to
employment, basic state personnel records and
Operational Records payroll records (in some cases).
Records required to carry out administrative Records containing information required to
activities, rules and procedures. The utility of a protect the state against claims or to enforce
record in carrying out the operations of an statutes: executive orders, rules, regulations and
organization is its operational value. Mandate, records to establish or support judicial opinions
procedural or directional records are a few and interpretations.

Records and Information Management Types of Records. (n.d.). 1–5. 16


Fiscally valuable records are those that pertain
Records deserving of permanent preservation to an agency's financial transactions. Budgets,
for reference and research purposes are payrolls, vouchers and accounting records are
chosen for deposit. These records are kept examples of such documents. After records
for a variety of reasons. Archival records are have served their main administrative purpose,
used by public authorities to safeguard the they may need to be kept in order to document
government, to provide consistency and the use of public funds and account for them for
continuity to their acts. to avoid duplication audit reasons and requirement.
efforts and to discover successful solutions to
recurring problems. Records are also retained Documentation is a
to defend citizens' legal rights and to increase love letter that you
public knowledge and understanding in a write to your future
variety of disciplines.

Records and Information Management Types of Records. (n.d.). 1–5. 17


Digitization of records

WHAT IS DIGITIZATION Digitization of records have many challenges. Let’s
OF RECORDS? check them out.

“The act of converting recorded 01. Technical Expertise
items, frequently in printed form, to
electronic form so that they may be There is a lack of technological skills. In this scenario,
stored and processed by a according to Harun (2010), the most difficult issue in
computer.” digitization projects is a shortage of IT people. Most
digitization initiatives encounter issues and there is a need
There are four benefits of digitization for flexible and adaptable digitization programs (Fabunmi,
of records: Paris, Fabunmi, 2006), as well as technical knowledge to
begin on the digitization project, guaranteeing the process
Access to information can be implemented efficiently and successfully operated.

Resource sharing 02. Funding and Cost

Space saving Digitization is costly because of the massive financing
required for moving hardware and software. Zuraidah
Preservation (2007) stated that one of the problems in adopting
digitization in local cultural institutions is a lack of financing.
03. Technological Issues Zuraidah and Aliza (2010) stated that the cost of
transferring systems affected the application of digital
As Veerankutty, Ramayah and Ali (2018); Hadi resources in Malaysian cultural organization. Digitization
and Baskaran (2021), highlighted, technical necessitates complex technology and skilled labor, which
concerns caused by innovation cause the loss of requires additional cash to educate and supervise the
information in digital form. In this situation, rapidly digitization process; nevertheless, a lack of financing may
changing hardware and software renders present cause the digitization project to be hindered. Digitization
technology outdated and vulnerable (Rahman & work for records and archives need more cash to support
Mezbah, 2012). the entire project in which involves enhancing hardware and
software automation as well as the cost of subscribing to all
electronic and database items.

Azmi, I. A., Kamal, S. N. M., Diana, N., Rahman, A., Ahmad, R., Timan, H., Johor, U., Campus, S., Selangor, U., & Perdana, P. (2021). The 18
Challenges of Records ’ Digitization in Malaysian Public Sector The Challenges in Digitization of Records in Malaysian Public Sectors.
11(2), 287–292.


05. Lack of Knowledge and Skills 06. Technical Issues

Lack of knowledge and skills is a prevalent problem in Another identified challenge for digitization work in
every agency because not all staff have an IT departments is the technological requirements such as
background. Zuraidah (2007) identified on e of the types of technical equipment with high demand for
obstacle in digitization initiatives as a lack of maintenance and care of handlings to ensure its
knowledge and abilities to manage them. continuous quality, namely picture, quality, resolution, bit
Veerankutty, Ramayah and Ali (2018) discovered that depth, image enhancement techniques and
IT division itself is slowing the digitalization effort by performance (Zakaria et al,. 2018). In this regard,
underutilizing system functions owing to a lack of agency decisions are critical for selecting appropriate
understanding. Digitization necessitated a variety technological equipment for their digitization project,
types of skills and knowledge to complete various such as advanced technology scanning machines.

activities and the study discovered a shortage of 08. Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities
digital management abilities due to personnel lacking

an adequate qualification background in the field of Another critical factor in supporting the digitization

IT administration (Netshakuma, 2021). process is the availability of adequate infrastructure. In

07. Lack of Training this scenario, inadequate infrastructure has a
substantial influence on the digital project since the

The necessity to embrace learning digitization has resources required to implement digitization must be
become vital success because understanding the sufficient to digitize a huge number of documents.
notion of digitization is critical in project digitization. In According to Zuraidah (2007), Zuraidah (2008), and
their study, Veerankutty, Ramayah and Ali (2018) Hadi and Baskaran (2021), poor infrastructure is one of
discovered that one of the factors limiting the obstacles in digitization efforts. Inadequate
digitalization efforts in Malaysian public sectors is a infrastructure hinders digitization projects owing to a
lack of training. Furthermore, inadequate fundamental lack of required equipment and others, and digitization
digital abilities in digitization can cause organization necessitates a comprehensive array of facilities to
to fail and fall behind digital technology. As a result, it ensure the project can be managed properly (Akter &
is critical to leverage training and education for Begum, 2016). At the moments, adequate and solid
employees to be more adaptive and flexible in order infrastructure is still dependent on the financial
to stay up with rapidly changing technology (Forrest, resources available in the agencies.

2017). 19

Azmi, I. A., Kamal, S. N. M., Diana, N., Rahman, A., Ahmad, R., Timan, H., Johor, U., Campus, S., Selangor, U., & Perdana, P. (2021). The Challenges of
Records ’ Digitization in Malaysian Public Sector The Challenges in Digitization of Records in Malaysian Public Sectors. 11(2), 287–292.



A records retention schedule is a policy where it By: FATIN NUR INSYIRAH
determine how long the data will be kept and
remain accessible for future references. It also
provides disposal guidelines for how the records
should be removed.

Why it is important to have Credit: Canva

retention schedule?

Protection from liability

Important historical records should be kept safe and
easily available so you may present your case if there
is a disagreement over liability. When demonstrating
compliance with health, safety and financial duties,
being able to demonstrate that you did what you said
you would do when it was supposed to be done is
very advantageous.


An archive of crucial data makes it simpler and quicker
for the auditors to create an accurate picture of an
organization, whether you're being audited to monitor
performance or maintain compliance. The audit might
not appropriately show your improvement if you lose
track of previous performance and events due to
missing papers.

Corporate use

The management of a firm necessitates the significant
use of previous performance data, such as to forecast
sales, plan expansion or calculate stock needs.
Otherwise, it could be difficult for you to have an
understanding of the long-term course that your
company is on.


An effective business is one that is well-organized.
You may keep your internal focus topical and your
data easily recoverable if it's required at a later time
by classifying, tracking and monitoring your papers.

Space management and Planning Credit: Canva

Space for filing is expensive. Keeping records longer 20
than necessary in a busy business can be a waste of
time, money and office space. As opposed to
preserving all of your data locally, having them stored
off-site with a third party can offer better security
and accessibility.

The University of Edinburgh. (2018). Creating a Retention Schedule Who compiles and maintains the retention schedule ? University of Edinburgh
Records Management Section Creating, 11.

THE 22nd




May 25-28, 2022
Online thru Zoom


By: Nur Zafirah

Credit: Google Besides, it can be destroyed
accordance to authorized retention
NEVER schedules until both United Nations
UNDERESTIMATE THE Archives, Records Management Section
POWER OF RECORDS. and the office's top management have
given their approval through a formal
Disposition refers to the approval process.
measures performed with regard
to information and data after It is important to know that there are
they are no longer required in specific dates and regulations that
office space to carry out ongoing specify when we must lawfully destroy
operations. The organizations different types of papers. For example,
must need a permission before employment contracts must be keep
they can destroy a records. Any for six years before destroy it. Besides,
records must be destroyed as we can face a penalties if we destroy
soon as they are declared records too rapidly or keep them for
outdated or replaced. longer than necessary. It is and offence
under the Public Records Act 2002 if
records dispose without authorization.

Next, before destroy a record we must
check if the record have no disposal
freezes that been issued or it is no
longer required for continuing
operations. This is because destruction
must be irreparable so that there is no
realistic chance of the data being
recovered especially for the sensitive
documents. However, if the
organizations failed to complete delete
a data, it may result in the
unintentional leakage especially for
sensitive data.

Nations, U. (n.d.). When and how can I destroy records? 5–6. 21

By: Nur Zafirah Credit: Google

More Info The destruction of Moreover, disposition
obsolete or outdated
Credit: Google records is a necessary step records can minimize the
in the maintenance of a
Disposition is the disposal of information that credible, reliable, and possibility of sensitive or
has reached the end of its lifespan. Most of the efficient records system.
time disposition means destruction, but in This is because keeping personal information falling
some situations, it can also represent transfer outdated records can
to another organization like a record that have creates the confusion. It is into the wrong hands.
historical value must transfer to corporate difficult for the employees
archive. to determine which Records containing sensitive
Next, disposition process is a proof that records are up to date and
records have been consistently and properly which are no longer information that can not be
disposed of. A strong record management can required for business
lead to efficient and effective organizations purposes. seen by others should be
while poor record management in the
organizations can make the messy and safely destroyed. The
unintelligible work environments, irritable
employees, and information loss. organizations may be at risk

if they leave hard copies

laying around, send

electronic documents to the

trash, or file them away in an

old folder.

Next, disposition of record Not only that, an

will help maintain an organizations can prevent

effective record system in from professional hackers

the organization if they and data thieves that will

securely destroy a record always be able to recover

that the company does not data if it is not securely

longer need the records or destroyed. Thus, records

when the retention period management strategies

ends as long as they do enhance in the efficiency and

not contain personal productivity of businesses.

information about Besides, deposing record can

employees or company enhance the effectiveness of

information. paper and electronic records

systems by removing

obsolete documents.

Solutions, R. M. (n.d.). Records Management 101: Why Is It Important? | Vital Records Control. 18778987450, 1–9. 22


By: Nur Zafirah

Credit: Google Level of

An organization should consider risk building
assessment to identify risks and
dangers of records, as well as the Records should not be kept in
strategies needed to mitigate risks attics or basements unless
before purchases or leases a precautions have been made to
building. Exposure to threats such as reduce dangers. This is because
fire, water, earthquake, and hazards records should not be
like harmful industries and vandalism maintained in places where they
can compromise the physical may be exposed to high or
integrity of records. variable temperatures, or where
there is a risk of water intrusion,
It is because records are a vital Credit: Google such as attics or basements.
information asset for a company, These places can only be used
every action must be made to detect Door of building for record storage if adequate
potential hazards and ensure that risk-mitigation procedures are
records are not stored in their area. The door and window frames implemented. However, the
For example when selecting a need to be check to ensure that basement must waterproof and
location, client or worker they properly seal and do not let well aired also humidity levels
convenience should be taken into water into the building. Besides, must be controlled so that mold
account, but safety should be the top the doors of the storage records does not grow. Not only that, as
priority. area should be maintained closed a disaster precaution like flood,
and to more secure it must be fire storage shelves must be raised
resistant. However, if doors must 85-150mm off the floor.
be kept open while in use, they
should be equipped with
magnetic devices that close doors
automatically when the building's
fire alarm or detection system is

United Nations. (2018). Guidelines for records storage facilities : United Nations Archives and 23

Credit: Google Records Management Section. October 2018, 1–8.


Credit: Gooogle Smoking, old wiring, and the
inappropriate storing of
Windows of Credit: Google flammable goods should all be
avoided. It is critical that your
building Fire detection in organization conducts regular
training fire evacuations so
Moreover, the ideal storage the building that employees working in the
facilities or rooms used for records storage area or facility
record storage should have One of the prime dangers to can practice fleeing the
no windows or skylights. paper records is fire. building in the event of an
West-facing windows should Fire detection, protection emergency. It is to ensure that
be prevented because they systems and equipment such fire exits are clear of
expose records to both heat as heat or smoke detectors, obstructions, and ensuring
and light. This is because all fire alarms, and fire that storage facilities do not
types of light can harm suppression should be contain any combustible
records. installed in storage spaces materials such as nitrate film
and facilities. A competent or chemicals.
Protecting records from fire safety expert should
direct sunshine and limiting conduct a regular fire
light in storage rooms will inspection in a storage area
help to keep records in good or facility to ensure that the
condition. However, use space or facility fulfils the
heavy curtains, shutters, or standards and is safe.
shades especially fabric that
reduce heat to decrease or
eliminate the light. Besides,
the record can be store in the
boxes to reduce their
exposure to light.

United Nations. (2018). Guidelines for records storage facilities : United Nations Archives and Records Management Section. October 24
2018, 1–8.

By: Nur Zafirah

Credit: Google

A successful firm relies heavily

on providing excellent

customer service. Once a

potential customer initiates

contact, it is the business's Credit: Google

obligation to satisfy them and Customers frequently complain It's always nice to know that

win their attention. Document that support teams take too the customer's information is

management system (DMS) is long to respond to their safe and secure. DMS can

the effective tools to manage inquiries. A long wait time control who has access to

the workflow to respond to the equals a bad customer what information with a

consumer request quickly. STUDENT FUNexperience. Improved record

Nowadays, many businesses no management ensures that document management
teams have easy access to
information pertinent to a
customer's enquiry, resulting in
longer use physical records system, no longer have to

systems or manual filing of worry about essential and

paper. They solely keep sensitive documents being

electronic versions of faster, more accurate left around the workplace,

customer-related documents responses. It is important to be and have all your data backed

including forms, contracts, and able to respond to customers up onto a secure server in an

agreements. quickly and properly. With the off-site facility.

Document management search and retrieve features of

a document management It is saves money on the

system is a simple method to system, the employee has disposal of essential
instant access to documents documents while also making
start enhancing and investing and information, never having information more secure.
to put a customer on hold. Password protection ensures
in customer service because

most of documents are

stored carelessly due to a lack Document management, on the that each document is kept
other hand, allows you to safe from prying eyes, unlike
of a document storage policy, distribute papers online while physical paper, which may be
keeping them secure, rather easily seen or taken by
making it difficult to quickly than mailing a document and anybody so that the
waiting for customer approval information of the customer
locate them when a customer

calls. The time consume

looking for documents will be

less and more time assisting days later, or requiring your not be leaked.

those who are most important clients to come into your office

which are clients and can to review crucial paperwork.

organize the company





Candidate must possess at leat Sijil
Pelajaran Malaysia.
Minimum 1 Year of relevant working
Pleasant personality, positive attitude,
flexible, fast learner, and able to work
Good interpersonal and
communication skills

Send your resume to

[email protected]

By: SITI HAWA Credit: Google


Business Continuity CONTINUITY IN A CRISIS?

Plan For Records that no risk to an agency's An agency Records

A process that includes records or recordkeeping Manager's records-related

procedures, information, and systems is overlooked. risk management and

resource identification that are business continuity

ready to use in the event of an The following are some responsibilities include

emergency or disaster affecting an actions Records Management ensuring that records are
agency's records, records can take to reduce the risk of handled satisfactorily from

management, or recordkeeping a disaster or the severity of a a risk-management

systems to ensure business disaster caused by security. perspective, ensuring that
continuity. It is the process of Each building and collection records are stored
planning for, preparing for, has its own set of security adequately from a risk-
responding to, and recovering issues. Records management management perspective,
from a disaster. can work with agency ensuring that records are

Records management must security officers to reduce the located as far away from
address events that could risk of theft or loss. Make all hazards as possible and
potentially damage or destroy its employees aware of the that hazards are identified
records to manage records importance of security. and preventative measures
incorporated in the design
disasters. Damage from
and management of
inadequate security measures
encompasses a wide range of Business Continuity records.

risks. Access security, building Plan For Resources

security, and storage security are

three categories. These categories

should be interpreted broadly so The Records Manager is in

charge of implementing the

agency's Records Management

Program, which includes

identifying and managing vital

and archival records.

Credit: Canva Credit: Google

Barry, D., & Resona Holding. (2014). Crisis Management and Business Continuity Management. Cranfield University, 1–2. 26



The disaster management plan is being used by By: SITI HAWA
the organizations for saving and protecting the
records before and after the disaster. A
disaster preparedness plan must have an
adequate cover for the storage of the public

This plan is a document that describes the
procedures for the protection of electronic and
paper-based records. It also describes the
processes for the prevention and the
preparation of the disasters and the
individuals who are responsible for the

Credit: Google

This plan also proposes the procedures for

responding to and recovering from the disaster


It covers the procedures for the prevention of the


The processes for the identification of the disasters
and then developing measures to be taken in the
event of disaster.


On action which can be used for coping with the

Credit: Canva

The preparedness for the disaster and recovery

plans provide help in ensuring that the vital

records of the organization are protected during

the disasters which can be either caused by

natural forces or by human errors.

Public sector organization there was little

awareness about the existence of a written

disaster preparedness plans and the majority

were not even aware of the written recovery Credit: Canva


Nur, F. (2021). Disaster Preparedness for Records Management : A conceptual Review 27

Management of records is a set of activities which covers the entire lifecycle of the. April.


Electronic records are highly vulnerable due to DO YOU KNOW THE
technological obsolescence, media fragility, PRESERVATION
and physical damage to hardware and storage OF ELECTRONIC
media caused by a variety of factors. When an RECORDS?
electronic record becomes inaccessible and
unreadable, it is usually irretrievably lost. As a By: SITI HAWA
result, B/D should preserve electronic records
proactively to ensure their continued
authenticity, integrity, reliability, and usability
for as long as they are required.

The longer the retention periods of electronic What electronic records should be preserved?
records are, the greater the risk of those
records becoming inaccessible and unusable. Records, including electronic records, are
As a result, proactive actions and measures widely assumed to have a life cycle that
should be taken to preserve electronic records, extends from creation to final disposal.
which should be kept for seven years or longer Records created and received during
after they are created because they are business transactions may be kept for a
vulnerable to the risks of generations of short time, say two to three years, for
technological changes throughout their life example, routine administrative records
cycle. relating to building management of
government premises.

B/D should take action to preserve electronic While some records may be required for an
records with an approved retention period of extended period, such as seven years or
no more than seven years if there is an longer, such as leave records of civil
identified imminent threat to their continued servants, the retention periods of records
accessibility and usability or if the situation should comply with legal and regulatory
requires immediate action. requirements; adhere to government

directives; meet business and operational

needs, and serve as evidence.

The most common method for preserving electronic

records combines two other techniques: migration

and conversion. The process of moving files to new

media (also known as "refreshing") or computer

platforms to preserve their value is known as


Credit: Canva Conversion is the process of converting files from
one format to another. It may involve switching
from a proprietary format, such as Microsoft Word,
to a non-proprietary format, such as a plain text file
or XML.

To avoid data loss, you should conduct preliminary
tests and analyses to determine what changes will
occur and whether they are acceptable.

Goleman, Daniel; Boyatzis, Richard; Mckee, A. (2019). A Handbook on Preservation of Electronic Records. Journal of Chemical 28
Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.

WHAT IS ISO 15489?


Credit: Google


CLASSIFICATION The policy's goal should be to create and manage
The systematic identification and arrangement authentic, reliable, and usable records that can
of business activities and records into support business functions and activities for as long
categories based on logically structured as they are needed. The policy should be adopted
conventions, methods, and procedural rules. and endorsed at the highest level of decision-making
and implemented throughout the organization.
Process of changing records from one An analysis of business activities should be used to
medium to another or from one format to develop the policy. Organizations must ensure that
another. the policy is communicated and implemented at all
organizational levels. It should define the areas where
DISPOSITION legislation, regulations, other standards, and best
A set of procedures for carrying out decisions practices are most applicable in the creation of
about record retention, destruction, or transfer business-related records.
that are documented in disposition authorities
or other instruments RESPONSIBILITIES

METADATA Responsibility and authority for records management
should be defined, assigned, and communicated
Data describing context, content, and structure throughout the organization. All employees in the
of records and their management through time organization, including records managers, allied
information professionals, executives, business unit
PRESERVATION managers, system administrators, and others, should
be assigned responsibilities.
Processes and operations involved in ensuring
the technical and intellectual survival of Records management professionals are in charge
authentic records through time of all aspects of records management, including
the design, implementation, and operation of
records systems.

Executives are responsible for supporting the
application of records management policies
throughout the organization.


Credit: Google




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