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Published by Aleem Spriggs, 2019-09-24 22:59:59

E-Flip book (3)

E-Flip book (3)

Our Book of Medicine and Medicinal Practices
Aleem Spriggs
Ciara DeVose
Mahiya Noor
Shayennah Joseph
Central High School
Ms. Truong
Honors Pharmacology
24 September 2019

Medicinal Properties

■ Picture

Davidson, K. (2019). Retrieved from

■ Common Name: ​Eucalyptus
■ Scientific Name: ​Eucalyptus Globulus

■ Where is it cultivated: ​Native to Australia, 400
different species

■ Common uses/practices for medicine:
➢ Can soothe sore throat (garbled)
➢ Relieves Sinusitis
➢ Acts as a decongestant (diffused/boil in
water, put plant in shower to release oils)
➢ Perfume
➢ Insect repellent
➢ Oil of the plant is extracted….

■ Toxicology:
➢ Is poisonous if taken orally

■ Any known contraindication:
➢ Should not be used directly on skin unless
it is diluted with another non essential
oil(carrier oil)

➢ Eucalyptus is not recommended for
individuals with asthma and should not be

2.Artemisia Annua (Sweet Annie):
■ Picture:

Weatherspoon, Deborah. (2016). Retrieved from

■ Common Name: S​ weet Annie, Sweet

■ Scientific Name: A​ rtemisia Annua
■ Where is it cultivated: ​China

■ Common uses/practices for medicine:
➢ Used in Chinese medicine to treat malaria
and fever
➢ Bladder Infections
➢ Tuberculosis
➢ Arthritis

■ Toxicology:

➢ People that are prone to seizures and/or
take anti seizure medicine and those with GI
issues should not use Sweet Annie

■ Picture

■ (2016). Retrieved from

■ Common Name: ​Sage
■ Scientific Name: S​ alvia officinalis

■ Where is it cultivated: n​ ative to the
Mediterranean region, found in northwestern
Mexico, Southern California, Southern

■ Common uses/practices for medicine:
➢ Stomach Pain
➢ Diarrhea
➢ Hyperhidrosis
➢ Depression
➢ Can kill several species of dental plaque
causing bacteria

■ List information on the toxicology (poison—if
known) of the plant/herb:
➢ Poisonous if taken by mouth regularly

➢ Some species have chemical named
thujone which can be poisonous
○ Can cause seizures, damage to nervous
system, and nervous system damage

■ Any known contraindication:
➢ Should not be taken with anti diabetes
➢ Can decrease the effectiveness of anti
seizure medication
➢ Should not be taken with depressants
(specifically sleep aids)

■ Picture

(2019). Retrieved from

■ Common Name: G​ arlic
■ Scientific Name: A​ llium sativum

■ Where is it cultivated: ​One of the world’s most
cultivated crops; Native to Central Asia, South
Asia, or southwestern Siberia; Grows wild in

■ Common uses/practices for medicine:
➢ Boosts immune system
➢ Lower cholesterol
○ Helps with illnesses related to the
circulatory system
➢ Antifungal(ajoene)
➢ Yeast Infections
➢ Reduces Hardening of the arteries

■ Toxicology:

➢ sulphur content in garlic can cause colitis
and dermatitis by destroying the natural
flora in the gut

➢ may even prevent blood clotting and
interfere with proper thyroid function

➢ may also increase the risk of bleeding

■ Picture

Ware, M. (2017). Retrieved from

■ Common Name: G​ inger
■ Scientific Name: Z​ ingiber officinale

■ Where is it cultivated:
➢ native to Central Asia and northeastern

■ Common uses/practices for medicine:
➢ Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps)
➢ reduce pain in some people with
➢ reduce nausea and vomiting in some
pregnant women

■ Any known contraindication:
➢ Medications that slow blood clotting
(Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)

Ancient Medicinal Practices

1.Leech Therapy (Bloodletting)

a.Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome (17th
Century Europe)

b.Serves as an anticoagulant agent; preventing
blood clots in veins, heart, arteries, etc.

c.Medicinal leech therapy acts as a form of
bloodletting to drain blood from patients with
the use of leeches. Leeches secrete a peptide,
hirudin, that’s effective as an anticoagulant for
the body. The process generally takes 40
minutes in total.

d.Though the origins of Leech Therapy reside in
Ancient Egypt, it was the Roman physician,
Aelius Galenus​, to implement the uses of

leeches of bloodletting, and influenced a
practice for a millennium later. Bloodletting was
used to get rid of bad blood (people thought bad
blood caused sickness).
e.Surgical thrombectomies involve a similar
process a similar process in which an incision is
made into the veins of a patient, and blood clots
are simply extracted and removed from the
body, allowing for a faster, more efficient


R, P. (1573). ​Brought To Life​. ​Brought To Life​. Retrieved from Two heads with trephination
instruments in position

a.Neolithic Period (200-600 A.D)
b.The initial purpose of the practice was to expel

any bad spirits or evil from one’s body. It later

expanded to treating head injuries, infections,
and headaches (attempting to release pressure.
Sometimes the method of practice was used to
relieve pain from brain diseases and infections.
The practice continued over to ancient Egypt
also. There, Egyptians used the practice to
create potions.
c.Individuals would use varying tools to drill
holes into the head (usually a metal drill
contraption), and attempt to relieve pressure to a
person, often allowing oxygen to enter the brain.
d.“The earliest archaeological survey from the
American continent published is from the late
19th century when the Norwegian ethnographer
Carl Lumholtz ​(Irving)”.
e.A craniotomy is a similar procedure involving
the opening/ removal of part of the skull to
relieve pressure and buildups (Extra
fluids;blood). Crainitomy are sometimes used

during a stillbirth, and the parts of the dead fetus
are removed to ease delivery.

3.Medicinal Cannibalism

Serena, K. (2017). Retrieved from

a.Early European Culture

b.Cured sickness, resolved blood clots, coughs,
menstrual problems, and sped the healing of

c.The belief is that the consumption of
mummified bodies, or other parts of the
deceased would cure the ill. Medicinal
cannibalism became a part of mainstream
medicine. This led to a booming industry, as
exporters raided tombs in Egypt beginning in
the 11th Century to sell across Europe.

d.Thomas Willis, a 17th-century pioneer of brain
science, created a concoction of powdered
human skull and chocolate. This was supposed
to help prevent strokes. Also, King Charles II of
England made a potion of human skull and

e.Medicinal cannibalism isn’t practiced anymore
but a handful of mothers and fathers in 2000’s
ate their newborns’ placenta.

4.Animal Dung Ointments

(2018). Retrieved from

a.Ancient Egypt
b.Egyptians used human and animal dung as a

cure for diseases and injuries.
c.Egyptian doctors used it for sicknesses of all

kids. Donkey, dog, gazelle and fly dung were
some of the dung used for their healing
properties and their ability to ward off bad

d.Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian medical papyrus of
herbal knowledge from 1500 BC contains
descriptions of application of poop mixed with
herbs to heal burns.

e.The modern use of this practice is unlikely to
return since we have advanced better
understanding on how to treat these injuries.
Our medical technology advanced and we no
longer need the use of animal poop to treat us.

Artemisia annua. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Craniotomy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Irving, J. (2019, September 22). Trephination.

Retrieved from
Morrow, M. (2016, 04). Ductal Carcinoma In Situ:
How Much Treatment Is Enough, How Much Is Too
Much? ​Journal of Oncology Practice,​ ​12(​ 4),
312-313. doi:10.1200/jop.2016.011353
Nordqvist, J. (2018, January 05). Eucalyptus: What are
the health benefits? Retrieved from
Park, Y. H., Choi, W. S., Choi, G. W., & Kim, H. J.

(2018, 03). Role of Antiplatelet/Anticoagulant
Medications and Blood-Clotting Tests in Prediction
of Traumatic Foot Compartment Syndrome. ​Foot &
Ankle International,​ 3​ 9(​ 6), 725-730.
Science Museum. Brought to Life: Exploring the
History of Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Surgical Thrombectomy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Trepanation: The History of One of the World's Oldest
Surgeries. (2016, January 02). Retrieved from
The Uncomfortably Common Practice of Medicinal
Cannibalism. (n.d.). Retrieved from
The Wandering Womb: Female Hysteria through the

Ages. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from
Watson, C., Grando, D., Fairley, C., Chondros, P.,
Garland, S., Myers, S., & Pirotta, M. (2013, 12). The
effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony
counts: A randomised placebo controlled
double-blind trial. ​BJOG: An International Journal
of Obstetrics & Gynaecology,​ 1​ 21​(4), 498-506.
Woodbury, A., & Sniecinski, R. (2016, 12).

Garlic-Induced Surgical Bleeding. A​ & A Case
Reports,​ 7​ (​ 12), 266-269.
Woodbury, A., & Sniecinski, R. (2016, 12).
Garlic-Induced Surgical Bleeding. A​ & A Case
Reports,​ ​7(​ 12), 266-269.
Yeh, Y., & Liu, L. (2001, 03). Cholesterol-Lowering
Effect of Garlic Extracts and Organosulfur
Compounds: Human and Animal Studies. ​The
Journal of Nutrition,​ ​131(​ 3).

Zahmatkesh, M., & Vafaeenia, M. R. (2011, 12).

Comparing Analgesic Effects of a Topical Herbal
Mixed Medicine with Salicylate in Patients with
Knee Osteoarthritis. P​ akistan Journal of Biological
Sciences,​ ​14(​ 13), 715-719.
Zhang, Z. Y., Yu, S. Q., Miao, L. Y., Huange, X. Y.,
Zhang, X. P., Zhu, Y. P., . . . Li, D. (2008,
February). Q. Artesunate combined with vinorelbine
plus cisplatin in the treatment of advanced non-small

cell lung cancer: A randomized controlled trial.
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 6(2),

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