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Published by Bla123 Blabla, 2020-10-14 04:49:40

CHEMI PROJECT 6

SMJK YOK BIN
PROJECT BASED LEARNING
SCRAPBOOK

CHEMISTRY

FORM 4

2020



GROUP : 5


CLASS : 4 NEWTON

GROUP COORDINATOR : TAN LIANG QI

GROUP MEMBER : FENNY TAN PEI SHIN

YONG SZE TING


SAKTHI RAJA RAJESHWARI

KRISTY HAU KAI XUEN

CHAN SZE MIN


PROJECT MENTOR : MDM. YUU YEE MEE
SMJK YOK
SUBMISSION DATE : 27/09/2020
BIN

PROJECT BASED LEARNING SCRAPBOOK


BIOLOGY



INTRODUCTION
Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a

chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form
as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt is present in vast
quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean

has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per liter of sea water, a salinity of 3.5%.
Salt is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic

human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and
salting is an important method of food preservation.

Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000
BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water
to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period.
Salt was also prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the

Byzantines, the Hittites, Egyptians, and the Indians. Salt became an important
article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along
specially built salt roads, and across the Sahara on camel caravans. The scarcity
and universal need for salt have led nations to go to war over it and use it to
raise tax revenues. Salt is used in religious ceremonies and has other cultural

and traditional significance.

Salt is processed from salt mines, and by the evaporation of seawater (sea
salt) and mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial
products are caustic soda and chlorine; salt is used in many industrial processes
including the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, plastics, paper pulp and many
other products. Of the annual global production of around two hundred million
tonnes of salt, about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include
water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, and agricultural use. Edible

salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which usually contains an
anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency. As well as

its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods.
Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an
electrolyte and osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption may increase the

risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults.
Such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous
world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend
reducing consumption of popular salty foods.The World Health Organization
recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium,

equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.

Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt . It is related to

pickling in general and more specifically to brining (preparing food with brine,
that is, salty water) and is one form of curing. It is one of the oldest methods of
preserving food,[1] and two historically significant salt - cured foods are sa lted
fish (usually dried and salted cod or salted herring) and salt - cured meat (such as
bacon). Vegetables such as runner beans and cabbage are also often preserved

in this manner.

Salting is used because most bacteria, fungi and other potentially
pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a highly salty environment, due to the
hypertonic nature of salt. Any living cell in such an environment will become
dehydrated through osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated. Fine

grained salts were more expensive but also absorbed moisture faster than coarse
salt.

Objectiv e

The aims of carrying out this project work are:

To investigate the us es of sodium chloride as a salt to preserve food

To study t he importan ce of sodium chloride in food preservati on



To study the effect of s al t on human health


To study the benefit of s alt to humans





11 Yong Sze Ting Preparation of pickled fruit 18/09/2020



12 Yong Sze Ting Take photo for Materials and 18/09/2020
Apparatus



13 Yong Sze Ting Take photo for Diagram of set 18/09/2020
up


14 Kristy Hau Kai Xuen State the procedure of preparing 18/09/2020
pickled fruit and state the
precaution



15 Chan Sze Min Analysis the result of the 23/09/2020
product and present of product



16 Sakthi Raja List down the advantage of the 24/09/2020
Rajeshwari ingredients selection for the
project and concept of pickled

fruit



17 Sakthi Raja State the Knowledge 24/09/2020
Rajeshwari



18 Chan Sze Min Write the conclusion of the 25/09/2020
project



19 Kristy Hau Kai Xuen Write down the reflection of the 22/09/2020
project



20 Chan Sze Min Prepare survey form 24/09/2020

21 Kristy Hau Kai Xuen Compiling all the 25/09/2020
documentation


22 Sakthi Raja Preparing debate for 27/09/2020
Rajeshwari presentation





19/09/2020 Prepare the google form of interview



19/09/2020 Group discussion :

✓ To discuss about the Reflection





04/09/2020 to Plan of project Implementation

27/09/2020



04/09/2020 to Record down all the activities carry out in the Logbook

27/09/2020



23/09/2020 Analysis the result of the product



24/09/2020 State the knowledge of the project



24/09/2020 Write the reflection of the project



25/09/2020 Write down the conclusion of the project



25/09/2020 Complete all the documentation



28/09/2020 Hand in the draft to teacher



29/09/2020 Convert Documentation into Anyflip

27/09/2020 to Prepare the debate

29/09/2020



30/09/2020 Presentation of folio
27/09/2020 Hand in the folio



S urvey







Responder







Discussion

In this Project Based Learning Chemistry 2020, we have decided to choose sodium
chloride,NaCl as preservative of the food preservation.













Definition of sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, NaCl is commonly recognized as salt which is one of the natural
minerals that exist in Earth and an essential nutrient for many animals and plants. Sodium
chloride is also an inorganic compound which is known as the mineral halite or table salt .
Table salt made when Na that means sodium and Cl which means chloride come together to
form white, crystalline cubes. Humans’ body needs salt to function, but too little or too much

salt can be harmful t o your health. Sodium chloride is an essential compound our body uses
to:


● absorb and transport nutrients

maintain blood pressure

maintain the right balance of fluid

● transmit nerve signals

contract and relax muscles



While salt is frequently used for cooking , it can also be found as an ingredient in
foods or cleansing solutions. In medical cases, the doctor or nurse will typically introduce

sodium chloride as an injection.


Location and sources of sodium chloride



Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on E arth. It is never found in its pure form
because it is so reactive. It is naturally found in ocean water (seawater), salt lakes and in
underground rock formations. Sodium chloride is usually used in preservation and food

preparation. The reason that using sodium chloride in food preservation is because
sodium chloride is a good hydrating agent which can keep the food hydrated and prevent the
invasion of microorganisms into the food.























These are the places where sodium chloride is produced.


The u ses of sodium chloride


Sodium chloride has various uses that can be applied in any field. The most common use for
salt is in food. Its uses include:



● food seasoning
acting as a natural preservative

● enhancing the natural colors of foods
curing, or preserving, meats

creating a brine for marinating foods

To prevent spoilage



T here’s also a wide variety of household and industries manufacturing uses, such as:



● Tcleaning pots and pans
preventing mold

removing stains and grease

salting roads in the winter to prevent ice

to help make a range of products, from plastic, paper, rubber and glass, to chlorine,

polyester, household bleach, soaps, detergents and dyes.

The effect of take excessive salt to human




Even though sodium chloride isn’t a health hazard, but intake an excessive amounts
will irritate your :



eyes

● skin
airways

Stomach



While sodium is essential, it’s also in large amounts of almost everything we eat.
Eating too much salt is linked to:



high blood pressure


● increased risk for heart disease and kidney
disease

● increased water retention, which can lead to
swelling in the body

● Dehydration
Increased risk of having stroke

cause calcium losses


● Cancer


Importance of sodium chloride to human health




● Maintaining resting energy


Sodium and potassium are electrolytes in the fluid outside and inside your cells. The balance
between these particles contributes to how your cells maintain your body’s energy. It’s also
how nerves send signals to the brain, your muscles contract, and your heart functions.

• Maintaining blood pressure and hydration


Your kidneys, brain, and adrenal glands work together to regulate the amount of sodium in
your body. Chemical signals stimulate the kidney to either hold on to water so it can be
reabsorbed into the bloodstream or get rid of excess water through the urine.




● Helps to stay hydrated
To stay better hydrated your body needs a delicate balance of sodium and potassium. This sea

salt like Celtic or pink Himalayan contains both sodium and potassium, which helps balance

your levels naturally


Balances electrolytes and prevents muscle cramping

Sea salt is an excellent source of electrolytes, which has been shown to prevent muscle

cramping during exercise. Sea salt contains sodium,magnesium, potassium, and calcium, all

of which you need for optimal health. These minerals must come from y our diet because your

body can’t create them. Without sufficient electrolytes you can experience irregular

heartbeat, fatigue, nausea, and even seizures.

Materials and Apparatus
























Mango

Plum

Salt

Paper

Small knife

Plastic


Procedure

WITH ADDING SODIUM CHLORIDE

1 . Prepare the apparatus and ingredients.


















2 . Wash the mangoes and peel it.




















3 . Cut the mangoes into slices.

4. Put some salt into the mango slices and stir it. Then, wait for 5 to 6 minutes
and rinse it with water.






















5 . When the mango slices are dried, put the mango slices into a container .




















6 . Peel the plum and put it into the container to make the pickle mango tastier .

7 . Add the melted salt syrup into the pickle food.


















8 .Lastly, wait for 5 to 6 days and the pickle food is ready to be served.

WITHOUT ADDDING SODIUM CHLORIDE

1 . Wash the mangoes and peel it.














2 . Cut the mangoes into slices.














3 . When the mango slices are dried, put the mango slices into a container.

4 . Lastly, wait for 5 to 6 days and the pickle food is ready to be served.

CONCLUSION




With adding sodium chloride Without adding sodium chlo r ide



















S weet and sour Astringency and more sour
Soft Hard

Can ne storage for a long period Can’t be storage for a long period

REFLECTION

Reflection

The shortcoming of pickled fruit is fruits that pickled will change the taste of foods
permanently, therefore the fruits will lost its nutrition such as vitamin C. Besides, pickled
fruit that contain high content of sodium products can cause higher blood pressure. The
pickled fruit will did not stored properly. The limitation of pickling was include the level of
acidity in a pickled product is as important to its safety as it is to taste and texture. It also do
not alter vinegar, food, or water proportions in a recipe or use a vinegar with unknown
acidity and there must be a minimum, uniform level of acid throughout the mixed product to
prevent the growth of Botulinum bacteria.

We had made the prickled fruit for two times. When we made pickled mango for the first
time, the mango was rotted because it does not stored properly. After a failure, we learned
from it and finally succeeded.
There are some recommendation to improve the quality of the pickled products. Firstly,
soft water is recommended for pickle making because hard water may contribute to
undesirable effect on the colour and flavour of pickled products. Next, the packaging of the
pickled fruit product also crucial to prevent any reaction of metals with acid or salt, which
simultaneously affect the quality and safety of pickles. Lastly, pickled product is
recommended to mainly kept under refrigerated and airtight condition because exposure to
heat, low surrounding temperature or light will decrease the quality and the shelf life of food.

Pickled fruit can reduce farmer’s loss. For example, farmers can’t sell out their fruits
during covid-19. They can pickle their fruits before rot to prevent wastage. In addition, the
raw green mango contains some acidic components that can speed up the body’s digestion
and absorption of food, and can also decompose excess fat in the body. So, the cases of
obesity in our country can be reduced.

The pickled mango is quite famous in students. The pickled mango that we made was
sold out in short period of time. The students likes to eat the pickled mango that taste sweet.
We sold out sixteen packs of pickled mango.

Lastly, the marketing of pickled fruits experience helped us to understand more
about the importance of other discipline of study in everyday life. We gained a better
understanding of the goals or purposes for various applications of science and technology in

the food system and we appreciate for the complexity of the modern food supply.

Interview of farmer :

The farmer we interviewed was retired
from bank, he didn’t want to just everyday
relax at home so he decided to do something
productive to let himself alert.


The sudden retirement makes him feel

uncomfortable ,feel the rest time is not
belongs to him. As a farmer, he is a farmer that plant guava fruits about seven years. Before
the MCO, the planting of fruits and vegetables running very smoothly, the marketing wise are
not much of wrongs. The fruits is quite famous in the market, we can get it from anywhere
like night market. He is not doing a big scale of selling. When the fruits is ripped, he can
direct sell the fruits to his friends or those people decide to buy. He said that his wife helped
him to sale the fruits to her friends. The fruits that direct sell to them will be more fresh than

fruits that bought from public or market.
During the MCO, the farm is no more fruits to plant. He said that he was so lucky
because it was a flowering season during the MCO. For him it is not a problem but for the
agriculture side it is a big issue because the every sector of the economies is total lockdown.
For example, the vegetables can plant a lot but farmers cannot market it. The vegetables and
fruit all have a certain time, when over the time, the fruits will be get rotten and the leaf of the
vegetables will yellowish.

From the feedback from the farmer’s friend those who also plant guava, they are totally
ignore the fruits because although they harvest the fruits, plug the fruits and wrap up the fruit,
but there is nobody will go to buy. The government locked up everything. There is no buyer,
no seller is allowed to sell or buy things so they straight away throw all the fruits. They
realize it is a waste. Some people said that why they don’t gave the fruits to neighbourhood
but the citizens is not allowed to move outside their house. He states that there is no chances,
way or idea that can save the fruits if the fruits faces the rotten problem. The fruits is nature.
It will ripped itself and we cannot control it. There is nobody will like to eat the soft fruits.

The farmer states that he is don’t know about preservation the fruits. In business wise, it
is a good adventure but talking in a help side, preserving the fruit is used a preservative there
and it is not good for our human health. For example, guava, papaya and mango is
preservative in a jar. He thinks the pickled fruit in guava will be the second grade of the fruits
and not the quality is not the original. To reduce the cost of materials, the exhibitor will select
the cheaper fruits. When they sell the original big, crunchy and juicy fruit, the customer will
more tend to buy the natural because the original would be more healthy.

The size of the land is related to management of farm .The big size of land cannot
manage and do by himself, he needs workers. The workers will live at the farm and work
from morning until evening. He will provides food and room for them. Other than that, he
also will get the local people or part time workers to wrapped the fruits or fertilizing or cut
the plants. He will participate in the work in the farm and always respects his workers so that
in an emergency, the workers can help him. He pointed out that the relationship between the
boss and the worker is crucial to nurturing a productive worker. He never thought of giving
up. This work allows him to manage his time and situation by himself, which gives him the

most benefit The sudden retirement makes him feel uncomfortable, feel the rest time is not
belongs to him. As a farmer, he is a farmer that plant guava fruits about seven years. Before the
MCO, the planting of fruits and vegetables running very smoothly, the marketing wise are not much
of wrongs. The fruits is quite famous in the market, we can get it from anywhere like night market.
He is not doing a big scale of selling. When the fruits is ripped, he can direct sell the fruits to his
friends or those people decide to buy. He said that his wife helped him to sale the fruits to her
friends. The fruits that direct sell to them will be more fresh than fruits that bought from public or
market.

ONLINE MEETING

FIRST MEETING













SECOND MEETING














THIRD MEETING
















GOOGLE MEETING LINK FOR DEBATE REFERENCE


meet.google.com/ypx - gsrf - rnb

References

I) http://www.yancaiwang.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1333

II) https://youtu.be/2p0apXktXhQ

III) https://nchfp.uga.edu/how/can_06/prep_foods.ht m l
V) https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2
ahUKEwif4 -
qTmqzsAhWF7XMBHfkBBhoQFjAAegQIAxAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki
%2FSalt&usg=AOvVaw2Db40 - 4 Blp4b1ss6wt_NR
4
VI) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pickled_fru i t

VII) https://forms.gle/h1g13nKRC25AMsys9


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