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Published by B&R, 2019-03-26 05:36:33

MP Tutiki

îóƖƙóơǞóŤǔ ėŲ Ŧóơ ƖŲ ėƙĞǎŦŃóŦĞ
Ń ĞėƵŘóĐǔŕŦĞ ǞóďóǎŘŃɋ ƙǞĞĐǞǔ
ŦŃĞǞďijėŦĞ ǎ ŘóǡėĞŕ ǎǔƖƙóǎĐĞ

tóśƵơǞŘó ŲƙóǞ ƖŲ ŤĞďĞśŘŃ Ń ėŲėóƭŘŃ
ėŲ ėǞŃĞĐŃijĐǔĐľ ƖŲŘŲŃŘųǎɐ




































ǎǎǎɐƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś


ŃŦĶŲʻƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś

¾ĞśɐɊ ʠȐȔ ȑȌȐ ȕȒȒ ȏȑȒ

îóƖƙóơǞóŤǔ ėŲ Ŧóơ ƖŲ ėƙĞǎŦŃóŦĞ Ń ĞėƵŘóĐǔŕŦĞ ǞóďóǎŘŃɋ ƙǞĞĐǞǔ ŦŃĞǞďijėŦĞ
ǎ ŘóǡėĞŕ ǎǔƖƙóǎĐĞ tóśƵơǞŘó ŲƙóǞ ƖŲ ŤĞďĞśŘŃ Ń ėŲėóƭŘŃ ėŲ ėǞŃĞĐŃijĐǔĐľ ƖŲŘŲŃŘųǎɐ





























































































ǎǎǎɐƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś



ŃŦĶŲʻƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś

¾ĞśɐɊ ʠȐȔ ȑȌȐ ȕȒȒ ȏȑȒ

îóƖƙóơǞóŤǔ ėŲ Ŧóơ ƖŲ ėƙĞǎŦŃóŦĞ Ń ĞėƵŘóĐǔŕŦĞ ǞóďóǎŘŃɋ ƙǞĞĐǞǔ ŦŃĞǞďijėŦĞ
ǎ ŘóǡėĞŕ ǎǔƖƙóǎĐĞ tóśƵơǞŘó ŲƙóǞ ƖŲ ŤĞďĞśŘŃ Ń ėŲėóƭŘŃ ėŲ ėǞŃĞĐŃijĐǔĐľ ƖŲŘŲŃŘųǎɐ





























































































ǎǎǎɐƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś



ŃŦĶŲʻƭƵƭŃŘŃɐƖś

¾ĞśɐɊ ʠȐȔ ȑȌȐ ȕȒȒ ȏȑȒ

tĞďśĞɋ ǎǔƖŲơóǡĞŦŃĞ ơǞŘųţ Ń ƖƙǞĞėơǞŘŲśŃ





¦ƙǞĞėơƭóǎŃóŤǔ ŲĶĞƙƭij ȇƙŤǔ ÞĞƙơóśŃŦ ơƖĞĐŕóśŃǞƵŕĉĐĞŕ ơŃij ǎ ėǔơƭƙǔďƵĐŕŃ ŘŲŤƖśĞŘơŲǎĞķŲ
ǎǔƖŲơóǡĞŦŃó ŲďŃĞŘƭųǎ ŲƢǎŃóƭŲǎǔĐľɐ ‚ĶĞƙƵŕĞŤǔ ơŲśŃėŦĞ ŤĞďśĞ ơǞŘŲśŦĞ Ń ƖƙǞĞėơǞŘŲśŦĞɋ

ǎ ƭǔŤ ţóǎŘŃɋ ŘƙǞĞơţóɋ ó ƭóŘǡĞ ƭóďśŃĐĞɋ ƖŲŤŲĐĞ ėǔėóŘƭǔĐǞŦĞɋ ƵƙǞĉėǞĞŦŃó ŤƵśƭŃŤĞėŃóśŦĞ

ĐǞǔ ơƖƙǞijƭ ơƖŲƙƭŲǎǔɐ

ÞĐŃĉǡ ƖŲơǞƵŘƵŕĞŤǔ ŦŲǎǔĐľ ƙŲǞǎŃĉǞóŧɋ óďǔ ǎóĐľśóƙǞ ŦóơǞǔĐľ ƭŲǎóƙųǎ Ń ƵơţƵķ ďǔţ
Þ
óƭƙóŘĐǔŕŦǔ Ń ơƖĞţŦŃóţ ŲĐǞĞŘŃǎóŦŃó hśŃĞŦƭųǎɐ (ŲơƭijƖŦĞ ǎ ŦóơǞĞŕ ŲĶĞƙĐŃĞ ŤĞďśĞ ėśó ơǞŘųţ

ơĉ ǞóƖƙŲŕĞŘƭŲǎóŦĞ Ǟ ŤǔƢśĉ Ų ǎǔķŲėǞŃĞ Ń ƖŲƭƙǞĞďóĐľ ƵǡǔƭŘŲǎŦŃŘųǎ ɮ ǞóƙųǎŦŲ

ŦóŕŤţŲėơǞǔĐľɋ ŕóŘ Ń ƭǔĐľ ơƭóƙơǞǔĐľɐ ¦ŲśĞĐóŤǔ ƖƙóŘƭǔĐǞŦĞ ŘƙǞĞơţó ėƙĞǎŦŃóŦĞ ơŘţóėóŦĞ
ŲƙóǞ ŦŲǎŲƢđ ɮ ǞóƢśĞƖŘŃ ƖśóơƭŃŘŲǎĞ ėŲ ơƭŲţųǎ Ń ŘƙǞĞơĞţ ĐľƙŲŦŃĉĐǔĐľ ƖŲėţŲķij ƖƙǞĞė

ǞŦŃơǞĐǞĞŦŃĞŤɐ


Þ ȇƙŤŃĞ ÞĞƙơóśŃŦ ǞŦóŕėǞŃĞĐŃĞ ¦óŧơƭǎŲ ƖĞţŦĞ ėŲƙóėǞƭǎŲ Ń ŘŲŦŘƵƙĞŦĐǔŕŦĞ ĐĞŦǔɐ
f
fĞǡĞśŃ ŤóĐŃĞ ƖǔƭóŦŃó Ŧó ĞǡĞśŃ ŤóĐŃĞ ƖǔƭóŦŃó Ŧó ƭĞŤóƭ ƖƙŲėƵŘƭųǎɋ ĶŲƙŤǔ ǞóŘƵƖƵ ĐǞǔ ėŲơƭóǎǔɋ ǞóƖƙóơǞóŤǔ
ėŲ ŘŲŦƭóŘƭƵɐ




























































sssɌ ɌV=





¦ɐPɐÅɐ Þ1©± jUv

(ŲďŲơǞŲǎŃĐĞ Ȑɋ ȑȓɮȎȏȌ hóŤŃĞŦŃĞĐ îĉďŘŲǎŃĐŘŃ

¾ĞśɐɖĶóǓɊ ȓȐ Ȕȍȓ Ȕȓ ȔȎ ˃ ďŃƵƙŲʻǎĞƙơóśŃŦɐƖś

tĞďśĞɋ ǎǔƖŲơóǡĞŦŃĞ ơǞŘųţ Ń ƖƙǞĞėơǞŘŲśŃ





¦ƙǞĞėơƭóǎŃóŤǔ ŲĶĞƙƭij ȇƙŤǔ ÞĞƙơóśŃŦ ơƖĞĐŕóśŃǞƵŕĉĐĞŕ ơŃij ǎ ėǔơƭƙǔďƵĐŕŃ ŘŲŤƖśĞŘơŲǎĞķŲ
ǎǔƖŲơóǡĞŦŃó ŲďŃĞŘƭųǎ ŲƢǎŃóƭŲǎǔĐľɐ ‚ĶĞƙƵŕĞŤǔ ơŲśŃėŦĞ ŤĞďśĞ ơǞŘŲśŦĞ Ń ƖƙǞĞėơǞŘŲśŦĞɋ

ǎ ƭǔŤ ţóǎŘŃɋ ŘƙǞĞơţóɋ ó ƭóŘǡĞ ƭóďśŃĐĞɋ ƖŲŤŲĐĞ ėǔėóŘƭǔĐǞŦĞɋ ƵƙǞĉėǞĞŦŃó ŤƵśƭŃŤĞėŃóśŦĞ

ĐǞǔ ơƖƙǞijƭ ơƖŲƙƭŲǎǔɐ

ÞĐŃĉǡ ƖŲơǞƵŘƵŕĞŤǔ ŦŲǎǔĐľ ƙŲǞǎŃĉǞóŧɋ óďǔ ǎóĐľśóƙǞ ŦóơǞǔĐľ ƭŲǎóƙųǎ Ń ƵơţƵķ ďǔţ
Þ
óƭƙóŘĐǔŕŦǔ Ń ơƖĞţŦŃóţ ŲĐǞĞŘŃǎóŦŃó hśŃĞŦƭųǎɐ (ŲơƭijƖŦĞ ǎ ŦóơǞĞŕ ŲĶĞƙĐŃĞ ŤĞďśĞ ėśó ơǞŘųţ

ơĉ ǞóƖƙŲŕĞŘƭŲǎóŦĞ Ǟ ŤǔƢśĉ Ų ǎǔķŲėǞŃĞ Ń ƖŲƭƙǞĞďóĐľ ƵǡǔƭŘŲǎŦŃŘųǎ ɮ ǞóƙųǎŦŲ

ŦóŕŤţŲėơǞǔĐľɋ ŕóŘ Ń ƭǔĐľ ơƭóƙơǞǔĐľɐ ¦ŲśĞĐóŤǔ ƖƙóŘƭǔĐǞŦĞ ŘƙǞĞơţó ėƙĞǎŦŃóŦĞ ơŘţóėóŦĞ
ŲƙóǞ ŦŲǎŲƢđ ɮ ǞóƢśĞƖŘŃ ƖśóơƭŃŘŲǎĞ ėŲ ơƭŲţųǎ Ń ŘƙǞĞơĞţ ĐľƙŲŦŃĉĐǔĐľ ƖŲėţŲķij ƖƙǞĞė

ǞŦŃơǞĐǞĞŦŃĞŤɐ


Þ ȇƙŤŃĞ ÞĞƙơóśŃŦ ǞŦóŕėǞŃĞĐŃĞ ¦óŧơƭǎŲ ƖĞţŦĞ ėŲƙóėǞƭǎŲ Ń ŘŲŦŘƵƙĞŦĐǔŕŦĞ ĐĞŦǔɐ
f
fĞǡĞśŃ ŤóĐŃĞ ƖǔƭóŦŃó Ŧó ĞǡĞśŃ ŤóĐŃĞ ƖǔƭóŦŃó Ŧó ƭĞŤóƭ ƖƙŲėƵŘƭųǎɋ ĶŲƙŤǔ ǞóŘƵƖƵ ĐǞǔ ėŲơƭóǎǔɋ ǞóƖƙóơǞóŤǔ
ėŲ ŘŲŦƭóŘƭƵɐ




























































sssɌ ɌV=





¦ɐPɐÅɐ Þ1©± jUv

(ŲďŲơǞŲǎŃĐĞ Ȑɋ ȑȓɮȎȏȌ hóŤŃĞŦŃĞĐ îĉďŘŲǎŃĐŘŃ

¾ĞśɐɖĶóǓɊ ȓȐ Ȕȍȓ Ȕȓ ȔȎ ˃ ďŃƵƙŲʻǎĞƙơóśŃŦɐƖś

w s i r a a l u c h y
p e m

w s i r a a l u c h y
p e m

=Ýà’ĒĹõîàËî“Ĺ’ĻŇĒËÝö


















ʹ˜˥ˠ˔ ˇˈ˃ʼʾ˂ ˣˢ˪˦˧˔·˔ʟ ˔˕ˬ ˗˔˪˔͙ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ˢˠ ˧ˢ ˖ˢ ˡ˔˝˟˘ˣ˦˭˘ ʠ ˢ˚˥ˢˠˡ͗ ˥˔˗ˢΝ͙ ˭ ˭˔˕˔˪ˬʡ


ʽ˘˦˧˘Νˠˬ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ Ϣ˖ͅ˥˞͗ϡ ˢ˥˔˭ ˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡˬˠ ˗ˬ˦˧˥ˬ˕˨˧ˢ˥˘ˠ ˭ˡ˔ˡ˘˝ ˡ˔ ˥ˬˡ˞˨ ˕˥˔ˡκˢ˪ˬˠ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖ˬ˝ˡ˘˝ Ϣˍʴʵʴˊʾʴ˅ˆˇˊ˂ ˊˢ˝˖˜˘˖˛
ʵ͗˖˭˘˞ϡʡ ˊ˦ˣͅ·ˣ˥˔˖˨˝˘ˠˬ ˭ ˪·ˢ˦˞˜ˠ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˧˘ˠ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ Ϣʴʷ˅ʼʴˇʼʶϡ ˢ˥˔˭ ˖˭˘˦˞͗ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ Ϣʸʹʾ˂ϡ ˡ˔ ˞˧ͅ˥ˬ˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ˬ ˣˢ˦˜˔˗˔ˠˬ

˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡˢΝ͙ ˡ˔ ˥ˬˡ˞˨ ˣˢ˟˦˞˜ˠʡ ˁ˔˦˜ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˪˖ˬ ˧ˢ ˥˘ˡˢˠˢ˪˔ˡ˜ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˖˜ʟ ˞˧ͅ˥˭ˬ ˭ ˣ˘˪ˡˢΝ˖˜͗ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˥˖˭͗ ˡ˔˦˭ˬˠ ˞˟˜˘ˡ˧ˢˠ ˦˔˧ˬ˦˙˔˞˖˝˜
˭ ˭˔˞˨ˣ˨ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ʡ


ˁ˔˦˭˘ ˢ˕˜˘ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˦˞˨ˣ˜˔˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˡ˔ ˖˜͗˚·ˬˠ ˗ˢ˦˞ˢˡ˔˟˘ˡ˜˨ ˦˪ˢ˜˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʡ ʶ˜͗˚·˘ ˔ˡ˔˟˜˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˘ ˢ˖˭˘˞˜˪˔Ή ˡ˔˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˡ˔˝˪˔κˡ˜˘˝˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˔˦˭˘ ˢ˕˜˘ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˦˞˨ˣ˜˔˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˡ˔ ˖˜͗˚·ˬˠ ˗ˢ˦˞ˢˡ˔˟˘ˡ˜˨ ˦˪ˢ˜˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʡ ʶ˜͗˚·˘ ˔ˡ˔˟˜˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˘ ˢ˖˭˘˞˜˪˔Ή ˡ˔˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˡ˔˝˪˔κˡ˜˘˝˦˭ˬ˖˛
ˁ
˞˟˜˘ˡ˧ͅ˪ ʠ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ ʠ ˣ˥ˢ˪˔˗˭˜ ˗ˢ ˡ˜˘˨˦˧˔ˡˡ˘˚ˢ ˨˟˘ˣ˦˭˔ˡ˜˔ ˜ ˣˢ˦˭˘˥˭˔ˡ˜˔ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˧˨ʡ ʷ˭˜ͩ˞˜ ˭˔˦˧ˢ˦ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˨ ˭˔˨˧ˢˠ˔˧ˬ˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˘˝ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖˝˜

ˡ˔˦˭˘ ˭˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˖˛˔˥˔˞˧˘˥ˬ˭˨˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞͗ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜͗ʟ ˭˔˖˛ˢ˪˨˝͗˖ ˣ˥˭ˬ ˧ˬˠ ˔˧˥˔˞˖ˬ˝ˡ͗ ˜ ˞ˢˡ˞˨˥˘ˡ˖ˬ˝ˡ͗ ˖˘ˡͩʡ

˃ˢ˦˜˔˗˔ˠˬ ˦˭˘˥ˢ˞˜ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˧ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ ˭ ˣ˟˔˦˧˜˞˨ ˜ ˗˥˘˪ˡ˔ ϛ ˢ˙˘˥˨˝˘ˠˬ ˭˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˭˔˥ͅ˪ˡˢ ˡ˔ ˦˘˭ˢˡ ˟˘˧ˡ˜ ˝˔˞
˜ ˭˜ˠˢ˪ˬʡ ˍ˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˧˪ˢ˥˭ˢˡ˘ ˦͗ ˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡ˜˘ ˪ ˢˣ˔˥˖˜˨ ˢ ˔˧˘˦˧ˢ˪˔ˡ˘ ˦˨˥ˢ˪˖˘ ˗ˢˣ˨˦˭˖˭ˢˡ˘ ˗ˢ ˞ˢˡ˧˔˞˧˨ ˭ ˗˭˜˘͙ˠ˜ʡ


ʺ˪˔˥˔ˡ˧˨˝˘ˠˬ ˨Νˠ˜˘˖˛ʟ ˕˘˭˧˥ˢ˦˞͗ ˭˔˕˔˪ͩ ˢ˥˔˭ ˕˘˭ˣ˜˘˖˭˘Ή˦˧˪ˢ ˇ˪ˢ˝˘˝ ˣˢ˖˜˘˖˛ˬʔ

=Ýà’ĒĹõîàËî“Ĺ’ĻŇĒËÝö


















ʹ˜˥ˠ˔ ˇˈ˃ʼʾ˂ ˣˢ˪˦˧˔·˔ʟ ˔˕ˬ ˗˔˪˔͙ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ˢˠ ˧ˢ ˖ˢ ˡ˔˝˟˘ˣ˦˭˘ ʠ ˢ˚˥ˢˠˡ͗ ˥˔˗ˢΝ͙ ˭ ˭˔˕˔˪ˬʡ


ʽ˘˦˧˘Νˠˬ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ Ϣ˖ͅ˥˞͗ϡ ˢ˥˔˭ ˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡˬˠ ˗ˬ˦˧˥ˬ˕˨˧ˢ˥˘ˠ ˭ˡ˔ˡ˘˝ ˡ˔ ˥ˬˡ˞˨ ˕˥˔ˡκˢ˪ˬˠ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖ˬ˝ˡ˘˝ Ϣˍʴʵʴˊʾʴ˅ˆˇˊ˂ ˊˢ˝˖˜˘˖˛
ʵ͗˖˭˘˞ϡʡ ˊ˦ˣͅ·ˣ˥˔˖˨˝˘ˠˬ ˭ ˪·ˢ˦˞˜ˠ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˧˘ˠ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ Ϣʴʷ˅ʼʴˇʼʶϡ ˢ˥˔˭ ˖˭˘˦˞͗ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ Ϣʸʹʾ˂ϡ ˡ˔ ˞˧ͅ˥ˬ˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ˬ ˣˢ˦˜˔˗˔ˠˬ

˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡˢΝ͙ ˡ˔ ˥ˬˡ˞˨ ˣˢ˟˦˞˜ˠʡ ˁ˔˦˜ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˪˖ˬ ˧ˢ ˥˘ˡˢˠˢ˪˔ˡ˜ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˖˜ʟ ˞˧ͅ˥˭ˬ ˭ ˣ˘˪ˡˢΝ˖˜͗ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˥˖˭͗ ˡ˔˦˭ˬˠ ˞˟˜˘ˡ˧ˢˠ ˦˔˧ˬ˦˙˔˞˖˝˜
˭ ˭˔˞˨ˣ˨ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ʡ


ˁ˔˦˭˘ ˢ˕˜˘ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˦˞˨ˣ˜˔˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˡ˔ ˖˜͗˚·ˬˠ ˗ˢ˦˞ˢˡ˔˟˘ˡ˜˨ ˦˪ˢ˜˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʡ ʶ˜͗˚·˘ ˔ˡ˔˟˜˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˘ ˢ˖˭˘˞˜˪˔Ή ˡ˔˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˡ˔˝˪˔κˡ˜˘˝˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˔˦˭˘ ˢ˕˜˘ ˙˜˥ˠˬ ˦˞˨ˣ˜˔˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˡ˔ ˖˜͗˚·ˬˠ ˗ˢ˦˞ˢˡ˔˟˘ˡ˜˨ ˦˪ˢ˜˖˛ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʡ ʶ˜͗˚·˘ ˔ˡ˔˟˜˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˘ ˢ˖˭˘˞˜˪˔Ή ˡ˔˦˭ˬ˖˛ ˡ˔˝˪˔κˡ˜˘˝˦˭ˬ˖˛
ˁ
˞˟˜˘ˡ˧ͅ˪ ʠ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ ʠ ˣ˥ˢ˪˔˗˭˜ ˗ˢ ˡ˜˘˨˦˧˔ˡˡ˘˚ˢ ˨˟˘ˣ˦˭˔ˡ˜˔ ˜ ˣˢ˦˭˘˥˭˔ˡ˜˔ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˧˨ʡ ʷ˭˜ͩ˞˜ ˭˔˦˧ˢ˦ˢ˪˔ˡ˜˨ ˭˔˨˧ˢˠ˔˧ˬ˭ˢ˪˔ˡ˘˝ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖˝˜

ˡ˔˦˭˘ ˭˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˖˛˔˥˔˞˧˘˥ˬ˭˨˝͗ ˦˜ͩ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞͗ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜͗ʟ ˭˔˖˛ˢ˪˨˝͗˖ ˣ˥˭ˬ ˧ˬˠ ˔˧˥˔˞˖ˬ˝ˡ͗ ˜ ˞ˢˡ˞˨˥˘ˡ˖ˬ˝ˡ͗ ˖˘ˡͩʡ

˃ˢ˦˜˔˗˔ˠˬ ˦˭˘˥ˢ˞˜ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˧ ˭˔˕˔˪˘˞ ˭ ˣ˟˔˦˧˜˞˨ ˜ ˗˥˘˪ˡ˔ ϛ ˢ˙˘˥˨˝˘ˠˬ ˭˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˭˔˥ͅ˪ˡˢ ˡ˔ ˦˘˭ˢˡ ˟˘˧ˡ˜ ˝˔˞
˜ ˭˜ˠˢ˪ˬʡ ˍ˔˕˔˪˞˜ ˧˪ˢ˥˭ˢˡ˘ ˦͗ ˪ˬ·͗˖˭ˡ˜˘ ˪ ˢˣ˔˥˖˜˨ ˢ ˔˧˘˦˧ˢ˪˔ˡ˘ ˦˨˥ˢ˪˖˘ ˗ˢˣ˨˦˭˖˭ˢˡ˘ ˗ˢ ˞ˢˡ˧˔˞˧˨ ˭ ˗˭˜˘͙ˠ˜ʡ


ʺ˪˔˥˔ˡ˧˨˝˘ˠˬ ˨Νˠ˜˘˖˛ʟ ˕˘˭˧˥ˢ˦˞͗ ˭˔˕˔˪ͩ ˢ˥˔˭ ˕˘˭ˣ˜˘˖˭˘Ή˦˧˪ˢ ˇ˪ˢ˝˘˝ ˣˢ˖˜˘˖˛ˬʔ

5VYQT\QPQ \ TCFQʋEKɁ FNC 6YQLGL TCFQʋEK





> REW^IKS HSVSW]GL TVEKRMIRME YW^G^ʚ˒PM[MIRME (^MIGM SVE^ ^ ^EQMS[ERME HS TV^IHQMSXɹ[ RMIXY^MROS[]GL S SV]KMREPR]Q

HIWMKRMI TS[WXE] REW^I FEWIRMOM

2S[SG^IWRI TEWYNʈGI HS OE˵HIKS [RʚXV^E E ^EVE^IQ HENʈGI (^MIGMSQ QRɹWX[S VEHS˒GM SVE^ HSWOSREPI WX]QYPYNʈGI MGL

VS^[ɹN 7OSQTSRYN W[ɹN []QEV^SR] ^IWXE[ M GMIW^ WMʚ ^ VEHS˒GM 8[SNIKS (^MIGOE SVE^ ^ []NʈXOS[IKS HIWMKRY OXɹV] HPE 2MIKS

WX[SV^]I˒
















56914<101 < 4#&1ʊ%+ɀ &.# 691,', 4#&1ʊ%+







1,(32:7$5=$/1< '(6,*1







1$ 5<1.8 2' 52.8








%$6(1< : 5“ĸ1<&+ 2'&,(1,$&+






321$'&=$62:(- 6=$52ę&,










3,ā., : .2/25$&+






52=0,$5< %$6(1“:














[[[ QMRMFI TP

;EPM^OE &IH&S\o NIWX RMI^EWXʈTMSR]Q XS[EV^]W^IQ TSHVɹ˵] HPE H^MIGM 8S FEKE˵

TSHVʚG^R] [EPM^OE HS NE^H] SVE^ ɹ˵OS TSHRɹ˵IO HS WEQSPSXY [ NIHR]Q QMRMFI$QMRMFI TP

5VYQT\QPQ \ TCFQʋEKɁ FNC 6YQLGL TCFQʋEK





> REW^IKS HSVSW]GL TVEKRMIRME YW^G^ʚ˒PM[MIRME (^MIGM SVE^ ^ ^EQMS[ERME HS TV^IHQMSXɹ[ RMIXY^MROS[]GL S SV]KMREPR]Q

HIWMKRMI TS[WXE] REW^I FEWIRMOM

2S[SG^IWRI TEWYNʈGI HS OE˵HIKS [RʚXV^E E ^EVE^IQ HENʈGI (^MIGMSQ QRɹWX[S VEHS˒GM SVE^ HSWOSREPI WX]QYPYNʈGI MGL

VS^[ɹN 7OSQTSRYN W[ɹN []QEV^SR] ^IWXE[ M GMIW^ WMʚ ^ VEHS˒GM 8[SNIKS (^MIGOE SVE^ ^ []NʈXOS[IKS HIWMKRY OXɹV] HPE 2MIKS

WX[SV^]I˒
















56914<101 < 4#&1ʊ%+ɀ &.# 691,', 4#&1ʊ%+







1,(32:7$5=$/1< '(6,*1







1$ 5<1.8 2' 52.8








%$6(1< : 5“ĸ1<&+ 2'&,(1,$&+






321$'&=$62:(- 6=$52ę&,










3,ā., : .2/25$&+






52=0,$5< %$6(1“:














[[[ QMRMFI TP

;EPM^OE &IH&S\o NIWX RMI^EWXʈTMSR]Q XS[EV^]W^IQ TSHVɹ˵] HPE H^MIGM 8S FEKE˵

TSHVʚG^R] [EPM^OE HS NE^H] SVE^ ɹ˵OS TSHRɹ˵IO HS WEQSPSXY [ NIHR]Q QMRMFI$QMRMFI TP









ˁˢ˪ˢ˖˭˘˦ˡ˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ʟ ˪ˬ˞ˢˡ˔ˡ˘ ˭ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˣ·ˬ˧ˬ ˠ˘˕˟ˢ˪˘˝ʡ ˂˥ˬ˚˜ˡ˔˟ˡ˘

˪˭ˢ˥ˡ˜˖˧˪ˢ ˢ˥˔˭ ˞ˢ˟ˢ˥ˢ˪ˬ ˗˘˦˜˚ˡ ˦ˣ˥˔˪˜˔˝͗ʟ κ˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˦͗ ˜˗˘˔˟ˡˬˠ ˠ˜˘˝˦˖˘ˠ ˗ˢ

˦ˣ˔ˡ˜˔ ˝˔˞ ˥ͅ˪ˡ˜˘κ ˗ˢ ˭˔˕˔˪ˬʡ ˍ˔ˢ˞˥͗˚˟ˢˡ˘ ˞˥˔˪ͩ˗˭˜˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˭˔ˣ˘˪ˡ˜˔˝͗
˕˘˭ˣ˜˘˖˭˘Ή˦˧˪ˢ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ˢˠʡ ʷˢ ˞˔κ˗˘˚ˢ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˗ˢ·͗˖˭ˢˡˬ ˝˘˦˧ ˠ˔˧˘˥˔˖ ˣ˜˔ˡ˞ˢ˪ˬʡ





















ʽ˘˦˧˘Νˠˬ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ ˭˔˝ˠ˨˝͗˖͗ ˦˜ͩ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖˝͗ ˠ˘˕˟˜ ˜ ·ͅκ˘˞ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ͩ˖ˬ˖˛ʡ ˂˙˘˥ˢ˪˔ˡ˘

ˣ˥˭˘˭ ˡ˔˦ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ˬ ˦͗ ˡ˔˝˪ˬκ˦˭˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˜ ˦ˣ˘·ˡ˜˔˝͗ ˪˦˭ˬ˦˧˞˜˘ ˪ˬˠˢ˚˜ ˜ ˡˢ˥ˠˬʡ
ˁ˔˦˭˔ ˙˜˥ˠ˔ ˦˨˞˖˘˦ˬ˪ˡ˜˘ ˕˨˗˨˝˘ ˭˔˨˙˔ˡ˜˘ ʾ˟˜˘ˡ˧ͅ˪ ˗˭˜ͩ˞˜ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜

ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʟ ˧˘˥ˠ˜ˡˢ˪ˢΝ˖˜ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˪ʟ ˞ˢˡ˞˨˥˘ˡ˖ˬ˝ˡˬˠ ˖˘ˡˢˠ ˝˔˞ ˥ͅ˪ˡ˜˘κ ˝˘˗ˬˡˬˠ

˪ ˦˪ˢ˜ˠ ˥ˢ˗˭˔˝˨ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˖˜˘ʡ ˊ˦˭ˬ˦˧˞˜˘ ˗ˢ˦˧ͩˣˡ˘ ˪ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˖˜˘ ˠˢ˗˘˟˘

·ͅκ˘˞ʟ ˭˔ˣ˥ˢ˝˘˞˧ˢ˪˔ˡ˘ ˭ˢ˦˧˔·ˬ ˭ ˠˬΝ˟͗ ˢ ˡ˔˝ˠ·ˢ˗˦˭ˬ˖˛ʟ ˜˖˛ ˦ˣˢ˦ˢ˕˜˘
˙˨ˡ˞˖˝ˢˡˢ˪˔ˡ˜˔ ˢ˥˔˭ ˣˢ˧˥˭˘˕˔˖˛ʡ Άͅκ˞˔ ʾ˂ʵʼ ˧ˢ ˪ˬ˚ˢ˗˔ʟ ˞ˢˠ˙ˢ˥˧ʟ ˙˨ˡ˞˖˝ˢˡ˔˟ˡˢΝ͙ʡ



ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˧ ˠ˘˕˟˜ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ͩ˖ˬ˖˛


































































ˡ˔˝˪ˬκ˦˭˔ ˝˔˞ˢΝ͙

ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪




ʾ˂ʵʼ ˦ʡ˖ʡ

˨˟ʡ ˃˥˭˘ˠˬ˦·ˢ˪˔ ʤʪʶʟ ʦʪʠʧʨʣ ˆ˧˔˟ˢ˪˔ ˊˢ˟˔ ˊˊˊʡʾ˂ʵʼˆʶʡ˃ʿ

˧˘˟ʡʭ ʞʧʫ ʨʦʪ ʤʥʫ ʤʣʣʟ ʸʠˠ˔˜˟ʭ ˕˜˨˥ˢʳ˞ˢ˕˜˦˖ʡˣ˟

ˁˢ˪ˢ˖˭˘˦ˡ˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ʟ ˪ˬ˞ˢˡ˔ˡ˘ ˭ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˣ·ˬ˧ˬ ˠ˘˕˟ˢ˪˘˝ʡ ˂˥ˬ˚˜ˡ˔˟ˡ˘

˪˭ˢ˥ˡ˜˖˧˪ˢ ˢ˥˔˭ ˞ˢ˟ˢ˥ˢ˪ˬ ˗˘˦˜˚ˡ ˦ˣ˥˔˪˜˔˝͗ʟ κ˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˦͗ ˜˗˘˔˟ˡˬˠ ˠ˜˘˝˦˖˘ˠ ˗ˢ

˦ˣ˔ˡ˜˔ ˝˔˞ ˥ͅ˪ˡ˜˘κ ˗ˢ ˭˔˕˔˪ˬʡ ˍ˔ˢ˞˥͗˚˟ˢˡ˘ ˞˥˔˪ͩ˗˭˜˘ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˭˔ˣ˘˪ˡ˜˔˝͗
˕˘˭ˣ˜˘˖˭˘Ή˦˧˪ˢ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ˢˠʡ ʷˢ ˞˔κ˗˘˚ˢ ·ͅκ˞˔ ˗ˢ·͗˖˭ˢˡˬ ˝˘˦˧ ˠ˔˧˘˥˔˖ ˣ˜˔ˡ˞ˢ˪ˬʡ





















ʽ˘˦˧˘Νˠˬ ˙˜˥ˠ͗ ˭˔˝ˠ˨˝͗˖͗ ˦˜ͩ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˖˝͗ ˠ˘˕˟˜ ˜ ·ͅκ˘˞ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ͩ˖ˬ˖˛ʡ ˂˙˘˥ˢ˪˔ˡ˘

ˣ˥˭˘˭ ˡ˔˦ ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ˬ ˦͗ ˡ˔˝˪ˬκ˦˭˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜ ˜ ˦ˣ˘·ˡ˜˔˝͗ ˪˦˭ˬ˦˧˞˜˘ ˪ˬˠˢ˚˜ ˜ ˡˢ˥ˠˬʡ
ˁ˔˦˭˔ ˙˜˥ˠ˔ ˦˨˞˖˘˦ˬ˪ˡ˜˘ ˕˨˗˨˝˘ ˭˔˨˙˔ˡ˜˘ ʾ˟˜˘ˡ˧ͅ˪ ˗˭˜ͩ˞˜ ˪ˬ˦ˢ˞˜˘˝ ˝˔˞ˢΝ˖˜

ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪ʟ ˧˘˥ˠ˜ˡˢ˪ˢΝ˖˜ ˗ˢ˦˧˔˪ʟ ˞ˢˡ˞˨˥˘ˡ˖ˬ˝ˡˬˠ ˖˘ˡˢˠ ˝˔˞ ˥ͅ˪ˡ˜˘κ ˝˘˗ˬˡˬˠ

˪ ˦˪ˢ˜ˠ ˥ˢ˗˭˔˝˨ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˖˜˘ʡ ˊ˦˭ˬ˦˧˞˜˘ ˗ˢ˦˧ͩˣˡ˘ ˪ ˔˦ˢ˥˧ˬˠ˘ˡ˖˜˘ ˠˢ˗˘˟˘

·ͅκ˘˞ʟ ˭˔ˣ˥ˢ˝˘˞˧ˢ˪˔ˡ˘ ˭ˢ˦˧˔·ˬ ˭ ˠˬΝ˟͗ ˢ ˡ˔˝ˠ·ˢ˗˦˭ˬ˖˛ʟ ˜˖˛ ˦ˣˢ˦ˢ˕˜˘
˙˨ˡ˞˖˝ˢˡˢ˪˔ˡ˜˔ ˢ˥˔˭ ˣˢ˧˥˭˘˕˔˖˛ʡ Άͅκ˞˔ ʾ˂ʵʼ ˧ˢ ˪ˬ˚ˢ˗˔ʟ ˞ˢˠ˙ˢ˥˧ʟ ˙˨ˡ˞˖˝ˢˡ˔˟ˡˢΝ͙ʡ



ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˖˘ˡ˧ ˠ˘˕˟˜ ˗˭˜˘˖˜ͩ˖ˬ˖˛


































































ˡ˔˝˪ˬκ˦˭˔ ˝˔˞ˢΝ͙

ˣ˥ˢ˗˨˞˧ͅ˪




ʾ˂ʵʼ ˦ʡ˖ʡ

˨˟ʡ ˃˥˭˘ˠˬ˦·ˢ˪˔ ʤʪʶʟ ʦʪʠʧʨʣ ˆ˧˔˟ˢ˪˔ ˊˢ˟˔ ˊˊˊʡʾ˂ʵʼˆʶʡ˃ʿ

˧˘˟ʡʭ ʞʧʫ ʨʦʪ ʤʥʫ ʤʣʣʟ ʸʠˠ˔˜˟ʭ ˕˜˨˥ˢʳ˞ˢ˕˜˦˖ʡˣ˟

3/$16=( 3/(1(52:(














5(*,3,2 WR Z\GDZQLFWZR HGXNDF\MQ\FK JLHU

SODQV]RZ\FK L NDUFLDQ\FK GR QDXNL MÇ]\NµZ

REF\FK NWµUH Z QLHNRQZHQFMRQDOQ\ VSRVµE

Z\NRU]\VWXMÃ LGHÇ QDXNL SRSU]H] ]DEDZÇ
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OHNWRUµZ L ZHGÊXJ LFK SRP\VʵZ 2SLHUDMà VLÇ
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1DV]H JU\ VÃ =$%$:1(


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7R JU\ SRZVWDMÃFH ] SDVML ]DDQJD×RZDQLD

L RJURPQHM ZLHG]\ PHWRG\F]QHM *UDMÃF

Z QDV]H JU\ XF]HÌ Z W\P VDP\P F]DVLH UR]ZLMD

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QDMEDUG]LHM SUREOHPDW\F]Q\FK DVSHNWµZ

MÇ]\ND Z DWUDNF\MQ\ L ÊDWZR SU]\VZDMDOQ\

VSRVµE /HNWRU]\ L OLQJZLÐFL VWRVXMÃF\

MÇ]\NRZH JU\ 5(*,3,2 RVLÃJDMÃ Z\VRNLH

Z
Z\QLNL QDXF]DQLD D XF]QLRZLH Z VSRVµE \QLNL QDXF]DQLD D XF]QLRZLH Z VSRVµE
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_ 2)),&(#5(*,3,2 &20 _ ::: 5(*,3,2 &20

3/$16=( 3/(1(52:(














5(*,3,2 WR Z\GDZQLFWZR HGXNDF\MQ\FK JLHU

SODQV]RZ\FK L NDUFLDQ\FK GR QDXNL MÇ]\NµZ

REF\FK NWµUH Z QLHNRQZHQFMRQDOQ\ VSRVµE

Z\NRU]\VWXMÃ LGHÇ QDXNL SRSU]H] ]DEDZÇ
:V]\VWNLH QDV]H JU\ SRZVWDMÃ ] LQVSLUDFML


OHNWRUµZ L ZHGÊXJ LFK SRP\VʵZ 2SLHUDMà VLÇ
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M
MDN L GRURVÊ\PL :\DN L GRURVÊ\PL :\NRU]\VWXMÃ QLHRJUDQLF]RQÃ
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1DV]H JU\ VÃ =$%$:1(


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7R JU\ SRZVWDMÃFH ] SDVML ]DDQJD×RZDQLD

L RJURPQHM ZLHG]\ PHWRG\F]QHM *UDMÃF

Z QDV]H JU\ XF]HÌ Z W\P VDP\P F]DVLH UR]ZLMD

XPLHMÇWQRÐFL ] ]DNUHVX JUDPDW\NL

VÊRZQLFWZD L PRZ\



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SU]HGH ZV]\VWNLP LGHD QDXF]DQLD

QDMEDUG]LHM SUREOHPDW\F]Q\FK DVSHNWµZ

MÇ]\ND Z DWUDNF\MQ\ L ÊDWZR SU]\VZDMDOQ\

VSRVµE /HNWRU]\ L OLQJZLÐFL VWRVXMÃF\

MÇ]\NRZH JU\ 5(*,3,2 RVLÃJDMÃ Z\VRNLH

Z
Z\QLNL QDXF]DQLD D XF]QLRZLH Z VSRVµE \QLNL QDXF]DQLD D XF]QLRZLH Z VSRVµE
QDWXUDOQ\ SU]\VZDMDMÃ MÇ]\N





























_ 2)),&(#5(*,3,2 &20 _ ::: 5(*,3,2 &20

12:$ 2'6É21$ 0(025< *$0(




































































PR×OLZRÐÅ QDXNL GRGDWNRZ\FK VʵZ QD SODWIRUPLH /(51,


QRZH SURSR]\FMH ]DEDZ



OLVWD VʵZ Z MÇ]\NX SROVNLP DQJLHOVNLP F]HVNLP QLHPLHFNLP KLV]SDÌVNLP URV\MVNLP









::: 5(*,3,2 &20

12:$ 2'6É21$ 0(025< *$0(




































































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