The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by B&R, 2018-06-08 08:31:08

MP 4iQ

JC;. . V= ~ s






















































öööɌȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½

ºËÄ悺æʱȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½

ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ɬ 9™Úāüº ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã












JC;. . V= ~ s




Ëú¬ •Ú™öĬ‚Ä™ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ ×½‚™ ā‚Ž‚ö æË •ā¬‚ •Ë ºæÌڙ¤Ë ½™×¬™· Ĭ™ ā‚¤½‰•‚Ɍ D‚Þā‚ ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǿȀȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ȁȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ
Þā™Ú˺‚ Ë£™Úæ‚ ×Ëö˕귙 ×Úˎ½™Ãü ā öüŽËڙÃɌ J]cY~ & Cy Ɇɛ 9™ß½¬ ·™•Ä‚º ā•™ü•Ëö‚½¬ß¬™
V‚ÅÞæöË Ä‚ ºÚÌ溉 ©ö¬½¢ ā‚ÄêÚāü Þ¬¢ ö ßö¬™¬™ •ā¬™¬¢ü© £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ Þ×ËÄÞËÚËö‚Äü© ×Úā™ā
•ËÚËÞÂü© ɑɛ ā‚×ڂÞā‚Ãü •Ë ā‚×ËāĂĬ‚ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞāüì ×Ú˕êºæ‚ìɌ s Ë£™Ú¬™ ×ËÞ¬‚•‚Ãü ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü ā •Ú™öĂ •½‚ ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚
×ËÕ ǽȁ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Äü© Ã˕™½¬ •ËúÌö •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ā •Ú™öĂɇ º¬½º‚Ăߏ¬™ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚ö Ëڂā ¬© •ā¬™¬ ɬ ½‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ cËÙº ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã
öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚Ɍ J£™ÚËö‚Ä™ ×Úā™ā Ä‚Þ •Ëú¬ öüºËĂę މ ö 晏©Ä¬™ Ã˕êÂËö™· ºæÌڂ Ĭ™
öü¤‚ ˕ Žê•ËöĬāü© ß½¢ā™Ä¬‚ Õ ¬ÄÞæÚ꺏·‰ Ëڂā ×ËÞ¬‚•‚Ĭ‚ ÞºËÃ×½¬ºËö‚Äü©
ĂڂÚā¢•ā¬ ÃËÄæ‚ĄËöü©Ɍ CËÄæ‚Ą •Ëúê æË ā‚·¢¬™ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö ā •ā¬™Ã¬ɇ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ æË
Ä
Žê•Ëö‚ɇ ½Ëö‚Ĭ™ ¬ öü×ËނĄ‚Ĭ™ ¬© ºÚ̽™Þæö‚ɇ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö •Ë޺ˠā‚Ž‚ö‚ ¬ Þ×ËÞ̎ Ă
Þ×¢•ā™Ä¬™ ā‚Þê ā™ Þöˬì ×ˏ¬™©‚ìɌ VÚā™ā ËÞæ‚æĬ™ ½‚æ‚ Þ×Úā™•‚½¬ßÃü º¬½º‚Ăߏ¬™ æüÞ¬¢ü
•ËúÌö ö ‚™· êÚË׬™ ¬ ×Úā™ā æË êÞāā¢ß½¬ö¬½¬ßÃü Ë Ă·ÃĬ™· 悺‰ ނÉ ½¬āŽ¢ •ā¬™¬
öüöËÂ귉 êß왏© Ă ¬© æö‚Úā‚© Ëڂā Žê•ê·‰ ºÚ‚¬Ä¢ £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ •½‚ Ĭ© ¬ ¬© ºË½™¤Ìö ¬
ºË½™Ą‚Ä™ºɌ Ëú¬ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ Ëڂā ×½‚™ ā‚Ž‚ö ÚËāö¬·‚·‰ɇ Ëڂā êނÃ˕ā¬™½Ä¬‚·‰ ĂÞā™ •ā¬™¬ɇ މ
•ËÞºËĂÂüà æڙĬĤ¬™Ã £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ ¬ ×ËæڂĈ‰ ā¬Ä晤ÚËö‚ ‚™ Ú˕ā¬ÄüɌ ~‚×ڂÞā‚Ãü •Ë
ā
ā‚ׂ×ËāĂĬ‚ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞā‚ Ë£™Úæ‰ Ëڂā ڙ‚½¬ā‚·‚ì ĂÞāü© º½¬™ÄæÌö ºæÌÚü© º¬½º‚ ×Ëāö˽¬½¬ßÃü ā‚
¬© ā¤Ë•‰ ā‚×ڙā™ÄæËö‚Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǼȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǼǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ




ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ V¬¢æÚËöü •Ú™öĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü ā •Ú™öĂ •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ɬ cËÙº Ž™ā ß½¬ā¤ê ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚Ú¬‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚¬™· ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚·‚



















™Ä‚Ɇ ȅǾȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ Ǿ ȀȅȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ȄȀȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ Ǿ ȃȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ







Ȁ¬X &ÚËê× ]×Ɍ ā ËɌ ËɌ
g½Ɍ JÞæÚ̕āº‚ ȁȀɇ ǽȀɬǾǼǼ .‚ö‚ öööɌȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½
c™½ɌɆ ʐȀȄ Ȅȅ ȂȀȄ ȂǼ Ȅȁɇ ʐȀȄ ȂǼȀ ǽǼȁ Ǽǽȅ ºËÄ悺æʱȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½

ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ɬ 9™Úāüº ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã












JC;. . V= ~ s




Ëú¬ •Ú™öĬ‚Ä™ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ ×½‚™ ā‚Ž‚ö æË •ā¬‚ •Ë ºæÌڙ¤Ë ½™×¬™· Ĭ™ ā‚¤½‰•‚Ɍ D‚Þā‚ ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǿȀȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ȁȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ
Þā™Ú˺‚ Ë£™Úæ‚ ×Ëö˕귙 ×Úˎ½™Ãü ā öüŽËڙÃɌ J]cY~ & Cy Ɇɛ 9™ß½¬ ·™•Ä‚º ā•™ü•Ëö‚½¬ß¬™
V‚ÅÞæöË Ä‚ ºÚÌ溉 ©ö¬½¢ ā‚ÄêÚāü Þ¬¢ ö ßö¬™¬™ •ā¬™¬¢ü© £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ Þ×ËÄÞËÚËö‚Äü© ×Úā™ā
•ËÚËÞÂü© ɑɛ ā‚×ڂÞā‚Ãü •Ë ā‚×ËāĂĬ‚ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞāüì ×Ú˕êºæ‚ìɌ s Ë£™Ú¬™ ×ËÞ¬‚•‚Ãü ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü ā •Ú™öĂ •½‚ ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚
×ËÕ ǽȁ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Äü© Ã˕™½¬ •ËúÌö •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ā •Ú™öĂɇ º¬½º‚Ăߏ¬™ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚ö Ëڂā ¬© •ā¬™¬ ɬ ½‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ cËÙº ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã
öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚Ɍ J£™ÚËö‚Ä™ ×Úā™ā Ä‚Þ •Ëú¬ öüºËĂę މ ö 晏©Ä¬™ Ã˕êÂËö™· ºæÌڂ Ĭ™
öü¤‚ ˕ Žê•ËöĬāü© ß½¢ā™Ä¬‚ Õ ¬ÄÞæÚ꺏·‰ Ëڂā ×ËÞ¬‚•‚Ĭ‚ ÞºËÃ×½¬ºËö‚Äü©
ĂڂÚā¢•ā¬ ÃËÄæ‚ĄËöü©Ɍ CËÄæ‚Ą •Ëúê æË ā‚·¢¬™ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö ā •ā¬™Ã¬ɇ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ æË
Ä
Žê•Ëö‚ɇ ½Ëö‚Ĭ™ ¬ öü×ËނĄ‚Ĭ™ ¬© ºÚ̽™Þæö‚ɇ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö •Ë޺ˠā‚Ž‚ö‚ ¬ Þ×ËÞ̎ Ă
Þ×¢•ā™Ä¬™ ā‚Þê ā™ Þöˬì ×ˏ¬™©‚ìɌ VÚā™ā ËÞæ‚æĬ™ ½‚æ‚ Þ×Úā™•‚½¬ßÃü º¬½º‚Ăߏ¬™ æüÞ¬¢ü
•ËúÌö ö ‚™· êÚË׬™ ¬ ×Úā™ā æË êÞāā¢ß½¬ö¬½¬ßÃü Ë Ă·ÃĬ™· 悺‰ ނÉ ½¬āŽ¢ •ā¬™¬
öüöËÂ귉 êß왏© Ă ¬© æö‚Úā‚© Ëڂā Žê•ê·‰ ºÚ‚¬Ä¢ £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ •½‚ Ĭ© ¬ ¬© ºË½™¤Ìö ¬
ºË½™Ą‚Ä™ºɌ Ëú¬ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ Ëڂā ×½‚™ ā‚Ž‚ö ÚËāö¬·‚·‰ɇ Ëڂā êނÃ˕ā¬™½Ä¬‚·‰ ĂÞā™ •ā¬™¬ɇ މ
•ËÞºËĂÂüà æڙĬĤ¬™Ã £‚Äæ‚ā·¬ ¬ ×ËæڂĈ‰ ā¬Ä晤ÚËö‚ ‚™ Ú˕ā¬ÄüɌ ~‚×ڂÞā‚Ãü •Ë
ā
ā‚ׂ×ËāĂĬ‚ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞā‚ Ë£™Úæ‰ Ëڂā ڙ‚½¬ā‚·‚ì ĂÞāü© º½¬™ÄæÌö ºæÌÚü© º¬½º‚ ×Ëāö˽¬½¬ßÃü ā‚
¬© ā¤Ë•‰ ā‚×ڙā™ÄæËö‚Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǼȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ǼǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ




ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ V¬¢æÚËöü •Ú™öĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ڙöĬ‚Äü •ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ ËÙº ˤÚ˕Ëöü ā •Ú™öĂ •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ɬ cËÙº Ž™ā ß½¬ā¤ê ˤÚ˕Ëöü •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚Ú¬‚ •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚¬™· ā™ ß½¬ā¤¬™Ã •ā¬™¬ ɬ C‚·‚



















™Ä‚Ɇ ȅǾȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ Ǿ ȀȅȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽ ȄȀȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ Ǿ ȃȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ







Ȁ¬X &ÚËê× ]×Ɍ ā ËɌ ËɌ
g½Ɍ JÞæÚ̕āº‚ ȁȀɇ ǽȀɬǾǼǼ .‚ö‚ öööɌȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½
c™½ɌɆ ʐȀȄ Ȅȅ ȂȀȄ ȂǼ Ȅȁɇ ʐȀȄ ȂǼȀ ǽǼȁ Ǽǽȅ ºËÄ悺æʱȀ¬ÙɌËÃɌ×½





> REW^IKS HSVSW]GL TVEKRMIRME YW^G^ʚ˒PM[MIRME (^MIGM SVE^ ^ ^EQMS[ERME HS TV^IHQMSXɹ[ RMIXY^MROS[]GL
S SV]KMREPR]Q HIWMKRMI TS[WXE] REW^I FEWIRMOM
2S[SG^IWRI TEWYNʈGI HS OE˵HIKS [RʚXV^E E ^EVE^IQ HENʈGI (^MIGMSQ QRɹWX[S VEHS˒GM SVE^ HSWOSREPI
WX]QYPYNʈGI MGL VS^[ɹN 7OSQTSRYN W[ɹN []QEV^SR] ^IWXE[ M GMIW^ WMʚ ^ VEHS˒GM 8[SNIKS (^MIGOE SVE^ ^
[]NʈXOS[IKS HIWMKRY OXɹV] HPE 2MIKS WX[SV^]I˒
FEWIR] [ H[ɹGL SHGMIRMEGL TSREHG^EWS[IN W^EVS˒GM
TMOM [ OSPSVEGL

&YNEO

&YNERMI YNERMI [WTMRERMI WMIH^IRMI VIPEOWS[ERMI WMʚ
&
FEPERWS[ERMI GLS[ERMI WMʚ# 8S [W^]WXOS NIWX
QS˵PM[I ^ RS[]Q FYNEOMIQ .YTMHYY 4V^]
[WTɹTVEG] ^ &EGSR (IWMKR [I *VEROJYVGMI JMVQE
.YTMHYY WX[SV^]E TVE[HSTSHSFRMI RENJENRMINW^]
FYNEO RE ˒[MIGMI ;]OSV^]WXERMI JSVQS[ERIKS
HVI[RE M WTIGNEPRIKS TVSGIWY TVSHYOG]NRIKS
YQQS˵PM[MS WX[SV^IRMI YRMOEPRIKS TVSNIOXY M
Y
OW^XEXY H^MʚOM G^IQY FYNEO XIR QE W^ERWʚ
^SWXEʊ OPEW]Oʈ ^EFE[IO


>NI˴H˴EPRME


2
2EE OE˵H]Q TPEGY ^EFE[ ^RENHYNI WMʚ ^E^[]G^EN
^NI˵H˵EPRME M NIWX SFPIKERE ^EVɹ[RS TV^I^ WXEVW^I
H^MIGM NEO M XI QSHW^I >NI˵H˵ERMI HSWXEVG^E MQ
TVE[H^M[]GL [VE˵Iʿ E TV^] X]Q TS^[EPE RE
;EPM^OE HPE H^MIGM TSTVE[ʚ ^HSPRS˒GM QSXSV]G^R]GL GS NIWX

7YGL] FEWIR ; ;]GMIG^OM XS ^E[W^I [MIPI [VE˵Iʿ HPE H^MIGM RMI^[]OPI [E˵RI HPE TVE[MHS[IKS VS^[SNY
H^MIGOE 3JIVS[ERE TV^I^ REW ^NI˵H˵EPRME .YTMHYY
XSS YV^ʈH^IRMI WX[SV^SRI ^ Q]˒Pʈ S H^MIGMEGL
( ^[MIH^ERMI RS[]GL QMINWG M OSV^]WXERMI ^ G^IOENʈG]GL X
(^MIGMʿWX[S^MIGMʿWX[S XS G^EW OXɹV] OE˵H] FʚHʈG NY˵
XEQ EXVEOGNM XS TVE[H^M[E TV^]NIQRS˒ʊ OXɹVE
OXɹVI TSXV^IFYNʈ EXVEOG]NR]GL FSH˳Gɹ[
SWSFʈ HSVSWʈ [WTSQMRE ^ TVE[H^M[ʈ HSWXEVG^E [WTSQRMIʿ RE PEXE /E˵H] []NE^H [Mʈ˵I WMʚ WX]QYPYNʈG]GL VS^[ɹN 0&1 /EQMP 7^EVIO
TV^]NIQRS˒GMʈ >ETI[RMNQ] [MʚG W[SMQ NIHREO ^ TSHVɹ˵ʈ G^ʚWXS OMPOYKSH^MRRʈ %F] WTʚH^Mʊ Nʈ 4S^REʿWOE
H^MIGMSQ RMI^ETSQRMERI [VE˵IRME H^MʚOM OXɹV]Q OSQJSVXS[S [EVXS TSQ]˒PIʊ S [MIPSJYROG]NRIN 8EVRS[S 4SHKɹVRI
XIR SOVIW MGL ˵]GME FʚH^MI [Mʈ^E WMʚ ^ [EPM^GI 4VSTSRS[ERE TV^I^ REW [EPM^OE HPE H^MIGM 7OSRXEOXYN WMʚ ^ REQM
RENPITW^]QM [WTSQRMIRMEQM 1S˵IQ] &
&IH&IH&S\ XS RMI X]POS RENPITW^] []FɹV RE FEKE˵
YW^G^ʚ˒PM[Mʊ TSGMIGL] TVSTSRYNʈG MQ EXVEOGNI TSHVʚG^R] [EPM^OE QS˵I F]ʊ NIHRSG^I˒RMI
OXXɹVI RMI X]POS HSWXEVG^ʈ MQ QRɹWX[E VEHS˒GM EPI TSHRɹ˵OMIQ HS WEQSPSXY QS˵I XEO˵I TIRMʊ JYROGNʚ
O
XEO˵I FʚHʈ WX]QYPS[Eʊ MGL VS^[ɹN NEO WYGLI ɹ˵OE > XEOʈ [EPM^Oʈ OE˵HE TSHVɹ˵ FʚH^MI [Mʈ^EE WMʚ ^
FEWIR] ^ TMIG^OEQM []KSHR]Q SHTSG^]ROMIQ
[[[ QMRMFI TP

QMRMFI$QMRMFI TP

> REW^IKS HSVSW]GL TVEKRMIRME YW^G^ʚ˒PM[MIRME (^MIGM SVE^ ^ ^EQMS[ERME HS TV^IHQMSXɹ[ RMIXY^MROS[]GL
S SV]KMREPR]Q HIWMKRMI TS[WXE] REW^I FEWIRMOM
2S[SG^IWRI TEWYNʈGI HS OE˵HIKS [RʚXV^E E ^EVE^IQ HENʈGI (^MIGMSQ QRɹWX[S VEHS˒GM SVE^ HSWOSREPI
WX]QYPYNʈGI MGL VS^[ɹN 7OSQTSRYN W[ɹN []QEV^SR] ^IWXE[ M GMIW^ WMʚ ^ VEHS˒GM 8[SNIKS (^MIGOE SVE^ ^
[]NʈXOS[IKS HIWMKRY OXɹV] HPE 2MIKS WX[SV^]I˒
FEWIR] [ H[ɹGL SHGMIRMEGL TSREHG^EWS[IN W^EVS˒GM
TMOM [ OSPSVEGL

&YNEO

&YNERMI YNERMI [WTMRERMI WMIH^IRMI VIPEOWS[ERMI WMʚ
&
FEPERWS[ERMI GLS[ERMI WMʚ# 8S [W^]WXOS NIWX
QS˵PM[I ^ RS[]Q FYNEOMIQ .YTMHYY 4V^]
[WTɹTVEG] ^ &EGSR (IWMKR [I *VEROJYVGMI JMVQE
.YTMHYY WX[SV^]E TVE[HSTSHSFRMI RENJENRMINW^]
FYNEO RE ˒[MIGMI ;]OSV^]WXERMI JSVQS[ERIKS
HVI[RE M WTIGNEPRIKS TVSGIWY TVSHYOG]NRIKS
YQQS˵PM[MS WX[SV^IRMI YRMOEPRIKS TVSNIOXY M
Y
OW^XEXY H^MʚOM G^IQY FYNEO XIR QE W^ERWʚ
^SWXEʊ OPEW]Oʈ ^EFE[IO


>NI˴H˴EPRME


2
2EE OE˵H]Q TPEGY ^EFE[ ^RENHYNI WMʚ ^E^[]G^EN
^NI˵H˵EPRME M NIWX SFPIKERE ^EVɹ[RS TV^I^ WXEVW^I
H^MIGM NEO M XI QSHW^I >NI˵H˵ERMI HSWXEVG^E MQ
TVE[H^M[]GL [VE˵Iʿ E TV^] X]Q TS^[EPE RE
;EPM^OE HPE H^MIGM TSTVE[ʚ ^HSPRS˒GM QSXSV]G^R]GL GS NIWX

7YGL] FEWIR ; ;]GMIG^OM XS ^E[W^I [MIPI [VE˵Iʿ HPE H^MIGM RMI^[]OPI [E˵RI HPE TVE[MHS[IKS VS^[SNY
H^MIGOE 3JIVS[ERE TV^I^ REW ^NI˵H˵EPRME .YTMHYY
XSS YV^ʈH^IRMI WX[SV^SRI ^ Q]˒Pʈ S H^MIGMEGL
( ^[MIH^ERMI RS[]GL QMINWG M OSV^]WXERMI ^ G^IOENʈG]GL X
(^MIGMʿWX[S^MIGMʿWX[S XS G^EW OXɹV] OE˵H] FʚHʈG NY˵
XEQ EXVEOGNM XS TVE[H^M[E TV^]NIQRS˒ʊ OXɹVE
OXɹVI TSXV^IFYNʈ EXVEOG]NR]GL FSH˳Gɹ[
SWSFʈ HSVSWʈ [WTSQMRE ^ TVE[H^M[ʈ HSWXEVG^E [WTSQRMIʿ RE PEXE /E˵H] []NE^H [Mʈ˵I WMʚ WX]QYPYNʈG]GL VS^[ɹN 0&1 /EQMP 7^EVIO
TV^]NIQRS˒GMʈ >ETI[RMNQ] [MʚG W[SMQ NIHREO ^ TSHVɹ˵ʈ G^ʚWXS OMPOYKSH^MRRʈ %F] WTʚH^Mʊ Nʈ 4S^REʿWOE
H^MIGMSQ RMI^ETSQRMERI [VE˵IRME H^MʚOM OXɹV]Q OSQJSVXS[S [EVXS TSQ]˒PIʊ S [MIPSJYROG]NRIN 8EVRS[S 4SHKɹVRI
XIR SOVIW MGL ˵]GME FʚH^MI [Mʈ^E WMʚ ^ [EPM^GI 4VSTSRS[ERE TV^I^ REW [EPM^OE HPE H^MIGM 7OSRXEOXYN WMʚ ^ REQM
RENPITW^]QM [WTSQRMIRMEQM 1S˵IQ] &
&IH&IH&S\ XS RMI X]POS RENPITW^] []FɹV RE FEKE˵
YW^G^ʚ˒PM[Mʊ TSGMIGL] TVSTSRYNʈG MQ EXVEOGNI TSHVʚG^R] [EPM^OE QS˵I F]ʊ NIHRSG^I˒RMI
OXXɹVI RMI X]POS HSWXEVG^ʈ MQ QRɹWX[E VEHS˒GM EPI TSHRɹ˵OMIQ HS WEQSPSXY QS˵I XEO˵I TIRMʊ JYROGNʚ
O
XEO˵I FʚHʈ WX]QYPS[Eʊ MGL VS^[ɹN NEO WYGLI ɹ˵OE > XEOʈ [EPM^Oʈ OE˵HE TSHVɹ˵ FʚH^MI [Mʈ^EE WMʚ ^
FEWIR] ^ TMIG^OEQM []KSHR]Q SHTSG^]ROMIQ
[[[ QMRMFI TP

QMRMFI$QMRMFI TP

6ZHHW +RPH V :RUOG GHNRUDFMH KDQG PDGH GOD 'RPX 0DP\ L ']LHFND SRZVWDĂD ] SRWU]HE\ WZRU]HQLD SLÙNQD





























']LHFL WR FDĄ\ QDV] ĝZLDW Ȃ



XF]\ĆP\ JR VĄRGV]\P









3RNµM G]LHFLÛF\ WR Z\MÇWNRZD SU]HVWU]HĆ NWµUD Z\PDJD SU]HP\ĝODQHM DUDQľDFML :DUWR E\ E\ĄD ] MHGQHM VWURQ\ IXQNFMRQDOQD GOD
URG]LFµZ MDN L SREXG]DĄD G]LHFLÛFÇ Z\REUDļQLÛ ']LÛNL QDV]HPX UÛNRG]LHĄX VWZRU]HQLH EDMNRZHM RD]\ MHVW G]LHFLQQLH SURVWH L
SU]\MHPQH :ĝUµG QDV]\FK XQLNDWRZ\FK Z\UREµZ ]QDMG]LHFLH PLÛG]\ LQQ\PL FLHSOXWNLH NRF\NL PLÛNNLH G\ZDQLNL SDVWHORZH
SRGXV]NL SRP\VĄRZH SODNDW\ F]\ XURF]H QDPLRW\ WLSL :V]\VWNLH ]XSHĄQLH LQQH QLľ Z SRSXODUQ\FK VNOHSDFK VLHFLRZ\FK

6ZHHW +RPHCV :RUOG WR PDJLF]QH PLHMVFH Z NWµU\P XPLHMÛWQLH ĄÇF]\P\ SLÛNQ\ GHVLJQ
] EH]SLHF]HĆVWZHP Z\UREµZ GOD G]LHFL 'ODWHJR GR UÛF]QHM SURGXNFML Xľ\ZDP\ Z\ĄÇF]QLH
ȏ PLÛNNLHM SROVNLHM EDZHĄQ\
ȏ QLHWRNV\F]Q\FK IDUE ZRGQ\FK
ȏ PDWHULDĄµZ HNRORJLF]Q\FK
ȏ DQW\DOHUJLF]Q\FK Z\SHĄQLHĆ GR SRGXV]HN
ȏ
ȏ QDWXUDOQHJR GUHZQD VRVQRZHJR GR QDPLRWµZ L SURSRUF]\NµZ QDWXUDOQHJR GUHZQD VRVQRZHJR GR QDPLRWµZ L SURSRUF]\NµZ

= P\ĚOÅ R G]LHFLDFK ] P\ĚOÅ R 7RELH





=DPLDVW GĄXJLFK VSDFHUµZ PLÛG]\ VNOHSRZ\PL SµĄNDPL ZROLV] F]DV VSÛG]RQ\ ]H VZRMÇ
SRFLHFKÇ" =DNXS\ RQOLQH SR]ZROÇ &L QD RSLHNÛ OXE ]DEDZÛ ] PDOXFKHP Z SU]HVWU]HQLDFK
XU]ÇG]RQ\FK EH] Z\FKRG]HQLD ] GRPX :LHU]\P\ ľH Z QDV]HM ERJDWHM RIHUFLH ]QDMG]LHV] FRĝ
GOD VLHELH L VZRMHM SRFLHFK\





6ZHHW +RPHȇV :RUOG _ XO 7 5HJHUD %LHOVNR %LDĄD _ 7HO _ ZZZ VZHHWKRPHVZRUOG SO _ VNOHS#VZHHWKRPHVZRUOG SO

6ZHHW +RPH V :RUOG GHNRUDFMH KDQG PDGH GOD 'RPX 0DP\ L ']LHFND SRZVWDĂD ] SRWU]HE\ WZRU]HQLD SLÙNQD





























']LHFL WR FDĄ\ QDV] ĝZLDW Ȃ



XF]\ĆP\ JR VĄRGV]\P









3RNµM G]LHFLÛF\ WR Z\MÇWNRZD SU]HVWU]HĆ NWµUD Z\PDJD SU]HP\ĝODQHM DUDQľDFML :DUWR E\ E\ĄD ] MHGQHM VWURQ\ IXQNFMRQDOQD GOD
URG]LFµZ MDN L SREXG]DĄD G]LHFLÛFÇ Z\REUDļQLÛ ']LÛNL QDV]HPX UÛNRG]LHĄX VWZRU]HQLH EDMNRZHM RD]\ MHVW G]LHFLQQLH SURVWH L
SU]\MHPQH :ĝUµG QDV]\FK XQLNDWRZ\FK Z\UREµZ ]QDMG]LHFLH PLÛG]\ LQQ\PL FLHSOXWNLH NRF\NL PLÛNNLH G\ZDQLNL SDVWHORZH
SRGXV]NL SRP\VĄRZH SODNDW\ F]\ XURF]H QDPLRW\ WLSL :V]\VWNLH ]XSHĄQLH LQQH QLľ Z SRSXODUQ\FK VNOHSDFK VLHFLRZ\FK

6ZHHW +RPHCV :RUOG WR PDJLF]QH PLHMVFH Z NWµU\P XPLHMÛWQLH ĄÇF]\P\ SLÛNQ\ GHVLJQ
] EH]SLHF]HĆVWZHP Z\UREµZ GOD G]LHFL 'ODWHJR GR UÛF]QHM SURGXNFML Xľ\ZDP\ Z\ĄÇF]QLH
ȏ PLÛNNLHM SROVNLHM EDZHĄQ\
ȏ QLHWRNV\F]Q\FK IDUE ZRGQ\FK
ȏ PDWHULDĄµZ HNRORJLF]Q\FK
ȏ DQW\DOHUJLF]Q\FK Z\SHĄQLHĆ GR SRGXV]HN
ȏ
ȏ QDWXUDOQHJR GUHZQD VRVQRZHJR GR QDPLRWµZ L SURSRUF]\NµZ QDWXUDOQHJR GUHZQD VRVQRZHJR GR QDPLRWµZ L SURSRUF]\NµZ

= P\ĚOÅ R G]LHFLDFK ] P\ĚOÅ R 7RELH





=DPLDVW GĄXJLFK VSDFHUµZ PLÛG]\ VNOHSRZ\PL SµĄNDPL ZROLV] F]DV VSÛG]RQ\ ]H VZRMÇ
SRFLHFKÇ" =DNXS\ RQOLQH SR]ZROÇ &L QD RSLHNÛ OXE ]DEDZÛ ] PDOXFKHP Z SU]HVWU]HQLDFK
XU]ÇG]RQ\FK EH] Z\FKRG]HQLD ] GRPX :LHU]\P\ ľH Z QDV]HM ERJDWHM RIHUFLH ]QDMG]LHV] FRĝ
GOD VLHELH L VZRMHM SRFLHFK\





6ZHHW +RPHȇV :RUOG _ XO 7 5HJHUD %LHOVNR %LDĄD _ 7HO _ ZZZ VZHHWKRPHVZRUOG SO _ VNOHS#VZHHWKRPHVZRUOG SO

*SXSFE˒RMI XS MRRS[EG]NR] TVSNIOX TSPIKENʈG] RE YQMIW^G^IRMY [ MPYWXVS[ERIN FE˒RM ^HNʚʊ
8[SNIKS (^MIGOE 4MʚORI OSPSVS[I LMWXSVMI ^ 8[SMQ (^MIGOMIQ [ VSPM Kɹ[RIN XS ˒[MIXRE
^EFE[E HPE GEIN VSH^MR] HSWOSRE] TVI^IRX HPE H^MIGM [ OE˵H]Q [MIOY SVE^ TMʚORE
TEQMʈXOE RE PEXE





























.%/ 43;78%.ʆ *383&%ː2-)#



8[SV^IRMI *SXSFE˒RM XS FEVH^S G^EWSGLSRR] TVSGIW /E˵Hʈ FE˒ʿ RENTMIV[ XV^IFE
[]Q]˒PMʊ 0MG^] WMʚ TSQ]W ; TSW^YOM[ERMY SHTS[MIHRMIN XVI˒GM FEVH^S TSQSGRI Wʈ
OPYG^S[I IPIQIRX] ũ GS H^MIGOS PYFM VSFMʊ NEOMI ^[MIV^ʈXOS PYFM QS˵I QE W[SNʈ YPYFMSRʈ ;][SERMI OVIEX][RIN FYV^] [ Qɹ^KY ^NIH^IRMI
QEWOSXOʚ OSPSV EOSʊ G^] QE TYTMPE MXH 4S ^IFVERMY X]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ QS˵RE WMʚ ^EFMIVEʊ QMR G^IOSPEH W^OMGI ^SWXE[MERI [W^ʚH^MI
^E []Q]˒PERMI 1ɹ^K RENPITMIN TVEGYNI [ VYGLY [MʚG RENPITW^I TSQ]W] TV^]GLSH^ʈ RE
WTEGIV^I FEWIRMI PYF VS[IVS[IN TV^INE˵H˵GI ^ 1ʚ˵IQ /MIH] XVI˒ʊ REVIW^GMI WMʚ SFNE[M
QS˵RE ^EG^ʈʊ V]QS[Eʊ

; ;E˵RI NIWX EF] HSFMIVEʊ WS[E XEO F] X[SV^]] NEOM˒ GMʈK WOSNEV^IRMS[] [ H^MIGMʚG]Q
YQ]˒PI H^MʚOM G^IQY EX[MIN NI ^ETEQMʚXENʈ
6S[IV FEWR VS[IV TSXIQ NY˵ X]POS
+H] NIWX NY˵ V]QS[ER] XIOWX ũ G^EW RE MPYWXVEGNI 2ENTMIV[ W^OMGI FSLEXIVɹ[ TSXIQ FMYVOS FMYVOS FMYVOS
TV^IPERMI MGL RE []WSOMIN KVEQEXYV] TETMIV 9˵][EQ EO[EVIPM HS REQEPS[ERME TSWXEGM
SVE^ [W^]WXOMGL IPIQIRXɹ[ XE 2EWXʚTRMI WOERYNʚ [W^]WXOS M ^EG^]REQ ^EFE[ʚ
[ TVSKVEQMI JSXSWLST (^MʚOM XIQY QEQ TIRʈ OSRXVSPʚ REH NEOS˒GMʈ VS^H^MIPG^S˒GMʈ
M OSPS OSPSVEQM 2MI [WTSQMRENʈG S HSOEʿG^ERMY MPYWXVEGNM M HSHE[ERMY HS RMGL YFSKEGENʈG]GL
M
IPIQIRXɹ[ /MIH] MPYWXVEGNI Wʈ KSXS[I ũ QS˵RE [WXE[MEʊ ^HNʚGME H^MIGOE ũ RENTMIV[
[]GMREQ XS ^ OE˵HIKS VIXYW^YNʚ OVE[ʚH^MI M SHTS[MIHRMS TSHWXE[MEQ HS OE˵HIN TPERW^] *EVFOE 4LSXSWLST (VYOEVOE
4SXIQ NY˵ X]POS []HVYO M KSXS[I *MRMW^ [I [WTERME]Q WX]PY





[[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ

*SXSFE˒RMI XS MRRS[EG]NR] TVSNIOX TSPIKENʈG] RE YQMIW^G^IRMY [ MPYWXVS[ERIN FE˒RM ^HNʚʊ
8[SNIKS (^MIGOE 4MʚORI OSPSVS[I LMWXSVMI ^ 8[SMQ (^MIGOMIQ [ VSPM Kɹ[RIN XS ˒[MIXRE
^EFE[E HPE GEIN VSH^MR] HSWOSRE] TVI^IRX HPE H^MIGM [ OE˵H]Q [MIOY SVE^ TMʚORE
TEQMʈXOE RE PEXE





























.%/ 43;78%.ʆ *383&%ː2-)#



8[SV^IRMI *SXSFE˒RM XS FEVH^S G^EWSGLSRR] TVSGIW /E˵Hʈ FE˒ʿ RENTMIV[ XV^IFE
[]Q]˒PMʊ 0MG^] WMʚ TSQ]W ; TSW^YOM[ERMY SHTS[MIHRMIN XVI˒GM FEVH^S TSQSGRI Wʈ
OPYG^S[I IPIQIRX] ũ GS H^MIGOS PYFM VSFMʊ NEOMI ^[MIV^ʈXOS PYFM QS˵I QE W[SNʈ YPYFMSRʈ ;][SERMI OVIEX][RIN FYV^] [ Qɹ^KY ^NIH^IRMI
QEWOSXOʚ OSPSV EOSʊ G^] QE TYTMPE MXH 4S ^IFVERMY X]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ QS˵RE WMʚ ^EFMIVEʊ QMR G^IOSPEH W^OMGI ^SWXE[MERI [W^ʚH^MI
^E []Q]˒PERMI 1ɹ^K RENPITMIN TVEGYNI [ VYGLY [MʚG RENPITW^I TSQ]W] TV^]GLSH^ʈ RE
WTEGIV^I FEWIRMI PYF VS[IVS[IN TV^INE˵H˵GI ^ 1ʚ˵IQ /MIH] XVI˒ʊ REVIW^GMI WMʚ SFNE[M
QS˵RE ^EG^ʈʊ V]QS[Eʊ

; ;E˵RI NIWX EF] HSFMIVEʊ WS[E XEO F] X[SV^]] NEOM˒ GMʈK WOSNEV^IRMS[] [ H^MIGMʚG]Q
YQ]˒PI H^MʚOM G^IQY EX[MIN NI ^ETEQMʚXENʈ
6S[IV FEWR VS[IV TSXIQ NY˵ X]POS
+H] NIWX NY˵ V]QS[ER] XIOWX ũ G^EW RE MPYWXVEGNI 2ENTMIV[ W^OMGI FSLEXIVɹ[ TSXIQ FMYVOS FMYVOS FMYVOS
TV^IPERMI MGL RE []WSOMIN KVEQEXYV] TETMIV 9˵][EQ EO[EVIPM HS REQEPS[ERME TSWXEGM
SVE^ [W^]WXOMGL IPIQIRXɹ[ XE 2EWXʚTRMI WOERYNʚ [W^]WXOS M ^EG^]REQ ^EFE[ʚ
[ TVSKVEQMI JSXSWLST (^MʚOM XIQY QEQ TIRʈ OSRXVSPʚ REH NEOS˒GMʈ VS^H^MIPG^S˒GMʈ
M OSPS OSPSVEQM 2MI [WTSQMRENʈG S HSOEʿG^ERMY MPYWXVEGNM M HSHE[ERMY HS RMGL YFSKEGENʈG]GL
M
IPIQIRXɹ[ /MIH] MPYWXVEGNI Wʈ KSXS[I ũ QS˵RE [WXE[MEʊ ^HNʚGME H^MIGOE ũ RENTMIV[
[]GMREQ XS ^ OE˵HIKS VIXYW^YNʚ OVE[ʚH^MI M SHTS[MIHRMS TSHWXE[MEQ HS OE˵HIN TPERW^] *EVFOE 4LSXSWLST (VYOEVOE
4SXIQ NY˵ X]POS []HVYO M KSXS[I *MRMW^ [I [WTERME]Q WX]PY





[[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ

CJ; ]yD;. 9 ]Dy Y ~

™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
™Ä‚Ɇ ǿȅɇȅȅ V=D
;¬Ã ·™Þæ™ßÃüɍ
%.JY.DJ æË ĈÚÂɇ ºæÌڂ ×ËöÞæ‚‚ ā ìÂËߏ¬ •Ë •ā¬™¬Ɍ ©™Ãü öüöËÂüö‚ êß왏© ¬ Þ×ڂö¬‚
ڂ•ËߐɌ s‚ßĬ™ •½‚晤Ëɇ ö º‚Ą•ü ĂÞā ×Ú˕êºæ öºÂ‚•‚Ãü ޙڏ™Ɍ

Ë Úˎ¬Ãüɍ
C‚·‰ Ă êö‚•ā™ ×ڂö¬•ÂËöü ÚËāöÌ· •ā¬™º‚ɇ ÞæöËÚāü½¬ßÃü ·™•üę ¬ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Ä™ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™Ɍ % ]c Y ɬ =¬Þ™º
ā¬™¬ ×˺ˏ©‚Âü ¬© öü¤Ë•¢ɇ ‚ Ú˕ā¬™ ·‚ºËߐɌ
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
s s ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™ āĂ·•ā¬™¬™ ÚÌöĬ™Ą ÞÃˏāº¬ Âں¬ =.V.D.V.ɇ ºæÌڙ öüÚÌĄÄ¬‚ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Äü
•™Þ¬¤Ä ¬ ßì™Þāę Ă׬ÞüɌ ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȁɇǾȂ V=D
D‚Þā™ ™ºË½Ë¤¬āę æ™ÚÃË£ËÚü ā יÞ溂ì ö¬ßĬɇ ×ˤ‚·‰ ö ö‚½™ ā ºË½º‰ ¬ ßö¬™æĬ™
Þ×ڂö•ā‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ă ÞæÂêā™Ä¬‚Ɍ
9‚º æöËÚāüÃüɍ

9™Þæ™ßÃü ×Ú˕ꏙÄæ™Ã Žê¬ºÌöɇ •½‚æ™¤Ë º‚Ą•‚ ׂڂ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬Ìö ·™Þæ Þāüæ‚ Þי·‚½Ä¬™ •½‚
ā¬™º‚ɇ ‚Žü ÃˤÂË ¬™Þāü Þ¬¢ öü¤Ë•‰ ¬ öüÂÚāËÄüà öāËڙà Žê¬ºÌöɌ
] D B;. ŽÂ¢º¬æę ¤ö¬‚ā•º¬
s s æÚËޏ™ Ë öüÞ˺‰ ·‚ºËߐ öüºËĂĬ‚ɇ º‚Ą•‚ ׂڂ ·™Þæ Þāüæ‚ Ú¢āĬ™ɇ Ë öü¤‚ •ËºÂ‚•ÄËߏ¬
¬ ā‚ÞêɌ s‚ßĬ™ •½‚æ™¤Ë ĂÞā™ ×Ú˕êºæü މ êĬº‚½Ä™ ¬ öü·‰æºËö™Ɍ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D
]×ڂö•Ă ĂÞā™ öÞāüÞ溬™ ×Ú˕êºæüɉ









&Y D cJsy ;Jc ; ]ā™½º¬ ɬ &s. ~ ;. B$;.c
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]]. ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾǾɇȄǼ V=D










]cY  ; ɬ ÄËöËߐɉ B C C
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]]. ]Ãˏāº¬ =.V.D.V.

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾɇȅǼ V=D







%.JY.DJ CËæ©™Ú ʲ ©¬½• ™ÞÞËÚ¬™Þ öööɌĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê
ê½Ɍ ‚ā‚ÚËö‚ Ȃɇ ȀǿɬǿǽȂ ¬™½ÞºËɬ ¬‚‚
晽Ɇ ʐȀȄ ȃȅǼ Ȃȃȃ ǼȅǾ Þº½™×ʱĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê

CJ; ]yD;. 9 ]Dy Y ~

™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
™Ä‚Ɇ ǿȅɇȅȅ V=D
;¬Ã ·™Þæ™ßÃüɍ
%.JY.DJ æË ĈÚÂɇ ºæÌڂ ×ËöÞæ‚‚ ā ìÂËߏ¬ •Ë •ā¬™¬Ɍ ©™Ãü öüöËÂüö‚ êß왏© ¬ Þ×ڂö¬‚
ڂ•ËߐɌ s‚ßĬ™ •½‚晤Ëɇ ö º‚Ą•ü ĂÞā ×Ú˕êºæ öºÂ‚•‚Ãü ޙڏ™Ɍ

Ë Úˎ¬Ãüɍ
C‚·‰ Ă êö‚•ā™ ×ڂö¬•ÂËöü ÚËāöÌ· •ā¬™º‚ɇ ÞæöËÚāü½¬ßÃü ·™•üę ¬ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Ä™ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™Ɍ % ]c Y ɬ =¬Þ™º
ā¬™¬ ×˺ˏ©‚Âü ¬© öü¤Ë•¢ɇ ‚ Ú˕ā¬™ ·‚ºËߐɌ
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
s s ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™ āĂ·•ā¬™¬™ ÚÌöĬ™Ą ÞÃˏāº¬ Âں¬ =.V.D.V.ɇ ºæÌڙ öüÚÌĄÄ¬‚ ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Äü
•™Þ¬¤Ä ¬ ßì™Þāę Ă׬ÞüɌ ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȁɇǾȂ V=D
D‚Þā™ ™ºË½Ë¤¬āę æ™ÚÃË£ËÚü ā יÞ溂ì ö¬ßĬɇ ×ˤ‚·‰ ö ö‚½™ ā ºË½º‰ ¬ ßö¬™æĬ™
Þ×ڂö•ā‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ă ÞæÂêā™Ä¬‚Ɍ
9‚º æöËÚāüÃüɍ

9™Þæ™ßÃü ×Ú˕ꏙÄæ™Ã Žê¬ºÌöɇ •½‚æ™¤Ë º‚Ą•‚ ׂڂ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬Ìö ·™Þæ Þāüæ‚ Þי·‚½Ä¬™ •½‚
ā¬™º‚ɇ ‚Žü ÃˤÂË ¬™Þāü Þ¬¢ öü¤Ë•‰ ¬ öüÂÚāËÄüà öāËڙà Žê¬ºÌöɌ
] D B;. ŽÂ¢º¬æę ¤ö¬‚ā•º¬
s s æÚËޏ™ Ë öüÞ˺‰ ·‚ºËߐ öüºËĂĬ‚ɇ º‚Ą•‚ ׂڂ ·™Þæ Þāüæ‚ Ú¢āĬ™ɇ Ë öü¤‚ •ËºÂ‚•ÄËߏ¬
¬ ā‚ÞêɌ s‚ßĬ™ •½‚æ™¤Ë ĂÞā™ ×Ú˕êºæü މ êĬº‚½Ä™ ¬ öü·‰æºËö™Ɍ ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].
™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D
]×ڂö•Ă ĂÞā™ öÞāüÞ溬™ ×Ú˕êºæüɉ









&Y D cJsy ;Jc ; ]ā™½º¬ ɬ &s. ~ ;. B$;.c
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]]. ™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]].

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾǾɇȄǼ V=D










]cY  ; ɬ ÄËöËߐɉ B C C
™ºËcê×æêÞ¬™ = ]]. ]Ãˏāº¬ =.V.D.V.

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȄɇȅȅ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾɇȅǼ V=D







%.JY.DJ CËæ©™Ú ʲ ©¬½• ™ÞÞËÚ¬™Þ öööɌĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê
ê½Ɍ ‚ā‚ÚËö‚ Ȃɇ ȀǿɬǿǽȂ ¬™½ÞºËɬ ¬‚‚
晽Ɇ ʐȀȄ ȃȅǼ Ȃȃȃ ǼȅǾ Þº½™×ʱĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê

VJ^ . = ~. .$ ɰ ~s. Y~ ;.ɒ&YJ]~;. ;J y; ~. D.DJsy C g]ʨ s BD
VËߏ¬™½ •ā¬™¬¢‚ ;ˏüº¬ •ā¬‚ĬÄËö™

™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇȅǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȀǼɇǼǼ V=D








VJ^ . = ~. .$ ɰ
c YCJ%JY ~ V ]c ; s.^D.ɰ
~.&ɰ~ &ɒ]BJD.; YK &s. ~ ;.ɒVY ;.

VËߏ¬™½ •ā¬™¬¢‚ VYJCJ 9 ɉɉɉ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇȅǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǽɇȁǼ V=D









VJ g]~;. J ; YC. D. ~ C.$ .gc;.C
VJ= Y C C.D;y &s. ~ ;. V. =g]~; C g]Js ɰ cYK9; cy
Yˤ‚½™ •Ë º‚Úì™Ä¬‚ V¬™½êÞāº¬ Ž‚ÃŽêÞËö™ ¬ ‚½¤Ëö™
™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȃɇȄǿ V=D
™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ V=D








YJ& = J ; YC. D. ɰ
~s. Y~ ;.ɒ;YJV;. C.$cJs V. =g]~; C g]Js ɰ %g;]9
V¬™½êÞāº¬ Ž‚ÃŽêÞËö™ ¬ ‚½¤Ëö™
Yˤ‚½™ •Ë º‚Úì™Ä¬‚

™Ä‚Ɇ ȁȁɇȁǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȅɇǾǾ V=D









J;Yy . ; V. =Js ɰ C By ;]. $ Yg
º™ÞËÚ¬‚ •Ë º‰×¬™½¬

™Ä‚Ɇ ȂǿɇȁǼ V=D







%.JY.DJ CËæ©™Ú ʲ ©¬½• ™ÞÞËÚ¬™Þ öööɌĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê
ê½Ɍ ‚ā‚ÚËö‚ Ȃɇ ȀǿɬǿǽȂ ¬™½ÞºËɬ ¬‚‚
晽Ɇ ʐȀȄ ȃȅǼ Ȃȃȃ ǼȅǾ Þº½™×ʱĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê

VJ^ . = ~. .$ ɰ ~s. Y~ ;.ɒ&YJ]~;. ;J y; ~. D.DJsy C g]ʨ s BD
VËߏ¬™½ •ā¬™¬¢‚ ;ˏüº¬ •ā¬‚ĬÄËö™

™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇȅǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȀǼɇǼǼ V=D








VJ^ . = ~. .$ ɰ
c YCJ%JY ~ V ]c ; s.^D.ɰ
~.&ɰ~ &ɒ]BJD.; YK &s. ~ ;.ɒVY ;.

VËߏ¬™½ •ā¬™¬¢‚ VYJCJ 9 ɉɉɉ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇȅǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǽɇȁǼ V=D









VJ g]~;. J ; YC. D. ~ C.$ .gc;.C
VJ= Y C C.D;y &s. ~ ;. V. =g]~; C g]Js ɰ cYK9; cy
Yˤ‚½™ •Ë º‚Úì™Ä¬‚ V¬™½êÞāº¬ Ž‚ÃŽêÞËö™ ¬ ‚½¤Ëö™
™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȃɇȄǿ V=D
™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ V=D








YJ& = J ; YC. D. ɰ
~s. Y~ ;.ɒ;YJV;. C.$cJs V. =g]~; C g]Js ɰ %g;]9
V¬™½êÞāº¬ Ž‚ÃŽêÞËö™ ¬ ‚½¤Ëö™
Yˤ‚½™ •Ë º‚Úì™Ä¬‚

™Ä‚Ɇ ȁȁɇȁǼ V=D ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȅɇǾǾ V=D









J;Yy . ; V. =Js ɰ C By ;]. $ Yg
º™ÞËÚ¬‚ •Ë º‰×¬™½¬

™Ä‚Ɇ ȂǿɇȁǼ V=D







%.JY.DJ CËæ©™Ú ʲ ©¬½• ™ÞÞËÚ¬™Þ öööɌĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê
ê½Ɍ ‚ā‚ÚËö‚ Ȃɇ ȀǿɬǿǽȂ ¬™½ÞºËɬ ¬‚‚
晽Ɇ ʐȀȄ ȃȅǼ Ȃȃȃ ǼȅǾ Þº½™×ʱĈËÚ¬ÄËɌ™ê

4PE]GMXɰ NIWX RS[ʈ TVʚ˵RMI VS^[MNENʈGʈ WMʚ QEVOʈ OXɹVE TS[WXEE
[
[ []RMOY TSʈG []RMOY TSʈG^IRME H[ɹGL G^IWOMGL JMVQ QQGMXɰ NIHIR ^ REN[MʚOW^]GL
TVSHYGIRXɹ[ QIFPM QMINWOMGL [ )YVSTMI M SVE^ LːM˚Xʜ G^ G^SS[] G^IWOM
TVSHYGIRX TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ M FSMWO TSʈG^]PM W[SNʈ H^MEEPRS˒ʊ TSH QEVOʈ
TPE]GMXɰ ^ Hʈ˵IRMIQ HS TV^IHWXE[MIRME RMI X]POS [ )YVSTMI G^IWOMIKS
HIWMKRY EPI Vɹ[RMI˵ [TVS[EH^IRME NEOS˒GMS[IKS TVSHYOXY HIH]OS[ERIKS
TV^IHI [W^]WXOMQ HPE H^MIGM M YOMIVYROS[ERIKS RE EOX][R] []TSG^]RIO
[ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN

>EFE[E



>EFE[E NIWX NIHRʈ ^ TSHWXE[S[]GL TSXV^IF RMI X]POS H^MIGM ; HSFMI
TERS[ERME XIPI[M^NM M [MVXYEPRIKS ˒[MEXE [ WMIGM G^ʚWXS XS SRI []KV][ENʈ
^ ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y >I[RʚXV^RI TPEGI ^EFE[ X]QG^EWIQ Wʈ QMINWGIQ
^
WTSX]OEʿ PYH^M Vɹ˵R]GL KIRIVEGNM M KVYT WTSIG^R]GL FYHYNʈ OSRXEOX]
QMʚH^]PYH^OMI M ^ETI[RMENʈ MHIRX]JMOEGNʚ ^ HER]Q QMINWGIQ >ETI[RMENʈ
EOX][RS˒ʊ JM^]G^Rʈ TV^IGM[WXE[MENʈG Nʈ ^EFE[MI TEW][RIN K[EVERXYNʈ
TV^IWXV^Iʿ OXɹVE RMI SJIVYNI KSXS[]GL VS^[Mʈ^Eʿ PIG^ MRWTMVYNI HS X[SV^IRME
[EWR]GL %OX][RE ^EFE[E []OW^XEGE TS^]X][RI TSHIN˒GMI HS ˵]GME
SX[EVXS˒ʊ M GLʚʊ [WTɹTVEG] ^ MRR]QM %QFMGNʈ QEVOM 4PE]GMXɰ NIWX [T][ RE
KYWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒YWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒VIHRMGX[IQ []WSOMIN NEOS˒GM OSRGITGNM SVE^
K
TV^IQ]˒PER]GL M TMʚOR]GL HIXEPM [ OSRXIO˒GMI HERIKS QMINWGE



(IWMKR
·   

  e ]
/E˵H] TPEG ^EFE[ RMI NIWX NIH]RMI ^FMSVIQ FEVH^MIN G^] QRMIN
, $ e, JYROGNSREPR]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ PIG^ H^MʚOM W[SNIN [MIPOS˒GM ũ
^REG^ʈG]Q IPIQIRXIQ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN 7[SMWX] HIWMKR
‰ , , , M Í
WTIRMENʈG] [W^]WXOMI OV]XIVME FI^TMIG^IʿWX[E M JYROGNSREPRS˒GM
QE [EVXS˒ʊ HSHERʈ ũ RMISGIRMSRʈ [EVXS˒ʊ IWXIX]G^Rʈ KH]˵
[]WSOMIN NEOS˒GM JSVQE RMIF][EPI HSFV^I [T][E RE IWXIX]G^RI
4PEGI ^EFE[ TSWXV^IKERMI G^S[MIOE 4SW^G^IKɹPRI IPIQIRX] TPEGY ^EFE[ EPI
M GEI M GEI ^IWXE[] QYW^ʈ HSFV^I TVI^IRXS[Eʊ WMʚ WEQI [ WSFMI

ŵ 63& 63= NIHREO Vɹ[RMI˵ [ VE^MI TSXV^IF] WXERS[Mʊ HSTIRMIRMI TV^IWXV^IRM
ŵ 63& 63= 2%896% [ RMIOXɹV]GL TV^]TEHOEGL TSHTSV^ʈHOS[Eʊ WMʚ [ MRR]GL

ŵ ;33(= (33 ^EHSQMRS[Eʊ 7OERMENʈGI HS ^EFE[] YWTSOENENʈGI []VE^MWXI G^]
RMITS^SVRI ^E[W^I [ RS[SG^IWR]Q HIWMKRMI &I^TMIG^IʿWX[S
ŵ 4-4) %+) SVE^ ^KSHRS˒ʊ ^ [W^]WXOMQM RSVQEQM Wʈ SG^][MWXI
ŵ %6%/2)% [ TV^]TEHOY IPIQIRXɹ[ TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ 4PE]GMXɰ

ŵ 8%= 40%=
ŵ +)13 +)13
ŵ [[[ TPE]GMXI IY
ŵ 1-2-3

ŵ 13:)3 LERHIP$QQGMXI TP

4PE]GMXɰ NIWX RS[ʈ TVʚ˵RMI VS^[MNENʈGʈ WMʚ QEVOʈ OXɹVE TS[WXEE
[
[ []RMOY TSʈG []RMOY TSʈG^IRME H[ɹGL G^IWOMGL JMVQ QQGMXɰ NIHIR ^ REN[MʚOW^]GL
TVSHYGIRXɹ[ QIFPM QMINWOMGL [ )YVSTMI M SVE^ LːM˚Xʜ G^ G^SS[] G^IWOM
TVSHYGIRX TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ M FSMWO TSʈG^]PM W[SNʈ H^MEEPRS˒ʊ TSH QEVOʈ
TPE]GMXɰ ^ Hʈ˵IRMIQ HS TV^IHWXE[MIRME RMI X]POS [ )YVSTMI G^IWOMIKS
HIWMKRY EPI Vɹ[RMI˵ [TVS[EH^IRME NEOS˒GMS[IKS TVSHYOXY HIH]OS[ERIKS
TV^IHI [W^]WXOMQ HPE H^MIGM M YOMIVYROS[ERIKS RE EOX][R] []TSG^]RIO
[ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN

>EFE[E



>EFE[E NIWX NIHRʈ ^ TSHWXE[S[]GL TSXV^IF RMI X]POS H^MIGM ; HSFMI
TERS[ERME XIPI[M^NM M [MVXYEPRIKS ˒[MEXE [ WMIGM G^ʚWXS XS SRI []KV][ENʈ
^ ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y >I[RʚXV^RI TPEGI ^EFE[ X]QG^EWIQ Wʈ QMINWGIQ
^
WTSX]OEʿ PYH^M Vɹ˵R]GL KIRIVEGNM M KVYT WTSIG^R]GL FYHYNʈ OSRXEOX]
QMʚH^]PYH^OMI M ^ETI[RMENʈ MHIRX]JMOEGNʚ ^ HER]Q QMINWGIQ >ETI[RMENʈ
EOX][RS˒ʊ JM^]G^Rʈ TV^IGM[WXE[MENʈG Nʈ ^EFE[MI TEW][RIN K[EVERXYNʈ
TV^IWXV^Iʿ OXɹVE RMI SJIVYNI KSXS[]GL VS^[Mʈ^Eʿ PIG^ MRWTMVYNI HS X[SV^IRME
[EWR]GL %OX][RE ^EFE[E []OW^XEGE TS^]X][RI TSHIN˒GMI HS ˵]GME
SX[EVXS˒ʊ M GLʚʊ [WTɹTVEG] ^ MRR]QM %QFMGNʈ QEVOM 4PE]GMXɰ NIWX [T][ RE
KYWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒YWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒VIHRMGX[IQ []WSOMIN NEOS˒GM OSRGITGNM SVE^
K
TV^IQ]˒PER]GL M TMʚOR]GL HIXEPM [ OSRXIO˒GMI HERIKS QMINWGE



(IWMKR
·   

  e ]
/E˵H] TPEG ^EFE[ RMI NIWX NIH]RMI ^FMSVIQ FEVH^MIN G^] QRMIN
, $ e, JYROGNSREPR]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ PIG^ H^MʚOM W[SNIN [MIPOS˒GM ũ
^REG^ʈG]Q IPIQIRXIQ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN 7[SMWX] HIWMKR
‰ , , , M Í
WTIRMENʈG] [W^]WXOMI OV]XIVME FI^TMIG^IʿWX[E M JYROGNSREPRS˒GM
QE [EVXS˒ʊ HSHERʈ ũ RMISGIRMSRʈ [EVXS˒ʊ IWXIX]G^Rʈ KH]˵
[]WSOMIN NEOS˒GM JSVQE RMIF][EPI HSFV^I [T][E RE IWXIX]G^RI
4PEGI ^EFE[ TSWXV^IKERMI G^S[MIOE 4SW^G^IKɹPRI IPIQIRX] TPEGY ^EFE[ EPI
M GEI M GEI ^IWXE[] QYW^ʈ HSFV^I TVI^IRXS[Eʊ WMʚ WEQI [ WSFMI

ŵ 63& 63= NIHREO Vɹ[RMI˵ [ VE^MI TSXV^IF] WXERS[Mʊ HSTIRMIRMI TV^IWXV^IRM
ŵ 63& 63= 2%896% [ RMIOXɹV]GL TV^]TEHOEGL TSHTSV^ʈHOS[Eʊ WMʚ [ MRR]GL

ŵ ;33(= (33 ^EHSQMRS[Eʊ 7OERMENʈGI HS ^EFE[] YWTSOENENʈGI []VE^MWXI G^]
RMITS^SVRI ^E[W^I [ RS[SG^IWR]Q HIWMKRMI &I^TMIG^IʿWX[S
ŵ 4-4) %+) SVE^ ^KSHRS˒ʊ ^ [W^]WXOMQM RSVQEQM Wʈ SG^][MWXI
ŵ %6%/2)% [ TV^]TEHOY IPIQIRXɹ[ TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ 4PE]GMXɰ

ŵ 8%= 40%=
ŵ +)13 +)13
ŵ [[[ TPE]GMXI IY
ŵ 1-2-3

ŵ 13:)3 LERHIP$QQGMXI TP

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ Œ¼è—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
—Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ



}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ Œ¼è—
}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
)Ê— —Ø ãÊ Ü¹¼—Õ «Ãã—Ø×ãÊôúʃ ¹ãËØú ÕÊôÜãÁ ÿ Âúݼˆ Ê ôÜՁ؍«è ØÊÿôÊ¶è “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿ×¢Ê ë—ÂÊô¼ˆã Ê؁ÿ èÁãô«—ëè ÕØÿ—¶Ý« ÕØÿ—ÿ ãØè“Ãú —ãÕ ÿˆŒ¹ÊôÃ«ʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
r«—Âúʃ × Üÿÿ ݼ«ô— « ÿ“ØÊô— “ÿ«—¹Êʃ ãÊ ØËôë—Ă Üÿÿ ݼ«ôú Øʓÿ«ʃ “¼ã—¢Ê ÁÜÿ— ÕØʓè¹ãú —Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ
ãôÊØÿúÂú ÿ Á¶ô« ¹Üÿˆ “ŒÁÊݍ«ˆ Ê Œ—ÿÕ«—ÿ—ÄÜãôÊʈ
VËĂÃÊØʓ× ¹ÜÿãÁãú « Ø荨Ê— —¼——Ããú ÿô«—Üÿ—¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃú¨ Õʁ¢¶ˆ “ÿ«—¹è Žô«ÿúŽ
ëÕè¼ÊôÃ«— ؈ÿ¹Â«ʃ  «—¹ô ¹Ê¼ÊØúÜãú¹ ôÕÁúô ÕÊÿúãúôë— Á ՗؍—Ս¶ ôÿØʹÊôˆ }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ իù
« ØÊÿô˶ ¹ÊÊؓúÁ¶« ôÿØʹÊôÊ Ø荨Êô—¶ʈ }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú

€ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
€“—à ÿˆŒ¹è¶ˆú ŒÊŒÜ ë— ÕØÿ—¶“ÿ«— ʌʶ ãë— ¹ÊÁÊ ÿô«—Üÿ—¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃú¨ʃ ÕÊë—ôĂ «“—¼Ã«—
Á“¶ˆ Ü« “Ê ¢Øúÿ«—ëʈ Zˆ ÜãôÊØÿÊ× ÿ ãôØ“—¢Ê “Ø—ôÁ Ê؁ÿ « ¹¹«—¢Ê Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʃ ¹ãËؗ Õʁ¢¶ˆ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
è¹Ê«Ž ŒË¼ « Üô “ÿ—ë— ô ÿ¼—ĂÃÊݍ« ʓ ÕÊãØÿ—Œ “ÿ«—¹ʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
—Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ իù }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ ÿ ¹¼«Õܗ ˲ ÕèØÕ¼—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ

—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ Œ¼è— }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ ÿ ¹¼«Õܗ ˲ ¼«¢¨ã ú—¼¼Êô
}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ

—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ ،¼— }ô«—Üÿ¹ ¹ÊÃã؁ÜãÊô “èÁ ˲ Œ¼¹ ˯ ô¨«ã—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃè
—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ





ôôôʈ¨Ê—Œ—ØʈÕ¼


¨Ê—Œ—Øʈ¹ÊÃべã˱¢Â«¼ʈÊ 㗼ʈʂ ȾȺȺ ɁȹȾ ɂȹȻ

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ Œ¼è—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
—Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ



}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ Œ¼è—
}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
)Ê— —Ø ãÊ Ü¹¼—Õ «Ãã—Ø×ãÊôúʃ ¹ãËØú ÕÊôÜãÁ ÿ Âúݼˆ Ê ôÜՁ؍«è ØÊÿôÊ¶è “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿ×¢Ê ë—ÂÊô¼ˆã Ê؁ÿ èÁãô«—ëè ÕØÿ—¶Ý« ÕØÿ—ÿ ãØè“Ãú —ãÕ ÿˆŒ¹ÊôÃ«ʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
r«—Âúʃ × Üÿÿ ݼ«ô— « ÿ“ØÊô— “ÿ«—¹Êʃ ãÊ ØËôë—Ă Üÿÿ ݼ«ôú Øʓÿ«ʃ “¼ã—¢Ê ÁÜÿ— ÕØʓè¹ãú —Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ
ãôÊØÿúÂú ÿ Á¶ô« ¹Üÿˆ “ŒÁÊݍ«ˆ Ê Œ—ÿÕ«—ÿ—ÄÜãôÊʈ
VËĂÃÊØʓ× ¹ÜÿãÁãú « Ø荨Ê— —¼——Ããú ÿô«—Üÿ—¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃú¨ Õʁ¢¶ˆ “ÿ«—¹è Žô«ÿúŽ
ëÕè¼ÊôÃ«— ؈ÿ¹Â«ʃ  «—¹ô ¹Ê¼ÊØúÜãú¹ ôÕÁúô ÕÊÿúãúôë— Á ՗؍—Ս¶ ôÿØʹÊôˆ }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ Á ˲ իù
« ØÊÿô˶ ¹ÊÊؓúÁ¶« ôÿØʹÊôÊ Ø荨Êô—¶ʈ }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú

€ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
€“—à ÿˆŒ¹è¶ˆú ŒÊŒÜ ë— ÕØÿ—¶“ÿ«— ʌʶ ãë— ¹ÊÁÊ ÿô«—Üÿ—¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃú¨ʃ ÕÊë—ôĂ «“—¼Ã«—
Á“¶ˆ Ü« “Ê ¢Øúÿ«—ëʈ Zˆ ÜãôÊØÿÊ× ÿ ãôØ“—¢Ê “Ø—ôÁ Ê؁ÿ « ¹¹«—¢Ê Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʃ ¹ãËؗ Õʁ¢¶ˆ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
è¹Ê«Ž ŒË¼ « Üô “ÿ—ë— ô ÿ¼—ĂÃÊݍ« ʓ ÕÊãØÿ—Œ “ÿ«—¹ʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ
—Áʂ ȼɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ իù }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ ÿ ¹¼«Õܗ ˲ ÕèØÕ¼—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ

—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ Œ¼è— }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ ÿ ¹¼«Õܗ ˲ ¼«¢¨ã ú—¼¼Êô
}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ

—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ


}ô«—Üÿ¹ “Ê ÜÂʍÿ¹ ˲ ،¼— }ô«—Üÿ¹ ¹ÊÃã؁ÜãÊô “èÁ ˲ Œ¼¹ ˯ ô¨«ã—

}ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú }ô«—Üÿ¹ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÁ )Ê— —Ø ãÊ ÕØʓè¹ã ÿÕØʶ—¹ãÊôÃú
ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ ÕØÿ—ÿ ÁÜʃ Œú ØÊÿô«¶Ž ÜÕ؁ôÃÊݎ ܗÃÜÊØúÿÃÊʢÂÊãÊØúÿÈ
“ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶ “ÿ«—«ʈ ZãôÊØÿÊÁ ÿ “Ø—ôÁ ¹¼ÊÃÊô—¢Êʃ Œè¹Êô—¢Ê « Á¶ôúĂÜÿ—¶
¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃèʈ ¶¹Êݍ« Ü«¼«¹ÊÃè
—Áʂ ȽȾʃȹȹ ÿÁ —Áʂ Ƚɂʃȹȹ ÿÁ





ôôôʈ¨Ê—Œ—ØʈÕ¼


¨Ê—Œ—Øʈ¹ÊÃべã˱¢Â«¼ʈÊ 㗼ʈʂ ȾȺȺ ɁȹȾ ɂȹȻ





/7<'7/ *+5614;%<0' /+#56# -4#-19#

DQ NGMELG JKUVQTKK PKG OWU\Ȱ D[Ȳ PWFPGų

/W\GWO *KUVQT[E\PG /KCUVC -TCMQYC VQ OKGLUEG FNC %KGDKGК 6Q 0QYQE\GUPG /W\GWO OKGLUMKG ::+
YKGMW MVȡTG Y MKNMWPCUVW QFF\KCCEJ QRQYKCFC JKUVQTKɂ -TCMQYC \ TȡʝP[EJ RGTURGMV[Y QF
ɺTGFPKQYKGE\C FQ E\CUȡY YURȡE\GUP[EJ 6W QFD[YCLȰ UKɂ PCLNGRU\G PCLEKGMCYU\G K CMV[YPG NGMELG
JKUVQTKKК 2Q\PCL PCU\Ȱ DQICVC QHGTVɂ GFWMCE[LPȰ CFTGUQYCPȰ FQ F\KGEK Y TȡʝP[O YKGMW



/W\GWO *KUVQT[E\PG /KCUVC -TCMQYC 2CCE -T\[U\VQHQT[
4[PGM )ȡYP[ -TCMȡY
%GPVTWO 1DUWIK <YKGF\CLȰE[EJ VGN


YYY OJM RN ^ KPHQ"OJM RN

24<'&5<-1.# + 5<-1Œ;



/W\GWO *KUVQT[E\PG /KCUVC -TCMQYC RTQRQPWLG U\GTQMK Y[DȡT NGMELK K YCTU\VCVȡY CFTGUQYCP[EJ FQ F\KGEK
PC MCʝF[O U\E\GDNW GFWMCELK \CE\[PCLȰE QF RT\GFU\MQNK MQɧE\ȰE PC WE\PKCEJ U\Mȡ RQPCFIKOPC\LCNP[EJ
#MV[YPC Y[OKCPC O[ɺNK RTCEC Y \CD[VMQY[EJ YPɂVT\CEJ RT\[ Y[MQT\[UVCPKW OW\GCNP[EJ TGMYK\[VȡY
URT\[LC TQ\YKLCPKW MTGCV[YPQɺEK RQDWF\C EKGMCYQɺȲ C RT\GFG YU\[UVMKO WYTCʝNKYKC OQF[EJ
WE\GUVPKMȡY \CLɂȲ PC RQ\PCYCPKG RKɂMPC VTCF[ELK MWNVWT[ K YKGNQYKGMQYGL JKUVQTKK -TCMQYC


9 EGNW FQMQPCPKC TG\GTYCELK NGMELK
YCTU\VCVȡY NWD URCEGTW PCNGʝ[
UMQPVCMVQYCȲ UKɂ \ YCɺEKY[O
QFF\KCGO /W\GWO *KUVQT[E\PGIQ
/KCUVC -TCMQYC Y MVȡT[O FQEGNQYQ
QFDɂFȰ UKɂ \CLɂEKC
0WWOGT[ MQPVCMVQYG QTC\ CFTGU[ G OCKN
0
\PCLF\KGEKG 2CɧUVYQ Y \CMCFEG
1&&<+#Œ;






%'00+-


NGMELG OW\GCNPG \ ITWRC
YCTU\VCV[ \ ITWRC
NGMELG Y VGTGPKG \ ITWRC
NGMELG Y U\MQNG \ ITWRC
QRTQYCF\CPKG RQ Y[UVCYCEJ UVC[EJ
\ ITWRC DKNGV YUVɂRW
QR QRTQYCF\CPKG RQ Y[UVCYCEJ

E\CUQY[EJ Y QFF\KCCEJ 2CCE RQF
-T\[U\VQHQT[ &\KGLG 0QYGL *WV[ K &QO
<YKGT\[PKGEMK \ ITWRC DKNGV
YUVɂRW
QRTQYCF\CPKG RQ Y[UVCYKG UVCGL
Y QFF\KCNG QFF\KCNG (CDT[MC 'OCNKC 1UMCTC
Y
5EJKPFNGTC ť WUWIC Y EGPKG DKNGVW
WUWIC RT\GYQFPKMC Y QFF\KCNG
2QF\KGOKC 4[PMW \ ITWRC DKNGV
YUVɂRW
\CLɂEKC \ -T\[U\ \CLɂEKC \ -T\[U\VQHQTMKGO NWD

&QTQVMȰ MQU\V YCTU\VCVȡY \ \C
WF\KC CMVQTC QF ITWR[
















YYY OJM RN

41&<+%' < &<+'ȱ/+



<CDCYC MVȡTC WE\[ VQ JCUQ RT\GYQFPKG E[MNW URQVMCɧ FNC F\KGEK 9 KEJ VTCMEKG OCNK QFMT[YE[ RQ\PCLȰ
RQRT\G\ IT[ \CDCY[ URCEGT[ K URQVMCPKC YCTU\VCVQYG VCLGOPKEG K UGMTGV[ OCIKE\PGIQ -TCMQYC 0C
PCLOQFU\[EJ QFYKGF\CLȰE[EJ /W\GWO E\GMCLȰ Y EKȰIW TQMW TȡYPKGʝ KPPG EKGMCYG RTQRQ\[ELG VCMKG
EJQEKCʝD[ LCM HGTKG E\[ NCVQ Y OW\GWO

/7<'1/#0+# 9 MCʝF[O TQMW U\MQNP[O \CRTCU\CO[ PC E[MN \CLɂȲ FNC F\KGEK K OQF\KGʝ[ Y TCOCEJ
/W\GQOCPKK #MCFGOKC /CGIQ 1FMT[YE[ QTC\ #MCFGOKC /CGIQ 1FMT[YE[ ':64#К /C[ YKGNMK
-TCMȡY 6CLGOPKE\[ MWHGT 5Ȱ VQ MTGCV[YPG URQVMCPKC YCTU\VCVQYG QTC\ URCEGT[ OKGLUMKG %Q TQM
PQY[ RTQITCOК 9KɂEGL PC YYY OJM RN OW\GQOCPKC


#MCFGOKC /CGIQ 1FMT[YE[


2TQITCO FGF[MQYCP[ YU\[UVMKO IQFP[O YKGF\[ K YTCʝGɧ OC[O
QFMT[YEQO Y YKGMW NCV QTC\ KEJ TQF\KEQO MVȡT\[ Y CMV[YP[ K VYȡTE\[
URQUȡD RTCIPȰ RQ\PCYCȲ -TCMȡY Y[TCUVCLȰE V[O UCO[O PC RTCYF\KY[EJ
\PCYEȡY C \CTC\GO OKQɺPKMȡY LGIQ F\KGLȡY K MWNVWTQYGIQ F\KGF\KEVYC
2QFQDPKG LCM -T\[U\VQHQTGM K &QTQVMC ť DQJCVGTQYKG OW\GCNPGIQ E\CUQRKUOC
Ů-T\[U\VQHQTGMŭ ť MVȡT\[ YURȡNPKG \ F\KGȲOK WE\GUVPKE\Ȱ Y Y[DTCP[EJ \CLɂEKCEJ





/C[ YKGNMK -TCMȡY


%[MN OKGLUMKEJ URCEGTȡY FNC F\KGEK Y YKGMW ť NCV QTC\ KEJ TQF\KEȡY
6TCU[ K VGOCV[MC URCEGTȡY UȰ VCM RT\GO[ɺNCPG CD[ Y OQFU\[EJ WE\GUVPKMCEJ
Y\DWF\KȲ EKGMCYQɺȲ ɺYKCVC K \COKQYCPKG FQ QFMT[YCPKC VCLGOPKE -TCMQYC
9[EKGE\MK VTYCLȰ PKGEQ RQPCF IQF\KPɂ




6CLGOPKE\[ MWHGT

2TQITCO UMKGTQYCP[ FQ MTGCV[YP[EJ K EKGMCY[EJ ɺYKCVC OCNWEJȡY Y YKGMW
NCV QTC\ KEJ TQF\KEȡY MVȡT\[ RTCIPȰ YURKGTCȲ YU\GEJUVTQPP[ TQ\YȡL UYQKEJ
RQEKGEJ LWʝ QF PCLOQFU\[EJ NCV -CʝFG URQVMCPKG MQPEGPVTWLG UKɂ PC Y[DTCP[O
RT\GFOKQEKG ť ɺYKCFMW OKPKQP[EJ YKGMȡY K RQ\YCNC F\KGEKQO PC UVCYKCPKG
RKGTYU\[EJ MTQMȡY Y ɺYKGEKG RT\GU\QɺEK <CEJɂEC KEJ V[O UCO[O FQ
KPVGTCMV[YPGIQ RQ\PCYCPKC JKUVQTKK K MWNVWT[ -TCMQYC



#MCFGOKC /CGIQ 1FMT[YE[ ':64#К

2TQITCO FGF[MQYCP[ YU\[UVMKO IQFP[O YKGF\[
K YTCʝGɧ OC[O QFMT[YEQO QTC\ KEJ TQF\KEQO MVȡT\[
Y CMV[YP[ K VYȡTE\[ URQUȡD RTCIPȰ RQ\PCYCȲ -TCMȡY
Y[TCUVCLȰE V[O UCO[O PC RTCYF\KY[EJ \PCYEȡY
C \CTC\GO OKQɺPKMȡY LGIQ F\KGLȡY K MWNVWTQYGIQ
F\KGF\KEVYC 2QFQDPKG LCM -T\[U\VQHQTGM K &QTQVMC ť
DQJCVGTQYKG OW\GCNPGIQ E\CUQRKUOC Ů-T\[U\VQHQTGMŭ ť
M
MVVȡT\[ YURȡNPKG \ F\KGȲOK WE\GUVPKE\Ȱ Y Y[DTCP[EJ
\CLɂEKCEJ
YYY OJM RN

-4<;5<61(14'-



%\[VCLК $CY UKɂК <YKGF\CL -TCMȡYК %\CUQRKUOQ FNC /C[EJ 1FMT[YEȡY MVȡT\[ YTC\ \ LGIQ DQJCVGTCOK
ť -T\[U\VQHQTMKGO K &QTQVMȰ QFMT[YCLȰ RT\GU\QɺȲ FCYPGL UVQNKE[ RCɧUVYC -T\[U\VQHQTGM VQ
DQICEVYQ VTGɺEK IT[ K \CDCY[ QTC\ YURCPKCC U\CVC ITCƓE\PC








































52'-6#-.' &.# &<+'%+ 9 9+'-7 .#6


9 EKȰIW TQMW QFD[YC UKɂ MKNMCPCɺEKG URGMVCMNK Q TȡʝPGL VGOCV[EG \ -T\[U\VQHQTMKGO K &QTQVMȰ Y TQNK
IȡYPGL 9 DCTYP[ K F[PCOKE\P[ URQUȡD RT\GFUVCYKCLȰ TȡʝPG JKUVQTKG \CD[VMQYGIQ -TCMQYC
2T\Gʝ[L \ PCOK YURCPKCȰ RT\[IQFɂК






















YYY OJM RN ^ KPHQ"OJM RN


/W\GWO *KUVQT[E\PG /KCUVC -TCMQYC 2CCE -T\[U\VQHQT[
4[PGM )ȡYP[ -TCMȡY
%GPVTWO 1DUWIK <YKGF\CLȰE[EJ VGN

















HWPMELQPCNPQɮȦ GUVGV[MC 6YQLG \CFQYQNGPKG







9KVCO[ PC UVTQPKG ƒTO[ /'6.+0' ,GUVGɮO[ FQUVCYEȤ Y[UQMKGL
LCMQɮEK OGDNK Wʑ[VMQY[EJ MVȕTG QF\PCE\CLȤ UKȶ RQPCFRT\GEKȶVPȤ
GUVGV[MȤ QTC\ Y[LȤVMQYȤ HWPMELQPCNPQɮEKȤ 9[TQD[ RQYUVCLȤ PC
DC\KG FQDT[EJ ICVWPMQYQ OCVGTKCȕY Y[MQɛE\QP[EJ Y Y[UQMKO
UVCPFCTF\KG F\KȶMK E\GOW QF\PCE\CLȤ UKȶ QFRQTPQɮEKȤ PC F\KCCPKG
E\[PPKMȕY \GYPȶVT\P[EJ QTC\ WU\MQF\GPKC OGEJCPKE\PG




U\CHMK WDTCPKQYG $*2
U\CHMK ɮPKCFCPKQYG

U\CHMK FGRQ\[VQYG

U\CHMK PC QF\KGʑ E\[UVȤ DTWFPȤ

U\CH[ CMVQYG

U\CH[ MCTVQVGMQYG

ICDNQV[ QIQU ICDNQV[ QIQU\GPKQYG






5\CHMK FQ U\Mȕ




K RT\GFU\MQNK









$T\G\KPMC WN 5QPGE\PC
#PFT[EJȕY
KPHQNKPKC
HCZ
VGN
G OCKN DKWTQ"OGVNKPG EQO RN

YYY UMNGR OGVNKPG EQO RN

HWPMELQPCNPQɮȦ GUVGV[MC 6YQLG \CFQYQNGPKG







9KVCO[ PC UVTQPKG ƒTO[ /'6.+0' ,GUVGɮO[ FQUVCYEȤ Y[UQMKGL
LCMQɮEK OGDNK Wʑ[VMQY[EJ MVȕTG QF\PCE\CLȤ UKȶ RQPCFRT\GEKȶVPȤ
GUVGV[MȤ QTC\ Y[LȤVMQYȤ HWPMELQPCNPQɮEKȤ 9[TQD[ RQYUVCLȤ PC
DC\KG FQDT[EJ ICVWPMQYQ OCVGTKCȕY Y[MQɛE\QP[EJ Y Y[UQMKO
UVCPFCTF\KG F\KȶMK E\GOW QF\PCE\CLȤ UKȶ QFRQTPQɮEKȤ PC F\KCCPKG
E\[PPKMȕY \GYPȶVT\P[EJ QTC\ WU\MQF\GPKC OGEJCPKE\PG




U\CHMK WDTCPKQYG $*2
U\CHMK ɮPKCFCPKQYG

U\CHMK FGRQ\[VQYG

U\CHMK PC QF\KGʑ E\[UVȤ DTWFPȤ

U\CH[ CMVQYG

U\CH[ MCTVQVGMQYG

ICDNQV[ QIQU ICDNQV[ QIQU\GPKQYG






5\CHMK FQ U\Mȕ




K RT\GFU\MQNK









$T\G\KPMC WN 5QPGE\PC
#PFT[EJȕY
KPHQNKPKC
HCZ
VGN
G OCKN DKWTQ"OGVNKPG EQO RN

YYY UMNGR OGVNKPG EQO RN

HWPMELQPCNPQɮȦ GUVGV[MC 6YQLG \CFQYQNGPKG











QQȦ
0Yɮ
W U
P C F T M P C \ C H CJ
ME














































$T\G\KPMC WN 5QPGE\PC
#PFT[EJȕY
KPHQNKPKC
HCZ
VGN
G OCKN DKWTQ"OGVNKPG EQO RN

YYY UMNGR OGVNKPG EQO RN

HWPMELQPCNPQɮȦ GUVGV[MC 6YQLG \CFQYQNGPKG











QQȦ
0Yɮ
W U
P C F T M P C \ C H CJ
ME














































$T\G\KPMC WN 5QPGE\PC
#PFT[EJȕY
KPHQNKPKC
HCZ
VGN
G OCKN DKWTQ"OGVNKPG EQO RN

YYY UMNGR OGVNKPG EQO RN





















2GNU\M Z VRELH %U]\GDOD

1-64;",* * ("%Lj&5: *//& /*Lj 84;:45,*&











8JUBNZ X CS[ZEBMPXJF

8 #S[ZEBMPXJF KBL X QSBXE[JXZN ȈZDJV OJF NB E’VHPX’PTZDI LTJǗȈOJD[FL SZDFS[Z X MǴOJnjDZDI [CSPKBDI D[Z
TLS[BUØX [BQMBUBKnjDZDI LPOJPN HS[ZXZ 5P [VQF’OJF JOOB CBKLB *OOB CP QSBXE[JXB 8 NJBTUFD[LV OB
SZOFD[LV NPȈOB XQBǴǎ OB NJFT[LBǩDØX LUØS[Z Tnj EP OBT CBSE[JFK QPEPCOJ OJȈ NPH’PCZ TJǗ XZEBXBǎ
#P KBL ǴQJFXB’ 8JFT[D[ 8DBMF OJF P UP DIPE[J KBL DP LPNV XZDIPE[J -JD[Z TJǗ XJBSB
X TJFCJF QS[FLPOBOJF P X’BTOFK XZKnjULPXPǴDJ J EPCSB [BCBXB " KBL LUPǴ DIDF OBT EP’PXBǎ LSZUZLPXBǎ
XZKnjULPXF QMVT[BLJSØE LUØSZDI LBȈEF [OBKE[JF TXPKF BMUFS FHP o OJFDI TQBEB OB ES[FXP T[ZT[LJ CVKBǎ J QPNQPXBǎ

0QSØD[ UZDI LUØS[Z OJF XJFE[nj DP UP [OBD[Z






















































XXX CS[ZEBMF QM




1MBD 4US[FMFDLJ 8SPD’BX TLMFQ!CS[ZEBMF QM

2GNU\M Z VRELH %U]\GDOD

1-64;",* * ("%Lj&5: *//& /*Lj 84;:45,*&











8JUBNZ X CS[ZEBMPXJF

8 #S[ZEBMPXJF KBL X QSBXE[JXZN ȈZDJV OJF NB E’VHPX’PTZDI LTJǗȈOJD[FL SZDFS[Z X MǴOJnjDZDI [CSPKBDI D[Z
TLS[BUØX [BQMBUBKnjDZDI LPOJPN HS[ZXZ 5P [VQF’OJF JOOB CBKLB *OOB CP QSBXE[JXB 8 NJBTUFD[LV OB
SZOFD[LV NPȈOB XQBǴǎ OB NJFT[LBǩDØX LUØS[Z Tnj EP OBT CBSE[JFK QPEPCOJ OJȈ NPH’PCZ TJǗ XZEBXBǎ
#P KBL ǴQJFXB’ 8JFT[D[ 8DBMF OJF P UP DIPE[J KBL DP LPNV XZDIPE[J -JD[Z TJǗ XJBSB
X TJFCJF QS[FLPOBOJF P X’BTOFK XZKnjULPXPǴDJ J EPCSB [BCBXB " KBL LUPǴ DIDF OBT EP’PXBǎ LSZUZLPXBǎ
XZKnjULPXF QMVT[BLJSØE LUØSZDI LBȈEF [OBKE[JF TXPKF BMUFS FHP o OJFDI TQBEB OB ES[FXP T[ZT[LJ CVKBǎ J QPNQPXBǎ

0QSØD[ UZDI LUØS[Z OJF XJFE[nj DP UP [OBD[Z






















































XXX CS[ZEBMF QM




1MBD 4US[FMFDLJ 8SPD’BX TLMFQ!CS[ZEBMF QM

#3;:%"-& 1-64;",* #3;:%"-08& ("%Lj&5:


1S[FETUBXJBNZ 8BN CS[ZEBMPXF QMVT[BLJ (BMFSJǗ PUXJFSB -6-6 [ CBLDZMFN QPESØȈOJD[LJ LUØSB DIDF /B OBT[FK CS[ZEBMOFK TUSPOJF NPȈOB CMJȈFK QP[OBǎ LBȈEFHP [ #S[ZEBMJ 4nj UP TUXPSZ LUØSF NJFT[LBKnj
[KFȇE[Jǎ DB’Z ǴXJBU ."9 UP XSBȈMJXZ UXBSE[JFM [BLPDIBOZ X NPUPDZLMBDI .*" KFTU VSPE[POnj GBTIJPOJTULnj X UǗUOJnjDZN ȈZDJFN #S[ZEBMPXJF LjZKnj POF X LPǴMBXZDI OJFJEFBMOZDI EPNBDI HPUVKnj OJFKBEBMOF QPUSBXZ
XJF DP KFTU USFOEZ OJF NØXJnjD KVȈ P UZN ȈF KFTU TQFDKBMJTULnj PE XZQS[FEBȈZ 5BN HE[JF KFTU EPCSB NV[B KFTU J XDBMF OJF [BKNVKnj TJǗ UZMLP J XZ’njD[OJF QPȈZUFD[OZNJ S[FD[BNJ 1ǗE[nj OJF[XZLMF CBSXOZ ȈZXPU X LUØSZN
UFȈ J #0/0 LUØSZ SP[LSǗDJ LBȈEnj JNQSF[Ǘ 5*50 BSUZǴDJF QPL’POZ NPHnj CJǎ 1JDBTTP 7BO (PHI J DB’B SFT[UB KFTU NJFKTDF OB QPQF’OJBOJF C’ǗEØX J CZDJF UBLJN KBLJN DIDF TJǗ CZǎ 1P[B UZN LBȈEZ #S[ZEBM NB DPǴ D[FHP
.BDJF DPǴ OB TVNJFOJV NPȈF OBT QP DJDIV OBVD[Zǎ KFǴMJ HP P UP QPQSPTJNZ B NJBOPXJDJF VȈZXBOJB XZPCSBȇOJ %MBUFHP SP[EBKnj
TPCJF OBX[BKFN PSZHJOBMOF QSF[FOUZ


1-/




5*50








50-0










/" 13&;&/5


#S[ZEBMF UP KFEZOF X TXPJN SPE[BKV PSZHJOBMOF QSF[FOUZ LUØSZDI XBȈOnj DFDInj KFTU UP ȈF QPEPCBKnj TJǗ
LBȈEFNV LUP TUB’ TJǗ JDI QPTJBEBD[FN ;FTQؒ QS[FSØȈOZDI DFDI DIBSBLUFSV SØȈOPSPEOPǴǎ HBMFSJJ
PTPCPXPǴDJ SFQSF[FOUVKnjDZDI MJD[OF QBTKF J [BJOUFSFTPXBOJB B QS[Z UZN ǴXJFUOB KBLPǴǎ XZLPOBOJB #S[ZEBMJ
J XT[ZTULJDI HBEȈFUØX EFEZLPXBOZDI UFK NBSDF UP D[ZOOJLJ LUØSF EBKnj HXBSBODKǗ [BJOUFSFTPXBOJB
QSPEVLUFN OJF[BMFȈOJF PE XJFLV PECJPSDØX
-&7* "#0$0 0+00+









/0#""
."9














1MBD 4US[FMFDLJ 8SPD’BX
TLMFQ!CS[ZEBMF QM

XXX CS[ZEBMF QM


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
MP Multiclean
Next Book
MPplaymobil