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PS AR RS P5L10 Human _ Plant Respiratory _ Circulatory System WS

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PS AR RS P5L10 Human _ Plant Respiratory _ Circulatory System WS

PS AR RS P5L10 Human _ Plant Respiratory _ Circulatory System WS

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Topic: HUMAN AND PLANT RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY

SYSTEM (LESSON 10)

Rocket Science | Primary 5

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No part of this material may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Lesson Outline

• Notes
• Activity 1: Hands-on Activity
• Activity 2: MCQs
• Activity 3: Open-ended Questions
• Activity 4: Fun Facts

1

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Human and Plant Respiratory and Circulatory System – NOTES

The functions of the respiratory system:
- ensures that blood is always oxygenated
- metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide produced by our body is constantly removed.
- helps to maintain the pH of the blood, preventing it from being acidic, which may affect

other body systems.

The respiratory tract:

Nose/mouth Windpipe/air tubes Lungs/air sacs

nose windpipe
mouth lungs
AR Model – Respiratory System

Air tubes

diaphragm

Part Function(s)
Nose
- Allows air to enter and leave the body
Mouth - Contains hair and mucus to trap the dirt in the air
Windpipe and air tubes - Warms and moistens the air we breathe in
Lungs
- Air can also be inhaled and exhaled through the
Diaphragm mouth

- Provide a path for air to reach the lungs

- Allow exchange of gases in the air sacs
- Pick up oxygen from inhaled air
- Pass carbon dioxide into exhaled air

- Moves downwards to allow breathing in
- Moves upwards to allow breathing out

2

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Human and Plant Respiratory and Circulatory System – NOTES

The Three Stages of Breathing:

o Breathing in or inhaling
o Exchange of air in the lungs
o Breathing out or exhaling

When breathing in:
The ribcage move outwards and upwards while the diaphragm moves downwards. This
causes the chest to become bigger.

*Note: Air breathed in does not cause our ribs to expand and diaphragm to contract. On the
contrary, it is the enlargement of the chest that allows air to rush into our body through our
nose or mouth.

Air enters our body and is cleaned, warmed and moistened in the nose. It moves down the
windpipe and air tubes into the lungs.

In the lungs:
Oxygen from the air breathed in passes through the walls of the air sacs into the blood
vessels. The amount of oxygen decreases and carbon dioxide increases as blood is carried
throughout the body. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood vessels back into the air sacs to
be exhaled.

When breathing out:
The ribcage moves inwards and downwards while the diaphragm moves upwards. As the
chest becomes smaller, air is forced out of the lungs by the chest muscles.

Animation 3

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Human and Plant Respiratory and Circulatory System – NOTES

Respiratory System of a Fish

The fish breathes through its gills and gets its oxygen that is dissolved in water.
Water is taken in through its mouth which flows over its gills. Dissolved oxygen passes
through the walls of the blood vessels into the blood and is carried by the blood to different
parts of the fish. Carbon dioxide that is produced passes through the walls of the blood
vessels into the water and passed out of the gills.

Animation

4

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Human and Plant Respiratory and Circulatory System – NOTES

Like other living things, plants take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. However, plants take
in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen in the presence of light. This happens during
photosynthesis, in which plants make their own food. The gaseous exchange in plants take
place at tiny openings called stomata found on the surfaces of leaves.
When light intensity increases, the tiny openings become larger, allowing the leaves to take in
more carbon dioxide. This increases the rate of photosynthesis. When this happens, more
oxygen is given out. When there is little or no light, the tiny openings become smaller or close.
Another function of the tiny openings is to give out water vapour into the surroundings. There
are more tiny openings on the lower surface than on the upper surface of a leaf. When the
temperature of the surroundings is high, the tiny openings become smaller to reduce the
amount of water vapour the plant loses.

Animation

5

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Activity 1 – Hands-on Activity: Measure lung capacity
Objective: To measure volume of air that you breathe out.

Materials: A large plastic bottle, a bendy straw, a large bowl filled about halfway with
water, measuring cup.

Directions:

1. Fill the plastic bottle with water all the way to the top. Screw the lid on.

2. Turn the bottle upside down in the bowl of water. Take the lid off while the mouth of the
bottle is submerged in water, try hard not to squeeze water out of the bottle while doing
so.

3. Push one end of the straw into the neck of the bottle and hold onto the other end above
the water.

4. Take a deep breath and blow gently into the straw until your lungs are empty. The air
blows int the bottle and pushes water out into the bowl.

5. All the air your breather out gets trapped at the top of the bottle. Make a mark at this point
with a permanent marker so you can measure how much air your lungs hold.

6. To measure how much air you blew into the bottle: Fill the bottle with water up to
the mark you made. Then pour this amount of water into a measuring cup to find your
lung capacity.

6

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Discussion: Respiratory tract model (school activity)
The lower part of the balloon represents the diaphragm, the main breathing muscles. Pull it
down, as though you were inhaling. This lowers the air pressure in the bottle. Air from outside
rushes in and makes the two balloons expand, just like the real lungs inside your chest.

one inch

throat
lungs
diaphragm

7

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Activity 2 – MCQs

8

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Primary 5: Rocket Science
1. The diagrams below show part M in a leaf and part N in a human.

MN

What is the similarity between structures M and N? ()

(1) M and N allow air to be stored.
(2) M and N allow food to be stored.
(3) M and N allow water to be taken in.
(4) M and N allow gaseous exchange to take place.

2. The chart below shows substances P and Q being transported in the human body.

Respiratory System X
System

Q digested food
P

System Y

Q P and
digested food

Other parts of
the body

Which one of the following correctly identifies substances P and Q and systems X and Y?

Substance P Substance Q System X System Y

(1) Oxygen Carbon dioxide Digestive system Circulatory system

(2) Oxygen Carbon dioxide Circulatory system Digestive system

(3) Carbon dioxide Oxygen Circulatory system Digestive system

(4) Carbon dioxide Oxygen Digestive system Circulatory system

()

9

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

3. The table below shows the activities that Samuel carried out during a period of time in
the day.

Time Activity
9.00 – 9.10 am Sitting on a bench, reading newspaper
9.10 – 9.20 am Jogging around the park
9.20 – 9.30 am Walking home from the park
9.30 – 9.40 am Resting on the bed, watching television

Which of the following graphs correctly shows the changes in Samuel’s breathing rate?
(1) (2)

(3) (4)

10

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

4. The diagram below shows how the various body systems work together in a human
body.

Gas D from the All parts of the
surrounding air body
needed for survival

A BC
Digested food

Which of the following identifies body systems A, B, C and Gas D?

System A System B System C Gas D
(1) digestive circulatory respiratory oxygen
(2) respiratory digestive circulatory carbon dioxide
(3) circulatory respiratory digestive carbon dioxide
(4) respiratory circulatory digestive oxygen

( )

11

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

5. The diagram below shows Part Q which is found on the leaves of a land plant.

Q
leaf

AR Model – Stomata
Some pupils made the following statements shown in the table below.

Jaya More of Part Q can be found on the underside of the leaf.

Fatimah Part Q helps the plant absorb sunlight during photosynthesis.

Rose Part Q allows gaseous exchange for the plant.

Which of the pupil(s) is/are correct?

(1) Jaya only
(2) Fatimah only
(3) Jaya and Rose only
(4) Jaya and Fatimah only

()

12

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

6. Mary filled two identical tanks, P and Q, with same amount of water and plants as
shown in he diagrams below. She placed tank P in a brightly lit room and tank Q in a
dark room.

In a brightly lit room In a dark room

Tank P Tank Q

Mary recorded the time taken for the fish in each tank to swim to the surface of the
water to receive more air.

Which of the following most likely shows Mary’s observations?

Time taken for the fish to swim to the surface of the
water (minutes)

PQ

(1) 15 15

(2) 15 10

(3) 15 30

(4) 14 15

()

13

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Primary 5: Rocket Science
7. Jane choked on a fish ball as shown in the diagram below.

Mouth Lungs

Fish ball in
wind pipe

The fish ball is preventing one of her organ systems from carrying out its function.
Which of the following correctly identifies this system and its function?

Organ System Function

(1) Digestive System To break down food into simpler

substances

(2) Circulatory System To take in oxygen and remove
carbon dioxide

(3) Respiratory System To take in oxygen and remove
carbon dioxide

(4) Respiratory System To transport oxygen around and

the body to release energy

()

14

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

8. Three students made comments about the air and the respiratory system during their
Science lesson.

Amy: Air is made up only of useful gases that living things need to survive.

Ben: We breathe out only carbon dioxide into the surroundings.

Charlie: Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the surrounding air.

Which of the following student(s) is/are correct? ()

(1) Ben only
(2) Charlie only
(3) Amy and Charlie
(4) Ben and Charlie

9. Seven people were trapped in a lift for two hours due to a power failure. The graph
below shows the changes in the amount of gases in the lift.

Amount Nitrogen
of gas
(cm3)

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide
Water vapour

Time (h)

Which of the following gases is not correctly represented in the graph above?

(1) Oxygen
(2) Nitrogen
(3) Water vapour
(4) Carbon dioxide

()

15

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10. The diagram below shows part of a fish, Primary 5: Rocket Science
W

Which of the following organs in the human respiratory system performs the same
function as W?

(1) Nose ( )
(2) Mouth
(3) Lungs
(4) Windpipe

16

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Activity 3 – Open-ended Questions

1. Enzo, Vicki, Ali and Hock Chew were each given an identical plastic ball. They were told
to inflate the ball. The table below shows the number of breaths needed by each of
them to inflate the ball fully.

Number of breaths Enzo Vicki Ali Hock Chew
8 14 10 11

(a) Lung capacity is the amount of air a person can take in with each breath. Who had

the largest lung capacity? Explain your answer. [1]

Enzo inflated another ball with an air pump. However, he mixed the two balls up and
could not identify the ball that was inflated using the air pump or he blew into it. He
labelled the two balls X and Y and tested the composition of the air in the balls.

Gas Composition of air in ball X Composition of air in ball Y
(%) (%)
Oxygen 15 21
Nitrogen 78 78
Carbon Dioxide 4 0.04
Water Vapour 3 0.96

(b) Based on the results shown in the table above, which ball was inflated with the air
pump? Give a reason for your answer based on the composition of air in the balls.[1]

17

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

2. Mervin conducted an experiment using the set-ups below. He placed four similar set-ups
A, B, C and D in different corners of a dimly lit room.

Set-up A Set-up B

Test tube Lamp Test tube Lamp
plant plant

Clear Retort Clear
water stand water

Retort
stand

Set-up C Set-up D

Test tube Lamp Test tube Lamp
plant plant

Retort Muddy Retort Muddy
stand water stand water

18

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

The graph below shows the number of oxygen bubbles given out by each plant over
a period of 20 minutes.

Number of oxygen
bubbles given out

A
C
B
D

Time

Answer the following questions based on the graph.

(a) Explain why the distance of light from the plant affects the number of oxygen bubbles

given out. [1]

(b) What can Mervin conclude comparing the results for set-up A and C? [1]

(c) Mervin added a few guppies into set-up A and repeated the experiment again. He

observed that the number of oxygen bubbles produced by the water plant increased.

Explain his observation. [1]

19

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Primary 5: Rocket Science

Activity 4 – Fun Facts: Information about lungs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXlYWuFCO5E

Discussion Questions:
1. How do the numerous air sacs help with gaseous exchange?
2. How does the diaphragm help with breathing?
3. What is the purpose of the mucus lining in lungs?

20

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