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Published by HASLINDAARAHMAN, 2019-03-05 08:24:23

chooi sai ying assignment bmbr5103

chooi sai ying assignment bmbr5103

OUM BUSINESS SCHOOL

SEMESTER 2/ YEAR 1

BMBR 5103
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS

MATRICULATION NO : CGS01116702
IDENTITY CARD NO. : 911013-13-5439
TELEPHONE NO. : 012-2409427
E-MAIL : [email protected]
LEARNING CENTRE : Johor Learning Centre
DUE DATE : 11/28/2015

Title: Relationship of Gender, age, Location and Education Level on the
Awareness of Consumer Rights: The Case Study of Malaysia Largest Electrical

Retail Store-Senheng

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................ 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
Table 1: Consumer Rights and Responsibilities ............................................................... 3
1.2 Background of the study ............................................................................................... 3
1.3 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 5
1.4 Objective......................................................................................................................... 6
1.5 Specific Objective .......................................................................................................... 6
1.6 Research Question ......................................................................................................... 6
1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study ..................................................................................... 7
1.8 Significance of Study ..................................................................................................... 7
CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................ 8
LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 8
2.1.1 NGO and Consumer Legislation in Malaysia that Empower Consumer
Protection ............................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.2 Consumer Rights and Types...................................................................................... 8
2.1.3 Demographic: Gender, Age, and Location............................................................... 9
2.1.4 Education Level ........................................................................................................ 10
2.1.5 Relationship of Location and consumer right awareness ..................................... 11
2.1.6 Relationship of Education Level and consumer Right Awareness ...................... 11
2.1.7 Relationship of Gender and Consumer Right Awareness .................................... 12
2.2 Conceptual Framework .............................................................................................. 13

Table 2.1: the relationship of age, gender, location, and education level on
consumer right awareness ............................................................................................ 13
Table 2.2: Summary of independent and dependent variable................................... 13
CHAPTER 3 .......................................................................................................................... 14
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................................................... 14
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 14
3.2 Primary data ................................................................................................................ 14
3.3 Research workflow ...................................................................................................... 15

3.4 Research Approach and Design ................................................................................. 16
3.5 Methodology................................................................................................................. 16

3.5.1 Descriptive statistics ............................................................................................. 16
3.5.2 Correlation Coefficient ........................................................................................ 17
3.6 Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 18
3.7 The study sample ......................................................................................................... 18
3.7.1 The sampling criteria ........................................................................................... 19
3.8 Data Collection instrument......................................................................................... 19
3.9 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................... 20
Summary of the chapter ................................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER FOUR ................................................................................................................. 21
DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................ 21
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 21
4.2 Description of the sample............................................................................................ 21
Table 4.2.1 Descriptive respondents demographic and education level analysis..... 22
4.3 Results and discussion................................................................................................. 26
4.3.1 Consumer awareness in complain channel ........................................................ 26
4.3.2 Consumer awareness regarding the consumer right......................................... 30
4.3.3 Consumer wiliness to voice out product and services issue .............................. 33
CHAPTER 5 .......................................................................................................................... 36
CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................... 36
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 36
5.2 Key summary of research finding.............................................................................. 36
5.3 Limitation of the study................................................................................................ 38
5.4 Recommendation for future study ............................................................................. 38
Reference................................................................................................................................ 39

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
Consumer right and protection is still considered relatively new topic among
developing company such as Malaysia, Indonesia and etc. However, it was the important
and main concern issue in most of developed countries such as United Stage, Japan,
Singapore, and so on. Those countries provide systematic system for consumer to
enquiry when they face problem in their unpleasant purchase. United State government
established consumer protection agency at federal level which is the United States
Federal Trade Commission with the purpose to offer consumer a deception- free
marketplace and provide quality products at competitive prices (Waller, Brady, and
Acosta, 2011). Come to this technology and globalization era, there was nothing can be
hiding. In order to achieve the Vision 2020 and provided professional market, consumer
right awareness must be cultivated. Ishak and Zabil (2012) stated that deliberation will
highlight the most required ability and create better protection environment especially in
developing countries.

In order to increase the consumer awareness in their right, Malaysia government was
launching National Consumer Policy to provide protection in consumer, self- regulation
in traders and manufacture. Sabri (2014) state that
“The strategies of the policy are to raise the standard of living, laws to protect consumers,
fair and ethical trade, consumer education, sustainable consumption, redress mechanisms,
consumer forums between government, manufacturers and consumers, and international
cooperation in consumer matters. The NCP forms the basis, principles and guidance in
the formulation of policies and laws in the context of consumer welfare, particularly the
aspects of consumer protection (Sabri, p.99, 2014).”

Consumers include us were the largest economic group to help the retail company
sustainable in its business and affecting almost every public and private economic
decision (Ibarra & Revilla 2014). By layman term, a consumer is someone who acquires
a product and services for personal and household purpose. Sabri (2014) state that
consumer nowadays need to be equip with high consumerism knowledge and skills in
order to make effective decision and to ensure they become more empowered. Yet, as a
consumer making a right choice in the purchase of consumer products is not an easy task.

1

Customer face difficulties due to the lack of understanding feature of products and
services provided as well as the technical jargon used in product description. Some of
seller sometime provided unclear explanation or hiding some information when they
promote a product to a buyer. This issue resulted the consumer must have well awareness
in their right. According to Sabri (2014) empowered consumer and consumer right will
not be created without the government intervening to protect consumer. If consumers are
not aware of their right and responsibilities, no matter how much legislation and how
government enforced the law implemented, all will become ineffective (Sabri, 2014).
Unawareness and lack of knowledge on consumers’ right potentially distort the consumer
ability defend themselves against with unpleasant purchase (Ishak and Zabil, 2012).

However, certain consumer right awareness trends can be observed from newspaper or
any other media mass channel, there was a lot of case complaints received from the
public against to the seller. According to Mahayudin, Haron and Fah (2010), 33%
increase in number of complaints to be received by the National Consumer Complain
Centre (hereafter NCCC) 2007 compared to 2006, basically complains are floor in
consumer are ware more of their rights or the goods and services that sell by seller is
performance worse in 2007. These results indicate that Malaysian consumer right
awareness was getting improved. According to International Organisation of Consumer
Union (IOCU) in 1982 states that the right of consumer are based on right to basic needs,
the right to choose, the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to be heard, the
right to redress, the right to consumer education, and the right to a healthy environment
(as cited in Mahayudin, Haron & Fah , p.98, 2014). Dean (2010) summarizes the
consumer right and responsibilities as shown in Table 1.

Yet, the consumer right awareness is seen to be believed that demographic and
background of the consumer could affect a person right awareness. According to Ishak
& Zabil (2012), consumer right awareness among consumer who live in urban area and
less urban are showed different right awareness perspective. Besides, the gender and
education level or knowledge are believed as the fundamental to build consumer right
awareness. This study was aim to identify the relationship between demographic which
focused gender, location and education level on and the consumer right awareness.

2

Table 1: Consumer Rights and Responsibilities

No Element Right Responsibilities

1 Safety Protection from products and Use the product safely,

services that is hazardous to following all safety

their health. instructions and remaining

alert for future warnings.

2 Information Have provided for them Analyse and use

Information that ensures all information about

product statements are products wisely.

accurate and truthful.

3 Choice A wide selection of goods Choose carefully

and services at fair prices

4 Be Heard A voice in the creation of Express concerns to those

laws and the development of who can help.

goods and services.

5 Redress Redress Request money or Make the effort to seek

other benefits as fair compensation for a wrong.

compensation for a
company’s mistake.

6 Education Have access to programs and Learn about the changing

information that help make nature of products -

better buying decisions. consumer education is a

lifelong responsibility.

7 A Healthy Live and work in an Make choices that

Environment environment that does not minimize the

damage their health. environmental impact of

your purchase on others.

8 Have Basic Fundamental right of access Consume sustainably, so

Needs to food, water and shelter. as not to prevent others

Met from meeting their own

needs.

Source: Dean, D. (2010) Know Your Rights (and Responsibilities). Learning Seed. Chicago.

Retrieved from: http://www.socialstudies.com/pdf/LSC145DVG.pdf

1.2 Background of the study
This new technology era, people are more dependent on the electrical products, and those
products become part of our daily life. Increasing demand of the electrical product in
Malaysia among consumer, and resulted the electrical retail outlet booming during end of
the 1980. The pricing war between China electrical supplier and Japan benefit the
consumer as they easier to get the electrical product at cheaper price. The difference
quality of products and the services provided by the electrical retailer lead to unpleasant
purchase experience. Consumer right awareness becomes part of important when they
purchased. However, consumer right awareness was varying among people. The high
demand of electrical products resulted the consumer right awareness is necessary for the

3

country in order to achieved purpose of National Consumer Policy. Therefore, this study
was would like to seek from demographic perspective and education level influence on
consumer right awareness in electrical product.

This study will focuses on the electrical products, and target Company and customer base
is Senheng Electric (KL) Sdn. Bhd. which is one of the leading consumer electronics
chain stores in the country. It operated over 100 stores spread throughout Malaysia and
letting customers reach outlet wherever customer prefer. Senheng was first established in
1989, from a tiny consumer electronics half shop lot set up with stocks worth less than
Ringgit Malaysia thirty thousands to the largest electronics chain store today with
branches straddling the length and breadth of Malaysia (Senheng, 2015). In order to
match with the increase of the living standard, Senheng established premium outlet senQ
in year 2002.

Malaysia was a multi-racial country with different race and religion, it is still under
developing state, the living standard and life style was different in each area regardless of
races and can be discuss in urban area and less urban area. The demographic and
education level is still having gap between the areas, the culture and social among the
ethics group as well. The different demographic among people will lead to different
consumer right awareness. Urban area, by definition is an area surrounding a city. Most
inhabitants of urban areas have non-agricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed,
meaning there is high density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings,
roads, bridges, and railways (National Geographic Encyclopaedic, 2015). People who
live in urban area are easier to purchase consumer product from the electric outlet. Hence,
people who live urban area more aware to consumer right compare less urban area
should indicated as well.

Knowledge, one of the thing that help people to have a better life and people used it to
push the country economic. Knowledge help to make decision and think logically when
analyses a problem. It is seen to be believed that education level among Malaysian who
completed tertiary education increasing year by year, the question does the higher
education level and system will lead to people more aware in consumer right or other
platform such media mass is need to foster the awareness?

4

Consumer right was established to protect the consumer from been cheated by
receiving unfair treatment, however Malaysia consumer is still new in this area and time
is needed for them adapt. As Azrina, (2011), Muh Endriyo, (2011) and Donoghue & de
Klerk, (2009) stated developing countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and African
countries just adopted consumer protection and it is still new in that area (as cited in
Ishak & Zabil, 2012). Comparing to western countries such as United States, United
Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand, the consumer right awareness will be higher.
According to Surekha, (2010) mentioned consumer rights awareness will vary
throughout different regions and very poor especially among population in rural and far-
flung areas comparing to those live in developed countries (as cited in Revath, Raja,
2015). This shows that consumer in developed country will have better understanding in
using their rights as consumer to protect themselves and have higher awareness.

1.3 Problem Statement
Purchase a things that lack of to fulfill individual satisfaction are common topic in
consumer behavior. Consumers have the right to decide what to buy and where to buy.
Some as well, feeling unpleasant for the thing purchase we had the right to complain and
request the compensation. However, sometime said is easier than done, most of the
consumer are lacks of knowledge in this area to seek for public agency or government
sector to help them. The reason for the consumer are less awareness might due to lack of
channel for them to get the information , government and people are less emphasize in
this matter. Furthermore, most of consumers do not even know where to make a
complaint due to the fact lack of information provided by the related sector. Most the
consumer is not taking their right seriously even though the seller was taking advantage
to them and they are unwilling to argue in the public area.

Education and knowledge is one of the important factors that could influence the
consumer’s decision and help them to analyses problem in logical way. Education level
will influence the consumer way thinking and more mature to face unpleasant purchase
experiences and more aware what to do in their consumer right especially when faced
with the problem of purchasing goods that do not equal value with the price or
unreasonable. Without education and Knowledge how consumer should to do if they feel
unpleasant purchase experience.

5

Demographic factors like location that live, gender and age was believed that to be
brought influence on awareness of consumer right and action to be taken after treated by
unreasonable product. Lot of people thing that compared to less urban area consumer,
urban consumers have a wider choice of branded goods to choose from as the urban area
are surround with human structure building and main economic project was build up in
urban area as well. People who are living are more change to explore them in consumer
right in term of purchase. Women and men born to be different, consumer right
awareness and the attitudes towards to the product problem might be varying between the
genders. People increase in their age will lead them become more mature and gain more
life experience, the consumer right awareness might alter along life stage of people.

The government was providing completed policy to protect the consumer right and the
awareness of consumer right was increase year by year. Unfortunately, the platform and
the process for making complain in Malaysia are still referring long document
preparation and duration for the complaint still required at two weeks working period.

1.4 Objective
To study the impact of demographic and education level on consumer right awareness
attitude

1.5 Specific Objective
a) To study the consumer’s awareness to choose right complain channel when they

purchase defect products based on consumer education and demographic
b) To identify consumer’s awareness on their right when purchase by looking from

consumer education and demographic
c) To analyse the wiliness of consumer to voice out product and services issue and

consumer understanding for the product warranty
1.6 Research Question
1. Does the high education level belong to customer will be more aware in consumer right
or vice versa?
2. Which categories education level are more aware with the consumer right
3. Does the women or men are more aware in consumer right and more willing to make
complain with unpleasant purchase experience?

6

4. Does the consumer working experience or background bring influence on consumer right
awareness?

5. Which of age group are more aware with consumer right?
6. Does the urban area customer are more aware in consumer right awareness?

1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study
The scope of study will emphasize in electrical retailer in Johor, Malaysia. The company
to be analysis is Senheng Electrical Sdn Bhd, the branch to be study will be focus on
Senheng Taman Nusa Bestari, Senheng Masai, senQ Sutera Mall, and senQ Batu Bahat.
The target customer will be focused on walk in customer in Senheng branches. The
demographic to be emphasizing in this is age, gender and location, and the education
level will be main indicator for this study. The study will cover the how the consumer
responses to the consumer right when facing unfavourable and unfair experience.

The limitation of study is the study only cover the consumer right awareness in electrical
products and Target Company is only one company with four branches. The
demographic perspectives towards to the consumer right are only cover three things. The
finding from this study is only cover Johor area and specific one company.

1.8 Significance of Study
This study will help the researcher more understanding the consumer right awareness in
electrical product. Provide different information for location that people live in urban
area and less urban area. This study also helps the researcher to know new area of study
influence of demographic and education level on consumer right in electrical product
retail.

7

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 NGO and Consumer Legislation in Malaysia that Empower Consumer
Protection
In Malaysia, various steps have been carried out by the government and parties in
upholding the consumer rights or protection of consumer in the market. Consumer
association in Malaysia that has been formed up to “speak” for the consumer are the
Consumer Associations of Penang (CAP), the Muslim Consumers Association of
Malaysia (PPIM), and Federation of Malaysian Consumers Association (FOMCA) have
play active role in championing consumer interest through advocacy, provide consumer
rights education and lobby for policy change. According to Haron and Masud (2012)
mentioned that recently consumer protection has become prioritized agenda of Malaysian
government. Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs (MTDCA) which was
established in 1990 was later renamed as The Ministry of Domestic Trade, Cooperatives
and Consumerism (MDTCC) with the prior objectives to balance the interest of both
sellers and consumers. As a result, few more new consumer-related legislation and
policies have been implemented such as Consumer Protection Act 1999 (Haron &
Masud,2012). According to Haron and Masud (2012), a total of 35 consumer related
legislation have been introduced by Malaysia government to create friendly market such
as Trade Description Act 1972 which prohibits the misleading trade descriptions and
misleading indication regarding the prices goods (Haron & Masud, 2012).

2.1.2 Consumer Rights and Types
According to Azriana, Hock, Muhammad, R, and Sakina (2011) stated that

consumer as an individuals or household that utilizing goods and services generated by
the economy ( Azriana et al,2011). In other words, consumer is the person who demand
and use the things such as product produce by a manufacturer in the market. According
to Arora, Chawla, and Sachdeva (2014) mentioned that consumer pivot around the
business activities, “consumer is the sovereign”, “consumer is king”, “consumer can do
wrong”, all of the catchphrases may seems to support consumer in the past but in fact
remains even in affluent an extremely competitive economies, consumer is nowhere near
even a king without the “PRIVY PURSE” and need to be alert against crooked seller
(Arora et al, 2014).

8

According to Njuguna, Oloko, and Oyugi (2014) stated that the word “rights”
has always seems to be found under the banner “human rights” which have direct linked
to Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 same as other rights treaties ratified by
continental organizations. As the debate evolved, the need to widen the area of focus and
narrow down to specific human livelihood occurred such as consumer rights (Njuguna et
al., 2014). However, consumers are often seems to not knowing their right when
spending in market and tend to be exploiting by seller. According to Selvaratnam, Tan,
Bakar, Endut and Fatimah (2013) stated that there were 8 consumer rights, namely:

1) Right to basic needs
2) Right to information
3) Right to choose
4) Right to safety
5) Right to healthy environment
6) Right to voice
7) Right to redress
8) Right to consumer education

Along with the existence of 8 rights of consumer, some countries including Malaysia has
started to accept it in definition of protecting the consumer and their welfare. According
to Garman (2003) stated that right of consumer is an entitlement to be treat well in some
particular ways (as cited in Haron & Masud, 2012). Providing consumer with sufficient
right is crucial as it was a way they empower consumer to protect themselves in the
market.

2.1.3 Demographic: Gender, Age, and Location
In this country with diverse culture, it contains rich demographic and some study

argue that it have relationship with consumer behavior in terms of making decisions or
taking action. According to Hawkins, Best and Coney (2004), argue that demographic
such as gender, education, age and education level influences the consumption behavior
both directly and affecting other attributes of individual such a personal value and
decision making styles (as cited in Shah & Ibrahim, 2012). The richer the demographic
of a country means the population will have more different opinion in decision making.
This is the statement made by some researches, however Sharma, Shimp, and Shin,(1995)
stated that demographic variables and consumer ethnocentrism did not have any

9

statistically significant relationship (as cited in Shah & Ibrahim, 2012). Different
researches may found different result in their study, argument still exists and finding may
also vary on country.

Oxford dictionary, (2010) states that age is a number which define the years a
person has lived or a thing existed. In other words, it means a particular period of a
person’s life either early age, middle age or older age. Department of Statistics, (2010)
further imply that the active workforce is categorized into three main generation group
which are young, middle and older age groups. Biggest working group which indirectly
means consumer with purchasing power is from middle age group ranging below 50
years old (Department Statistics,2010).

Location can be dividing into urban and rural areas, urban area is where most of
the development happened and crowded with growing society. However, rural area will
be vice versa with the urban area and level of education is lower, in other words have
less awareness on their right as consumer. According to Azvar Khan (2013), consumer
awareness is much needed nowadays as they pay for the products using their hard earned
money and they should get it worth (as cited in Arora, Chawla, & Sachdeva, 2014).

2.1.4 Education Level
Education level can also be interpreted as the knowledge of a person. The higher

the education level of a person means he has higher decision making skills in solving
complex problems. Yet, Brodowsky, Tan, Meilich, (2004) mentioned there is no
significant relation in between education level and consumer ethnocentrism (as cited in
Shah & Ibrahim, 2012). A person with high education level does not mean he will have
good problem solving skills and people with low education level may do better in solving
problems with their experience. According to Garman,(2003); Hogg, M.K., Howells, G.,
and Millman, D. (2007) mentioned that low income housing residence was of interest as
most of them consisted of limited discretionary income and low educational level and
frequently identified as vulnerable consumers because they tend to be cheated in the
market (as cited in Haron and Masud, 2012). Hence, assessment into consumer
awareness on consumer right is vital among this group of consumer nowadays so that a
better educational focus on this aspect can be tailored to empower the customer.

10

2.1.5 Relationship of Location and consumer right awareness
According to Ishak and Zabil (2012) stated that a strong link existed between

consumer awareness and effective consumer behavior in terms of protecting consumer
rights. Study on this relationship was conducted among the consumer in Malaysia in both
urban and less urban location locations, concluded with a strong relationship existed
between awareness of rights and effective consumer actions and established that
awareness have significance influence on effective consumer behavior compared to
knowledge level of rights by consumers (Ishak & Zabil, 2012).

2.1.6 Relationship of Education Level and consumer Right Awareness
Education plays an important role in nurturing the knowledge of a person, with

the skills and knowledge they learn can protect them. Lim (2002) stated that attitude of
an individual, government’s effort and education system in a country is having relation
with the level of consumer’s awareness on their rights as consumer. Study also identified
variables, attitude of individual; government’s efforts and the education system have
connection towards level of consumer’s awareness on consumer rights. Personal attitude
plays vital role while education system has lowest influence on consumer awareness
towards consumer rights when comparing with individual attitudes and government
effort (as cited in Selvaratnam et al, 2013). Furthermore, Vijayakumar and Venugopal
(2012) indicated that a consumer’s education enhances them to be more aware on their
rights. The study on consumer rights awareness was carry out in India and result shows
that educational institutions played crucial role in bring up consumer awareness on their
right. Yet, result also shows that consumer still exposed to the risk of been exploited
even when they are aware of their rights (as cited in Njuguna, Oloko, and Oyugi, p. 14,
2014).

According to Mazlan, Redzuan, and Bakar (2014), education enable consumer to
function effectively and responsibly in a complex market where they not only need to
understand the structure of market place but also protection they should obtain within it
(Mazla et. al, 2014). Education act as an important channel for consumer to gain the
related knowledge where they are able to use it to protect themselves, according to
Azizah, Nurizan, Naimah, and Jariah (2002) stated that consumer education provide
knowledge to consumers the skills, aptitude and values needed to become a responsive
customer in market same as in society (as cited in Mazlan et al., 2014, p.449). Hence,

11

education plays an important role in affecting consumer empowerment. Kulkarni and
Mehta (2013) mentioned that majority of student with management background do aware
of their rights as consumer, yet they never lodge any complaint against traffickers.
Therefore, they need to be educated by related organization to have better understanding
on the complaining procedure (Kulkarni & Mehta, 2013).
2.1.7 Relationship of Gender and Consumer Right Awareness

According to Dommeyer and Gross (2003) stated that male and younger people
have more awareness on privacy-related practices as they adopted specific strategies in
protecting themselves from been cheated. Besides, results from their study also review
that males and pre-teenagers are more sensitive and aware of consumer rights as compare
to others, they tend to use personal protection rights to protect themselves and avoid
direct marketing demands (as cited in Ishak & Zabil, 2012). This shows that male is more
active and aware on their consumer right and has higher empowerment as compare to
female. In addition, other factors such as education level, gender also play a part in
influencing the awareness on consumer rights. According to Dommeyer and Gross (2003)
and scott (2002) who have found a significant differences in the awareness of their rights
as consumer across gender among the respondent (as cited in Ishak & Zabil, 2012).

12

2.2 Conceptual Framework
Table 2.1: the relationship of age, gender, location, and education level on consumer
right awareness

Gender

Consumer Location

Age Right

Awareness

Education
Level

Table 2.2: Summary of independent and dependent variable
X1: Gender

X4: Age Y1: X2: Location
Consumer

Right
Awareness

X3: Education
Level

13

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
The purpose of this is to examine the impact of demographic and education level on
consumer right awareness in electrical product. The demographic parameter will focused
on age, gender, and location. In this paper, four topic will be covered. First, the
description of the research methodology used in this study. Second, the procedure used in
designing the instrumental and collecting data. Third, the target sample selection. Lastly,
provide an explanation of the statistical procedures which used to analyze the data. The
sample comprises of 100 Senheng customers randomly selected at four retails,
respondent answering close-ended questionnaire. The Likert scale data was analyzed
using the Microsoft Excel program to acquire descriptive statistic and chi-square values.

3.2 Primary data
Problem arise in this research involve the consumer on the market, face to face survey
was conducted In order to gain high accuracy answer compare to collect it using the
internet. A total amount of 100 respondents was involved and it was divided equally into
4 different places. 25 respondents from 4 different locations which are Nusa Bestari,
Pasir Gudang, Sutera Mall, and Batu Pahat were selected.

The location been divided into urban and non-urban area to test the relationship between
location and consumer right awareness. Demographic variables such as age, gender, and
education level of consumer were also included in the study to test relationship between
those variables.

14

3.3 Research workflow

The following research workflow was applied:
1) Identify Problem
- Establish the problem arise through general introduction and problem statement
2) Understand Situation
- Establish the objectives of the research and question which could answer the puzzle
- Writing literature review to establish the problem conceptual framework
3) Construct Questionnaires
- State out the question to test the understanding of consumer towards their right

understanding
4) Getting feedback
- Collecting primary data from the selected area through survey
5) Analyze
- Record and code data using Microsoft Excel
- Create table and graph to illustrate the findings based on variables

15

3.4 Research Approach and Design
This study was conducted in quantitative approach. According to the Zikmund et al.
(2013), quantitative approach was used to address research objective through empirical
assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis. Systematic process was
used to describe and test parameter relationship. The cause and effect interaction among
variable was examined. The data of this study was primary data. The data collection
through sample survey was normally attempt to describe what was happening or to study
reason for a particular business activity. Survey was commonly used to collecting data
from particular population and information of survey typically obtained from respondent
who answer series of questions that given by the researcher. One of telling quote of
Zikmund et al. (2013) “Survey provides a quick, inexpensive, efficient and accurate
mean of assessing information about a population (p.186).

Manager and business organization was familiar with the used of survey to assess the
new project and new marketing trend. Most of marketing researched used survey to study
consumer preference and behavior which suited to this study which focused on consumer
right awareness. For these reasons, descriptive research methodology a designed a
questionnaire survey instrument to assess the consumer right awareness regarding to age,
gender, location and education level.

A survey was selected due to it could provide personal characteristic which suited to the
study such as age, gender, location, belief, and knowledge of particular individual. The
survey design was meet the objective of the study which analyze the impact of
demographic and education level on consumer right awareness in electrical product.

3.5 Methodology
3.5.1 Descriptive statistics

This study used mean and standard deviation as a basis which often used by previous
studies. The mean was a particularly informative measure of the “central tendency” of
the variable by adding up the series and divided by numbers of observations. The
standard deviation used to measure of variability or diversity used in statistic and
probability theory where current sample and mean of the series have been used to

16

calculate it. In this study, the variables such as age, gender, and location and education
level will put in the descriptive statistic.

3.5.1.1 Mean
According to Nicholas (2006) stated descriptive statistics is the main feature of a
collection of data quantitatively. It presents a simple summary about the sample and the
measures. It also helps to organizing, summarizing and presenting data in an informative
way. Central tendency and dispersion are mainly focus in this method. It refers to an
estimator of the ‘centre’ of a distribution of values of data.

The mean of the n numbers x1, x2,...,xn is Equation

X = (x1 + x2 + …+ xn ) / n
3.1

3.5.1.2 Mode
According to the Sage (n.d.), mode is the value that appears most often in a set of data or
frequent number in set of data. Same with other the statistical mean and median, the
mode is a way of expressing in a single number which providing important information
about a random variable or a population. The numerical value of the mode is the same as
that of the mean and median in a normal distribution and it may be very different in
highly skewed distributions. In addition, it was used to study central tendency in set of
data.

3.5.2 Correlation Coefficient
Correlation coefficient is used to measure the strength and direction of the linear
relationship between each of the variables. The correlation is used to compute the
correlation between at least two continuous variables. The value of the correlation can be
increased from -1.00 to +1.00. Correlation of -1.00 indicates the perfectly negative
correlation, 0 shows no correlation and 1.00 imply the perfectly positive correlation
between the variables. Generally, the correlation above 0.80 is considered as strong. This
method is used by Njuguna et al.(2014) to study the relationship between each variables.

Cooper & Schindler (2009) stated that a correlation coefficient above 0.8 between
independent variables should be corrected for because it might be a sign for

17

multicolinearity problem in model. However, Mashotra (2007) believed that the
correlation coefficient can be 0.75 to consider as strong correlation between variables.

For this study, each parameter such as age, location, gender, and education were
compared with the objective question in order to identify and analyze the relationship
between parameter and objective question.

3.6 Data Collection
According to Zikmund et al. (2013), population could defined consist of all the units that
want to study and meet the sample requirement for the study. The study population
included all the customer that come to Senheng retail and SenQ to purchase. The total
population of Johor was 3.497 million (Khazanah Research Institute, 2015). The
sampling was random selected from the customer who came in to the retails. The 100
number of survey was conducted from the four retailer. The sample included 50
responder in Senheng retails and 50 responder from Sen Q retails. The data collection
was conducted in October 2015.

The survey study was conducted at Senheng Electrical (KL) Sdn. Bhd. Johor branch which
are Senheng retail in Taman Nusa Bestari and Pasir Gudang, SenQ retail in Sutera mall
and Batu Bahat Mall. Total Senheng retail 13 branch was allocated in Johor area.
According to Sean (2015, Oct 9) who was Area Manager of Senheng Johor area stated that
Johor was the top performance state in term of sale performance among Malaysia. This
showed that the purchasing power in term of electrical product in Johor was high. The
target for these four location was to achieve the concept of urban area. Taman Nusa
Bestari and Sutera Mall was the new town in the Johor Bahru and was highly developed
by government and near to the second link within Johor Bahru. The transportation and
facilities in those place are fulfill urban are concept. Whereas, the senheng located at Pasir
Gudang was allocated in Masai which was having far distance to capital city and less
develop was there due to the road condition, Batu Bahat was the rural area which far from
capital city Johor Bahru about 200 kilometer. The selection of Pasir Gudang and Batu
Bahat was to achieve less urban area study.
3.7 The study sample
A sample of 100 respondent was selected from the two branch of Senheng retail and two
branch of SenQ. According to Zikmund et al. (2013), sample of study was selected with

18

the intention of finding out something about the total population from target location.
The purpose of this study was to examine the awareness of consumer right in electrical
product based on demographic perspective. The information of the sample was included
in the study for analysis purpose as they were happen in the right place and time which
could provide accurate information to the study. The come in customer in the Senheng
branch was entered into the study until reached the 100 sample size.

The 100 Senheng customers were the total sample who was willing to participate
answers the questionnaire in the research and who met the sampling criteria during
period of data collection.

3.7.1 The sampling criteria
The responded had to meet the following criteria:

• Come in to the Senheng branch in the selected target location
• Having experience in purchase of electrical product
• At 18 years old or older
• Be of either sex or any race
• Be willing to participate.

3.8 Data Collection instrument
A questionnaire was chosen as data collection instrument. A 100 questionnaire was a
printed self-report. Respondent based on the questionnaire answer the question to bring
out the information. The information obtained from questionnaire was similar to
information obtain from personal interview, but the question used the closed end
question which was less depth compared to the interview.

Data was collected with the aid of questionnaires to evaluate the awareness of consumer,
demographic and education level. One questionnaires were used to collected the data and
distribute to the Senheng’s customer. The questionnaires consisted only of closed-ended
question as to provide exactly data to analyze and easier to administer. This is to ensure
respondents are more able to complete in closed-ended question. According to Zikmund
et al. (2013) the closed- ended question had answer which provided by the researcher.

The languages to be used in questionnaires were in English, Malay and Chinese to enable
those respondents did not understand English could complete the questionnaires in

19

another two language. For respondent who could not read and write, researcher did
personal interview with them and wrote down their answer in the form. The
questionnaires consisted of sections A, B and C. Section A was the demographic
question such as age, level of education, gender and location which was suited to the
objective of study.
Section B was to determine the knowledge and views of respondents on whether they
know the channel for them to voice up the consumer right issue and the consumer right
understanding. Questions assessing knowledge about the government department which
can refer to if facing the consumer right issue. Instruction guidelines were provided
clearly to the questionnaires to guide the subjects as to whether to circle or tick the
chosen response. Section C was study the wiliness of the customer to make complain
based on scale study. The third part a 5 point -scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 =
strong agree were used in this section.

3.9 Data Analysis
Microsoft Excel was used to recording the data that obtain from respondent and arrange
in the table form. Micorsoft Excel to be used in this study for analysis of closed-ended
questions after the data was collected it was organised and analysed. Data was analysed
by using descriptive statistics as mentioned in above. Frequency tables were drawn and
from these the data was presented in either in pie diagrams and bar graphs.

Summary of the chapter
The research methodology of this study was discussed in this chapter. A description of
how the survey was conducted and the sections in the questionnaire were mentioned.
Furthermore, the computer program to be used for data analysis and the rationale behind
the selection of methods for data analysis were discussed. With this background,
statistical results obtained from the raw data are discussed in next chapter.

20

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
In previous chapter described provided methodology for data gathering. In this chapter,
data was presented in systematically linked to the format of the self-develop questionnaire
(appendix 1.0). The survey result and data analysis were presented in this part and
followed by the discussion of the findings. The data were collected from the respondents
who answer survey form. The answer arranged accordingly and response to the objective
that mentioned in the Chapter One. The finding was related to the research question that
guided the study. The objectives that posed in chapter one was drive the subsequent data
analysis.

Data were analysed to identify and describe the relationship between consumer right
awareness and education, and relationship between consumer right awareness and
demographic (location, gender, and age). Data were obtained from self- administered
questionnaires and total 100 respondent answer the survey. (n=100). This chapter
included, description of the sample, interpretation of the data, results discussion and data
presentation.

4.2 Description of the sample
Data was collected by using questionnaires. The questions were delivered by hand to the
respondents. The target population of the study was Senheng (KL) electrical Sdn, Bhd’s
consumers. The target areas were Senheng Nusa bestari, SenQ Sutera Mall, Senheng Pasir
Gudang, SenQ Batu Bahat Mall. Sample was randomly selected from above target
population, 130 questionnaires was distributed to every walk in customer. Total number
of respondents who answer questionnaire in this four branchs was 100 people. Table 4.2.1
was the respondent’s demographic and education level analysis and followed by Graph
4.2.1, Graph 4.2.2, Graph 4.2.3, and Graph 4.2.4

Total 100 respondents answer the questionnaire and 59 % was man and 41% was women.
From those 100 samples, each target area was contributed 25 respondents for this survey.
Furthermore, there was 9 % from the 100 respondents was age in between 18-20, 35%
respondents was aged in 21-29, 25 % respondents was aged in 30-39, 19% respondents
was aged in 40-49, and 6% respondents was aged in 50-59 and also same number of
respondents in 60-69 age group (6%).

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For the education level, 100 respondents at least 44 % was completed in tertiary

education level which were 28 % was graduated in Bachelor degree, 9 % of respondents
was graduate from Master, 4 % from Philosophy of Doctoral , 1 % of respondents

graduated in Diploma, and 2 % respondents was come from professional licenses
background such ACCA. Moreover, 47 % from 100 respondents was completed in
secondary education which were 13% of respondents completed in STPM, 24 % of

respondents was graduate in SPM , and 10 % of respondents completed in PMR. Yet,
from 100 respondents there was 9 % respondents was only complete in primary school

level and most of them was generation X, and come from very rural area which did not
provided complete education system.

Table 4.2.1 Descriptive respondents demographic and education level analysis

Gender Number Percentage
Male Total %
female 59 59%
TOTAL 41 41%
Location 100 100%
Nusa Bestari
Pasir Gudang 25 25%
Sutera Tanjung 25 25%
Batu Bahat 25 25%
Total 25 25%
Age range 100 100%
18-20
21-29 9 9%
30-39 35 35%
40-49 25 25%
50-59 19 19%
60> 6 6%
TOTAL 6 6%
Education 100 100%
UPSR
PMR 9 9%
SPM 10 10%
STPM 24 24%
DIPLOMA 13 13%
BACHELOR DEGREE 1 1%
MASTER 28 28%
PHD 9 9%
Other-Professional 4 4%
TOTAL 2 2%
100 100%

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Graph 4.2.1 the respondents division in each area

From the graph 4.2.2 and mentioned in Table 4.2.1, there was 59 man and 41 women
from 100 respondent and 25 respondents of each target area was answer the questionnaire.
From graph above, 15 men and 10 women was respond to the survey in Batu Bahat, 10
men and 15 women from Taman Nusa Bestari branch, 19 men and 6 women from Pasir
Gudang branch , and 15 men and 10 women from Sutera Mall.

Graph 4.2.2 the respondents’ gender division each age group

Seven age groups were divided in this survey. The first four parts was below 50 years old.
There were 9 people in age 18-20 and 5 respondents were female and 4 were male. Total
35 respondents were in the age of 21-29 which was the majority group in the survey and
12 was female and 23 were male. In 30-39 age groups, there were 25 respondents in this
group and 10 were female and 15 males. In 40-49 age group which had 19 participate and
11 were female and 8 was male. For generation X age group was divided in three age
group which 50-59, 60-64, and 65 above. In 50-59 age group there was 6 respondent 2
was female and 4 was male. Furthermore, 4 person was under 60-64 age group and 1 was

23

female another 3 was male respondents. Lastly, only 2 male was under 65 above age
group.

Graph 4. 2.3: Education level between genders

For female education level, there was 12 person graduated with degree, 3 person with
person, 1 with professional licenses, 3 person completed with PMR, 12 person completed
with SPM, 4 person completed with STPM, and 3 person completed with UPSR. For male
education level, there was 16 person graduated with degree, 1 person in Diploma, 6
person graduate with Master, 1 person with professional licenses, 1 person PHD, 7 person
completed with PMR, 12 person completed with SPM, 9 person completed with STPM, 6
person only completed with UPSR.

Graph 4. 2.4: Education level between ages

In 18-20 age group, there was one person who graduated from degree, 2 person completed
with PMR, 4 person completed with SPM and 2 person completed with UPSR. In 21-29
age group, 8 person graduated with degree , 2 person graduated with master, 2 person
graduated with Philosophy of Doctoral, 1 person with professional licenses, 6 person

24

completed with PMR, 8 person completed with SPM, and 7 person completed with STPM,
and 1 person who just completed with UPSR.
In 30-39 age group, there was 9 person graduated with degree, 2 person graduated with
master, 2 person with Philosophy of Doctoral, 1 person completed with PMR, 4 person
completed with SPM, and 5 person completed with STPM, and 2 person completed with
UPSR. In 40-49 age group, 7 person graduated with degree, 1 person graduated with
diploma, 3 person graduated with master, 1 person with professional license, 5 person
completed with SPM, and 2 person completed with UPSR.
In 50-59 age group, there was one person graduated from master, 1 person completed
with PMR, 3 person completed with SPM and 1 person completed with UPSR. In 60-64
age group, there was 3 person graduated with degree and 1 person graduated with master.
In 65 above age group, there was 1 person completed in STPM and 1 person completes
with primary school level.

Graph 4. 2.4: Location and education level

In Batu Bahat, there was 5 person graduated with degree, 1 person with diploma, 2 person
with professional licenses and 1 person with Philosophy of Doctoral, 3 person with PMR,
6 person completed with SPM, and 4 person completed with STPM, and 3 person was
having primary education level. Whereas, in Nusa Bestari branch, there was 9 person
holding degree, 2 person graduated from master, 1 person graduated from Philosophy of
Doctoral, 3 person completed with PMR and 8 person completed with SPM, 1 person
completed with STPM, and 1 person finished with primary school.
In Pasir Gudang, there was 6 person graduated from degree, 4 person graduated from
master, 3 person completed with PMR, and 5 person completed with SPM and 3 person
completed with STPM, 4 person completed with primary. In Sutera Tanjung, 8 person

25

graduated with degree, 3 person graduated with Master, 2 person graduated with
Philosophy of Doctoral, 1 person graduated with PMR, 5 person completed with SPM, 5
person completed STPM, and 1 person completed with UPSR.
4.3 Results and discussion
4.3.1 Consumer awareness in complain channel
4.3.1.1 Relationship between gender and consumer awareness in complain channel

Graph 4.3 (a) Relationship between gender and consumer awareness channel

From the graph 4.3 (a) results, total 41 female respondents there was 27 female answers
correctly and 14 female answer wrongly. 65 % female respondents was answer correctly.
For 51 male respondents there were 39 male answers correctly and 20 people answer
wrongly. This showed that 76 % of male was answer correctly. Thus, according to the
result, consumer awareness of male to select right channel to complain about the bad
services and defect electrical product they had received was higher than female.

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4.3.1.2 Relationship between age and consumer awareness in complain channel
Graph 4.3 (b) Relationship between age and consumer awareness in complain channel

From the graph 4.3(b) result, in 18-20 group there was 2 people answered correct for
choosing right channel and 6 person answered wrong. Only about 25 % answered
correctly in this age group. For 21-29 age groups, total 35 respondents under this age
group and 21 person answered correctly and 14 person answered wrongly. The result
showed that 60 % from 21-29 age groups answered correctly. Next, in 30-39 age groups,
total 25 respondents and 20 people answered correctly and 5 people answer wrongly. The
correct percentage for this group was 80 %. There was 19 respondents was under 40-49
age group and 14 person was answer correctly and 5 person answer wrongly. About 73%
person who under 40-49 age group answered correctly.
For generation x, 6 respondents was under this group in 50-59 age group, 3 person
answered correctly and 3 person was answered wrong. 50 % person under this age group
was successfully answered correctly. For 60-64 age groups, all respondents answered
correctly which 100 % from 4 respondents. In 65 above, same percentage with 50-59 age
group, 50% respondents answered correctly from 2 respondents.
According to the result, age group in 60-64 was showing high awareness for choosing the
right channel to complain the defect product and bad service they received which about
100 % correct for their answer. For the age 30-39 group, was showing second high
awareness among other age group which is about 80% correct answer from the survey.
The third higher was the 40-49 age group which 73% correct answer from the survey. The
result showed that the higher age groups were more awareness to select right platform and
channel to voice up the product issue due to the more life experience among these groups.

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4.3.1.3 Relationship location and consumer awareness in complain channel
Graph 4.3 (c) Relationship locations and consumer awareness in complain channel

Based on the Graph 4.3(c), the results obviously show that urban areas such as Taman
Nusa Bestari, and Sutera Tanjung were more awareness to choose correct channel to
complain bad services and defect goods that had been received by them. Whereas, in less
urban areas such as Batu Bahat, and Pasir Gudang, the awareness of choosing right
channel regarding the product and service were less.
From the result, there were 20 people out 25 respondents answered correct in Taman Nusa
Bestari which was 80% and 20% answered wrongly. In Sutera Tanjung, there was 22
persons answer correctly from 25 respondents which was 88 % and 12% answer wrongly
from 25 respondents. These two areas were under Iskandar economic zone and which was
highly emphasize developing area by Johor government.
In less urban area Batu Bahat, about 10 respondents answered correctly for choosing
correct channel to complain which was 40 %, and 60% respondents from 25 respondents
was selected wrong channel in the question. For Pasir Gudang old Masai area which
results was better than Batu Bahat, about 56% which was 14 respondents out of 25
respondents choosing correct channel and 44% respondents answered wrongly. Pasir
Gudang old Masai area showing better awareness may due to the fact that the area nearby
to the industrial area and lot of skill and working people work at there, the working
experience of them might increase their awareness.

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4.3.1.4 Relationship education and consumer awareness in complain channel
Graph 4.3 (d) Relationship educations level and consumer awareness in complain channel

From the graph 4.3 (d), the results showed that respondents who completed in tertiary
study such as degree, master, Philosophy of Doctoral (PHD) were more awareness to
choose the right channel to complained regarding to the bad services and defect product.
For respondent who completed in secondary high school was showed moderated
awareness for choosing right complain channel. Whereas, for respondents who education
only completed in primary school showed the lowest awareness for choosing complain
channel when they received bad services and product.

The result of the graph showed that respondent who graduated from master and PHD was
showed 100 % answered correctly for the correct channel to complain from the total 13
respondents. For degree holder, there was 25 (89%) respondent out of 28 respondents
answered correctly which was second higher among the education group. Surprisingly, 1
respondents who graduated from diploma and 2 respondents who completed with
professional license were answered wrongly but due to there was only few respondent
from diploma and professional it was difficult to indicate the awareness from this
education group. Yet, the overall result still could concluded that a person who completed
in tertiary high school are more awareness to use the right channel to voice up the product
and services issues.

For the respondents who completed in secondary high school was showed moderate result.
The respondents who completed on STPM was showed 57% answered correct from total

29

14 respondents who had same education level. In addition, respondents who completed
with SPM was showed 13 respondents out of 24 respondent were answered correctly
which was 54 %. For respondents who completed in PMR was showed 5 respondents out
of 10 respondents answered correctly and result 50 % correctly in this education group.
Lastly, respondents who only completed in primary school in their education only 2
respondents out 9 respondent answered correctly which was about 22 % and 88 %
answered wrongly in this education group. Thus, there was less awareness for those who
only received less proper education.

4.3.2 Consumer awareness regarding the consumer right
In chapter 1, there was eight element for consumer right which were regarding to the
safety, information, choice, be heard, redress, education, healthy environment, and basic
need meet. Questionnaire was emphasized in right of basic need and right of choice

4.3.2.1 Relationship consumer gender and consumer right
Graph 4.3 (e) Relationship between gender and consumer rights

Relantionship of Gender towards
Consumer's right

33 37 Total
8 22

CORRECT FALSE CORRECT FALSE
FEMALE MALE

The result from the graph 4.3 (e) showed that female awareness to her consumer right in
term of basic need and right to choice was higher than male. There were 37 male
respondents out of 59 respondents answered correctly which consumers were about 63%
of male respondent aware to their right. Whereas, there was 33 female out of 41 female
answered correct for consumer right question this was about 80 % of female aware to
their right. Yet, the overall result showed that both gender had aware about the consumer
right.

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4.3.2.2 Relationship age and consumer right
Graph 4.3 (f) Relationship age and consumer right

From graph 4.3(f) results, 18-20 age group was showed 44 % respondent answer correctly
from 9 respondents, 21-29 age group was showed 71% respondent answer correctly from
35 respondents, 30-39 age group showed 68 % respondent answer correctly from 25
respondents, 40-49 age group showed 78 % respondent answer correctly from 19
respondents, 50-59 age group showed that 67 % respondent answered correctly from 6
respondents, 60-64 age group showed that 100 % respondent answered correctly from 4
respondents, and 65 above age group show that 50 % respondent answered correctly from
2 respondents.
The overall results showed that 60-64 age group showed high awareness regarding their
consumer right and 40-49 was showing second higher for the consumer right. The reason
may due to the high education level belong to this group and the life experience they had
been go through. Thus, they are more awareness for the consumer right. Yet, 21-29 and
30-39 age group was also showed high awareness towards the consumer right, this may
due to the power of the social medium website and more channel for them to learn about
the consumer right.

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4.3.2.3 Relationship location and consumer right
Graph 4.3 (g) relationship location and consumer right

From the graph 4.3(g) results, Batu Bahat SenQ respondents showed that 12 respondent
out of 25 respondents which was about 48% understanding consumer right. For Taman
Nusa Bestari SenHeng Branch there was 20 (80%) respondents out of 25 respondent more
aware to their consumer right. In Pasir Gudang Old Masai area, about 64 % from 25
respondents was knowing their right. In Sutera Tanjung Seng Q, there was 88 % from 25
respondents answered correctly for this consumer right question. Thus, the result showed
that urban area such Sutera Tanjung and Taman Nusa Bestari was more aware with their
consumer right. Yet, respondents who live less urban area were less aware to their
consumer right.
4.3.2.4 Relationship education and consumer right

Graph 4.3 (g) relationship education and consumer right

From the education level among the consumer, the results were showed that respondents
who completed in tertiary education are more aware with consumer right. Respondents

32

who graduated from degree, master were the highest percentage education group that
answered the question correct. There was 28 respondents graduated with degree and 24
(86) %of this education group answered correctly for consumer right. For respondents
who graduated from master and PHD holder was showed 100 % correctly answer from 13
respondents and means that they are aware with consumer right. Yet, for respondents who
graduated from diploma was answer wrong and only one respondent under this age group.
Thus, lack of information could be provided based on this group. For professional license,
only two respondents were under this group and 50 % was answered correct for consumer
right. However same with diploma group, lack of information could be provided in this
group.
For respondent who only completed in secondary education such as SPM, PMR, STPM,
they are moderate awareness to consumer right. There were 24 respondents complete with
SPM and 58 % from the respondents in this group knew about their consumer right. For
STPM, there were 13 respondents and 62 % from the group respondents was answered
correctly for consumer right question. For PMR group, there was 10 respondent and 7
respondents was answer correctly regarding the consumer right and which about 70 %.
PMR education was the highest among secondary education group. Thus, consumer right
awareness could be increase by other external factor such life and working experience.
For respondent who only received primary education, there was about 33 % from 9
respondents aware with the consumer right. The overall results could be concluded that
respondents who had completed in tertiary education are more aware with the consumer
right.

4.3.3 Consumer willingness to voice out product and services issue
The result for this part was showed in questionnaire part B. The questions were study the
intention of the customer to report the product failure, right of claiming warranty, and
requested for product explanation.

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Graph 4.3 (h): Customer willingness and understanding to voice out electrical
product and services issues

For question 1 (Q1) was discussing about the wiliness of customer to claim the warranty
when received failure product after one week purchase. From the graph 4.3 (h) results
showed that 86 % percent from 100 respondents showed strong intention for requesting to
claim product warranty or requested seller change a new one for them. 11 % respondents
from the 100 respondent strong agree to claim warranty or request a new one from seller.
3 % respondent from 100 respondents showed fair answer regarding product failure.

For question 2 (Q2) which discussed about the wiliness of customer to ask for the product
explanation from sales agent or promoter before make purchase. The results showed that
80 % of the respondents from 100 respondents strong agree to ask for product explanation
from seller, 13 % of respondents showed agree to ask for the product explanation, 2 % of
respondents fair with product explanation, 4 % of respondents was disagree to ask for the
product explanation and 1 % of respondents strong disagree with the product explanation.

Question 3 (Q3) was discussed about the attitude toward the product failure after warranty
expired one month. About 72 % disagree to claim the warranty after expired and 7 % of
respondent from 100 respondents was strongly disagree to claim the warranty when
product warranty was expire. Yet, there was about 14 % of respondent believed that they
should claim the warranty after the product warranty expired. 7 % of respondent from 100
respondent was fair with the expire warranty claiming issue.

34

Question 4 was discussed the consumer understanding with their right when they
purchased a product facing failure after two months and it was under warranty period. 84 %
of respondent from 100 respondents strong agreed that the product defect should claim
warranty and it was right for them. 11 % of respondent agree to claim the warranty. 4 %
of respondent was fair with question and 1 % of respondent stated that he or she will not
claim the warranty.
Question 5 was discussed about the customer attitude toward to the claiming warranty for
product failure due to the personal mistake. 79 % of respondents from 100 respondents
disagree to claim warranty if the product failure was caused by them, 8% was strong
disagreeing with the claim. 11 % of the respondent was fair with the question which
depends on the situation. Yet, 2% of the respondent may claim warranty although the
product failure was caused by them.

35

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

5.1 Introduction

This study has provided a consumer attitude towards the electrical product and services.
This final chapter of this study was conclusion and recommendation. Key summary of
research finding and constructive recommendation from the organization perspective was
included in this chapter. The objective of this study was the impact of demographic and
education level on consumer right awareness attitude. There was three specific objective
was generate from the objectives. For the major part within the chapter included the
consumer awareness to choose the right channel, consumer understanding in consumer
right, and the wiliness of consumer to voice out the product and service issue.

5.2 Key summary of research finding
First, specific objective was study the consumer awareness to choose right channel to
complain when received bad services and product failure based on the consumer
demographic and education level. The survey results conclude those males are more
sensitive with the complaint channel and more aware to do complain when facing product
failure. Next, the age of the consumer was having different understanding regarding the
complaint channel. From the survey conclude that 60-64 respondent, 40-49 respondents,
and 30-39 respondent were more aware to make complain in correct channel this was due
to the education back group and working experience they had been pass through, the
ability for the to handle complain issue are better other younger age group. Furthermore,
the respondent who live in urban area such as Taman Nusa Bestari and Sutera Mall are
more aware with the complaint channel that established by government and they are more
aware to know the complain process when facing bad services provided by the electrical
seller. Whereas, for less urban area showed lack of concern with the product failure and
bad services issue. For the education level of respondent result conclude that high
education level of respondents are more understand and aware of the product failure
complain channel.

Second specific objective was looking consumer understanding in their right based on the
demographic and education level of consumer. For gender perspective same with specific
objective 1 results, male are more aware with their consumer right. They making
purchases of electrical product were based on their basic need and decision was based on

36

the right of choice also. Female were less aware with the basic need and right of choice
when making purchase. From age group perspective, 60-64 age group showed high
awareness and 40-49 age groups was showed second higher awareness among age group.
This results conclude that older age respondent were more aware with their right compare
to younger age. For the location area, the conclusion was same with the first specific
objective which the urban area respondents were more aware with the consumer right
compare to the less urban area. Lastly, the education level of respondents showed that the
respondents who completed in tertiary education such as degree, master and PHD were
aware with their consumer right compare to the respondent who only completed in
secondary education and primary education.

Third, consumer willingness to voice up electrical product issue and understanding the
product warranty was showed that 97% from the 100 respondent will claim the warranty
or request changing new one if the product was failure after one week from the date of
purchase. From the result, it can be concluded most of the respondent was aware the right
of claiming the warranty and request the new product to changing the failure product
within seven days from the day of purchase. For the consumer wiliness to ask for the
product explanation there was about 80 % respondent willing to ask for the product
explanation from sales promoter before making purchase. Yet, there was 5 % of
respondent do not ask for product explanation due to the phycology factor.

For consumer understanding product warranty, 79 % percent from 100 respondents
understand that product warranty could not be claim after the warranty was expired. Yet,
14 % of respondent are less understanding with the product warranty period. Besides,
about 79 % from respondent agreed that they should not claim the product warranty if
product failure was cause by them. About 84 % of respondent knowing that they should
claim product warranty if the product was failure under warranty period. Thus, the results
showed that consumer understood the product warranty.

In conclusion, the overall results showed that consumer nowadays was aware with their
right in term of electrical product, and they know how to used their right when they facing
bad services and products. Besides, the education was giving strong impact for the
consumer awareness especially for the respondents’ age in 60-64 they were answered
correct for the whole survey as the education background was at least degree level.

37

Furthermore, 21-39 age group respondents was showed high awareness due to the high
education they had been received.

5.3 Limitation of the study
This study was only been carried out on four branch of Senheng electrical (KL) Sdn Bhd
which in fact are having more than 120 branch around Malaysia. The total number of
sample was only 100 contributed by four areas. Each area contributes 25 respondents to
this study. Thus, the number was lack of and no enough to provide more information to
this study. The accuracy will be affected. Besides, the unbalance data could be saw in this
study which was the education group, there was only one respondent who graduate from
diploma and thus the results of the relationship between the diploma level and consumer
awareness was difficult to conclude and information for this education group was no
enough to compare. The factor to be used in this study was only focus on age, location,
gender and education level which were only emphasized in demographic and education.
Yet, the consumer awareness could be affected by other external issue such peer pressure
and social medium.

5.4 Recommendation for future study
The result shows from the study was been analysed through the survey done on 100
respondent from rural and urban area. 2 rural and 2 urban areas which are selected consist
of Pasir Gudang, Nusa Bestari, Sutera Mall and Batu Pahat areas with the amount of 25
respondents from each area. This will be just enough amounts of people to carry out
survey but will be more accurate if the respondents involve more as more data and
feedback can be collected from the people who live there. In Johor, many areas are
developed and research should include more outlets from different area so that the data
collected is more diversified, if the areas are all close to each other may cause the research
finding not much different. Lastly, questionnaire use in doing research should avoid
asking repeating question in order to reduce the amount of questions cause most of the
respondent are scare when we ask more question but promised will only take few minutes
and once they try to avoid, accuracy of their feedback may affected. Besides, respondent
mostly are in a rush so long questions will also make the willingness of them to
participate in survey become low.

38

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