The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Published by ceygate, 2018-12-11 09:28:19



Celebrating 8 th Annual


Humanities Instructors & Writing Center

Ms. Lucie T. Tchouassi, Coordinator, MIE Undergraduate Program
Ms. Gina G. D’Angelo, Assistant to MIE Department Chair
Mr. Joseph Glaz, Mr. Gregory Policastro, MIE

Mr. Gregory Mass, Career Development Services
Mr. Dennis Ciemniecki, President, Alumni Association
Mr. Kevin Carswell, Solid State Cooling Systems, NY

Mr. Michael K. Smullen, Alumni Relations
Dr. Dasha M. Barger, Director, Learning Communities
Dr. Marybeth Boger, Dean of Students & Campus Life.

Samantha Cacdac, Christina Hizon DeRamos, Shannon L. Dougan,
Brett P. Seidman and Eshita N. Shah
Peer Mentors, Learning Communities

Fazaad A. Ally, ‘15

Ashley C. Pettesch
Showcase Coordination

Gifts to Judges generously provided by the NJIT Alumni Association
Lunch for Guests and Judges hosted by Career Development Services

“Team work will bring the success which an
individual cannot achieve working alone”

“Tell me, and I’ll forget;
Show me, and I may remember,
Involve me, and I’ll understand”
- Chinese proverb



Judging, Evaluation and Open Showcase

Dr. Joga Rao, Chairman, Department of MIE
Dr. Moshe Kam, Dean, Newark College of Engineering
Dr. Fadi Deek, Provost and Senior Vice President
Mr. Dennis Ciemniecki, PE NCE ’82, President, Alumni Association
Manager, Business Performance Improvement, PSE&G, NJ
Mr. Kevin Carswell, NCE 79,
VP Worldwide Sales, Solid State Cooling Systems, NY
Eric L. Sherman & Jeremy K. Silber
Frank A. Femino, Bahri Hoxha & Anthony G. Schillaci

Ms. Lucie Tchouassi, Coordinator, Undergraduate Programs, Department of MIE

Mr. B. S. Mani, University Lecturer, Department of MIE

Maricia Clark, Frank A. Femino, Samantha N. Lotfy & Anthony G. Schillaci

“Purpose directs PASSION and Passion IGNITES purpose” - Rhonda Britten


Maria O. DeOliveira, Catherine B. Lao & Andrew Tawadros

The skin stapler is a surgical tool found in hospitals for surgical procedures. They are used for tissue
or skin closure, as an alternative to sutures using needles. The skin stapler works by using a variety
of springs, such as an extension spring and a compression spring, to eject the staples from the mag-
azine. As the handles are pressed together the staples are ejected one at a time, perpendicular or
normal to the wound. The special curve on a metal plate at the tip of the skin stapler and the shape of
the ejection mechanism enable the staples to be bent to form an almost complete loop inside the
wound - all from outside the repair site. As the staple is being bent to form a loop the two edges of
the skin at the wound site are grabbed towards each other with slight reversion of the wound edges.

The handles of the stapler advance in nine steps; each step following a click is held by a detent. The
detent is a catch in the stapler that prevents the return of the pressed handle until released, tempo-
rarily keeping the two handles in the compressed position. At the end of the ninth click (step), the
detent is released and the handles are sprung back to their initial positions, ready for the ejection and
bending of the next staple. The previous staple inserted into the skin, is left at the repair site keeping
adjacent skin or tissue edges connected to allow healing. Upon healing, the staples are removed with
a staple removal device which tends to be somewhat more painful than suture removal. The skin
stapler is a single-use surgical instrument making its use an expensive option over sutures. Such
disadvantages are often offset by increased speed of wound closure and reduced rate of infection.
The skin stapler that our group has chosen for our reverse engineering project is comprised of 19
parts and is covered by US patent number 7059509B2, dated May 28, 2002..


Maria O. DeOliveira, Catherine B. Lao & Andrew Tawadros

The epidural injector is used to deposit drugs into the spine to help relieve neck, arm, back and
leg pain caused by spinal stenosis or disc herniation. The invention encompasses therapeutic
albumin fusion proteins, compositions, pharmaceutical compositions, formulations and kits. The
injector is attached to an epidural, or a needle, that is already placed in a patient. It assists in
pushing the medicine through the needle and into the body. When pressure is applied to the
handles, the torsion spring between the handle and contracts, enabling the plunger to push the
medicine through the needle and into the spinal disc. The medicine may not take effect immedi-
ately—it is common for pain to diminish progressively over the first 48 hours. However, an issue
with this procedure is the first injection may not make the individual feel 100% better. Each patient
is different, however sometimes the doctor may recommend a second injection or even a third if
the results aren’t up to the individuals standards.

The simple mechanism representing the epidural injector shares the common physics of opera-
tion with the caulking gun or foot air pump. Although the mechanism concepts may be common
between these devices from an engineering sense, the reliability, cleanliness and sterilization
levels of the epidural injector has to be extremely high and important because of its intended end
use on humans.

The epidural injector that our group has chosen for our reverse engineering project is comprised
of 6 parts. This epidural injector is covered by US patent number 10,076,650, dated November
23, 2015.


Aditya A. Bhatt, Shawn M. Mageean & Christopher C. Piezas

The Franklin Foot Air Pump is a foot-powered air pump. It uses a cylinder that pulls air in and
pumps it through a hose into an object via a ball pump needle. It has a torsion spring that will
return the pump into its original position which makes the product easier to use. The product fea-
tures a red cylinder that displays Franklin on the top. The cylinder contains a silver piston all of
which is supported by a black frame. The frame has plastic covers on its ends and on the pedal
for grip. The piston pivots from a point on the frame and on the foot handle, this allows the pump
to be flexible in its use and not to break under any anticipated stress, and so the tube and the
piston can slide without significant friction. The inner piston still contains a lubricant and an O-ring
for even less friction and a good seal. The main use of this product is to inflate small athletic items
such as a football, soccer ball, basketball or any other object that contains a needle valve. If the
ball pump needle is removed the pump can also be used to inflate bike tires. It will not, however,
work with a car tire or any other object of that magnitude due to the high air pressure needed. This
product can be found at almost any athletic equipment store and some hardware stores.

Thomas E. McAndrew, Adrian Morales & Anmol Sethi

This foot air pump is designed to transfer air from the atmosphere into an object such as a ball or
tire of some sort. Its standard nozzle is used to pump air into a bike tire. The pump is portable and
small enough to take around almost anywhere. The pump itself has a steel construction meant to
last. This air pump is sold by the Bell Company and is named the Bell Air Stomper 200 Foot Pump
with Gauge.

There is a valve located inside the cylinder which lets air in and as you press down on it by lower-
ing your leg, the air is transferred down a hose. This allows the air to come out the other side and
is usually connected to the object you are trying to put air into. At the top of the pump, you can
see a gauge which allows you to read the air pressure in the tire in imperial units up to 100psi. To
connect the nozzle to a system, the user should insert the designated area on the object into the
nozzle of the pump. To fasten the nozzle onto the designated area, the user should lock the noz-
zle in place by lowering the lever connected to it. As you continue to press the air pump, air will
exit through the nozzle of the air pump. Therefore, if the nozzle is connected to an object, the air
will be pushed through the air pump and into the object you decide to pump it into. As you contin-
ue to pump, the psi will increase. This means that the needle on the gauge will begin rotating
around so the user can measure the air pressure inside of the object (in psi). Once the pump
shows a satisfactory measurement, simply remove the nozzle. The air pump is powerful enough
to get the job done and easy enough for even a child to use. The air pump poses no threat and is
not hazardous to use. The air pump we decided to reverse engineer has a US patent number
1115941A and was issued in May 15th, 1912.


Dominic J. Gagliardi, Edward M. Kasmin & Joseph T. Roberto

An electronic throttle body is the main component in an electronic throttle control system. Normally, it
is located between the air filter box and the intake manifold, and is attached near the mass airflow
sensor. The electronic throttle body regulates the air flow into an engine’s combustion chamber, and
the electronic throttle control system replaces a mechanical linkage by electronically connecting the
accelerator pedal to the throttle. The throttle body operates the throttle valve, which controls engine
RPM’s by regulating the air flow. The throttle valve is activated in a drive-by-wire system when the
accelerator pedal is pressed, which in turn sends a signal to activate the throttle valve. A drive-by-
wire system is used in all modern cars. The computer of the car is connected to the throttle body,
which engages the motor to move all the other parts to the proper position to provide the best air to
fuel ratio for the car. The fuel injection system reacts to the changes in volume of air the throttle body
makes by adding more fuel so everything is equal. A throttle body has very high accuracy that allows
for an increase in the fuel economy. It is very important to keeping an automobile running smoothly,
efficiently, and safely. The Electronic Throttle Body is manufactured by Hitachi Automotive Company.
This specific electronic throttle body was invented by Sadayuki Aoki and is covered by U.S. patent
number 7,469,879 issued in 2008. There are so many different types of throttle bodies with many
different patent number, with an earlier patent for a different type of throttle body being issued back in
1971. This throttle body has 24 parts and 5 sub-assemblies.


Emmanuel K. Amponsah, Raul A. Hernandez & Nahmier R. McCreary

There are a lot of models of robotic vacuums available today, and they range in price from $50 all
the way up to $1,800. We have chosen a robotic vacuum manufactured by Pyle. It costs $75 it is
low-slung and compact. It is approximately 13 inches in diameter and 3.5 inches tall. It has a
rechargeable battery. A full charge equals approximately two hours of cleaning time, which means
vacuuming three medium-size rooms before it needs to recharge. The mobility system consists
primarily of two motor-driven, tracked wheels. The vacuum steers by alternating the power sup-
plied to each wheel. It has a total of five motors one driving each wheel (2 total), one driving the
vacuum, one driving the spinning side brush and one driving the agitator assembly. You typically
need to empty the dirt bin at least once for each room the robot vacuums, and possibly two or
three times depending on how dirty your floors are. The robot doesn't know when the bin is full --
it just keeps going. There's a filter you'll need to replace when it gets too clogged, but there's no
vacuum bag -- you just dump the bin and put it back in the unit.


Omar Aly, Kentaro Cleaver Hughes & Caleb C. Tam

The specific Lawn Mower Engine we have chosen to reverse engineer is designed and developed
by Honda Automaker. Competitors such as Striggs and Bratton, have also developed their own,
similar engines in response to Honda. This engine is considered to be an internal combustion
engine. This means that the process of combustion occurs within the engine itself. In this case,
oxygen oxidizes with fuel which then creates thermal energy. This thermal energy, as well as the
products of the reaction, acts upon the head of a piston to create an oscillating motion that turns a
crankshaft. Attached to the crankshaft is the lawn mower blade, which can spin at varying speeds
depending on how much fuel is allowed inside of the engine. These simple two stroke engines
come in varying sizes and costs, ranging from a little under $200 to upwards of $600. The engine
is easy and straightforward to take apart with conventional tools, making aftermarket upgrades
and replacements common-place. Most of the engine, inside and out, is made of steel or alumi-
num. There are a few parts that are made of plastic, which are easily replaceable if the need
arises. The simplicity of the engine makes for a good gateway for learners and students to better
understand the workings of an engine; it also helps them understand the manner in which more
complex engines or other mechanical devices function.

The Lawn Mower Engine we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 41 unique parts
and 7 sub-assemblies. This Lawn Mower Engine is covered by European patent publication num-
ber 0 279 446, which was published in 1988. An earlier patent for a more general internal com-
bustion engine is covered in U.S.patent number 2,292,233, which was issued in 1942.


Jakob B. Klos

Two-stroke engines are found in such devices as chain saws and jet skis because two-stroke
engines have three important advantages over four-stroke engines. They do not have valves,
which simplifies their construction and lowers their weight. They fire once every revolution, while
four-stroke engines fire once every other revolution. This gives two-stroke engines a significant
power boost. They can work in any orientation, which can be important in something like a chain-
saw. A standard four-stroke engine may have problems with oil flow unless it is upright, and solv-
ing this problem can add complexity to the engine. These advantages make two-stroke engines
lighter, simpler and less expensive to manufacture. Two-stroke engines also have the potential to
pack about twice the power into the same space because there are twice as many power strokes
per revolution. The combination of light weight and twice the power gives two-stroke engines a
great power-to-weight ratio compared to many four-stroke engine designs. Fuel and air in the
cylinder gets compressed, and when the spark plug fires the mixture ignites. The resulting explo-
sion drives the piston downward. As the piston moves downward, it is compressing the air/fuel
mixture in the crankcase. As the piston approaches the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust port is
uncovered. The pressure in the cylinder drives most of the exhaust gases out of cylinder.


Caleb J. Vinch & Santiago Zambrano

A leaf blower is a gardening tool that propels air out of a nozzle to move debris such as leaves and
grass cuttings. Leaf blowers are powered by electric or gasoline motors. Gasoline models have tradi-
tionally been fitted with a two-stroke engine. Leaf blowers are typically self-contained handheld units,
or backpack mounted units with a handheld wand. The model we have chosen is a handheld electric
leaf blower it is powerful enough to handle yard cleanup with ease, yet light enough that the user
won’t tire using it for extended periods of time. An ergonomically-designed handle provides additional
comfort. Some of the key features our model are the following; it weighs just 4.5 pounds, it is easy to
use, it works with your own extension cord. Leaf blower we have chosen for our reverse engineering
project has 17 parts and 4 sub-assemblies.


Deniz H. Gencer & Jakub Rokita

Weed Whacker is a tool which uses a flexible monofilament line instead of a blade for cutting
grass and other plants near objects, or on steep or irregular terrain. It consists of a cutting tip at
the end of a long shaft with a handle. A whipper-whacker works on the principle that a line that is
turned fast enough is held out from its housing (the rotating reel) very stiffly by centrifugal force.
The faster it turns the stiffer the line. Even round-section nylon line is able to cut grass and slight,
woody plants quite well. The line is hand-wound onto a reel before the job is started, leaving both
ends extending from the reel housing. The motor turns the reel and the line extends horizontally
while the operator swings the trimmer about where the plants are to be trimmed. The operator
controls the height at which cutting takes place and can trim down to ground level quite easily. It
is simple to maneuver and easy-to-operate devices for maintaining lawn. However, the length of
power cord that can be deployed across the ground limits them. One of the potential hazard is it
can cause debris, including rocks and stones, to go flying in several directions. For this reason, it
is typical for the person who is using a whipper-snipper to wear either safety glasses to protect
the face and particularly the eyes as a stone in the eye could cause a person to be blinded for life.
The weed whacker we chose for our reverse engineering project has 20 parts and 5 sub-
assemblies. The weed whacker is covered by US patent number US20180092300A1 issued in
2015. An earlier design of the weed whacker is covered by US patent number US2795095A is-
sued in 1954.


Donald L. Andrews, Cameron S. Guanlao & Arthur Kowalczyk

The Leaf Blower, made by the Toro Company, consists of a motor-driven impeller that takes air
from outside the blower and forces it down the nozzle, which narrows and increases the speed of
the air. The air is ejected at high speed from the end of the nozzle, allowing for leaves, grass
clippings, and other light debris to be blown around. Depending on the model of leaf blower, they
can be either gasoline or electrically powered. Our model would rely upon an extension cord to
supply electrical power to the motor. Many newer leaf blowers are powered by rechargeable bat-
teries. The main risks associated with leaf blowers are threats to the safety of bystanders if small
rocks or sharp debris are blown by the leaf blower and the debris were to strike bystanders, po-
tentially causing injury. Other threats could include electrical shock to the user if the blower is not
well-cared for or maintained, or if used improperly.

Our model of leaf blower is older and the associated patent (Portable Blower/Vac, patent number
US5560078A) expired as of 05/04/1995. However, leaf blowers have been in use since the 1950s,
and there have been various patents associated with different components and designs for leaf
blowers, as well as their power sources.


Emilio J. Cordova, Joshua T. Gaughan & Daniel A. Liung

The electric leaf blower has a rechargeable battery that powers up a motor which then causes the
fan to spin. This fan creates an airflow that is pushed out the black tube. The spinning motion of
the fan creates centrifugal forces that push air down the tube. The tube gradually gets smaller
which creates an increase in pressure that causes the air to blow out the tube at very high
speeds. This electric leaf blower is made and sold by the company Ryobi. The downside of the
blower being electric is that it will not blow at speeds as high as gas leaf blowers. However, it is
much more light and quiet than a gas-powered blower. These characteristics make it very conven-
ient for someone who does not need a high-power blower. The rechargeable battery is also very
useful for someone with a small backyard or few leaves.

The electric leaf blower used in our project features 26 parts and 12 sub-assemblies. The blower
features technology covered in the patent DE202018104790U1, published in 2018. Earlier de-
signs of leaf blowers are covered by US patent number US3174251A published in the year 1965.


Aminul Islam, Shreyas Kailasanathan & Yagou D. Tsutsumi

A garden sprayer is a product which is used in agriculture. The product could be used for home gar-
deners as well as people who work on large production farms. It is commonly used for water, fertiliz-
ers, pesticides, or other natural weed killers. The sprayer provides vital resources for plants and other
minerals in the soil to make it richer and provide a strong foundation for plants. As the user of this
tool places water or any other liquid into it, the volume within the container is so tightly packed that
the push of the nozzle enables the liquid to come flying outwards. The pump works when the user
presses a slanted grip on the bottom of the main surface of the nozzle. Since the liquid is already
tightly packed into the container, all the user needs to do is apply steady pressure to release the
liquid within the container. The user can also set the level of flow in which the liquid comes out. In
other to do this the user must set a specific setting on the front-end of the nozzle which allows the
flow of liquid to be varied. The garden sprayer makes it easy to measure the precise amount of liquid
that is required for the job. It also enables the user to start and stop the spray fast and at the user’s
will. It helps the user reach places underneath plants that classical hoses or water sprayers cannot
reach. The only problem that might arise while using this product is with the container and the liquid
which it carries. If the liquid is very acidic it could possibly burn through the container and cause
injury. This danger is completely dependent on what type of work this product is used for.


Frank A. Femino, Bahri Hoxha & Anthony G. Schillaci

The product we have reverse engineered is the Touch ‘N Flow Revolver Spray Gun, made by the
DRAMM Corporation. The spray gun has a nine-pattern dial on its nozzle, each with a particular
purpose. The patterns include: cone, center, jet, mist, soaker, flat, angle, shower, and fan. The
dial is attached to a housing where, there is a small opening that allows for the passage of water
from the garden hose. This passage aligns with one pattern at a time, the selected pattern has a
unique design that emits the desired effect. For example, the shower selection allows the water to
escape in a circular pattern that encompasses the nozzle, forming a shower-like effect. Within the
housing of the nozzle there is a pin that locks the desired selection in place, this pin is connected
to a light tension spring. It is durable enough that it does not move out of place, yet it is simultane-
ously easy to rotate to a different position.

The handle of the sprayer is encompasses within a soft yet durable handgrip. The finger compo-
nent of the grip is incremented into thin slices, which are bendable to the holders grip. Water is
released, when the trigger is pushed. It pulls back a bolt which allows the passage of water, this
bolt can be fixed into position by a nut, locking the trigger’s position. On the bottom the housing
there is a threaded hole opening, where a hose head would screw into. In addition, the dial is
encompassed by another grooved hand grip.


Ertugrul Atlas, Thomas J. Donahue & Sundeep Singh

The Camera Tripod is a product used to stabilize and elevate a photographic unit, it is a three-
legged stand, with a camera mount on top that allows the user to obtain the desired height and
angle. Each leg of the tripod is composed of three metal shafts that extend out from each other.
The primary shaft contains the other two shafts inside, if there not extended, and connects to the
camera mount. The middle shaft links the lower and primary shaft, and the lower shaft links with
the middle shaft, and has a rubber tip at the end, so the tripod doesn’t move on the desired sur-
face. Hinges are located at the rim of the shaft, when closed, puts pressure upon the intersection
of the shaft and locks it so it doesn’t extend undesirably. The three legs are connected to a central
shaft using metallic links, like the mechanism used in an umbrella, where one rod extends from a
ring on the center to the top of each leg. The center shaft has another shaft located inside which
extends up and down due to a worm gear mechanism which is operated by a crank, rotate the
crank clockwise and the shaft extends upwards, however, when rotated counter-clockwise, the
shaft extends downward.

The top section of the Camera Tripod is the mount which is connected to the center shaft, it has
several joints, and knobs. The function of several knobs is to put pressure on different hinges to
allow or restrict movement in different directions. A panel at the top, has a leveler which allows the
user to check that all the components are at the correct angle, and lock the camera. With the legs
and mount, the Camera Tripod is a marvelous unit that contributes toward a high-quality video


Richard M. Barros, Frank S. Laba & Nickolas Magesty

The main design for a Garden Umbrella includes a pole that connects to the base so that it can
stay in place. When the handle is spun, a set of gears is set in motion. This pulls a rope around a
pulley that is attached to the top of the frame, resulting in the arms of the umbrella moving up or
down. The top of the umbrella has a flexible frame that can hold a cover to protect its users from
sunlight and rain. It enables its users to be outside on a rainy day and prevents sunburn on a hot
day. However, in certain circumstances, it can pose a threat. In strong winds, it can turn into a
projectile that can seriously harm someone. This design flaw is hard to avoid completely, though
there are ways to make the umbrella stationary. An umbrella stand or a heavy base can be help
solve this problem. The oldest record of an umbrella is from 21 AD in China where it was used on
a carriage with its bendable joints used for extension or retraction. This is only one of the many
times a device with this functionality has appeared throughout history.

The Garden Umbrella we have chosen for our reverse engineering project is sold by the company
Beachcrest Home, and it has 43 parts and 3 sub-assemblies. This Garden Umbrella is covered by
US patent number 4,993,445, filed in 1990, and issued in 1991. A much earlier design of the
Garden Umbrella is covered by US patent number 1,033,651, issued in 1912.


Hassan Subhani Ahmed, Romel Inoa & Theodore Keith C. Nitro

The Okuma Classic XT CLX-300L Baitcast Fishing Reel (Bait caster) is a tool used to make catching
fish convenient and simple. Line is attached to the bait caster which is spun to retrieve or release
line. To retrieve line, the user must spin the handle clockwise. By doing this the gears within the reel
will spin to rotate the center spool and move the line guide back and forth along a rod just in front of
the spool. This provides a neat and organized method to gathering line. As well as retrieving line, the
Bait caster sold by Okuma excels in releasing line as far as the user is capable of handling. Flipping
a switch located above the handle and to the right of the spool will allow the user to release the lock-
ing mechanism holding the spool in place. Once this is done the user can cast out line. This easy to
use mechanisms makes even hard fish to catch a breeze. Don’t let the bait caster fool you however,
these fishing reels are typically used by fisherman who have experience. If not used correctly they
can prove to be troublesome.

The Okuma Classic XT CLX-300L Baitcast Fishing Reel we have chosen for our reverse engineering
project has 89 parts and 7 sub-assemblies. The Okuma Classic XT CLX-300L Baitcast Fishing Reel
is covered by US patent number 7,429,011, issued in 2008.



Vineet Adusumilli, Jason S. Cheng & Amal Vafin

The fishing reel was invented in Song dynasty China, where the earliest known illustrated depic-
tion of a fishing reel is from Chinese paintings and records which date back around 1195 AD. The
first fishing reels popped up in England around 1650 AD, and by the 1760s, London tackle shops
were promoting multiplying or gear-retrieved reels. The very first popular American fishing reel
emerged in the U.S. around 1820. The Rose Kuli 4000 series has a ratio of 5.2:1 to 5.1:1. This
reel has an amazing 12+1 ball bearings system which makes it move easily. The handle of the
fishing reel can be disassembled which makes it extremely easy to store. The reel can be used by
left and right handed people by attaching the handle to the other side. The Rose Kuli 4000 series
fishing reel has an oscillating system which has an S curve to make it simple to adjust. It is com-
pletely adjustable and moveable with a cast control.

The Rose Kuli 4000 series is a cylindrical device that can be attached to a fishing rod and is used
in winding and stowing a fishing line. Modern fishing reels usually have fittings which aid in cast-
ing a fishing line for distance and accuracy, as well as for recovering the cast line. This fishing
reel also has a collapsible handle which makes it extremely compact and easy to store.



Julia L. Bravman, Maricia Clark & Samantha N. Lotfy

The Rotary Dial Phone is a telephone that came into service in the early 20th century, introduced to
the market by the American Bell Telephone Company. The Rotary Dial Phone consists of a rotary
dial, a circular disk on the front facing plane, containing ten holes assigned to a numerical value
between 0-9. These numbers corresponded to a pulse-based system which recorded the frequency
of the pulses with a switch, then sent the signal outward to the switching office. These frequencies
helped differentiate the numbers from one another, each possessed a unique frequency of its own.
Once a number was selected on the dial the gears rotated and the dial spun. When the number
reached its full revolution it would transition backwards to its initial position.

The last digit being dialed on the rotary phone is recorded by a wiper arm which would send out the
signals from the Rotary Dial Phone’s network, located within the body, to the automated switching
office. The receiving office systematically dialed the number and connected the call by routing it to
the appropriate receiving end. The Rotary Dial Phone introduced convenience and proved itself to be
a commodity. Times have led to evolution and although the Rotary Dial Phone is now obsolete to this
generation, it pathed the way for technology advancement.


Salvatore M. DiSalvo & Alexander R. Guerrero

The Staple-less Stapler is a small compact plastic stapler that contains a total of eleven parts.
The purpose of this stapler is to eliminate the need to buy or use metal staples. It is able to com-
plete the same task as a normal stapler would, which is to secure multiple pieces of paper togeth-
er. The stapler is able to effectively staple up to five pieces of paper at once, but anymore pieces
could cause the stapler to jam. It can accomplish this because of a blade and hammer system
inside the stapler. It penetrates the paper when pressure is applied to the top of the stapler. When
a person presses on the stapler an L-shaped metal hammer begins to cut into the paper which
creates a small U-shaped hole that has a paper flap still attached to the flat end. As the hammer
is creating the hole the blade is cutting a slit through the paper that is right beside the hole. Once
the slit is made the hammer then rotates to the right and folds the paper flap into the slit that was
created by the blade. This joins the separate pieces of paper which creates the same effect as if a
normal staple was used to secure them. When the person releases the pressure from on top of
the stapler two large springs and one smaller spring push the top cap back to its original position
so it can be used again and again.


Jonathan Diaz, Shawn I. Fernando & Mahdi Miah

Handheld rotary trimmer is a device that streamlines the process of trimming material by incorpo-
rating a circular blade attached to an ergonomic handle. The blade is a flat, circular piece of steel.
The blade is held together by several plates and bolts which are made of plastic and metal, re-
spectively. These plates and bolts are then attached to another plate that serves as a safety cov-
er. The safety cover serves as a layer of protection because it covers any unnecessarily exposed
parts of the blade, ensuring that there is a gap between the blade and the user’s hand. There is
another plate that serves as an indexing wheel, which is placed on top of the safety cover. The
indexing wheel is partially exposed in the final product and can be rotated by the user. The index-
ing wheel serves as a way for the user to manipulate the angle the blade is facing with respect to
the cutting surface. The safety plate and dial plate are then attached to the ergonomic handle,
which is composed of two separate parts that can be screwed together. The handle is designed
so that both right-handed and left-handed users can use it comfortably.

The handheld rotary trimmer is made by the company CARL and is mainly used as a cutter to
open items like boxes or for use in art projects. The types of cuts and perforations that can be
made vary depending on the type of interchangeable blade that is used. However, only a single
straight blade is included when one buys the product. The handheld rotary trimmer is designed so
that changing the blade is a simple process, ensuring the convenience of the user.


John T. D'Urso, Aviskar Ghansam & Bhavyakumar G. Patel

The Da Vinci clock is a revolutionary invention since it enables the administrator to observe the
current time without a power source. The clock is operated with two pieces of strings and a
weight, placed over a series of gears. This makes a pulley framework that step by step progress-
es the hands on the clock to read a clock to the closest minute. The invention modeled is based
off a design Leonardo da Vinci created during the 15th century. The speed at which the clock
moves can be adjusted by either including or subtracting weights from the cup powering the hori-
zontal pendulum. This specific model uses coins for weights and depending on the value & num-
ber of coins placed in cup, the speed at which the hands move will change.

The Da Vinci clock we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 45 parts and 5 sub-
assemblies. A patent for this product was not applied for in the United States so a similar pulley
system patent is substituted. The patent most similar to this product is patent number
US4852072A for a Clock Apparatus. This patent was granted on July 25, 1989. Leonardo da
Vinci never went beyond designing a concept for his invention so no historical patent for the actual
da Vinci clock exists, however patent number US3024590A for Time Indicating Device uses a
similar system of pulleys to generate power. This patent was granted on March 13, 1962.


Eric Chan, Martin Daskalov & Jake W. Zilkowski

Created by Leonardo Da Vinci during the 15th century, the Da Vinci clock took an innovative
approach to designing clocks. This design allowed for time to be tracked more accurately then
previous models. This is due to the way in which the clock works, utilizing different gears as
well as a horizontal rotary pendulum to keep better control of the mechanism. As the pendulum
moves and turns the gears, the needles on the clock face rotate to indicate what time it is. The
pendulum is moved using a pulley system which consists of a counterweight at the end of a
string that is wound up on a pulley using a crank. When the string is wound up on the pulley the
gravity acting on the weight unwinds the string, creating motion that is then transferred to pen-
dulum through the gears. The speed of the clock can be altered by changing the weight used or
changing some of the gears used. This allows for time to be kept more accurately as you can
tune the device more precisely, given better results. The Da Vinci clock is an attempt at a per-
petual motion machine or one that does not need any energy to run indefinitely. This, however,
is impossible as a perpetual motion machine would violate the first or second laws of thermody-

The model of the Da Vinci Clock we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 40
parts and 8 subassemblies. Although the product patent for our Da Vinci clock does not exist, a
similar historical patent exists called the Flying Pendulum Clock, which also uses escapement
to power a clock. The Flying Pendulum Clock is covered by US patent number 286,531 issued
on October 9, 1883.


Shyam S. Desai, Bhaumik Patel & Noah D. Vazquez

Leonardo Da Vinci created a clock that became most accurate of its time. This invention was
recorded in his Codex Atlanticus and did not originally have a patent as there were none at that
time. Previous to Da Vinci’s research, many clock makers were exploring the idea of springs to be
incorporated into clocks to solve the issue of alternating weights, but failed in doing so. He devel-
oped separate gears and mini spring mechanisms for minute and hour hands instead of one large
gear system which is prone to error. These mechanisms also included a set of gears and axles
along with new basic string system and a harness to decrease instability. Da Vinci innovated the
clock industry for centuries by introducing his own model which is found in modern clocks today.

In addition to understanding the historical aspects, it can be used to understand mechanical
components of the clock as well. This model, which we built from a kit, is found to introduce young
children and adults into engineering as well. The modern Da Vinci clock that we chose for our
project has about 35-40 parts which create six subassemblies.

The Da Vinci clock is historically similar to the “Mechanical Clock” patent from 344,922 by O Re-
bentisch on July 8 1886. In the modern day, the Da Vinci clock mostly nearly resembles “Quartz
Clock Movement.” This is similar to the Da Vinci clock, because they both include gearing, weight,
and string systems. The quartz clock, however, includes a case, smaller gears, and more springs
and harnesses. Anyone can look at the different parts and try to build the model and understand
how each part works in unison with the others.


Kevin T. Franchi, Lane K. Griffis & Elion Lita

The Trigger is spring loaded on a hinge at the end, close to the LEDs. The other side of the
trigger is free floating. The free floating side of the trigger also has a toothed tail that engages a
small gear. This small gear is molded onto a large gear on the same shaft, when the trigger is
squeezed the toothed tail of the trigger spins the small gear and the large gear at the same time
and speed. The reason its set up this way is to multiply the speed of the handle when you
squeeze for more energy. The large gear, now spinning at the same speed of the small gear,
spins another small gear. This second small gear spins about five and three quarters turn to
every squeeze of the trigger. Next, the second small gear is directly attached to a hinged ratchet
arm. When the trigger is squeezed, the ratchet arm engages a spinning shell with grooves to
engage. The trigger is released, the ratchet arm spins the opposite way the grooved shell is
trying to spin and because of the way the grooves are cut in the shell, the ratchet arm does not
engage the shell letting it spin freely. The magnet is positioned in the center of a circular coil of
wire. The spinning of the magnet produces electricity within the coil. This electric charge is then
transferred to the LEDs. Switches are also provided when flashlight is not operated manually.
The LEDs are mounted on a reflective panel and positioned under a clear plastic cover with
lenses used to focus the light from the LEDs. This entire process is housed in a plastic translu-
cent gray case and held together with two screws and a opaque gray housing that covers the
LEDs and holds the clear plastic cover that focuses the LED’s light.


Christopher S. Chia, Ted H. Lee & Mark K. Pothen

The electric shaver has become a popular alternative for facial grooming because it is safe,
convenient and efficient. The Electric Shaver is an electronic device that allows the user to
shave facial hair with precision. There are three heads that are positioned in a triangular shape
and in each head, a rotating razor is enclosed by a thin steel with tiny openings that allow the
facial hair to slip through. The blades would cut the hair, thus providing a clean-cut shave. The
electric shaver is very safe because the razor is guarded by a thin steel that will prevent the skin
from being damaged. The cap that holds the three heads of the shaver can be opened to clean
the razor from dead skin and hair to prevent bacteria from growing. Cleaning the electric shaver
after use is essential because excess hair can strain the motor, which could potentially damage
the electric shaver. In addition, when the rotating blades become dull, they can be replaced by
removing the cap that holds the blades. Traditional shaving methods require more effort be-
cause the user must apply shaving cream, carefully shave off the facial hair with a blade, and
then wash off the residue with water. As opposed to traditional shaving methods, with an electri-
cal shaver, the user can simply power on the device and shave off facial hair within seconds.
Electric shavers require a source of power such as a battery, and most electric shavers can be

The electric shaver we have chosen in our Reverse Engineering Project contains 46 parts and 5
sub-assemblies. The most recent design of the electric shaver is covered by the US patent
number 9,027,251, issued on May 12, 2015.


Abidail E. Aguilar, Ivana N. Baez Ortiz & Dylan T. Mackin

The oscillating tower fan has two motors which allow the fan to oscillate and blow air. The user
controls the motors by turning a knob on the unit, which powers the fan to blow air in the de-
sired direction. The user can specify the fan speed and whether to oscillate or not. There are
two motors in the product, one which blows the air and one which oscillates the fan. The prod-
uct will blow cooling air in the direction the fan is facing while oscillating 60 degrees left and
right from the neutral position if oscillating is specified. It has the shape of a cylinder in order to
blow air in the room as efficiently as possible. The Tower Fan improves convective cooling by
forcing air flow. The potential dangers while using the fan are electrocution if it is improperly
plugged into the wall, bodily harm if the user’s hair gets pulled into the motors while rotating or a
user trips over the power cord while plugged in. When used properly these dangers can be
mitigated, however operator error cannot be completely eliminated.

The Tower Fan we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 32 parts and 3 sub-
assemblies. This Tower Fan is covered by US patent number US20120328430A1, issued in
2012, an earlier design for the spiral tower fan was produced in 2011.


Dominik Dragan, Nassim A. Khetir & Ramazan Uku

The Comfort Zone Oscillating Desktop Tower Fan is a great solution for cooling in an office or
small room, with 3 powerful fan speeds to maximize comfort. It uses a chassis with long, curved
channels connected to the base and oscillation motor, located inside the base. This allows the fan
to have an extended oscillation for greater coverage. On top of the chassis is a vertical rod which
supports the centrifugal blades, which are made for a high level of performance. Besides the
base and the chassis plate, the fan contains three other outside panels - two half-circle vertical
walls and a top surface, which all come together to enclose the fan. At the top is a simple knob,
allowing the user to select from three speeds of the fan. The oscillation speed is fixed and cannot
be changed, however oscillating can be turned on or off. With its lightweight frame and low level
of noise, this revolving tower fan is clearly a great choice for any consumer.

The tower fan we chose for our project is the smallest version of the fan that Comfort Zone offers,
and is 12 inches in height. This version has 34 parts and 2 sub-assemblies. It is much simpler
than larger versions of the same product, and this makes sense, as the product must have been
simplified in order to be able to fit into a smaller form factor. The patent for this fan is covered by a
similar patent US patent 6953322 issued in 2005. The fundamental parts that impacted the tower
fan today are the centrifugal fan and oscillating fan, both covered by patents issued before the
year 2000.


Bilal Adra, Anil M. Soodeen & Antonios M. Stathopoulos

The kick scooter consists of two main parts: while the T-shaped handle’s function is to control
and steer the scooter, the platform deck allows the user to stand while riding the scooter. Both
of these parts consist of a wheel held on by ball bearings to efficiently reduce friction thus mak-
ing the ride last longer. The kick scooter is completely mechanical; in other words it is powered
by human propulsion. The user must continuously kick back on the ground to propel forward
during the ride. Since the scooter rides on two wheels, balance is required to ride the scooter
just like a bicycle. The height of the handle bars can be adjusted, accommodating the user’s
height. A spring loaded brake is on the back wheel. Upon stepping on the brake, contact is
made with the back wheel creating friction to slow and eventually stop the scooter. The scooter
also has a collapsible feature, making it more compact to conveniently move or store away. The
most well-known manufacturer of kick scooters is Razor®. The kick scooter is mainly used for
recreational purposes, exercise, or a source of transportation over a short distance. It is not an
efficient means of daily transportation over a long distance.

The Razor® kick scooter for our project consists of 7 sub-assemblies and a total of 49 parts.
The assembly of the scooter is covered by patent USD684217S. The brake feature is covered
by patent US6139035A.


Hinton S. Lam, Kevin J. McCarthy & Nicholas Wong

The razor scooter is made out of aircraft aluminum. It consists of a swiveling handlebar connect-
ed to a shaft, which is in turn connected to a polyurethane wheel. Each wheel is supported by a
shaft that sports two stainless steel skate bearings. A base for standing on is connected by a
swivel joint to the shaft. A sandpaper-like surface is adhered to the base for grip. There is an-
other wheel on the rear of the base; connected to the wheel’s axle is a hinged scoop-like brake.
The shaft is foldable parallel to the base as it is mounted by pins on a curved set of slots. When
the pin is moved out of a notch, the shaft can rotate until the pin moves through the slots into
another notch, locking it into its standard configuration, with the shaft perpendicular to the base.
For storage, the pin can be moved to its folded configuration, with its shaft parallel to the base.
For comfort, the handlebars are covered with foam grips. The operator (typically a small child),
puts one of his or her legs onto the baseplate and grips the handlebars firmly. The other leg is
then used to push off the ground. The ride quality is best when riding on smooth ground, and
worst on rough ground. As the rider accelerates, a gyroscopic effect takes place, allowing the
rider to stay upright and comfortably ride the scooter. To steer, the rider leans in the direction of
a turn and pushes the corresponding handle away from him or her. This pulls the scooter out
from under the rider away from the direction of the turn. By doing this, the rider and scooter are
now leaning into the turn and can complete the movement.


Kayla Cade, Yoshinori Nomura & Matthew R. Schumacher

The electric scooter has the function of transportation and is intended for individuals of ages 8
and up. The back wheel is electrically powered for movement while the front wheel has steera-
ble capabilities. Between the two wheels is a platform for the user to stand on. Underneath the
platform there is a casing which contains the battery and other electrical wirings for movement.
To the left of the handle is an object designed for braking. Ultimately, there is a kickstand to-
wards the rear wheel on the standing platform of the scooter so it can stand rest when not being
use. This is an innovative product that allows the user to move without kicking back on the
ground with the end goal to move. This means less effort and more ease of movement for the
user. A potential peril of this item incorporates not having the capacity to break in to a great
degree of slopes because of extreme rates.

The electric scooter has 33 parts and 3 sub-assemblies. The electric scooter is covered by US
patent number USD810836S1 which is yet dynamic under the number US29543893. The most
punctual design of the electric scooter was in 1998 under the patent number USD5775452A,
however it has been lapsed as a result of charges.


Victor Lopes Esty, James R. Guevarra & Daniel K. Kieltyka

The Hexbug Spider is a mechanical spider which, when an electrical current runs through it,
motors begin to turn. These motors begin turning gears which will then in turn, make the move-
ment of each leg possible. There are several pins which keep the pieces of each leg in place
which will allow each leg to swivel and pivot without much resistance. The head of the Hexbug
swivels and allows for a change in direction of the legs’ movement, allowing turning to be possi-
ble. The multiple gear sets inside the head of the Hexbug Spider control the turning and move-
ment of the Hexbug. Besides the gears moving the piston which allows for the movement of the
Hexbug, the way the six legs are pinned to the body of it allows for each leg to move in a pat-
tern which makes the it move forward and slightly to the side. This display of technology is
revolutionary for the simple fact that six legs are able to move in a fashion where they are con-
nected yet move separately. This can be used in a larger scale and allows for saving space
which would be necessary for separate motors. This specific Hexbug Spider was mostly made
for children as a toy. But, the amount of detail put in the design seemed too tempting to not
choose as a product to reverse engineer for our project. The sets of gears tend to be stacked
on one another and slotted in specific cut outs in the head of the Hexbug Spider. These cutouts
allow for the gears to be nice and secure within the head and force them to keep their structure
and not be forced out of position. But the more interesting thing which drew our attention was
the way these six legs managed to work in tandem with one another and how while the Hexbug
Spider moved, it could also seamlessly change directions without any sort of hitch.


Kevin J. DeLeon, John D. Dunmire & Daniel Gutierrez

The Hexbug Spider is a six-legged robotic spider. The spider is battery-operated and comes
with a two-channel remote control that controls the walking mechanism of the toy. Each toy
consists of four sub-assemblies. The first one, titled “Pedestal”, consists of the two sets of legs.
They are titled “Legs Assembly (Top)” and “Legs Assembly (Bottom)”. The Pedestal connects
these two Leg Assemblies to another sub-assembly containing gears that control the movement
of the legs and the rotation of the body. The Pedestal is comprised mainly of screws with short
lengths. The Leg Assembly (Bottom) is operated by a plethora of moving axles and spokes so
that the spider can move in different directions. The other assembly, Leg Assembly (Top) is
primarily based on the sliding motion and is connected to the bottom leg assembly, allowing
both assemblies to work in unison. Each leg assembly consists of three separate legs, totaling
to six legs in total. The legs are held together by pins of varying lengths and head sizes. The
fourth assembly is titled “Rotating Head.” This assembly acts as a housing unit for the gear sets
that are connected to separate motors, and the battery housing. These gear sets serve two
different functions. The first gear set contains a piston that moves the legs, allowing for the
spider to walk, while the second gear set rotates the body, which moves the spider in the point-
ed direction. The Rotating Head assembly contains gearboxes that keeps the motors and gear
sets together in an organized fashion. The gear sets are connected to their own assembly and
motors to perform their intended purpose; each gear set relates to their own set of pins and
screws. Separate plastic parts are also included to ensure that the Hexbug Spider operates
successfully and walks with ease.


Jacob G. Baumgardt, Manuel A. Campechano & Gareth G. Heberling

A DIY Racing Drone is composed of a frame with 4 arm pieces each holding a motor that spins
a propeller. The central part of the frame holds the electronic parts responsible for making the
drone perform correctly. At the head of the drone is a first-person view camera that streams live
footage by transmitting images via radio waves to goggles or monitor worn by the pilot. The
remote control, drone, and goggles are all connected via radio and must transmit with sufficient
speed and reliability to allow effective control. This technology is very new and is constantly
being improved. The drone can able to fly stably as each of the four propellers provides a pro-
pulsion force that is adequate for the drone’s size and its weight. The parts for the drone were
purchased individually from the company Banggood. The DIY Racing Drone is used by both
hobbyists and in industry. Hobbyists use the drone to race in competition while in industry, the
camera on the drone can provide an aerial view of things inside and outside depending on
application. One of the potential hazard is that DIY Racing Drone has propellers that rotate at a
high velocity and could cut oneself causing serious injury, if not handled properly.

The DIY Racing Drone has 31 parts and 3 sub-assemblies. The Drone Aircraft is covered by US
patent number 29600321 which was issued in 2017. A drone design that was patent earlier is
US patent number 3053480A which was issued in 1959.


William Bond, Ion Silviu Iuga & Charles Uvino

The Holy Stone U818A is a simple quadcopter that comes with two batteries, a charger, a re-
mote and spare parts such as screws and propellers that are useful after heavy collisions. Even
though it is a cheap and basic model, it features headless mode, a 720p camera, a battery life
estimated at around 8 minutes of flight and a communication distance of 300 feet which is more
than enough for a beginner.

The quadcopter is made from lightweight materials with a total weight of 0.131 kg with an addi-
tional 0.05 kg of maximum possible load that can be lifted. The drone is made up of 25 non-
repeating parts divided into two sub-assemblies: the central structure and the leg. It is powered
by four common electric motors as opposed to the highly powerful brushless motors available
on more expensive models, but it is reliable and agile enough due to the mechanical advantage
given by the gear ratio between the motor and the shaft of the propeller. The quadcopter is also
equipped with a series of LED’s that help the user to locate and orient the device in low light
conditions with one led positioned at the “head” of the drone that is deactivated with the activa-
tion of the headless mode.

During the project, research was conducted on the main frame of the drone and multiple parts
were 3D printed using PLA filament. It was concluded that there is room for optimization in
manufacturing by removal of unnecessary material found in the original design.

Andrew J. Prescott & Patrick D. Viray

The Dial Gauge is a device used for measuring the precision of manufacturing operations. A com-
mon use for it is in engine manufacturing. It measures deck clearances, crankshaft thrust and
straightness, lifter travel and other measurements that span the distance between two surfaces of
small components. The Dial Gauge is used to measure gap widths, a precision ground and lapped
length measuring standard. It can be used as reference while setting up measuring equipment
used in machine shops. The Dial Gauge operates via pressure from a rod on the bottom of dial.
When the rod is pressed, the dial shows the given distance of the surfaces being measured. The
gauge measures to the -0.000 inch to the +0.200 inch. The Dial Gauge is very accurate when
used correctly and can give measurements to create near perfect products.


Josue C. Maldonado, Bryan G. Montoya & Brandon Vergas Oliveira

Triton Dial Indicator is a gear system that has a spindle coming out of the main body. When a part
or assembly is spun against the contact point of the spindle, one can test to see if the part has
any sort of imperfections, as any groove or bump will cause the spindle to move, which will turn
the main gear in the chassis. The turning of the gear will turn the needle on the face of the dial as
well resulting in a display of how great a change there is on the face of the surface in question.
Triton Dial Indicator is sold by the outdoor and survival company SE via This dial
indicator makes testing surfaces much easier as any sort of bumps will move the dial as well as
display down to the .001 inch how rough the surface is. Because of how sensitive the spindle and
the gear is, there is a chance that the spindle gets moved by the rounded surface of the contact
point, as opposed to an actual defect in the part. The contact point on the end of the spindle aims
to combat this issue by coming in different specifications, ranging from variations of how rounded
the base is, to how wide the base is. Any sort of contact point that has the same threading as the
bottom of the spindle is interchangeable and will ultimately help in minimizing this error. Further-
more, having such a highly sensitive spindle and gear system harbors the possibility of anything
on the measured surface throwing off the reading of the surface. For the price of the dial indicator
one can see that with the accuracy and sensitivity being displayed, they are getting a great deal.
The Triton Dial Indicator we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 37 parts includ-
ing 2 sub-assemblies. This Triton Dial Indicator is covered by US patent number 3,370,478, is-
sued in 1968. A much earlier design of the Dial Indicator is covered by US patent number
2,074,279, issued in 1937.


Eric L. Sherman & Jeremy K. Silber

The Yankee Screwdriver is a helical screwdriver that operates with a spindle and ratchet that
allows it to turn in both directions. Additionally, a spring inside the handle with a plug on one end
makes it possible to turn the spiral spindle by applying pressure on the spring or pushing down on
the handle of the screwdriver. When the user pushes down, the spindle is pushed down into the
handle until the spindle is fully contracted. The ratchet in the middle of the shell sleeve changes
the direction of the screwdriver and also has a lock which stops the spindle from being pushed
down beyond the point of the lock. What allows the change in direction is the shifter behind the
ratchet that changes the helix that is being used to spin the spindle. This push-to-spin function
makes the process of using a typical screwdriver more efficient and easier to use, lowering the
difficulty of the work done by the user. This adaptation of the original screwdriver is one of multiple
improvements made to the base design throughout history.

The Yankee screwdriver we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 27 parts and 3
sub-assemblies. The ratchet spiral screwdriver is covered by US patent number 2,664,126 issued
in 1953. A much earlier design of the screwdriver is covered by US patent number 80,583 issued
in 1868.


Michael Labib, Sharen Nair & Frederick J. Smith

The Yankee Screwdriver, also known as the Helical Screwdriver, is a mechanism used to reduce
the manual labor needed to fasten or unfasten a bolt. The push/pull motion of the screwdriver
makes it unique and easy to use. This motion is closely related to a drill with a bit. The ratcheting
action is caused by the pawls, which are small mechanical components that engage with other
mechanical components to prevent motion in one direction. Beneath the pawls are draw nuts that
move in opposite directions, in coherence with the direction of the spindle. This helical screwdriver
alleviates the pain of manually turning a nut or bolt continuously with a regular screwdriver. It has
many uses in a home and a construction environment. It can be used to fasten bolts together in
the assembly of do-it-yourself furniture to fastening small bolts in assembling a window to a wall.
The Helical “Yankee Brand“ screwdriver was originally made by the North Brother Manufacturing
company, which was later bought by the world famous Stanley Tool Company. This screwdriver,
however, was discontinued shortly after, making this helical screwdriver one of a kind.

This helical screwdriver we have chosen consists of 28 intricate parts and 2 subassemblies. The
helical screwdriver is covered by US Patent 791,766 on June 6th, 1905. A more recent modifica-
tion was US Patent 11436773 on July 3rd 2007.


Samuel Manu, Joshua N. Wright & Michael Zheng

The Gator Grip Super G is a tool that was created to simplify the work of all individuals who fre-
quently use various sockets and handles. The tool was innovative in that it eliminated the need to
have varying sized sockets to complete tasks. It does this by using a single socket containing 54
spring loaded studs that mold to objects. Built into the handle is a direction changer that allows the
objects gripped to then be either fastened or loosened depending on the setting. The handle of
the Gator Grip was uniquely shaped with the intentions of being lightweight, compact, and easy to

Though the tool was an inventive way to solve a common problem, it can be improved. For exam-
ple, although the handle has a creative look meant to make its use easier, but it is not efficient for
jobs requiring large amounts of torque. A more classic handle design could fix this issue.

The Gator Grip Super G contains 21 individual components. There is one sub assembly contain-
ing a plastic ring that holds together the 54 hexagonal studs and their 54 corresponding springs.
This sub assembly is the foundation of the product and allows for the flexibility that made the tool
popular. The Gator Grip Super G is covered by US patent numbers 7587962 and 6098570.


Zack D. Danna & Kayla S. Gomez

The Porter Cable PC1800D 18-Volt 0.5-Inch NiCad Drill is a compact handheld, battery operated
drill that weighs three pounds. The drill includes a 32-position adjustable clutch that gives users
maximum control and an integrated bit holder. The Porter Cable PC1800D includes an LED light
above its trigger to illuminate the workspace. It features a 0.5-inch all-metal chuck and delivers
440 inch-pounds of most extreme torque. The drill can operate at speeds of 0 to 350RPM and 0 to
1,400RPM with its two-speed transmission. The drill runs on an 18 Volt Nickle Cadmium battery.
The electric motor, actuated by the trigger, drives a transmission or gearbox which allows the
chuck to rotate at different speeds and torques.

This cordless drill that we have used in our reverse engineering project has 34 non-repeating
parts and four subassemblies. The drill was originally covered under USD402872S, documented
in 1997, expired, and subsequently renewed.


Petros Apostolidis, Richard . Kelly & Simerpreet Singh

The knee kicker is a metallic tool used for installing carpets on stairs and small areas such as clos-
ets. The knee kicker is also utilized for positioning larger sized industrial or normal carpets. It consists
of multiple parts such as, the pin plate and base connected with an arm. Additionally, there is a lock
mechanism to extend or retract the arm. The reason it is called a knee kicker is because the installer
uses its knee to apply pressure to the cushioned base causing the carpet to unroll. The name implies
the way the product works; the installer has to push its knee against the padded base; to stretch the
carpet out.

This specific knee kicker is a product of Roberts, a company known for its specialty tools and flooring
related products. The company is also responsible for innovating, creating, and improving new prod-
ucts such as carpet and flooring installation tools. The model number for this specific knee kicker is
10-412; this model has multiple differences from other models and brands. For instance, there is an
extendable base with a lock mechanism to allow the installer to adapt to the size of the room or car-
pet. An important feature that all knee kickers have is a cog that lowers and raises the pin plate that
allows for safer handling since the pins are hazardous. The historical patents contain designs with
the cog, starting from 1959. The latest patent of this specific knee kicker was created in 1968.


Bradley R. Gomez & Jared B. Pottruck

Pneumatic Nail Gun (Nail Gun) is a type of tool used to drive nails into wood or some other kind of
material. It is usually driven by compressed air (pneumatic). Nail guns have in many ways re-
placed hammers as tools of choice among builders. It has a sliding piston that drives a long blade.
A Nail Gun won't fire until the point that the plunger is squeezed against the object you're nailing.
At the point when the plunger is released, the pressurized air currents through the chamber, over
a piston which is connected to a blade. Plunger is attached over the piston. The compressed air
forces the plunger up and enables it to get to top of the cylinder driving it into the nail, and into the
object. After the trigger is released, the inner plunger rises and occludes air flow to the piston until
the outer plunger is compacted and the trigger is pulled again. The hammering force comes from
compressed air generated by a separate gas-powered air compressor.

The Nail Gun we chose for our reverse engineering project has 72 parts and 4 sub-assemblies.
This Nail Gun is covered by US patent number 10,016,884, issued in 2015. A much earlier design
of the Nail Gun is covered by US patent number 4,305,541, issued in 1979.


Kaan Kocak, Carlos R. Romero & Brian O. Rosas

The Palm Sander has a spinning sander attached to it. The Palm Sander spins to level most sort
of surfaces to smooth it out. It does this by turning the surface on the base for what it's worth
connected and the user moves it around, sanding the surface. As the lower portion of the sander
spins, a set of bearings and gears move. There are holes at the bottom of the sander sucking up
all the shavings of the material that is being sanded. The Palm Sander makes the process of
sanding things down easier by allowing the user to save hard labor and vitality from rubbing a
piece of sandpaper against a surface. The main potential threat with the utilization of Palm sander
is if user accidentally touches any part of sander to its own body, one may have serious perma-
nent injury or sometimes death. This danger is mainly due to inadvertent human error and cannot
be eradicated.

The Palm Sander we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 25 parts and 8 sub-
assemblies. This Palm Sander is covered by US patent number 29107164, issued in 1999. A lot
prior design of the Palm Sander is covered by US patent number 1732119A, issued in 1928.


Erik S. Delacruz, Ryan T. Otto & Svaraj D. Patel

A sander is a power tool used to smooth out surfaces by abrasion with sandpaper. Sanders have
a means to attach the sandpaper and a mechanism to move it rapidly contained within a housing
with means to hand-hold it or fix it to a workbench. Woodworking sanders are usually powered
electrically, and those used in auto-body repair work by compressed air. There are many different
types of sanders for different purposes. Multi-purpose power tools and electric drills may have
sander attachments. Our product is an Orbital sander, it is a hand-held sander that vibrates in
small circles, or "orbits." The sanding disk spinning while moving simultaneously in small ellipses
causes the orbital action that it is known for. Mostly used for fine sanding or where little material
needs to be removed. The orbital sander we have for our reverse engineering project has 29 parts
and 10 sub-assemblies.


Pryce G. Gagnon, Enrique I. Juarez Duran & Jacob A. Martin

3D printing is a process in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a
three-dimensional object. The Prusa i3 Pro W printer has a base which is called the bed. From the
corners of the bed, aluminum poles support the head of the printer, which holds the mechanisms and
electronics that allow an extruder to move as needed and release the material used to 3D print ob-
jects. Plastic known as filament is fed off of a spool and into the extruder head of the 3D Printer. The
plastic is then heated to a high temperature so that is can be extruded onto the print bed. The extrud-
er creates multiple layers on top of each other until the 3D object is created which is known as Fused
Deposit Modeling (FDM). Data is fed through the electronic user interface either through USB or wifi
connection from CURA software in the form of G-codes. G-code is a language that is created from
CAD files in order to control automated machine tools. This G-code is sent through the hardware of
the 3D printer which is then translated into physical movement for the creation of the desired part.
Compared to CNC milling or casting, 3D printing is relatively fast and inexpensive. 3D printing could
be the future of architecture and manufacturing firms where Rapid prototyping is required. One of the
possible danger of operating this machine is the risk of having a burn injury due to the high tempera-
tures of extruder nozzle and bed. The 3D printer we have chosen for our reverse engineering project
has 86 parts and 6 sub-assemblies. The Prusa i3 Pro W 3D printer is partially covered by US patent
number CN206733602U granted in December 12, 2017. The first design for a 3D Printer like devices
is covered by US patent number 4575330, issued in 1986.


Bryan Espinal, Levar Jenkins & Bryam S. Piedra

3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from
a digital file. 3D printing is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing which is cutting out a piece of
metal. 3D printing enables you to produce complex (functional) shapes using less material than
traditional manufacturing methods. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive
processes. In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of materi-
al until the object is created. Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-
section of the eventual object. For this project, we will be using the Anet A8 precision desktop i3
DIY 3D printer, it is a 60 part machine which is useful yet affordable for beginners and enthusiasts
alike. With its capable extruder and hot bed, the A8 is able to print a variety of filaments. The A8
comes unassembled with video instructions and a very detailed overview of its parts and func-

The Anet 3D printer is covered by US patent number 20160193785A1, issued in 2016. A much
earlier design of the 3D printer is covered by US patent number 14986373, issued in 2015.


Perry V. Andanar & Sean M. Mejorada

Automated Laser Engraver can engrave computer drafted designs into a surface or material. The
Automated Laser Engraver has a microcontroller that is in charge of system operations. Com-
mands in the form of points and motor controls are developed using a computer and are fed to the
microcontroller. To develop these commands, a drawing is first made on a computer. Then, the
drawing is converted into code comprised of commands. Using this code, the microcontroller
makes several stepper motors to move both a laser and an engraving surface to precise positions
as instructed by the code. The intensity of the laser is also controlled by the code. By varying the
laser intensity and the positions of the laser and the surface, intricate designs can be engraved
with great accuracy. The Laser Engraver makes the process of engraving much more accurate.
The only potential danger associated with a Laser Engraver is the intensity of the laser. If not
wearing proper eye protection, serious eye damage might occur.

The Laser Engraver we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 23 parts and 4 sub-
assemblies. This Laser Engraver is covered by US patent number 7126082B2 issued in 2006. An
earlier design of a laser engraver can be found under the 1990 US patent number 4970600A.


Gabriel A. Corbet, Thomas Martinez, Jocelyn K. Ortiz & Steven Pulido Guzman

The Multi-Purpose Milling Machine is a machine that is used to drill, cut, bore, and produce slots
usually on flat materials. The machine uses its cutters to rotate at a high speed to remove the
material, there are two ways to cut material using the cutters. One way is using the spindle which
is tilted to cut at an angle, the other way is using the spindle vertically moving up and won be-
cause the spindle cannot be titled. The machine has got the cutter installed up on it which helps in
removing the material from the surface of the work piece. It is sold by the company DMG MORI.
The Multi-Purpose Milling Machine makes it easier for users to have the access to more than one
milling machine that can do multiple types of milling, for the price of one. There are potential dan-
gers with the use of the Multi-Purpose Milling Machine is if the user accidentally gets their fingers
caught in the cutters of the machine.

The Multi-Purpose Milling Machine we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 18
non-repeating parts. This Multi-Purpose Milling Machine is covered by US patent number
7673713B2, issued in 2007. A much earlier design of the Multi-Purpose Milling Machine by US
patent number 3650178A, issued in 1972.



Omar W. Hussaein, Paul Mamauag & John D. Murray

The Cordless Circular Saw, made by the company Bauer, is a saw that has a detachable and re-
chargeable battery. This makes the saw easier and safer to work with since there are no power ca-
bles to create a tripping hazard. The saw works by utilizing a strong motor and a gear shaft to turn
the saw very fast. It has a simple trigger mechanism to start and stop the blade. It has safety guards
so that debris does not hit the user while cutting, and it also covers the blade when not in use. It has
a guide that can be used to cut perpendicular to the material or at a specific angle. When compared
to a hand saw, it is much more efficient and more accurate. It reduces the strain on the user and
allows work to be done in a fraction of the time. The dangers of this tool are minimal with the safety
features attached, but if used incorrectly or without proper training it could result in serious wounds.
With the proper training and the safety features attached, it is a very safe tool.

The circular saw we have chosen for our reverse engineering project has 23 parts and 3 sub-
assemblies. This Circular Saw is covered by US patent number 363,656 issued in 1995. A much
more recent design is covered by US patent number 10,245,463 in 2002.


Sheldon J. Pinto & Yulissa Rojas

The circular saw is a machine used to cut materials. Three principle parts of the saw are the plate,
the general body, and the blade. The RYOBI Circular Saw came furnished with a contoured de-
sign and front pommel handle for user comfort and grip. The plate lies underneath the body and is
adjustable by the user to a specific angle for any desired cut specifications. The plate additionally
fills in as a safety and guide amid the way toward making the cut. The body consists of a motor as
well as the internal wiring. With respect to comfortability and weight, the framework is a plastic
material engineered to be easily held and operated by the user. Components within the body of
the circular saw include: the motor, wires, and the operating trigger. The saw blade has multiple
components as well. It is connected to the body and is equipped for making consistent, fast insur-
gencies to make a cut. On top of saw blade lies a steel cover which provides protection and di-
rects sawdust away from the user. On bottom of the blade, there is a plastic cover which exposes
the saw blade as the operator proceeds to cut. This cover also offers protection when the saw is
not in use to avoid direct contact with the sharp blade.

The circular saw we chose for project contains 28 parts. There are two patents worth noting. The
historical patent had been published on June 30, 1914 under the patent number 1,102,018. The
current patent was published on January 22, 2015 showing massive improvements from the origi-
nal model that was manufactured in 1914. The publish number of the current patent is
2015/0020391 A1.


Mina E. Gerges, Mohammed A. Miah & Hany A. Shamroukh

The Circular Saw is an electric handheld power tool with a blade attached to it. The blade of the
Circular Saw spins rapidly in order to cut through material ranging from plastic to metals. The
internal part of the saw consists of a motor, gears, and the blade shaft. The motor uses an alter-
nating electric current to generate a magnetic field which spins a shaft. This power is transferred
from the motor shaft to the blade shaft through a series of gears, causing it to rotate. The Circular
Saw has a printed metric ruler on its base plate, which can be used to make precise measure-
ments. The Circular Saw is quicker and requires less work compared to a manual saw. The sharp
edge of blade can likewise be set to cut at an explicit wanted profundity, empowering the user to
make even the most sensitive of cuts. The Circular Saw is a powerful tool and has the potential to
cause serious bodily harm, if handled carelessly. To minimize or any chance of injury, the user
must operate with a blade guard equipped around cutting blade. It is also important to have pro-
tective eyewear, as pieces of material are flung away from the blade at high velocities and are a
hazard for the eyes.

The Circular Saw we chose has 31 parts and 5 sub-assemblies. It is covered by US patent num-
ber US8739417B2 in 2014, and an earlier design from 1929 is covered by US patent number


Ibrahim I. Kamara, Jonathan J. Martone & Evan C. Tang

The Handheld Circular Saw’s purpose is to rotate a sawblade at high speeds in order for the blade
to cut through various materials. The Circular Saw enables this action mainly through the use of
an electric motor. When plugged into a power outlet, the Circular Saw’s trigger switch can be
pressed, which activates the motor. The motor consists of a field and an armature. The field is
named so because it consists of tightly wound wires that generate a magnetic field. The armature
is a complex shaft that lies through the center of the field and is mated at one end to the main
gear drive via teeth at the end of the armature. The main gear drive is linked to the sawblade by a
washer and screw. Once the motor is activated, the armature spins, which in turn spins the main
gear drive. The main gear drive’s spinning causes the rotation of the sawblade. Since magnetic
fields are so strong, the Circular Saw is able to produce extremely high rotational speeds for the
sawblade. The entire mechanical and electrical process that takes place within the Circular Saw
allows the easy cutting of many materials.

The Circular Saw we chose has 36 non-repeating parts and 63 parts in total. The circular saw is
covered by US patent number 4,856,394A, issued in 1989. A much older Circular Saw design is
covered by US patent number 2,174A, issued in 1841.









Brochure Creation
Ashley C. Pettesch1 and B. S. Mani2

Online Flipbook Facilitation
Linus Learning, NY

1ME Senior, (2019), 2University Lecturer, Department of MIE

Purpose, Responsibility, Individuality and Determination end in Excellence


- -4282

Click to View FlipBook Version