The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.
Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Search
Published by B&R, 2018-08-29 09:48:34

MP TomiTomi

üÞæÚüŽêæËÚ º½ËºÌö •Ú™öĬ‚Äü©
¬ ºËÄÞæÚ꺏ü·Äü© Ëڂā ×Ú˕ꏙÄæ ¤¬¤‚ÄæüāÄü©ɇ
ºË½ËÚËöü© º½ËºÌö ׬‚ĺËöü©Ɍ




























































öööɌæËìɬæËìɌËà ʹ ʐȀȄ ȂǼǾ ǽǼǼ ǽǽǽ ʹ ¬Ä£ËʱæËìɬæËìɌËÃ

üÞæÚüŽêæËÚ º½ËºÌö •Ú™öĬ‚Äü© ¬ ºËÄÞæÚ꺏ü·Äü© Ëڂā ×Ú˕ꏙÄæ

¤¬¤‚ÄæüāÄü©ɇ ºË½ËÚËöü© º½ËºÌö ׬‚ĺËöü©Ɍ


;¬™•ü Ă ßö¬‚æ ×Úāü©Ë•ā¬ ĂÞā™ ׬™ÚöÞā™ •ā¬™ºË æË ö¬™½ê Ă Ä‚Þ Ä¬™ ö¬™ ·‚º¬™ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ ×Ëö¬ÄĬßÃü ºê׬Ɍ
;ê×귙Ãü ö晕ü ÃÄÌÞæöË ×Úā™•Ã¬ËæÌöɇ ºæÌڙ êö‚Ą‚Ãü ā‚ êÚˏā™ ½êŽ ºæÌڙ ·‰ ×ËÞ悐 āĂę· ºÚ™ÞºÌöº¬Ɍ

;½Ëº¬ Ă½™Ą‰ •Ë ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɇ ºæÌڙ āĂę ŽüÂü ·êĄ ×Úā™• ö¬™º‚ìɇ ‚ ìÃË æË ×Úā™æÚö‚Âü öÞā™½º¬™ Ã˕ü ¬ āì‚ÄüɌ

~ º½ËºÌö ÃËĄ™Ãü öüā‚ÚËö‚ ‚Âü 悷™ÃĬāü ßö¬‚æɇ ºæÌÚü ÚËāö¬·‚ ‰ öüˎڂĂĬ¢ɌɌɌ ‚ ö¬™Ãüɇ Ą™ Ĭ™ æü½ºË ‰ ŽË
ÂÚā™Ä¬‚ •ËÚËÞÂü© æ™Ą ά™Ú‚·‰ ÄËö™¤Ë āÏā™Ä¬‚Ɍ

D‚Þā ā™Þ×Ì ×ËÞæ‚Ú‚ Þ¬¢ öüŽÚ‚ •½‚ s‚Þ æ™ Ä‚·Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Ä™ɇ Žü Žê•Ëö‚Ĭ™
¬ ºËÄÞæÚêËö‚Ĭ™ Ĭ¤•ü Þ¬¢ Ĭ™ āÄê•ā¬ÂËɌ





















































9Ìā™£Ìö ǽȃɇ ǾǽɬȀǾǽ cꏩËö¬ā
öööɌæËìɬæËìɌËà ʹ ʐȀȄ ȂǼǾ ǽǼǼ ǽǽǽ ʹ ¬Ä£ËʱæËìɬæËìɌËÃ

üÞæÚüŽêæËÚ º½ËºÌö •Ú™öĬ‚Äü© ¬ ºËÄÞæÚ꺏ü·Äü© Ëڂā ×Ú˕ꏙÄæ

¤¬¤‚ÄæüāÄü©ɇ ºË½ËÚËöü© º½ËºÌö ׬‚ĺËöü©Ɍ


;¬™•ü Ă ßö¬‚æ ×Úāü©Ë•ā¬ ĂÞā™ ׬™ÚöÞā™ •ā¬™ºË æË ö¬™½ê Ă Ä‚Þ Ä¬™ ö¬™ ·‚º¬™ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ ×Ëö¬ÄĬßÃü ºê׬Ɍ
;ê×귙Ãü ö晕ü ÃÄÌÞæöË ×Úā™•Ã¬ËæÌöɇ ºæÌڙ êö‚Ą‚Ãü ā‚ êÚˏā™ ½êŽ ºæÌڙ ·‰ ×ËÞ悐 āĂę· ºÚ™ÞºÌöº¬Ɍ

;½Ëº¬ Ă½™Ą‰ •Ë ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɇ ºæÌڙ āĂę ŽüÂü ·êĄ ×Úā™• ö¬™º‚ìɇ ‚ ìÃË æË ×Úā™æÚö‚Âü öÞā™½º¬™ Ã˕ü ¬ āì‚ÄüɌ

~ º½ËºÌö ÃËĄ™Ãü öüā‚ÚËö‚ ‚Âü 悷™ÃĬāü ßö¬‚æɇ ºæÌÚü ÚËāö¬·‚ ‰ öüˎڂĂĬ¢ɌɌɌ ‚ ö¬™Ãüɇ Ą™ Ĭ™ æü½ºË ‰ ŽË
ÂÚā™Ä¬‚ •ËÚËÞÂü© æ™Ą ά™Ú‚·‰ ÄËö™¤Ë āÏā™Ä¬‚Ɍ

D‚Þā ā™Þ×Ì ×ËÞæ‚Ú‚ Þ¬¢ öüŽÚ‚ •½‚ s‚Þ æ™ Ä‚·Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· ËÚü¤¬Ä‚½Ä™ɇ Žü Žê•Ëö‚Ĭ™
¬ ºËÄÞæÚêËö‚Ĭ™ Ĭ¤•ü Þ¬¢ Ĭ™ āÄê•ā¬ÂËɌ





















































9Ìā™£Ìö ǽȃɇ ǾǽɬȀǾǽ cꏩËö¬ā
öööɌæËìɬæËìɌËà ʹ ʐȀȄ ȂǼǾ ǽǼǼ ǽǽǽ ʹ ¬Ä£ËʱæËìɬæËìɌËÃ

.RPSOHW VSHUVRQDOL]RZDQ\
:V]\VWNLH ğFLDQNL NRVWNL ]RVWDâ\ XV]\WH ] Z\VRNLHM
MDNRğFL EDZHâQ\ RUD] SU]HPLâHM Z GRW\NX WNDQLQ\
3RODUX 0LQN\ : ğURGNX ]QDMGXMH VLċ JU]HFKRWND RUD]
V]HOHV]F]ĆFD ğFLDQND 7NDQLQ\ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW
2HNR 7H[
. .RVWNL Z\NDĕF]DP UċF]QLH G]LċNL F]HPX QLH SRVLDGDMĆ
ZLGRF]QHJR V]ZX QDMF]ċğFLHM RIHURZDQH NRVWNL QD

3URGXNW\ PDUNL $'.$ $57 SURMHNWRZDQH VĆ L Z\NRQ\ZDQH SU]H]H PQLH 3RZVWDMĆ ] P\ğOĆ U\QNX SRVLDGDMĆ ZLGRF]Q\ V]HZ PDV]\QRZ\ QD FDâHM
R SRWU]HEDFK G]LHFL Z UyīQ\P ZLHNX RG PDOXV]ND GR SU]HGV]NRODND Z\VRNRğFL NRVWNL
.6,ąĪ(&=., L .267., 6(1625<&=1( SRPDJDMĆ UR]ZLMDý ]GROQRğFL PRWRU\F]QH L SR]QDZF]H &HQD ]â
G]LHFND 8F]Ć L EDZLĆ

6(5,$ .2175$672:$ WR SURSR]\FMD GOD QDMPâRGV]\FK MXī RG SLHUZV]\FK GQL ī\FLD .VLĆīHF]ND EDUG]R VHQVRU\F]QD ² UyīRZD
%DGDQLD SRND]XMĆ īH NRQWUDVWRZH SRâĆF]HQLH ELHOL F]HUQL L F]HUZLHQL VW\PXOXMĆ Py]J G]LHFND 5R]PLDU FP LGHDOQD GR PDâ\FK UĆF]HN 1D NDīGHM
L
L SREXG]DMĆ MHJR UR]ZyM SREXG]DMĆ MHJR UR]ZyM
VWURQLH MHGQR ]ZLHU]ĆWNR SUH]HQWXMH VZRMH ZG]LċNL
32'86=., GOD G]LHFL XV]\WH VĆ ] QDMOHSV]\FK MDNRğFLRZR WNDQLQ 6Ć DQW\DOHUJLF]QH 6 6WURQD 0,Ğ ² Z SċNDW\P EU]XV]NX PLVLD XNU\WD MHVW
ĞZLHWQLH VLċ VSUDZG]DMĆ L GR VSDQLD L MDNR R]GRED GR SRNRMX SLV]F]DâND SR QDFLğQLċFLX PLVLRZHJR EU]XV]ND G]LHFNR
:V]\VWNLH SURGXNW\ Z\NRQ\ZDQH VĆ UċF]QLH ] QDMZ\īV]HM MDNRğFL PDWHULDâyZ WDNLFK MDN XVâ\V]\ GHOLNDWQH SLV]F]HQLH XV]ND L UĆF]NL PLVLD VĆ
EDZHâQD ILOF JXPNL V]QXUNL JX]LNL LWS L PRJĆ UyīQLý VLċ QLH]QDF]QLH RG W\FK SU]HGVWDZLRQ\FK UXFKRPH PRīQD PLVLD SRVP\UDý ]D XFKHP
QD ]GMċFLDFK
&HQD ]â
:V]\VWNR VWZRU]RQH ]H VWDUDQQRğFLĆ R QDMPQLHMV]\ V]F]HJyâ Z PRMHM SUDFRZQL


'XīD SRGXV]ND GHNRUDF\MQD GOD G]LHFL Z NV]WDâFLH .VLĆīHF]ND PDU\QDUVND
&KPXUNL ] QyīNDPL
6WURQD ² RğPLRUQLF]ND SU]HVXZDQLH NRUDOLND SRSU]H] RWZRU\
3 3RGXV]ND Z\NRQDQD MHVW ] QDMZ\īV]HM MDNRğFL WNDQLQ\ 6WURQD ² ]ZLHU]ĆWND PRUVNLH ² GRSDVRZDQLH NV]WDâWyZ
EDZHâQLDQHM L ] QLH]Z\NOH PLċNNLHJR SXV]\VWHJR L 6WURQD ² VWDWHN QD PRU]X ZLĆ]DQLH
SU]\MHPQHJR Z GRW\NX SOXV]X PLQN\ ']LċNL ]DVWRVRZDQLX 6WURQD ² PHGX]D L XNU\W\ JX]LF]HN NWyU\P SU]HVXZD
VSUċī\VWHJR DQW\DOHUJLF]QHJR VLOLNRQRZHJR Z\SHâQLHQLD VLċ QLF]\P Z ODELU\QFLH
]DFKRZXMH VZyM NV]WDâW SRGF]DV Xī\WNRZDQLD L QLH ]PLHQLD
6WURQD ² XNâDGDQND ZLHORU\E
VLċ QDZHW SR ZLHOX SUDQLDFK 6WURQD ² WHQLVyZNL ]DZLĆ]\ZDQLH EXWyZ
&HQD ]â &HQD ]â




3U]\WXODQND $'(.
.RVWND VHQVRU\F]QD NRQWUDVWRZD
$GHN WR EDUG]R EH]SLHF]QD SU]\WXODQND GOD WZRMHJR
:V]\VWNLH ğFLDQNL NRVWNL ]RVWDâ\ XV]\WH ] Z\VRNLHM MDNRğFL
EDZHâQ\ RUD] SU]HPLâHM Z GRW\NX WNDQLQ\ 3RODUX 0LQN\ PDOHĕVWZD 7NDQLQ\ ] NWyU\FK SRZVWDâ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW
: ğURGNX ]QDMGXMH VLċ JU]HFKRWND RUD] V]HOHV]F]ĆFD 2HNR WH[ 6WDQGDUG
ğFLDQND 7NDQLQ\ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW 2HNR 7H[ $GHN WR XNRFKDQ\ SU]\MDFLHO RG SLHUZV]\FK GQL PDOXV]ND
3U]\MDFLHO RG ]DEDZ\ L SU]\WXODQLD
&HQD ]â
&HQD ]â





ZZZ DGNDDUW SO 3LHJRQLVNR 3XVWNRZLH & %U]H]LQ\

DGNDDUW#JPDLO FRP WHO RG JRG]LQ\ GR

.RPSOHW VSHUVRQDOL]RZDQ\
:V]\VWNLH ğFLDQNL NRVWNL ]RVWDâ\ XV]\WH ] Z\VRNLHM
MDNRğFL EDZHâQ\ RUD] SU]HPLâHM Z GRW\NX WNDQLQ\
3RODUX 0LQN\ : ğURGNX ]QDMGXMH VLċ JU]HFKRWND RUD]
V]HOHV]F]ĆFD ğFLDQND 7NDQLQ\ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW
2HNR 7H[
. .RVWNL Z\NDĕF]DP UċF]QLH G]LċNL F]HPX QLH SRVLDGDMĆ
ZLGRF]QHJR V]ZX QDMF]ċğFLHM RIHURZDQH NRVWNL QD

3URGXNW\ PDUNL $'.$ $57 SURMHNWRZDQH VĆ L Z\NRQ\ZDQH SU]H]H PQLH 3RZVWDMĆ ] P\ğOĆ U\QNX SRVLDGDMĆ ZLGRF]Q\ V]HZ PDV]\QRZ\ QD FDâHM
R SRWU]HEDFK G]LHFL Z UyīQ\P ZLHNX RG PDOXV]ND GR SU]HGV]NRODND Z\VRNRğFL NRVWNL
.6,ąĪ(&=., L .267., 6(1625<&=1( SRPDJDMĆ UR]ZLMDý ]GROQRğFL PRWRU\F]QH L SR]QDZF]H &HQD ]â
G]LHFND 8F]Ć L EDZLĆ

6(5,$ .2175$672:$ WR SURSR]\FMD GOD QDMPâRGV]\FK MXī RG SLHUZV]\FK GQL ī\FLD .VLĆīHF]ND EDUG]R VHQVRU\F]QD ² UyīRZD
%DGDQLD SRND]XMĆ īH NRQWUDVWRZH SRâĆF]HQLH ELHOL F]HUQL L F]HUZLHQL VW\PXOXMĆ Py]J G]LHFND 5R]PLDU FP LGHDOQD GR PDâ\FK UĆF]HN 1D NDīGHM
L
L SREXG]DMĆ MHJR UR]ZyM SREXG]DMĆ MHJR UR]ZyM
VWURQLH MHGQR ]ZLHU]ĆWNR SUH]HQWXMH VZRMH ZG]LċNL
32'86=., GOD G]LHFL XV]\WH VĆ ] QDMOHSV]\FK MDNRğFLRZR WNDQLQ 6Ć DQW\DOHUJLF]QH 6 6WURQD 0,Ğ ² Z SċNDW\P EU]XV]NX PLVLD XNU\WD MHVW
ĞZLHWQLH VLċ VSUDZG]DMĆ L GR VSDQLD L MDNR R]GRED GR SRNRMX SLV]F]DâND SR QDFLğQLċFLX PLVLRZHJR EU]XV]ND G]LHFNR
:V]\VWNLH SURGXNW\ Z\NRQ\ZDQH VĆ UċF]QLH ] QDMZ\īV]HM MDNRğFL PDWHULDâyZ WDNLFK MDN XVâ\V]\ GHOLNDWQH SLV]F]HQLH XV]ND L UĆF]NL PLVLD VĆ
EDZHâQD ILOF JXPNL V]QXUNL JX]LNL LWS L PRJĆ UyīQLý VLċ QLH]QDF]QLH RG W\FK SU]HGVWDZLRQ\FK UXFKRPH PRīQD PLVLD SRVP\UDý ]D XFKHP
QD ]GMċFLDFK
&HQD ]â
:V]\VWNR VWZRU]RQH ]H VWDUDQQRğFLĆ R QDMPQLHMV]\ V]F]HJyâ Z PRMHM SUDFRZQL


'XīD SRGXV]ND GHNRUDF\MQD GOD G]LHFL Z NV]WDâFLH .VLĆīHF]ND PDU\QDUVND
&KPXUNL ] QyīNDPL
6WURQD ² RğPLRUQLF]ND SU]HVXZDQLH NRUDOLND SRSU]H] RWZRU\
3 3RGXV]ND Z\NRQDQD MHVW ] QDMZ\īV]HM MDNRğFL WNDQLQ\ 6WURQD ² ]ZLHU]ĆWND PRUVNLH ² GRSDVRZDQLH NV]WDâWyZ
EDZHâQLDQHM L ] QLH]Z\NOH PLċNNLHJR SXV]\VWHJR L 6WURQD ² VWDWHN QD PRU]X ZLĆ]DQLH
SU]\MHPQHJR Z GRW\NX SOXV]X PLQN\ ']LċNL ]DVWRVRZDQLX 6WURQD ² PHGX]D L XNU\W\ JX]LF]HN NWyU\P SU]HVXZD
VSUċī\VWHJR DQW\DOHUJLF]QHJR VLOLNRQRZHJR Z\SHâQLHQLD VLċ QLF]\P Z ODELU\QFLH
]DFKRZXMH VZyM NV]WDâW SRGF]DV Xī\WNRZDQLD L QLH ]PLHQLD
6WURQD ² XNâDGDQND ZLHORU\E
VLċ QDZHW SR ZLHOX SUDQLDFK 6WURQD ² WHQLVyZNL ]DZLĆ]\ZDQLH EXWyZ
&HQD ]â &HQD ]â




3U]\WXODQND $'(.
.RVWND VHQVRU\F]QD NRQWUDVWRZD
$GHN WR EDUG]R EH]SLHF]QD SU]\WXODQND GOD WZRMHJR
:V]\VWNLH ğFLDQNL NRVWNL ]RVWDâ\ XV]\WH ] Z\VRNLHM MDNRğFL
EDZHâQ\ RUD] SU]HPLâHM Z GRW\NX WNDQLQ\ 3RODUX 0LQN\ PDOHĕVWZD 7NDQLQ\ ] NWyU\FK SRZVWDâ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW
: ğURGNX ]QDMGXMH VLċ JU]HFKRWND RUD] V]HOHV]F]ĆFD 2HNR WH[ 6WDQGDUG
ğFLDQND 7NDQLQ\ SRVLDGDMĆ FHUW\ILNDW 2HNR 7H[ $GHN WR XNRFKDQ\ SU]\MDFLHO RG SLHUZV]\FK GQL PDOXV]ND
3U]\MDFLHO RG ]DEDZ\ L SU]\WXODQLD
&HQD ]â
&HQD ]â





ZZZ DGNDDUW SO 3LHJRQLVNR 3XVWNRZLH & %U]H]LQ\

DGNDDUW#JPDLO FRP WHO RG JRG]LQ\ GR

V‚Þāā •ā¬™¬¢ü ˽¬öº‚

J•ā¬™Ą •ā¬™¬¢‚ ¬ Ĭ™ÃËö½¢‚Ɍ ā¬‚ĬÄËöü ׂÞāāüº ÞæöËÚāËÄü ā Ãüß½‰ Ë Ä‚·ÃÂ˕Þāü©Ɍ gÞāüæü

~‚×ÚË·™ºæËö‚Ä‚ ¬ êÞāüæ‚ ö V˽ޏ™ æü½ºË ā ×˽޺¬© •ā¬‚ĬÄɌ ā •ā¬‚ĬÄü Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ā ǽǼʦ •Ë•‚溬™Ã ×˽¬™ÞæÚêɌ
‚ö™ÂĂ Â •ËÞºËÙ ö‚ߏ¬öËߏ¬ ¬™×½Ä™ɇ ā‚×™öĬ‚ •ËÞºËÉ
üں꽂·¢ ×Ëö¬™æÚā‚ ɇ ‚ •Ë•‚æºËöË •Ú‚ׂĂɇ öü·‰æºËöË Ã¬¢ºº‚
¬ ì‚ ö •ËæüºêɌ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȄȅɇǼǼ āÂ







]꺬™Äº‚ Ž‰Ž™½º¬

]꺬™Äº‚ Ë ½êĂÄüà ºÚË·ê êÞāüæ‚ ā 좺º¬™·
•ā¬‚ĬÄü Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™·ɇ ā ×ÚāË•ê ºË½ËÚËöü ÃËæüöɌ
.•™‚½Ä‚ Ă º‚Ą•‰ ×ËÚ¢ Ú˺ê ā™ öā¤½¢•ê Ă
×Úāü·™Ãĉ •ā¬‚ĬĢ ¬ öü¤Ë•Äü ºÚÌ·Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǽȅɇǼǼ āÂ





]×˕Ĭ™ ‚ÃË

]×˕Ĭ™ êÞāüæ™ ā Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ¤‚Ž‚Ú•üÄü ºæÌڂ ā º‚Ą•üà ×ڂĬ™Ã
ά™Ú‚ ·™Þāā™ Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· öü·‰æºËö™¤Ë ©‚Ú‚ºæ™Úê ·™•Äˏā™ßĬ™
ā‚©Ëö귉 Ĭ™Žüö‚‰ æÚö‚ÂËߐɌ gĬº‚½Äü £‚ÞËÄ Ä¬™ ºÚ¢×귙 ÚꏩÌö
¬ ā‚×™öĬ‚ יÂĉ Þöˎ˕¢ ö ā‚Ž‚ö¬™Ɍ ]×˕Ĭ™ ā‚׬Ăę Ă Þêö‚º ¬ Ăעɇ
~™Þæ‚ö ׬ĺ •ËæÞ ǿ Þ™æ ½™¤ •Ë•‚æºËöË ×ËÞ¬‚•‚·‰ öÞāüæ‰ ¤êú¢ ºæÌڂ •ËׂÞËö귙 Þ×˕Ĭ™ ö 悽¬¬Ɍ
&êú¬ ā‚ÞæËÞËö‚Ä™ 悺Ą™ ö Äˤ‚öº‚© ā‚×™öĬ‚·‰ êæÚāüÂĬ™ Þ×˕Ĭ
~™Þæ‚ö Ž½êā‚ ʐ æɬÞ©¬Úæ ʐ ½™¤¤¬ÄÞü êÞāüæü ā 좏¬ê溬™· •ā¬‚ĬÄü Ă Þöˬà 왷ޏêɇ Ž™ā •™×æ‚Ĭ‚ ¬ ×˕ö¬™ö‚Ĭ‚Ɍ
Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ¬•™‚½Äü Ă ޙāËÄ ö¬ËޙÄÄËɬ½™æĬɌ ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ





;‚Ú•¬¤‚Ä ½™æĬ ·‚ÞÄËÞā‚Úü


;‚Ú•¬¤‚Ä ɬ Ž½êā‚ ö ā‚½™ĄÄËߏ¬ ˕ ˺˽¬āÄËߏ¬Ɍ
9™•™Ä ×Ú˕êºæ Ă ö¬™½™ ˺‚ā·¬Ɍ C‚ Žü ™½™¤‚ďºËɍ
•ËŽ¬™Úā •Ë Ĭ™¤Ë ºËÞāê½¢Ɍ ]öˎ˕Ĭ™ •Ë
×Úā™•ÞāºË½‚ɍ öüÞæ‚ڏāü ¤Â‚•º¬ ŽË•ā¬‚º ‚½ŽË
öāËÚāüÞæ‚ ºËÞā꽺‚ ¬ ā™Þæ‚ö ¤ËæËöüɌ
™Ä‚Ɇ ȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȀȅɇǼǼ āÂ






ꎂ½Ëõ™ öööɌŽêŽ‚½Ëõ™Ɍ×½
Y˽Ă ǽȄɒǾǾ à ǽȃ ʹ ȅȃɬǾǼǼ cËÂÞāÌö C‚āËö¬™º¬ Ž¬êÚËʱŽêŽ‚½Ëõ™Ɍ×½

V‚Þāā •ā¬™¬¢ü ˽¬öº‚

J•ā¬™Ą •ā¬™¬¢‚ ¬ Ĭ™ÃËö½¢‚Ɍ ā¬‚ĬÄËöü ׂÞāāüº ÞæöËÚāËÄü ā Ãüß½‰ Ë Ä‚·ÃÂ˕Þāü©Ɍ gÞāüæü

~‚×ÚË·™ºæËö‚Ä‚ ¬ êÞāüæ‚ ö V˽ޏ™ æü½ºË ā ×˽޺¬© •ā¬‚ĬÄɌ ā •ā¬‚ĬÄü Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ā ǽǼʦ •Ë•‚溬™Ã ×˽¬™ÞæÚêɌ
‚ö™ÂĂ Â •ËÞºËÙ ö‚ߏ¬öËߏ¬ ¬™×½Ä™ɇ ā‚×™öĬ‚ •ËÞºËÉ
üں꽂·¢ ×Ëö¬™æÚā‚ ɇ ‚ •Ë•‚æºËöË •Ú‚ׂĂɇ öü·‰æºËöË Ã¬¢ºº‚
¬ ì‚ ö •ËæüºêɌ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȄȅɇǼǼ āÂ







]꺬™Äº‚ Ž‰Ž™½º¬

]꺬™Äº‚ Ë ½êĂÄüà ºÚË·ê êÞāüæ‚ ā 좺º¬™·
•ā¬‚ĬÄü Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™·ɇ ā ×ÚāË•ê ºË½ËÚËöü ÃËæüöɌ
.•™‚½Ä‚ Ă º‚Ą•‰ ×ËÚ¢ Ú˺ê ā™ öā¤½¢•ê Ă
×Úāü·™Ãĉ •ā¬‚ĬĢ ¬ öü¤Ë•Äü ºÚÌ·Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǽȅɇǼǼ āÂ





]×˕Ĭ™ ‚ÃË

]×˕Ĭ™ êÞāüæ™ ā Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ¤‚Ž‚Ú•üÄü ºæÌڂ ā º‚Ą•üà ×ڂĬ™Ã
ά™Ú‚ ·™Þāā™ Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· öü·‰æºËö™¤Ë ©‚Ú‚ºæ™Úê ·™•Äˏā™ßĬ™
ā‚©Ëö귉 Ĭ™Žüö‚‰ æÚö‚ÂËߐɌ gĬº‚½Äü £‚ÞËÄ Ä¬™ ºÚ¢×귙 ÚꏩÌö
¬ ā‚×™öĬ‚ יÂĉ Þöˎ˕¢ ö ā‚Ž‚ö¬™Ɍ ]×˕Ĭ™ ā‚׬Ăę Ă Þêö‚º ¬ Ăעɇ
~™Þæ‚ö ׬ĺ •ËæÞ ǿ Þ™æ ½™¤ •Ë•‚æºËöË ×ËÞ¬‚•‚·‰ öÞāüæ‰ ¤êú¢ ºæÌڂ •ËׂÞËö귙 Þ×˕Ĭ™ ö 悽¬¬Ɍ
&êú¬ ā‚ÞæËÞËö‚Ä™ 悺Ą™ ö Äˤ‚öº‚© ā‚×™öĬ‚·‰ êæÚāüÂĬ™ Þ×˕Ĭ
~™Þæ‚ö Ž½êā‚ ʐ æɬÞ©¬Úæ ʐ ½™¤¤¬ÄÞü êÞāüæü ā 좏¬ê溬™· •ā¬‚ĬÄü Ă Þöˬà 왷ޏêɇ Ž™ā •™×æ‚Ĭ‚ ¬ ×˕ö¬™ö‚Ĭ‚Ɍ
Ž‚ö™ÂĬ‚Ä™· ¬•™‚½Äü Ă ޙāËÄ ö¬ËޙÄÄËɬ½™æĬɌ ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ





;‚Ú•¬¤‚Ä ½™æĬ ·‚ÞÄËÞā‚Úü


;‚Ú•¬¤‚Ä ɬ Ž½êā‚ ö ā‚½™ĄÄËߏ¬ ˕ ˺˽¬āÄËߏ¬Ɍ
9™•™Ä ×Ú˕êºæ Ă ö¬™½™ ˺‚ā·¬Ɍ C‚ Žü ™½™¤‚ďºËɍ
•ËŽ¬™Úā •Ë Ĭ™¤Ë ºËÞāê½¢Ɍ ]öˎ˕Ĭ™ •Ë
×Úā™•ÞāºË½‚ɍ öüÞæ‚ڏāü ¤Â‚•º¬ ŽË•ā¬‚º ‚½ŽË
öāËÚāüÞæ‚ ºËÞā꽺‚ ¬ ā™Þæ‚ö ¤ËæËöüɌ
™Ä‚Ɇ ȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȀȅɇǼǼ āÂ






ꎂ½Ëõ™ öööɌŽêŽ‚½Ëõ™Ɍ×½
Y˽Ă ǽȄɒǾǾ à ǽȃ ʹ ȅȃɬǾǼǼ cËÂÞāÌö C‚āËö¬™º¬ Ž¬êÚËʱŽêŽ‚½Ëõ™Ɍ×½

C‚Ã Ă ¬Ã¬¢ C‚Úā™Ä‚ ¬ ·™Þæ™Ã ‚êæËÚº‰ ×ËÃˏü ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü© •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ā ‚£‚ā·‰ɇ JYC ¬ ‚êæüāÙÃɌ
9™Þæ™Ã ‚êæËÚº‰ Ž½Ë¤‚ ;ڙ‚æüöęsÚËæ‚Ɍ×½ ºæÌÚü ·™Þæ ˕āö¬™Ú¬™•½™Ä¬™Ã ɶY‚•ËßĬ™ ÚËÞÄ¢ ¬ Ãüß½¢ɷ æË ā™Þæ‚ö ö¬ā™Å
ÃË·™· ×ڂü ā ÌÚº‰ɇ ׂ޷¬ ¬ ā‚¬Äæ™Ú™ÞËö‚ÅɌ ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü©ɇ ™•êº‚ü·Äü©
¬ ˤ̽ÄËÚËāöË·Ëöü© öÞ×ˤ‚·‰ü© ÚËāöÌ·
CË·‚ ¤ÂËö‚ ·™Þæ יÂĂ Ĭ™Ž‚Ä‚½Äü©ɇ ºÚ™‚æüöÄü© ×ËÃüÞÂÌö ºæÌÚüì •ā¬™½¢ ¬ ÚËāêì™Ä¬™ ÃËöü ê •ā¬™¬Ɍ
Þ¬¢ ā s‚ìɌ
;Y cysD sYJc ɌV=Ɉ ö¬ā™Ä¬‚ ·‰ ©‚Ú‚ºæ™Ú ˤ̽ÄËÚËāöË·Ëöü
¬ ×Úā™āÏāËę މ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ö ö¬™ºê ǿɬȄ ½‚æ
ö
] ö ā‚½™ĄÄËߏ¬ ˕ ×Ëā¬ËÃê £êĺ·ËÄËö‚Ĭ‚ •ā¬™º‚Ɍ
]æ‚æ‚Ú‚Ã Þ¬¢ Žü æöÌڏā‚ ¬ Þæ‚ö¬‚Ã Ă ºÚ™‚æüöÄËߐɌ ©¢ ‚Žü ÃË·™ ‚ÚæüºêÂü
ŽüÂü Ž‚Ú•āË Úā™æ™½Ä™ɇ Þ×¢•ā‚à •Â꤬™ ¤Ë•ā¬Äü Ă āüæ‚Ä¬ê £‚©Ëö™· VÚā™āÏāËę މ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö •Ë ×ڂü ā •ā¬™Ã¬
½¬æ™Ú‚æêÚüɇ ‚Žü ½™×¬™· āÚËāê왐 æËɇ ā āüà ŽËÚüº‚ Þ¬¢ ÃË·‚ Ìڙāº‚Ɍ ö •ËÃêɇ ‚ 悺Ą™ •½‚ Ăêāü¬™½¬ ¬ æ™Ú‚×™êæÌö ·‚ºË
gö¬™½Ž¬‚à ׬ނ Ë ×ËÃˏ‚© æ™Ú‚×™êæüāÄü© ¬ ނ æöËÚā¢ ÃË·™· Ìڏ™ ×ËÃˏ ™•êº‚ü·Ä‚ Ă ā‚·¢¬‚© ڙö‚½¬•‚ü·Äü©
ö¬¢ºÞāËߐ ×ËÃˏü •Ë æ™Ú‚׬¬Ɍ ¬ ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü©Ɍ

D D‚ Ž½Ë¤ê •ā¬™½¢ Þ¬¢ ÞöË·‰ ö¬™•ā‰ ¬ ×˺‚āê·¢ Ú˕ā¬Ëà ‚£‚æüºÌö Ëڂā
•ā¬™¬ ā ¬ÄÄüì •üÞ£êĺ·‚ì ö ā‚ºÚ™Þ¬™ ÃËöü Ă ·‚º¬© Âæ™Ú¬‚‚©
×ڂê·¢ ā ÌÚº‰Ɍ
Y˕ā¬™ ā•ÚËöü© •ā¬™¬ āĂ·•‰ ê ÃĬ™ ¬Ä£Ëڏ·™ ö ·‚º¬ Þ×ËÞ̎ ×ˤ‚
Þöˬà •ā¬™¬Ëà ö ·™Þāā™ ½™×Þāüà ÚËāöË·êɌ CË·™ ×ËÃˏ™ Ž¢•‰ ×Úāü•‚æę
ā‚ÚÌöÄË ×Úāü æ™Ú‚׬¬ •ā¬™¬ ā •üÞ£êĺ·‚ì ɫ ‚½™ 悺Ą™ ·‚ºË ºÚ™‚æüöę
¬ ÚËāö¬·‚·‰™ ā‚Ž‚öü •½‚ º‚Ą•™¤Ë •ā¬™º‚Ɍ





sssɌ;Y cysD sYJc ɌV=

C‚Ã Ă ¬Ã¬¢ C‚Úā™Ä‚ ¬ ·™Þæ™Ã ‚êæËÚº‰ ×ËÃˏü ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü© •½‚
•ā¬™¬ ā ‚£‚ā·‰ɇ JYC ¬ ‚êæüāÙÃɌ
9™Þæ™Ã ‚êæËÚº‰ Ž½Ë¤‚ ;ڙ‚æüöęsÚËæ‚Ɍ×½ ºæÌÚü ·™Þæ ˕āö¬™Ú¬™•½™Ä¬™Ã ɶY‚•ËßĬ™ ÚËÞÄ¢ ¬ Ãüß½¢ɷ æË ā™Þæ‚ö ö¬ā™Å
ÃË·™· ×ڂü ā ÌÚº‰ɇ ׂ޷¬ ¬ ā‚¬Äæ™Ú™ÞËö‚ÅɌ ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü©ɇ ™•êº‚ü·Äü©
¬ ˤ̽ÄËÚËāöË·Ëöü© öÞ×ˤ‚·‰ü© ÚËāöÌ·
CË·‚ ¤ÂËö‚ ·™Þæ יÂĂ Ĭ™Ž‚Ä‚½Äü©ɇ ºÚ™‚æüöÄü© ×ËÃüÞÂÌö ºæÌÚüì •ā¬™½¢ ¬ ÚËāêì™Ä¬™ ÃËöü ê •ā¬™¬Ɍ
Þ¬¢ ā s‚ìɌ
;Y cysD sYJc ɌV=Ɉ ö¬ā™Ä¬‚ ·‰ ©‚Ú‚ºæ™Ú ˤ̽ÄËÚËāöË·Ëöü
¬ ×Úā™āÏāËę މ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ö ö¬™ºê ǿɬȄ ½‚æ
ö
] ö ā‚½™ĄÄËߏ¬ ˕ ×Ëā¬ËÃê £êĺ·ËÄËö‚Ĭ‚ •ā¬™º‚Ɍ
]æ‚æ‚Ú‚Ã Þ¬¢ Žü æöÌڏā‚ ¬ Þæ‚ö¬‚Ã Ă ºÚ™‚æüöÄËߐɌ ©¢ ‚Žü ÃË·™ ‚ÚæüºêÂü
ŽüÂü Ž‚Ú•āË Úā™æ™½Ä™ɇ Þ×¢•ā‚à •Â꤬™ ¤Ë•ā¬Äü Ă āüæ‚Ä¬ê £‚©Ëö™· VÚā™āÏāËę މ •½‚ Ú˕ā¬Ìö •Ë ×ڂü ā •ā¬™Ã¬
½¬æ™Ú‚æêÚüɇ ‚Žü ½™×¬™· āÚËāê왐 æËɇ ā āüà ŽËÚüº‚ Þ¬¢ ÃË·‚ Ìڙāº‚Ɍ ö •ËÃêɇ ‚ 悺Ą™ •½‚ Ăêāü¬™½¬ ¬ æ™Ú‚×™êæÌö ·‚ºË
gö¬™½Ž¬‚à ׬ނ Ë ×ËÃˏ‚© æ™Ú‚×™êæüāÄü© ¬ ނ æöËÚā¢ ÃË·™· Ìڏ™ ×ËÃˏ ™•êº‚ü·Ä‚ Ă ā‚·¢¬‚© ڙö‚½¬•‚ü·Äü©
ö¬¢ºÞāËߐ ×ËÃˏü •Ë æ™Ú‚׬¬Ɍ ¬ ½Ë¤Ëי•üāÄü©Ɍ

D D‚ Ž½Ë¤ê •ā¬™½¢ Þ¬¢ ÞöË·‰ ö¬™•ā‰ ¬ ×˺‚āê·¢ Ú˕ā¬Ëà ‚£‚æüºÌö Ëڂā
•ā¬™¬ ā ¬ÄÄüì •üÞ£êĺ·‚ì ö ā‚ºÚ™Þ¬™ ÃËöü Ă ·‚º¬© Âæ™Ú¬‚‚©
×ڂê·¢ ā ÌÚº‰Ɍ
Y˕ā¬™ ā•ÚËöü© •ā¬™¬ āĂ·•‰ ê ÃĬ™ ¬Ä£Ëڏ·™ ö ·‚º¬ Þ×ËÞ̎ ×ˤ‚
Þöˬà •ā¬™¬Ëà ö ·™Þāā™ ½™×Þāüà ÚËāöË·êɌ CË·™ ×ËÃˏ™ Ž¢•‰ ×Úāü•‚æę
ā‚ÚÌöÄË ×Úāü æ™Ú‚׬¬ •ā¬™¬ ā •üÞ£êĺ·‚ì ɫ ‚½™ 悺Ą™ ·‚ºË ºÚ™‚æüöę
¬ ÚËāö¬·‚·‰™ ā‚Ž‚öü •½‚ º‚Ą•™¤Ë •ā¬™º‚Ɍ





sssɌ;Y cysD sYJc ɌV=

1DV]H SURGXNW\ Z\NRQ\ZDQH VĆ ZâDVQRUċF]QLH :NâDGDP\ Z QLH ZLHOH VHUFD L F]DVX F]HJR HIHNWHP VĆ

QLHSRZWDU]DOQH L Z\MĆWNRZH ]DEDZNL L DNFHVRULD GOD G]LHFL 'DMHP\ UDGRğý QDMPâRGV]\P RUD] LFK URG]LFRP







2F]HNXMHV] QD SU]\MğFLH QD ğZLDW VZRMHJR G]LHFND" 1LH]DOHīQLH F]\ MHVW WR SLHUZV]H F]\ WHī NROHMQH G]LHFNR NDīGH QDURG]LQ\ ZLĆīĆ VLċ ] ZLHORPD HPRFMDPL :\FKRG]ĆF QDSU]HFLZ RF]HNLZDQLRP
URG]LFyZ L LFK SRFLHFK WZRU]\P\ SURGXNW\ NWyUH VĆ QLH]EċGQH SR SU]\MğFLX G]LHFND QD ğZLDW

3DPLċWDV] VZRMĆ XOXELRQĆ PDVNRWċ ] G]LHFLĕVWZD" :LċNV]Rğý ] QDV PLDâR MDNĆğ SU]\WXODQNċ NWyUĆ SDPLċWD GR WHM SRU\ 'OD QLHNWyU\FK E\â WR PLċFLXWNL NRF\N GOD LQQ\FK PLğ EH] XFKD SR VWDUV]\P EUDFLH
-HVWHğP\ SHZQL īH QDV]H PDVNRWNL Z\NRQDQH ] SU]\MHPQ\FK L NRORURZ\FK PDWHULDâyZ WDNīH PRJĆ VWDý VLċ QDMOHSV]\PL SU]\MDFLyâPL G]LHFND

3RGXV]ND WR QLH]EċGQD U]HF] NWyUD SU]\GD VLċ ]DUD] SR XURG]HQLX PDOHĕVWZD :\JRGQD L Z\NRQDQD ] PLċFLXWNLHJR PDWHULDâX WR VSRVyE QD VSRNRMQ\ L ]GURZ\ VHQ PDOXFKD 6SUDZG]Ć VLċ QLH W\ONR
Z âyīHF]NDFK L NRâ\VNDFK DOH EċGĆ WDNīH LGHDOQ\P WRZDU]\V]HP SRGF]DV VSDFHUyZ L GâXīV]\FK SRGUyī\ 1DV]H SRGXV]NL WR WDNīH RU\JLQDOQD SU]\WXODQND L ]DEDZND GOD QDMPâRGV]\FK 'RGDWNRZR
G]LċNL ERJDWHPX Z]RUQLFWZX SRGXV]NL VĆ SLċNQ\PL R]GREDPL G]LHFLċF\FK ZQċWU]











































&(%$% : F








'2 .$Ļ'(*2 =$0”:,(1,$




sssɌcg=.cg=.ɰ yɌV= 8320,1(. *5$7,6

Þº½™×ʱæ꽬æ꽬ɬŽ‚ŽüɌ×½

1DV]H SURGXNW\ Z\NRQ\ZDQH VĆ ZâDVQRUċF]QLH :NâDGDP\ Z QLH ZLHOH VHUFD L F]DVX F]HJR HIHNWHP VĆ

QLHSRZWDU]DOQH L Z\MĆWNRZH ]DEDZNL L DNFHVRULD GOD G]LHFL 'DMHP\ UDGRğý QDMPâRGV]\P RUD] LFK URG]LFRP







2F]HNXMHV] QD SU]\MğFLH QD ğZLDW VZRMHJR G]LHFND" 1LH]DOHīQLH F]\ MHVW WR SLHUZV]H F]\ WHī NROHMQH G]LHFNR NDīGH QDURG]LQ\ ZLĆīĆ VLċ ] ZLHORPD HPRFMDPL :\FKRG]ĆF QDSU]HFLZ RF]HNLZDQLRP
URG]LFyZ L LFK SRFLHFK WZRU]\P\ SURGXNW\ NWyUH VĆ QLH]EċGQH SR SU]\MğFLX G]LHFND QD ğZLDW

3DPLċWDV] VZRMĆ XOXELRQĆ PDVNRWċ ] G]LHFLĕVWZD" :LċNV]Rğý ] QDV PLDâR MDNĆğ SU]\WXODQNċ NWyUĆ SDPLċWD GR WHM SRU\ 'OD QLHNWyU\FK E\â WR PLċFLXWNL NRF\N GOD LQQ\FK PLğ EH] XFKD SR VWDUV]\P EUDFLH
-HVWHğP\ SHZQL īH QDV]H PDVNRWNL Z\NRQDQH ] SU]\MHPQ\FK L NRORURZ\FK PDWHULDâyZ WDNīH PRJĆ VWDý VLċ QDMOHSV]\PL SU]\MDFLyâPL G]LHFND

3RGXV]ND WR QLH]EċGQD U]HF] NWyUD SU]\GD VLċ ]DUD] SR XURG]HQLX PDOHĕVWZD :\JRGQD L Z\NRQDQD ] PLċFLXWNLHJR PDWHULDâX WR VSRVyE QD VSRNRMQ\ L ]GURZ\ VHQ PDOXFKD 6SUDZG]Ć VLċ QLH W\ONR
Z âyīHF]NDFK L NRâ\VNDFK DOH EċGĆ WDNīH LGHDOQ\P WRZDU]\V]HP SRGF]DV VSDFHUyZ L GâXīV]\FK SRGUyī\ 1DV]H SRGXV]NL WR WDNīH RU\JLQDOQD SU]\WXODQND L ]DEDZND GOD QDMPâRGV]\FK 'RGDWNRZR
G]LċNL ERJDWHPX Z]RUQLFWZX SRGXV]NL VĆ SLċNQ\PL R]GREDPL G]LHFLċF\FK ZQċWU]











































&(%$% : F








'2 .$Ļ'(*2 =$0”:,(1,$




sssɌcg=.cg=.ɰ yɌV= 8320,1(. *5$7,6

Þº½™×ʱæ꽬æ꽬ɬŽ‚ŽüɌ×½

C‚æü ׬‚ĺËö™ ö £ËÚì™ ×êāā½¬

s ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™ āĂ·•ê·‰ Þ¬¢ öü¤Ë•Ä™ ׬‚ĺËö™ ×êāā½™ɇ ºæÌڙ
ÞיÂĬ‰ ˏā™º¬ö‚Ĭ‚ Ăö™æ Ă·Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· öü¤‚·‰ü©
êĄüæºËöĬºÌöɌ süÚÌĄÄ¬‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ž™ā׬™āÄüà Âæ™Ú¬‚™Ãɇ
ÞיÂĬ‚·‰üà •Ë•‚æºËö™ ÄËÚÃüɇ Þ×ËÞˎ™Ã öüºËĂĬ‚
ā‚×™öĬ‚·‰üà æÚö‚™ ×ˉā™Ä¬™ Ăö™æ ×˕ •êĄüÃ
ˎ¬‰Ą™Ä¬™Ãɇ •ā¬¢º¬ ā™Ãê ¤ö‚Ú‚Äæ귉 Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöË
¬ ºËãËÚæ êĄüæºËö‚Ĭ‚Ɍ ~ êö‚¤¬ Ă ÞöË·‰ öüæÚāüÂÂËߐ
ß
ßö¬™æĬ™ Þ×ڂö•ā‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ĭ™ æü½ºË Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü •ËÃËö™Ɍ ]יÂĬ‰
ÞöË·‰ Ú˽¢ Ä×Ɍ ö ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ ނ½‚© ā‚Ž‚ö āü º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚Ɍ
c¬ººc˺º V˽޺‚ ɬ •üÞæÚüŽêæËÚ Ž™ā׬™āÄü©ɇ Ã˕êÂËöü©ɇ •êĄü© &ÚêŽËߐ ǾÃɉ CËĄ½¬öü •Ëö˽Äü ÚËāì‚Ú ½¬āËÄü Ë ǼɇȂÃɇ āü½¬ Ä×Ɍ ǾɇȀûǿɇǼÃ

ºË·Ìö •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ Âæ ×˕ÂˤËöü©Ɍ ɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬ

J£™Ú귙Ãü Ă·ö¬¢ºÞā™ Ă ÚüÄºê ºË·™ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ V˺‚ÄË Ëڂā Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ &Úꎂ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü
•½‚ •ā¬™º‚ɇ ā ºæÌÚü© êÂËĄü ÃˡĂ •Ëö˽Ĭ™ •êĄü ˎÞā‚Ú Ž™ā׬™āę· ā‚Ž‚öü •½‚ •ā¬™¬Ɍ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ɚǾÃɛ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Âæ‚
;Ë·™ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ ×ËÞ¬‚•‚·‰ ö‚Þĉ ¤‰ŽºËö‰ ×˕Âˤ¢Ɍ ;Ë·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ D‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ ׬‚ĺËö‚ öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™· ¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ
¬ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ Ãˤ‰ āËÞ悐 •Ëö˽Ĭ™ ×Ëö¬¢ºÞāËę ö ڂā¬™ ×ËæÚā™Žüɇ ¤•ü s‚Þā‚ ×ˏ¬™©‚ ÚËßĬ™ ~‚×™öĬ‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬ ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™•
¬ × ×ËæÚā™Žê·™ ö¬¢ºÞā™· ×Úā™ÞæÚā™Ä¬ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ 9™Ą™½¬ ×ËæÚā™Žê·™¬™ •êĄü ºË·™ •½‚ •ā¬™º‚ ½êŽ
¬
º¬½ºËÚ¤‚ •ā¬™¬ɇ ĂÞā™ ºË·™ Ã˕êÂËö™ ×Ëāö˽‰ Ž™ā ×Úˎ½™Ãê ÞæöËÚāü 悺¬™ 왷ޏ™ •½‚ •ā¬™º‚Ɍ êڂā‚ì Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê
êĄ™ ºË·™ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ ¬ D‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ Ãˤ‰ Žü æ™Ą ÞæËÞËö‚Ä™ ö 悺¬© 췙ޏ‚© ·‚º º½êŽ¬º ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ
•ā¬™¬¢ü āüɇ ĄÂˎ™º ¬æ×Ɍ º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚ ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ YËāì‚Ú ǽǾǼûǽǾǼÃ


½‚ āö¬¢½‚ āö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæö‚ ö ºË·‚© ×½‚Þ欺Ëöü© ÃˡĂ êĄü Ă·¤ÚêŽÞāü© ɚ×ËÕ ǾÃɛ ™Ä‚ ǽȃǿɇǼǼ āÂ
׬‚ĺËöü© Âæ ×˕ÂˤËöü©c¬ººc˺ºɇ ºæÌڙ ÃˡĂ ‰āü ö JsJ=D ö¬¢ºÞā™
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬™Ɍ ~ ĂÞāü© Âæ ׬‚ĺËöü© r ÃËĄ™¬™ āŽê•Ëö‚ öü¤Ë•Ä‰ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĉ &Úꎂ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü xx=
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬¢ɇ Ăö™æ Ë Þ×ËÚü© ÚËāì‚Ú‚©ɇ öüÂËĄü Ĭì ×˺̷ •ā¬™º‚ āü ·™¤Ë º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ
V¬‚ĺËö™ Âæü Ă ×˕Âˤ¢ Ãˤ‰ Žü æ™Ą êĄüæ™ ö ¤‚Ž¬Ä™æ‚© ڙ©‚Ž¬½¬æ‚ü·Äü©ɇ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ɚǾÃɛɇ •êĄ‚ ɚǽȃȄûǽȃȄÃɛ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ
ö ×½‚Ìöº‚© ™•êº‚ü·Äü©ɇ ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ ނ½‚© āŽ‚ö āü º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚Ɍ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™·
¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ ~‚×™öĬ‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬
ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™• êڂā‚ì Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë
êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö
;Ë·™ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚ ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ
™Ä‚ ǿȂȅɇǼǼ āÂ
%¬Ú c¬ººc˺º Ë£™Ú귙 Ǿ Ú˕ā‚·™ ºË·ÌöɆ
Ʌ Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ ɚD‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ ¬ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ɛɇ ;Ë·™ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™
Ʌ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ ºË·™ V˺‚ÄË ā ¤‰ŽºËö‰ ×˕Âˤ‰Ɍ ;Ë·™ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™
;Ë·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ ĈÚÃü c¬ººæ˺º æË Þי·‚½Ä¬™ ÞæöËÚāËęɇ
; •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™
Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ •Ë ™½‚Þæüāę· ‚Ú‚ÄĄ‚·¬ ÚËāì‚Úê ×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬ •ËׂÞËö‚Ä™· •Ë ö¬™ºê ¬ ×ËæÚā™Ž •ā¬™º‚Ɍ •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü
ā¬¢º¬ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ •Ë‰ā‚Ĭ‚ ºË½™·Äü© ™½™Ã™ÄæÌö ÃˡĂ Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬
·™ ÚËāŽê•Ëöüö‚ ö •Ëö˽ę· ºËÄĈ¤êڂ·¬ ¬ ö¬™½ºËߏ¬ɇ Ë ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ɬ ßö¬™æÄü
·™Þæ Þāā™¤Ì½Ä™ ×Úāü•‚æę ö ×Úāüׂ•ºê •öÌ·º¬ ɚŽ½¬ĂĬ‚º¬ɛ Þ×ËÞ̎ Ă ÞæöËÚā™Ä¬™ Ž™ā׬™āę¤Ë ×½‚ê ā‚Ž‚ö •½‚ •êĄ™·
½¬ā¬āŽü •ā¬™¬ɇ ā‚×½‚ÄËö‚Äüɇ ‚Žü ÞיÂĬ‚ öüÃˤ¬ ĄÂˎºÌöɇ
½êŽêŽ ö¬¢™· •ā¬™¬ Ž‰•Ă ¤•ü ĂÞā‚ ×ˏ¬™©‚ ×ËæÚā™Žê·™ ½
½
āö¬¢ºÞāËę¤Ë 왷ޏ‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ C‚ æË āÏā™Ä¬™ 悺Ą™ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽÌö ½ꏩ‚ɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö
ö ×ڂü ā ö¬™½Ë ½ꏩ‚ì ö ×½‚Ìöº‚© ÞāºË½Äü© ɫ •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ CˡĂ ¤Ë ‰āü ā C‚æ‰ xx=Ɍ
×Úā™•ÞāºË½‚©ɇ ĄÂˎº‚© Ëڂā ßö¬™æ½¬‚©Ɍ ;Ë·™ ÃˡĂ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȁǽûǽȁǽÃ ½êŽ Ëßì˺‰æ Ë ßڙ•Ɍ ǽȃȄÃ
悺Ą™ ‰āü ā Âæ‚ì ׬‚ĺËöüì c¬ººc˺ºɌ ™Ä‚ ȀȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ





D‚Þā Þº½™× ½Ëº‚½Äü ā ‚Úæüºê‚ì •½‚ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ¬ •ā¬™¬Ɇ Þº½™× ËĽ¬Ä™Ɇ öööɌ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½
s‚ÚÞā‚ö‚ɬVËö¬ß½™ɇ ê½Ɍ ]˽™ ǾǾ ʹ 晽Ɇ ȂǼȃ Ȁǿȅ Ȅȁǿ Ž¬êÚËʱ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½

C‚æü ׬‚ĺËö™ ö £ËÚì™ ×êāā½¬

s ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™ āĂ·•ê·‰ Þ¬¢ öü¤Ë•Ä™ ׬‚ĺËö™ ×êāā½™ɇ ºæÌڙ
ÞיÂĬ‰ ˏā™º¬ö‚Ĭ‚ Ăö™æ Ă·Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· öü¤‚·‰ü©
êĄüæºËöĬºÌöɌ süÚÌĄÄ¬‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ž™ā׬™āÄüà Âæ™Ú¬‚™Ãɇ
ÞיÂĬ‚·‰üà •Ë•‚æºËö™ ÄËÚÃüɇ Þ×ËÞˎ™Ã öüºËĂĬ‚
ā‚×™öĬ‚·‰üà æÚö‚™ ×ˉā™Ä¬™ Ăö™æ ×˕ •êĄüÃ
ˎ¬‰Ą™Ä¬™Ãɇ •ā¬¢º¬ ā™Ãê ¤ö‚Ú‚Äæ귉 Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöË
¬ ºËãËÚæ êĄüæºËö‚Ĭ‚Ɍ ~ êö‚¤¬ Ă ÞöË·‰ öüæÚāüÂÂËߐ
ß
ßö¬™æĬ™ Þ×ڂö•ā‚·‰ Þ¬¢ Ĭ™ æü½ºË Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü •ËÃËö™Ɍ ]יÂĬ‰
ÞöË·‰ Ú˽¢ Ä×Ɍ ö ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ ނ½‚© ā‚Ž‚ö āü º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚Ɍ
c¬ººc˺º V˽޺‚ ɬ •üÞæÚüŽêæËÚ Ž™ā׬™āÄü©ɇ Ã˕êÂËöü©ɇ •êĄü© &ÚêŽËߐ ǾÃɉ CËĄ½¬öü •Ëö˽Äü ÚËāì‚Ú ½¬āËÄü Ë ǼɇȂÃɇ āü½¬ Ä×Ɍ ǾɇȀûǿɇǼÃ

ºË·Ìö •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ Âæ ×˕ÂˤËöü©Ɍ ɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬɬ

J£™Ú귙Ãü Ă·ö¬¢ºÞā™ Ă ÚüÄºê ºË·™ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ V˺‚ÄË Ëڂā Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ &Úꎂ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü
•½‚ •ā¬™º‚ɇ ā ºæÌÚü© êÂËĄü ÃˡĂ •Ëö˽Ĭ™ •êĄü ˎÞā‚Ú Ž™ā׬™āę· ā‚Ž‚öü •½‚ •ā¬™¬Ɍ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ɚǾÃɛ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Âæ‚
;Ë·™ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ ×ËÞ¬‚•‚·‰ ö‚Þĉ ¤‰ŽºËö‰ ×˕Âˤ¢Ɍ ;Ë·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ D‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ ׬‚ĺËö‚ öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™· ¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ
¬ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ Ãˤ‰ āËÞ悐 •Ëö˽Ĭ™ ×Ëö¬¢ºÞāËę ö ڂā¬™ ×ËæÚā™Žüɇ ¤•ü s‚Þā‚ ×ˏ¬™©‚ ÚËßĬ™ ~‚×™öĬ‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬ ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™•
¬ × ×ËæÚā™Žê·™ ö¬¢ºÞā™· ×Úā™ÞæÚā™Ä¬ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ 9™Ą™½¬ ×ËæÚā™Žê·™¬™ •êĄü ºË·™ •½‚ •ā¬™º‚ ½êŽ
¬
º¬½ºËÚ¤‚ •ā¬™¬ɇ ĂÞā™ ºË·™ Ã˕êÂËö™ ×Ëāö˽‰ Ž™ā ×Úˎ½™Ãê ÞæöËÚāü 悺¬™ 왷ޏ™ •½‚ •ā¬™º‚Ɍ êڂā‚ì Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê
êĄ™ ºË·™ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ ¬ D‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ Ãˤ‰ Žü æ™Ą ÞæËÞËö‚Ä™ ö 悺¬© 췙ޏ‚© ·‚º º½êŽ¬º ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ
•ā¬™¬¢ü āüɇ ĄÂˎ™º ¬æ×Ɍ º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚ ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ YËāì‚Ú ǽǾǼûǽǾǼÃ


½‚ āö¬¢½‚ āö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæö‚ ö ºË·‚© ×½‚Þ欺Ëöü© ÃˡĂ êĄü Ă·¤ÚêŽÞāü© ɚ×ËÕ ǾÃɛ ™Ä‚ ǽȃǿɇǼǼ āÂ
׬‚ĺËöü© Âæ ×˕ÂˤËöü©c¬ººc˺ºɇ ºæÌڙ ÃˡĂ ‰āü ö JsJ=D ö¬¢ºÞā™
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬™Ɍ ~ ĂÞāü© Âæ ׬‚ĺËöü© r ÃËĄ™¬™ āŽê•Ëö‚ öü¤Ë•Ä‰ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĉ &Úꎂ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü xx=
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬¢ɇ Ăö™æ Ë Þ×ËÚü© ÚËāì‚Ú‚©ɇ öüÂËĄü Ĭì ×˺̷ •ā¬™º‚ āü ·™¤Ë º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ
V¬‚ĺËö™ Âæü Ă ×˕Âˤ¢ Ãˤ‰ Žü æ™Ą êĄüæ™ ö ¤‚Ž¬Ä™æ‚© ڙ©‚Ž¬½¬æ‚ü·Äü©ɇ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ɚǾÃɛɇ •êĄ‚ ɚǽȃȄûǽȃȄÃɛ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ
ö ×½‚Ìöº‚© ™•êº‚ü·Äü©ɇ ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ ނ½‚© āŽ‚ö āü º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚Ɍ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚ öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™·
¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ ~‚×™öĬ‚ Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬
ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™• êڂā‚ì Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë
êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö
;Ë·™ •½‚ •ā¬™¬ ¬ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ĄÂˎº‚©ɇ º½êŽ‚© ½ꏩ‚ ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ
™Ä‚ ǿȂȅɇǼǼ āÂ
%¬Ú c¬ººc˺º Ë£™Ú귙 Ǿ Ú˕ā‚·™ ºË·ÌöɆ
Ʌ Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ ɚD‚ÄÄüV‚Ä™½ ¬ ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ɛɇ ;Ë·™ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™
Ʌ Âæ™Ú¬‚ÂËö™ ºË·™ V˺‚ÄË ā ¤‰ŽºËö‰ ×˕Âˤ‰Ɍ ;Ë·™ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™
;Ë·™ ×½‚Þ欺Ëö™ ĈÚÃü c¬ººæ˺º æË Þי·‚½Ä¬™ ÞæöËÚāËęɇ
; •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™
Ã˕êÂËö™ ºË·™ •Ë ™½‚Þæüāę· ‚Ú‚ÄĄ‚·¬ ÚËāì‚Úê ×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË
×Ëö¬™Úā©Ä¬ •ËׂÞËö‚Ä™· •Ë ö¬™ºê ¬ ×ËæÚā™Ž •ā¬™º‚Ɍ •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü
ā¬¢º¬ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ •Ë‰ā‚Ĭ‚ ºË½™·Äü© ™½™Ã™ÄæÌö ÃˡĂ Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬
·™ ÚËāŽê•Ëöüö‚ ö •Ëö˽ę· ºËÄĈ¤êڂ·¬ ¬ ö¬™½ºËߏ¬ɇ Ë ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ɬ ßö¬™æÄü
·™Þæ Þāā™¤Ì½Ä™ ×Úāü•‚æę ö ×Úāüׂ•ºê •öÌ·º¬ ɚŽ½¬ĂĬ‚º¬ɛ Þ×ËÞ̎ Ă ÞæöËÚā™Ä¬™ Ž™ā׬™āę¤Ë ×½‚ê ā‚Ž‚ö •½‚ •êĄ™·
½¬ā¬āŽü •ā¬™¬ɇ ā‚×½‚ÄËö‚Äüɇ ‚Žü ÞיÂĬ‚ öüÃˤ¬ ĄÂˎºÌöɇ
½êŽêŽ ö¬¢™· •ā¬™¬ Ž‰•Ă ¤•ü ĂÞā‚ ×ˏ¬™©‚ ×ËæÚā™Žê·™ ½
½
āö¬¢ºÞāËę¤Ë 왷ޏ‚ •Ë ā‚Ž‚öüɌ C‚ æË āÏā™Ä¬™ 悺Ą™ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽÌö ½ꏩ‚ɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö
ö ×ڂü ā ö¬™½Ë ½ꏩ‚ì ö ×½‚Ìöº‚© ÞāºË½Äü© ɫ •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ CˡĂ ¤Ë ‰āü ā C‚æ‰ xx=Ɍ
×Úā™•ÞāºË½‚©ɇ ĄÂˎº‚© Ëڂā ßö¬™æ½¬‚©Ɍ ;Ë·™ ÃˡĂ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȁǽûǽȁǽÃ ½êŽ Ëßì˺‰æ Ë ßڙ•Ɍ ǽȃȄÃ
悺Ą™ ‰āü ā Âæ‚ì ׬‚ĺËöüì c¬ººc˺ºɌ ™Ä‚ ȀȅȅɇǼǼ āÂ





D‚Þā Þº½™× ½Ëº‚½Äü ā ‚Úæüºê‚ì •½‚ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ¬ •ā¬™¬Ɇ Þº½™× ËĽ¬Ä™Ɇ öööɌ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½
s‚ÚÞā‚ö‚ɬVËö¬ß½™ɇ ê½Ɍ ]˽™ ǾǾ ʹ 晽Ɇ ȂǼȃ Ȁǿȅ Ȅȁǿ Ž¬êÚËʱ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË æÚÌ·ºË½ËÚËöü ºö‚•Ú‚æ

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ æË ÄËöËߐ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º Ă ;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™
×˽޺¬Ã ÚüĺêɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ
•ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê
Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™
×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ·‚º Ä×Ɍ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü©
ĄÂˎºÌöɇ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽǽǽûǽǽǽÃ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǿǼȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȅȁɇǼǼ āÂ


;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ā Ã‚æ‰ ×˕ÂˤËö‰ YËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë ºË·‚ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ā Ž‚Ú•āË ¤Úꎉ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĉ ׬‚ĺËö‰ Âæ‰
×˕ÂˤËö‰ æË Þ×ڂö•āËÄü ×Ú˕êºæ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɇ ~™Þæ‚ö Ȁ ÚÌĄÄ˺˽ËÚËöü© ׂę½¬ •Ë ×Ëö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ ºË·‚ ;¬Ä•ü
ˎ™Äü ˕ Ȁ ½‚æ Ă ×˽޺¬Ã ÚüĺêɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ ;‚Ú™ ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɌ ;‚Ą•ü ׂę½ Â öüì‚Úü ]ûsɆ ȃȁɇȁ û Ȃȁ Ãɇ
öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Ë ā‚ÃËÄæËö‚Ä¬ê •Ë ×˕Þæ‚öËö™· ö™ÚÞ·¬ ºË·™ ËÞ¬‰¤‚ ÚËāì‚ÚüɆ
×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ǾǾȂɇȁ û ǾǾȂɇȁ û Ȃȁ ÃɌ .ÞæĬ™·™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߐ ÃËÄæ‚Ąê •Ëö˽ę·
¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ·‚º Ä×Ɍ ½¬āŽü ׂę½¬ ÚËāÞā™Úā‚·‰ü© Ëڂā ÞæËÞËö‚Ĭ‚ ‚āĬ™ ā ׂę½‚Ã¬
ĄÂˎºÌöɇ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ ½êŽ ºË·™Ã D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ö ö™ÚÞ·¬ ×˕Þæ‚öËö™·Ɍ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȂȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȃȅɇǼǼ āÂ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ¤Ú‚Ä‚æËöü ©™û YËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë ºË·‚ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ~™Þæ‚ö Ȁ ÚÌĄÄ˺˽ËÚËöü© ׂę½¬ •Ë ×Ëö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ ºË·‚ D‚ÄÄü
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ V‚Ä™½ ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɌ ;‚Ą•ü ׂę½ Â öüì‚Úü ]ûsɆ ǿȃ û Ȃȁ Ãɇ
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×Ë ā‚ÃËÄæËö‚Ä¬ê •Ë ×˕Þæ‚öËö™· ö™ÚÞ·¬ ºË·™ ËÞ¬‰¤‚ ÚËāì‚ÚüɆ
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º ǽȀȅ û ǽȀȅ û Ȃȁ ÃɌ .ÞæĬ™·™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߐ ÃËÄæ‚Ąê •Ëö˽ę· ½¬āŽü
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ׂę½¬ ÚËāÞā™Úā‚·‰ü© Ëڂā ÞæËÞËö‚Ĭ‚ ‚āĬ™ ā ׂę½‚Ã¬ ½êŽ
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȀǼûǽȂǼÃ ºË·™Ã ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ ö ö™ÚÞ·¬ ×˕Þæ‚öËö™·Ɍ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȁȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȁǾɇǼǼ āÂ


;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ¤Ú‚Ä‚æËöü ºö‚•Ú‚æ ǽ •Ë•‚æºËö™ ÚËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę Âæü ׬‚ĺËö™·
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™· ¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ ~‚×™öĬ‚
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬ ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™• êڂā‚ì
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽǽǽûǽǽǽÃ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö ĄÂˎº‚© ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȅȁɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȅɇǼǼ āÂ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË æÚÌ·ºË½ËÚËöü ©™û ËÙº V˺‚ÄË ‚Úº ™Ä ¬™ÃĬ‚ ɬ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ºÚü·Ìöº‚ •½‚ •ā¬™¬
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ sÞׂĬ‚‚ ºÚü·Ìöº‚ æË Ã‚Úā™Ä¬™ º‚Ą•™¤Ë •ā¬™º‚Ɍ c™Ä Ĭ™Þ‚ÃËö¬æü
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë •ËÙºɬ¬™ÃĬ‚ æË Ã¬™·Þ™ •Ë ßö¬™æę· ā‚Ž‚öü ¬ ÞæöËÚā™Ä¬‚ ÞöË·™¤Ë
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º ޙºÚ™æę¤Ë ßö¬‚æ‚Ɍ ËÞºËĂÂü 悺Ą™ •Ë ā‚Ž‚ö ā ½‚æ‚Úº‰Ɍ .•™‚½Äü •Ë
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© •™ÃËÄÞæڂ·¬ •ā¬™ºê ×Ë·¢ ¬™ÃÄËߏ¬ɇ ¬™Ä¬‚ ¬ ßö¬‚æ‚ ¬ āö¬‰ā‚Äü©
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȀǼûǽȂǼÃ ā æüà ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȃȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾǽȅɇǼǼ āÂ



D‚Þā Þº½™× ½Ëº‚½Äü ā ‚Úæüºê‚ì •½‚ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ¬ •ā¬™¬Ɇ Þº½™× ËĽ¬Ä™Ɇ öööɌ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½
s‚ÚÞā‚ö‚ɬVËö¬ß½™ɇ ê½Ɍ ]˽™ ǾǾ ʹ 晽Ɇ ȂǼȃ Ȁǿȅ Ȅȁǿ Ž¬êÚËʱ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË æÚÌ·ºË½ËÚËöü ºö‚•Ú‚æ

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ æË ÄËöËߐ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º Ă ;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™
×˽޺¬Ã ÚüĺêɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ
•ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê
Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™
×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ·‚º Ä×Ɍ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü©
ĄÂˎºÌöɇ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽǽǽûǽǽǽÃ
™Ä‚Ɇ ǿǼȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȅȁɇǼǼ āÂ


;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ā Ã‚æ‰ ×˕ÂˤËö‰ YËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë ºË·‚ ;¬Ä•ü ;‚Ú™

;Ë·™ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ā Ž‚Ú•āË ¤Úꎉ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĉ ׬‚ĺËö‰ Âæ‰
×˕ÂˤËö‰ æË Þ×ڂö•āËÄü ×Ú˕êºæ ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɇ ~™Þæ‚ö Ȁ ÚÌĄÄ˺˽ËÚËöü© ׂę½¬ •Ë ×Ëö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ ºË·‚ ;¬Ä•ü
ˎ™Äü ˕ Ȁ ½‚æ Ă ×˽޺¬Ã ÚüĺêɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ ;‚Ú™ ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɌ ;‚Ą•ü ׂę½ Â öüì‚Úü ]ûsɆ ȃȁɇȁ û Ȃȁ Ãɇ
öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Ë ā‚ÃËÄæËö‚Ä¬ê •Ë ×˕Þæ‚öËö™· ö™ÚÞ·¬ ºË·™ ËÞ¬‰¤‚ ÚËāì‚ÚüɆ
×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º 悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ǾǾȂɇȁ û ǾǾȂɇȁ û Ȃȁ ÃɌ .ÞæĬ™·™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߐ ÃËÄæ‚Ąê •Ëö˽ę·
¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü© ·‚º Ä×Ɍ ½¬āŽü ׂę½¬ ÚËāÞā™Úā‚·‰ü© Ëڂā ÞæËÞËö‚Ĭ‚ ‚āĬ™ ā ׂę½‚Ã¬
ĄÂˎºÌöɇ ×Úā™•ÞāºË½¬ɇ ×½‚Ìö ā‚Ž‚öɇ º½êŽ¬ºÌö •ā¬™¬¢ü© ¬æ•Ɍ ½êŽ ºË·™Ã D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½ ö ö™ÚÞ·¬ ×˕Þæ‚öËö™·Ɍ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȂȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȃȅɇǼǼ āÂ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ¤Ú‚Ä‚æËöü ©™û YËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë ºË·‚ D‚ÄÄü V‚Ä™½

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ~™Þæ‚ö Ȁ ÚÌĄÄ˺˽ËÚËöü© ׂę½¬ •Ë ×Ëö¬¢ºÞā™Ä¬‚ ºË·‚ D‚ÄÄü
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ V‚Ä™½ ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺ºɌ ;‚Ą•ü ׂę½ Â öüì‚Úü ]ûsɆ ǿȃ û Ȃȁ Ãɇ
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë ×Ë ā‚ÃËÄæËö‚Ä¬ê •Ë ×˕Þæ‚öËö™· ö™ÚÞ·¬ ºË·™ ËÞ¬‰¤‚ ÚËāì‚ÚüɆ
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º ǽȀȅ û ǽȀȅ û Ȃȁ ÃɌ .ÞæĬ™·™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߐ ÃËÄæ‚Ąê •Ëö˽ę· ½¬āŽü
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© ׂę½¬ ÚËāÞā™Úā‚·‰ü© Ëڂā ÞæËÞËö‚Ĭ‚ ‚āĬ™ ā ׂę½‚Ã¬ ½êŽ
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȀǼûǽȂǼÃ ºË·™Ã ;¬Ä•ü;‚Ú™ ö ö™ÚÞ·¬ ×˕Þæ‚öËö™·Ɍ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȁȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽȁǾɇǼǼ āÂ


;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ¤Ú‚Ä‚æËöü ºö‚•Ú‚æ ǽ •Ë•‚æºËö™ ÚËāÞā™Úā™Ä¬™ •Ë

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę Âæü ׬‚ĺËö™·
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ sü·‚æºËöË ¤Úꎂ ¬ Ž™ā׬™āĂ Ã˕êÂËö‚ Ã‚æ‚ ×¬‚ĺËö‚
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë öüºËĂĂ ā ׬‚ĺ¬ Ë öüÞ˺¬™· ¤¢ÞæËߏ¬ ɚ r ɛɌ ~‚×™öĬ‚
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º Ž™ā׬™ā™ÅÞæöËɇ ©ÚËĬ ¤ÂËö¢ ¬ ºËŏāüÄü ×Úā™• êڂā‚ì
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© Ë æö‚Ú•™ ×˕ÂËĄ™Ɍ ËÞæËÞËö‚Ä‚ •Ë êĄüæºê ö •ËÃê ·‚ºË ×˕ÂËĄ™
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽǽǽûǽǽǽÃ ºË·‚ɇ º‰¬º •Ë ā‚Ž‚öü ½êŽ æ™ā ö ĄÂˎº‚© ¬ º‰¬º‚© ā‚Ž‚öɌ

™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȅȁɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȅɇǼǼ āÂ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË æÚÌ·ºË½ËÚËöü ©™û ËÙº V˺‚ÄË ‚Úº ™Ä ¬™ÃĬ‚ ɬ

;Ë·™ V˺‚ÄË ‚êÞæڂ½¬·Þº¬™· ĈÚÃü c¬ºº c˺º æË ºËÃ×½™æę ºÚü·Ìöº‚ •½‚ •ā¬™¬
ÚËāö¬‰ā‚Ĭ™ •½‚ æü©ɇ ºæÌÚāü ·‰ ö¬¢ºÞā™ ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬ ½êŽ ö¬¢ºÞā™ sÞׂĬ‚‚ ºÚü·Ìöº‚ æË Ã‚Úā™Ä¬™ º‚Ą•™¤Ë •ā¬™º‚Ɍ c™Ä Ĭ™Þ‚ÃËö¬æü
×ËæÚā™ŽüɌ cË Ä¬™āŽ¢•Äü ™½™Ã™Äæ öü×ËނĄ™Ä¬‚ ā‚ÚÌöÄË •ā¬™¬¢™¤Ë •ËÙºɬ¬™ÃĬ‚ æË Ã¬™·Þ™ •Ë ßö¬™æę· ā‚Ž‚öü ¬ ÞæöËÚā™Ä¬‚ ÞöË·™¤Ë
×˺˷ê ɚ悺Ą™ ā‚ì™Þāº‚™¤Ë ×Úā™ā Ž½¬ĂĬ¢æ‚ āü Ú˕ā™ÅÞæöËɛɇ ·‚º ޙºÚ™æę¤Ë ßö¬‚æ‚Ɍ ËÞºËĂÂü 悺Ą™ •Ë ā‚Ž‚ö ā ½‚æ‚Úº‰Ɍ .•™‚½Äü •Ë
悺Ą™ ˕×Ëö¬™•Ă Ă ×ËæÚā™Žü ¬ öüÃˤ¬ ×½‚Ìö™º ™•êº‚ü·Äü© •™ÃËÄÞæڂ·¬ •ā¬™ºê ×Ë·¢ ¬™ÃÄËߏ¬ɇ ¬™Ä¬‚ ¬ ßö¬‚æ‚ ¬ āö¬‰ā‚Äü©
¬ ßÚ˕Ëö¬Þº ºËÙڏü·Äü©Ɍ süì‚ÚüɆ ǽȀǼûǽȂǼÃ ā æüà ÃËĄ½¬öËߏ¬Ɍ
™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȃȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾǽȅɇǼǼ āÂ



D‚Þā Þº½™× ½Ëº‚½Äü ā ‚Úæüºê‚ì •½‚ Ĭ™ÃËö½‰æ ¬ •ā¬™¬Ɇ Þº½™× ËĽ¬Ä™Ɇ öööɌ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½
s‚ÚÞā‚ö‚ɬVËö¬ß½™ɇ ê½Ɍ ]˽™ ǾǾ ʹ 晽Ɇ ȂǼȃ Ȁǿȅ Ȅȁǿ Ž¬êÚËʱ欺ºæ˺ºɌËÃɌ×½

  ]S ® "ƒ® ¤E]‹ ;& "V \ [§ A SƒE6±]E ®&S E \ [§ A [c ®d¥



®²ŖĴşÕ ĭĔŖļ²İş²Čʞ ŢÕ Č²ËõÕİşŘĎĴļŖĔ ÑĔѲāÕ Čõ ĴăİşŘÑÕċʣ QÕĴļÕČ ĭİşÕÑÕ ŖĴşŘĴļăõČ Č²ČÆʣ \²ČÆ ®Łşõ õ ĔİŘĴ²ʞ ş²āåļÆ ĴĭݲŖ²Čõ Ŗ²ëõ č²ÑİşåÑčÕāʞ ļ²ăõČõʞ ā²ă ļŁĆÕčõÕ ÑĔ ĴčŁʞ
ĭİşÕë²čõ²čõÕ ĴļݲËñĕŖ ş ĭĔăĔāŁ ËşŘ ĔĭĔŖõ²Ñ²čõÕ Ê²İŖčŘËñ ñõĴļĔİõõ Ĕ ăĔĆÕāčÕā ăĴõåŢčõËşËÕʞ ăļĕİÕā ŢŘËõÕ ĔÑČõÕčõċ ĭõåăčŘ ăĴõÆŢåʣ

ĆÕ āÕÑč²ăʞ ČõČĔ ļĔʞ Ŗ ČĔāÕā ëċĔŖõÕ ş²ăõÕċăĔŖ²ċ ĭĔČŘĴċ č² şİĔÊõÕčõÕ ËşÕëĔĵ ŖõåËÕāʣ ƒļŖĔİşÕčõÕ ËşÕëĔĵ ˲ċăõÕČ ČĔāÕëĔʞ ËĔ ÊåÑşõÕ č²ĭåÑş²ċĔ ÑĔ Ñşõ²ċ²čõ²ʞ ѲŖ²ċĔ Ĵ²ļŘĴê²ăËāå
õ ČĔļŘŖĔŖ²ċĔ ÑĔ İĔşŖĔāŁʣ şÕëĔĵʞ ËĔ ĭĔċÆËşŘ ČõċĔĵÌ ÑĔ ÑşõÕËõʞ ĭ²Ĵāå ÑĔ İşÕËşŘ ş ÑŁĴşÆʞ ĴÕčļŘČÕčļ ÑĔ İĔÑşõččŘËñ ñõĴļĔİõõʞ Ĵļ²İŘËñ şÑāåÌʞ ş²ČõċĔŖ²čõÕ ÑĔ č²ļŁİ²ĆčŘËñ
ļă²čõč õ ĭĔč²ÑËş²ĴĔŖŘËñ ŖşĔİĕŖ ŁÊݲĎʞ ăļĕİÕ čõëÑŘ čõÕ ŖŘËñĔÑşÆ ş ČĔÑŘʣ
ļ²ăʞ Ŗ ÑĔČļ²ăʞ Ŗ ÑĔČĔŖŘËñ ĭõÕĆÕĴş²Ëñʞ ŖĵİĕÑ ĭĔăİşŘăõŖ²čõ² ÑşõÕËõʞ ĭİşŘ ŖõÕĆăõČ ŖĴĭ²İËõŁ ČĔāÕëĔ \åŢ²ʞ ĭĔŖĴļ²ċ² Č²İă² VõļļĆÕ ¤õčļ²ëÕʣ QÕĴļ ŖŘĭ²ÑăĔŖÆ ŖĴşŘĴļăõÕëĔʞ ËĔ ÑĆ² ČčõÕ Ŗ²ŢčÕ

Ŗ ŢŘËõŁʣ QÕĴļ ČĔāÆ ČõĴāÆʞ ²ÊŘ ĭĔÑăİÕĵĆõÌ ļĔʞ ËĔ č²āĭõåăčõÕāĴşÕʝ čõÕŖõččĔĵÌ õ č²ļŁİ²ĆčÕ ĭõåăčĔʞ ăļĕİÕ čõÕ ĭĔļİşÕÊŁāÆ ļŘĴõÆ˲ Ŗ²İĴļŖ ê²Ćʲč õ ăİşŘËşÆËŘËñ ăĔĆĔİĕŖʣ ¥õÕİşåʞ ŢÕ
ĭĔč²ÑËş²ĴĔŖÕ êĔİČŘ ĭĔċÆËşĔčÕ şÕ ĵŖõÕļčÆ ā²ăĔĵËõÆ č²ļŁİ²ĆčŘËñ ļă²čõč ѲāÆ ŖĴşŘĴļăĔʞ ËşÕëĔ ĭĔļİşÕʲʞ ²ÊŘ ŖŘݲşõÌ ļĔʞ ā²ă ŖŘāÆļăĔŖŘČõ õĴļĔļ²Čõ ĴÆ ]²ĴşÕ "şõÕËõʣ


® | ƒ® \ "c ] ƒ®&;c „¥E ‹ ʣ \ \ ] "®E&Q6ʞ ±& ®& A & E& |c®] ] ƒ VE±&Q E ®cƒ‹ ]E& E& ] "[±&Qʣ














































˔ʁʅ ʄʅʂ ɿʁɽ ɽʀɾ

ăĔčļ²ăļˮĆõļļÕŕõčļ²ëÕʣĭĆ
ŖŖŖʣĆõļļĆÕŕõčļ²ëÕʣĭĆ

  ]S ® "ƒ® ¤E]‹ ;& "V \ [§ A SƒE6±]E ®&S E \ [§ A [c ®d¥



®²ŖĴşÕ ĭĔŖļ²İş²Čʞ ŢÕ Č²ËõÕİşŘĎĴļŖĔ ÑĔѲāÕ Čõ ĴăİşŘÑÕċʣ QÕĴļÕČ ĭİşÕÑÕ ŖĴşŘĴļăõČ Č²ČÆʣ \²ČÆ ®Łşõ õ ĔİŘĴ²ʞ ş²āåļÆ ĴĭݲŖ²Čõ Ŗ²ëõ č²ÑİşåÑčÕāʞ ļ²ăõČõʞ ā²ă ļŁĆÕčõÕ ÑĔ ĴčŁʞ
ĭİşÕë²čõ²čõÕ ĴļݲËñĕŖ ş ĭĔăĔāŁ ËşŘ ĔĭĔŖõ²Ñ²čõÕ Ê²İŖčŘËñ ñõĴļĔİõõ Ĕ ăĔĆÕāčÕā ăĴõåŢčõËşËÕʞ ăļĕİÕā ŢŘËõÕ ĔÑČõÕčõċ ĭõåăčŘ ăĴõÆŢåʣ

ĆÕ āÕÑč²ăʞ ČõČĔ ļĔʞ Ŗ ČĔāÕā ëċĔŖõÕ ş²ăõÕċăĔŖ²ċ ĭĔČŘĴċ č² şİĔÊõÕčõÕ ËşÕëĔĵ ŖõåËÕāʣ ƒļŖĔİşÕčõÕ ËşÕëĔĵ ˲ċăõÕČ ČĔāÕëĔʞ ËĔ ÊåÑşõÕ č²ĭåÑş²ċĔ ÑĔ Ñşõ²ċ²čõ²ʞ ѲŖ²ċĔ Ĵ²ļŘĴê²ăËāå
õ ČĔļŘŖĔŖ²ċĔ ÑĔ İĔşŖĔāŁʣ şÕëĔĵʞ ËĔ ĭĔċÆËşŘ ČõċĔĵÌ ÑĔ ÑşõÕËõʞ ĭ²Ĵāå ÑĔ İşÕËşŘ ş ÑŁĴşÆʞ ĴÕčļŘČÕčļ ÑĔ İĔÑşõččŘËñ ñõĴļĔİõõʞ Ĵļ²İŘËñ şÑāåÌʞ ş²ČõċĔŖ²čõÕ ÑĔ č²ļŁİ²ĆčŘËñ
ļă²čõč õ ĭĔč²ÑËş²ĴĔŖŘËñ ŖşĔİĕŖ ŁÊݲĎʞ ăļĕİÕ čõëÑŘ čõÕ ŖŘËñĔÑşÆ ş ČĔÑŘʣ
ļ²ăʞ Ŗ ÑĔČļ²ăʞ Ŗ ÑĔČĔŖŘËñ ĭõÕĆÕĴş²Ëñʞ ŖĵİĕÑ ĭĔăİşŘăõŖ²čõ² ÑşõÕËõʞ ĭİşŘ ŖõÕĆăõČ ŖĴĭ²İËõŁ ČĔāÕëĔ \åŢ²ʞ ĭĔŖĴļ²ċ² Č²İă² VõļļĆÕ ¤õčļ²ëÕʣ QÕĴļ ŖŘĭ²ÑăĔŖÆ ŖĴşŘĴļăõÕëĔʞ ËĔ ÑĆ² ČčõÕ Ŗ²ŢčÕ

Ŗ ŢŘËõŁʣ QÕĴļ ČĔāÆ ČõĴāÆʞ ²ÊŘ ĭĔÑăİÕĵĆõÌ ļĔʞ ËĔ č²āĭõåăčõÕāĴşÕʝ čõÕŖõččĔĵÌ õ č²ļŁİ²ĆčÕ ĭõåăčĔʞ ăļĕİÕ čõÕ ĭĔļİşÕÊŁāÆ ļŘĴõÆ˲ Ŗ²İĴļŖ ê²Ćʲč õ ăİşŘËşÆËŘËñ ăĔĆĔİĕŖʣ ¥õÕİşåʞ ŢÕ
ĭĔč²ÑËş²ĴĔŖÕ êĔİČŘ ĭĔċÆËşĔčÕ şÕ ĵŖõÕļčÆ ā²ăĔĵËõÆ č²ļŁİ²ĆčŘËñ ļă²čõč ѲāÆ ŖĴşŘĴļăĔʞ ËşÕëĔ ĭĔļİşÕʲʞ ²ÊŘ ŖŘݲşõÌ ļĔʞ ā²ă ŖŘāÆļăĔŖŘČõ õĴļĔļ²Čõ ĴÆ ]²ĴşÕ "şõÕËõʣ


® | ƒ® \ "c ] ƒ®&;c „¥E ‹ ʣ \ \ ] "®E&Q6ʞ ±& ®& A & E& |c®] ] ƒ VE±&Q E ®cƒ‹ ]E& E& ] "[±&Qʣ














































˔ʁʅ ʄʅʂ ɿʁɽ ɽʀɾ

ăĔčļ²ăļˮĆõļļÕŕõčļ²ëÕʣĭĆ
ŖŖŖʣĆõļļĆÕŕõčļ²ëÕʣĭĆ

s.c 9 s ^s. . ~ s ; %.~y ~Dy + ɰ % ] yDg9 y + +˕Ëö½‚ ºÚüÞāæ‚ÂÌö ~¬™½ËÄü ½‚Ž¬ÚüÄæ C‚¤¬āÄü
~ s ; g; y9Dy +ɉ ºÚüÞāæ‚ÂËöü ˤÚ̕

~‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĉāüāę ɬ £‚ޏüÄ귉™ ¤‚•Ą™æü ĂêºËö™ɇ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ ™•êº‚ü·Ä™ɇ ºæÌÚü© Þ×ËÞ̎
•ā¬‚‚Ĭ‚ ā‚ º‚Ą•üà ڂā™Ã ā‚•ā¬ö¬‚ ˎޙÚö‚æËÚÌöɇ ÃËĄ™ ºÂ̏¬ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞāüà ā•ÚËöüÃ
ÚËāމ•º¬™Ãɇ Þ×ڂö¬‚ɇ Ą™ ©™ Þ¬¢ öüºÚāüºÄ‰ ɏcË Ä¬™ÃËĄ½¬ö™ɉ cË ×Úā™āü ×ڂöËÃ
Ĉāüº¬ɉɏɌ ~‚ º‚Ą•üà ڂā™Ã ·™•Ä‚º æ™ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĭ™ ×Úā™ā‰ ×ڂöËà Ĉāüº¬ ɬ Ëę ·™
öüºËÚāüÞæ귉Ɍ ā‚ނì ö ÃĬ™·ɇ ‚ ā‚ނì ö Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· ā‚‚ö‚ÄÞËö‚Äü Þ×ËÞ̎Ɍ
D
D¬™ ÃêÞ¬Þā āÐ Þ¬¢ ì™ ÃêÞ¬Þā āÐ Þ¬¢ Ă Ĉāü™ɇ ‚Žü êĄüö‚ æü© ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɌ D¬™ ÃêÞ¬Þā Ăö™æ Ĉāüº¬
½êŽ¬ɉ &ö‚Ú‚Äæ귙Ãü ¬ ·™•Ä‚ºɇ Ą™ ÃËĄ™Þā Ăö™æ Ĭ™ ā‚êö‚Ąüɇ º¬™•ü ö æڂº¬™ ā‚Ž‚öü
ĂêāüÞā Þ¬¢ ā™¤Ëß ÄËö™¤ËɌ CËĄ™Þā Ĭ™ ā‚êö‚Ąüɇ Ą™ £‚ޏüÄ귉 Þ¬¢ ·™•Ä‰ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȁɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȀɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ
•ËÞæ¢×Äü© æê ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɇ 悺 Ă×ڂö•¢ ā‚£‚ޏüÄËö‚‚ ¬¢ ނ Ĉāüº‚ ¬ Žü ÃËĄ™
ā‚×ڂ¤Ä¬™Þā ނà ×ËÞā꺂 ˕×Ëö¬™•ā¬ Ă ×üæ‚Ĭ‚ɇ Ë ×ڂö‚ Úā‰•ā‰™ Ë悏ā‚·‰üà ĂÞ
^ö¬‚æ™ÃɌ CËĄ™Þā ×˺ˏ©‚ Ĉāüº¢ɉ êæË ·™Ą•Ą‰™ ×Ë =‚Ãׂ ½‚ö‚ =‚Þ™Ú C‚ā™ =‚Þ™ÚËöü

~ ڙÞāæ‰ɌɌɌ s‚½™ Ĭ™ ÂÃü ā‚ì‚Úê ¬¢ •Ë æ™¤Ë ×Úā™ºËÄüö‚Ɍ VÚā™ºËĂ· Þ¬¢ ނÃɉ ߏ¬‚Ä‚© ¬ ÞêĈ¬™ ½‚Ž¬ÚüÄæ
~
ºÞיÚüÙÄæê·ɉ

~‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĉāüāęɇ æË ·™•Ä‚º Ĭ™ öÞāüÞæºËɇ Ë āĂ·•ā¬™Þā ö ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™Ɍ VÚË×ËÄ귙Ãü
ÚÌöĬ™Ą ā‚Ž‚öº¬ɇ ºæÌڙ ×ÚāüŽ½¬Ą‰ 悷Ĭº¬ ©™Ã¬¬ ¬ Ž¬Ë½Ë¤¬¬ɇ ‚ ö ×ÚāüÞāÂËߏ¬ ÚÌöĬ™Ą ¬ÄÄü©
£‚ޏüÄ귉ü© Ä‚êº ß¬ÞÂü©Ɍ

J s. ~ 9 D ] Y &g= YD. . VJ~D s 9 D. ~sy;B ~ s;. g; y9D ɉ




™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾȁɇǼǼ āÂ




+ü•Úˏ‚Ú ɬ ‚êæË ā ¬ÚāË˺‚ ɬ ×Ëö¬™æÚāĂ JŽÞ™Úö‚æËÚ¬êÃ
Ăע•™Ã ö˕ËÚËöüà Ž‚āË˺‚ Ëö‚•Ìö ɬ Cê½æ¬õ¬™ö
















™Ä‚Ɇ ǿǾȀɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǿȀɇǼǼ āÂ
D + ]BJ ɏC & ~yDɏ JcY~yC 9 V E]csJ ǽǼʦ Y cg




g=Ɍ J=.D Ys$ y ȀȀɇ ȄȃɰǽȂǾ ;YJ . sssɌ ;]V YyC Dcg9ɌV=
];= Vˀ ;]V YyC Dcg9ɌV=ɇ c =ɌɆ ȁǼǽ ǾȁȂ ȁȃǽ

s.c 9 s ^s. . ~ s ; %.~y ~Dy + ɰ % ] yDg9 y + +˕Ëö½‚ ºÚüÞāæ‚ÂÌö ~¬™½ËÄü ½‚Ž¬ÚüÄæ C‚¤¬āÄü
~ s ; g; y9Dy +ɉ ºÚüÞāæ‚ÂËöü ˤÚ̕

~‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĉāüāę ɬ £‚ޏüÄ귉™ ¤‚•Ą™æü ĂêºËö™ɇ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ ™•êº‚ü·Ä™ɇ ºæÌÚü© Þ×ËÞ̎
•ā¬‚‚Ĭ‚ ā‚ º‚Ą•üà ڂā™Ã ā‚•ā¬ö¬‚ ˎޙÚö‚æËÚÌöɇ ÃËĄ™ ºÂ̏¬ Þ¬¢ ā ĂÞāüà ā•ÚËöüÃ
ÚËāމ•º¬™Ãɇ Þ×ڂö¬‚ɇ Ą™ ©™ Þ¬¢ öüºÚāüºÄ‰ ɏcË Ä¬™ÃËĄ½¬ö™ɉ cË ×Úā™āü ×ڂöËÃ
Ĉāüº¬ɉɏɌ ~‚ º‚Ą•üà ڂā™Ã ·™•Ä‚º æ™ ā‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĭ™ ×Úā™ā‰ ×ڂöËà Ĉāüº¬ ɬ Ëę ·™
öüºËÚāüÞæ귉Ɍ ā‚ނì ö ÃĬ™·ɇ ‚ ā‚ނì ö Ž‚Ú•ā¬™· ā‚‚ö‚ÄÞËö‚Äü Þ×ËÞ̎Ɍ
D
D¬™ ÃêÞ¬Þā āÐ Þ¬¢ ì™ ÃêÞ¬Þā āÐ Þ¬¢ Ă Ĉāü™ɇ ‚Žü êĄüö‚ æü© ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɌ D¬™ ÃêÞ¬Þā Ăö™æ Ĉāüº¬
½êŽ¬ɉ &ö‚Ú‚Äæ귙Ãü ¬ ·™•Ä‚ºɇ Ą™ ÃËĄ™Þā Ăö™æ Ĭ™ ā‚êö‚Ąüɇ º¬™•ü ö æڂº¬™ ā‚Ž‚öü
ĂêāüÞā Þ¬¢ ā™¤Ëß ÄËö™¤ËɌ CËĄ™Þā Ĭ™ ā‚êö‚Ąüɇ Ą™ £‚ޏüÄ귉 Þ¬¢ ·™•Ä‰ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȁɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȀȀɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǾȅɇǼǼ āÂ
•ËÞæ¢×Äü© æê ā‚Ž‚ö™ºɇ 悺 Ă×ڂö•¢ ā‚£‚ޏüÄËö‚‚ ¬¢ ނ Ĉāüº‚ ¬ Žü ÃËĄ™
ā‚×ڂ¤Ä¬™Þā ނà ×ËÞā꺂 ˕×Ëö¬™•ā¬ Ă ×üæ‚Ĭ‚ɇ Ë ×ڂö‚ Úā‰•ā‰™ Ë悏ā‚·‰üà ĂÞ
^ö¬‚æ™ÃɌ CËĄ™Þā ×˺ˏ©‚ Ĉāüº¢ɉ êæË ·™Ą•Ą‰™ ×Ë =‚Ãׂ ½‚ö‚ =‚Þ™Ú C‚ā™ =‚Þ™ÚËöü

~ ڙÞāæ‰ɌɌɌ s‚½™ Ĭ™ ÂÃü ā‚ì‚Úê ¬¢ •Ë æ™¤Ë ×Úā™ºËÄüö‚Ɍ VÚā™ºËĂ· Þ¬¢ ނÃɉ ߏ¬‚Ä‚© ¬ ÞêĈ¬™ ½‚Ž¬ÚüÄæ
~
ºÞיÚüÙÄæê·ɉ

~‚Ž‚öº¬ Ĉāüāęɇ æË ·™•Ä‚º Ĭ™ öÞāüÞæºËɇ Ë āĂ·•ā¬™Þā ö ĂÞā™· Ë£™Ú¬™Ɍ VÚË×ËÄ귙Ãü
ÚÌöĬ™Ą ā‚Ž‚öº¬ɇ ºæÌڙ ×ÚāüŽ½¬Ą‰ 悷Ĭº¬ ©™Ã¬¬ ¬ Ž¬Ë½Ë¤¬¬ɇ ‚ ö ×ÚāüÞāÂËߏ¬ ÚÌöĬ™Ą ¬ÄÄü©
£‚ޏüÄ귉ü© Ä‚êº ß¬ÞÂü©Ɍ

J s. ~ 9 D ] Y &g= YD. . VJ~D s 9 D. ~sy;B ~ s;. g; y9D ɉ




™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȄȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǽǾȁɇǼǼ āÂ




+ü•Úˏ‚Ú ɬ ‚êæË ā ¬ÚāË˺‚ ɬ ×Ëö¬™æÚāĂ JŽÞ™Úö‚æËÚ¬êÃ
Ăע•™Ã ö˕ËÚËöüà Ž‚āË˺‚ Ëö‚•Ìö ɬ Cê½æ¬õ¬™ö
















™Ä‚Ɇ ǿǾȀɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ȂȅɇǼǼ ā ™Ä‚Ɇ ǿȀɇǼǼ āÂ
D + ]BJ ɏC & ~yDɏ JcY~yC 9 V E]csJ ǽǼʦ Y cg




g=Ɍ J=.D Ys$ y ȀȀɇ ȄȃɰǽȂǾ ;YJ . sssɌ ;]V YyC Dcg9ɌV=
];= Vˀ ;]V YyC Dcg9ɌV=ɇ c =ɌɆ ȁǼǽ ǾȁȂ ȁȃǽ

Witaj w świecie zabawek


Toys”R”Us to kultowa, znana na całym świecie sieć sklepów z zabawkami i produktami dla
niemowląt. Znakiem rozpoznawczym marki jest duża przestrzeń handlowa i największy wybór
zabawek. Obecnie Toys”R”Us posiada około 1600 sklepów w 36 krajach, z czego 16 w Polsce.

Dzięki globalnej skali, do Toys”R”Us trafiają wszystkie zabawkowe bestsellery, a wiele
Dzięki
wiodących producentów (np. LEGO, Mattel, Hasbro) produkuje zabawki wyłącznie dla
Toys”R”Us. Oprócz tego sieć posiada szeroki wybór produktów marek własnych. W bogatym
asortymencie Toys”R”Us, klienci znajdą m.in. kompleksową ofertę dla dzieci w wieku Super Oferta dla przedszkoli
przedszkolnym, w tym pomoce naukowe, zabawki edukacyjne, klocki, zestawy artystyczne,
instrumenty, artykuły szkolne i wiele innych. im wieksze zakupy, tym większy rabat

Dla przedszkoli i innych placówek edukacyjnych Toys”R”Us przygotowała specjalną ofertę rabatową na
zakup kart podarunkowych. Karta podarunkowa pozwoli na dowolne skompletowanie wyposażenia
do przedszkola czy żłobka w sklepach stacjonarnych marki oraz online na www.toysrus.pl




Sprawdź






















SERDECZNIE
POLECAMY!







www.toysrus.pl | [email protected]

Witaj w świecie zabawek


Toys”R”Us to kultowa, znana na całym świecie sieć sklepów z zabawkami i produktami dla
niemowląt. Znakiem rozpoznawczym marki jest duża przestrzeń handlowa i największy wybór
zabawek. Obecnie Toys”R”Us posiada około 1600 sklepów w 36 krajach, z czego 16 w Polsce.

Dzięki globalnej skali, do Toys”R”Us trafiają wszystkie zabawkowe bestsellery, a wiele
Dzięki
wiodących producentów (np. LEGO, Mattel, Hasbro) produkuje zabawki wyłącznie dla
Toys”R”Us. Oprócz tego sieć posiada szeroki wybór produktów marek własnych. W bogatym
asortymencie Toys”R”Us, klienci znajdą m.in. kompleksową ofertę dla dzieci w wieku Super Oferta dla przedszkoli
przedszkolnym, w tym pomoce naukowe, zabawki edukacyjne, klocki, zestawy artystyczne,
instrumenty, artykuły szkolne i wiele innych. im wieksze zakupy, tym większy rabat

Dla przedszkoli i innych placówek edukacyjnych Toys”R”Us przygotowała specjalną ofertę rabatową na
zakup kart podarunkowych. Karta podarunkowa pozwoli na dowolne skompletowanie wyposażenia
do przedszkola czy żłobka w sklepach stacjonarnych marki oraz online na www.toysrus.pl




Sprawdź






















SERDECZNIE
POLECAMY!







www.toysrus.pl | [email protected]





*SXSFE˒RMI XS MRRS[EG]NR] TVSNIOX TSPIKENʈG] RE YQMIW^G^IRMY [ MPYWXVS[ERIN FE˒RM ^HNʚʊ
8[SNIKS (^MIGOE 4MʚORI OSPSVS[I LMWXSVMI ^ 8[SMQ (^MIGOMIQ [ VSPM Kɹ[RIN XS ˒[MIXRE
^EFE[E HPE GEIN VSH^MR] HSWOSRE] TVI^IRX HPE H^MIGM [ OE˵H]Q [MIOY SVE^ TMʚORE
TEQMʈXOE RE PEXE





























.%/ 43;78%.ʆ *383&%ː2-)#



8[SV^IRMI *SXSFE˒RM XS FEVH^S G^EWSGLSRR] TVSGIW /E˵Hʈ FE˒ʿ RENTMIV[ XV^IFE
[]Q]˒PMʊ 0MG^] WMʚ TSQ]W ; TSW^YOM[ERMY SHTS[MIHRMIN XVI˒GM FEVH^S TSQSGRI Wʈ
OPYG^S[I IPIQIRX] ũ GS H^MIGOS PYFM VSFMʊ NEOMI ^[MIV^ʈXOS PYFM QS˵I QE W[SNʈ YPYFMSRʈ ;][SERMI OVIEX][RIN FYV^] [ Qɹ^KY ^NIH^IRMI
QEWOSXOʚ OSPSV EOSʊ G^] QE TYTMPE MXH 4S ^IFVERMY X]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ QS˵RE WMʚ ^EFMIVEʊ QMR G^IOSPEH W^OMGI ^SWXE[MERI [W^ʚH^MI
^E []Q]˒PERMI 1ɹ^K RENPITMIN TVEGYNI [ VYGLY [MʚG RENPITW^I TSQ]W] TV^]GLSH^ʈ RE
WTEGIV^I FEWIRMI PYF VS[IVS[IN TV^INE˵H˵GI ^ 1ʚ˵IQ /MIH] XVI˒ʊ REVIW^GMI WMʚ SFNE[M
QS˵RE ^EG^ʈʊ V]QS[Eʊ

; ;E˵RI NIWX EF] HSFMIVEʊ WS[E XEO F] X[SV^]] NEOM˒ GMʈK WOSNEV^IRMS[] [ H^MIGMʚG]Q
YQ]˒PI H^MʚOM G^IQY EX[MIN NI ^ETEQMʚXENʈ
6S[IV FEWR VS[IV TSXIQ NY˵ X]POS
+H] NIWX NY˵ V]QS[ER] XIOWX ũ G^EW RE MPYWXVEGNI 2ENTMIV[ W^OMGI FSLEXIVɹ[ TSXIQ FMYVOS FMYVOS FMYVOS
TV^IPERMI MGL RE []WSOMIN KVEQEXYV] TETMIV 9˵][EQ EO[EVIPM HS REQEPS[ERME TSWXEGM
SVE^ [W^]WXOMGL IPIQIRXɹ[ XE 2EWXʚTRMI WOERYNʚ [W^]WXOS M ^EG^]REQ ^EFE[ʚ
[ TVSKVEQMI JSXSWLST (^MʚOM XIQY QEQ TIRʈ OSRXVSPʚ REH NEOS˒GMʈ VS^H^MIPG^S˒GMʈ
M OSPS OSPSVEQM 2MI [WTSQMRENʈG S HSOEʿG^ERMY MPYWXVEGNM M HSHE[ERMY HS RMGL YFSKEGENʈG]GL
M
IPIQIRXɹ[ /MIH] MPYWXVEGNI Wʈ KSXS[I ũ QS˵RE [WXE[MEʊ ^HNʚGME H^MIGOE ũ RENTMIV[
[]GMREQ XS ^ OE˵HIKS VIXYW^YNʚ OVE[ʚH^MI M SHTS[MIHRMS TSHWXE[MEQ HS OE˵HIN TPERW^] *EVFOE 4LSXSWLST (VYOEVOE
4SXIQ NY˵ X]POS []HVYO M KSXS[I *MRMW^ [I [WTERME]Q WX]PY





[[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ

*SXSFE˒RMI XS MRRS[EG]NR] TVSNIOX TSPIKENʈG] RE YQMIW^G^IRMY [ MPYWXVS[ERIN FE˒RM ^HNʚʊ
8[SNIKS (^MIGOE 4MʚORI OSPSVS[I LMWXSVMI ^ 8[SMQ (^MIGOMIQ [ VSPM Kɹ[RIN XS ˒[MIXRE
^EFE[E HPE GEIN VSH^MR] HSWOSRE] TVI^IRX HPE H^MIGM [ OE˵H]Q [MIOY SVE^ TMʚORE
TEQMʈXOE RE PEXE





























.%/ 43;78%.ʆ *383&%ː2-)#



8[SV^IRMI *SXSFE˒RM XS FEVH^S G^EWSGLSRR] TVSGIW /E˵Hʈ FE˒ʿ RENTMIV[ XV^IFE
[]Q]˒PMʊ 0MG^] WMʚ TSQ]W ; TSW^YOM[ERMY SHTS[MIHRMIN XVI˒GM FEVH^S TSQSGRI Wʈ
OPYG^S[I IPIQIRX] ũ GS H^MIGOS PYFM VSFMʊ NEOMI ^[MIV^ʈXOS PYFM QS˵I QE W[SNʈ YPYFMSRʈ ;][SERMI OVIEX][RIN FYV^] [ Qɹ^KY ^NIH^IRMI
QEWOSXOʚ OSPSV EOSʊ G^] QE TYTMPE MXH 4S ^IFVERMY X]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ QS˵RE WMʚ ^EFMIVEʊ QMR G^IOSPEH W^OMGI ^SWXE[MERI [W^ʚH^MI
^E []Q]˒PERMI 1ɹ^K RENPITMIN TVEGYNI [ VYGLY [MʚG RENPITW^I TSQ]W] TV^]GLSH^ʈ RE
WTEGIV^I FEWIRMI PYF VS[IVS[IN TV^INE˵H˵GI ^ 1ʚ˵IQ /MIH] XVI˒ʊ REVIW^GMI WMʚ SFNE[M
QS˵RE ^EG^ʈʊ V]QS[Eʊ

; ;E˵RI NIWX EF] HSFMIVEʊ WS[E XEO F] X[SV^]] NEOM˒ GMʈK WOSNEV^IRMS[] [ H^MIGMʚG]Q
YQ]˒PI H^MʚOM G^IQY EX[MIN NI ^ETEQMʚXENʈ
6S[IV FEWR VS[IV TSXIQ NY˵ X]POS
+H] NIWX NY˵ V]QS[ER] XIOWX ũ G^EW RE MPYWXVEGNI 2ENTMIV[ W^OMGI FSLEXIVɹ[ TSXIQ FMYVOS FMYVOS FMYVOS
TV^IPERMI MGL RE []WSOMIN KVEQEXYV] TETMIV 9˵][EQ EO[EVIPM HS REQEPS[ERME TSWXEGM
SVE^ [W^]WXOMGL IPIQIRXɹ[ XE 2EWXʚTRMI WOERYNʚ [W^]WXOS M ^EG^]REQ ^EFE[ʚ
[ TVSKVEQMI JSXSWLST (^MʚOM XIQY QEQ TIRʈ OSRXVSPʚ REH NEOS˒GMʈ VS^H^MIPG^S˒GMʈ
M OSPS OSPSVEQM 2MI [WTSQMRENʈG S HSOEʿG^ERMY MPYWXVEGNM M HSHE[ERMY HS RMGL YFSKEGENʈG]GL
M
IPIQIRXɹ[ /MIH] MPYWXVEGNI Wʈ KSXS[I ũ QS˵RE [WXE[MEʊ ^HNʚGME H^MIGOE ũ RENTMIV[
[]GMREQ XS ^ OE˵HIKS VIXYW^YNʚ OVE[ʚH^MI M SHTS[MIHRMS TSHWXE[MEQ HS OE˵HIN TPERW^] *EVFOE 4LSXSWLST (VYOEVOE
4SXIQ NY˵ X]POS []HVYO M KSXS[I *MRMW^ [I [WTERME]Q WX]PY





[[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP ŵ

&R PRİHP\ SRGDURZDþ ']LĊNL WHPX ĪH G]LHFNR ZLG]L Z NVLąĪFH VLHELH ']LĊNL QRZRF]HVQHM WHFKQRORJLL WUDG\F\MQH
G]LHFLRP G]LčNL WHFKQRORJLL L VZRLFK QDMEOLĪV]\FK áDWZLHM MHVW PX VLĊ NVLąĪNL ]\VNXMą QRZ\ Z\PLDU $JDWD
1RZRF]HVQH WHFKQRORJLH QD GREUH ]DDQJDĪRZDü Z OHNWXUĊ NVLąĪND MHVW GOD ĝOLZLĔVND DXWRUND SURMHNWX )RWREDVQLH SO
RGELRUF\ FLHNDZV]D D PDOHF VWDMH VLĊ MHM
PDU]\ R W\P DE\ GRURVáH G]LHFL SR ODWDFK
]DGRPRZLá\ VLĊ Z QDV]HM FRG]LHQQRĞFL L G]LĞ SUDZG]LZ\P ERKDWHUHP 3U]HGH ZV]\VWNLP ZUDFDá\ GR NVLąĪHF]HN Z NWyU\FK PRJą
QLNRJR MXĪ QLH G]LZL ĪH GZXODWHN VSUDZQLHM MHGQDN PáRG\ F]áRZLHN F]XMH VLĊ ]QDOHĨü SDFKQąFH G]LHFLĔVWZHP SDPLąWNL D
REVáXJXMH WDEOHW RG QLHMHGQHJR GRURVáHJR GRZDUWRĞFLRZDQ\ L ]EXGRZDQ\ QDZHW RGF]\W\ZDü MH VZRLP G]LHFLRP
SU]HGVWDZLHQLHPU]HGVWDZLHQLHP JR MDNR RVRE\ QD NWyUHM
1 S S
1LHNWyU]\LHNWyU]\ SDWU]ą QD WR ] QDG]LHMą LQQL ]
SRND]XMąFRND]XMąF MHGQRF]HĞQLH MDN Z\JOąGDáD PDPD
QLHSRNRMHP -HGQDN QRZRF]HVQH WHFKQRORJLH PRĪQD SROHJDü OXE EDEFLD NLONDG]LHVLąW ODW WHPX
PRJą VSUDZLü ĪH GRW\FKF]DVRZH U]HF]\ GOD )RWREDĞQLH QLH W\ONR EDZLą DOH L XF]ą ² IDEXáD
QDV]\FK SRFLHFK ]\VNDMą SUDZG]LZą GXV]Ċ RSLHUD VLĊ QD W\P ĪH G]LHFNR VWDUD VLĊ SRPyF
1LH PD SLĊNQLHMV]HJR SUH]HQWX GOD PDOXFKD ]ZLHU]ąWNX Z NáRSRWDFK V]XND NUHDW\ZQ\FK
QLĪ GHG\NRZDQ\ XSRPLQHN Sá\W\ ] UR]ZLą]DĔ OXE RGGDMH ]QDOH]LRQą ZF]HĞQLHM
SLRVHQNDPL Z NWyU\FK SDGD LPLĊ G]LHFND ]JXEĊ 5\PRZDQH WHNVW\ VSUDZLDMą ĪH WUHĞü
P
PDVNRWNLDVNRWNL ]ZUDFDMąFH VLĊ GR G]LHFND SR LPLHQLX MHVW áDWZLHM SU]\VZDMDOQD L PRĪQD Mą V]\ENR
F]\ PLVLH LPLWXMąFH V]XP ] EU]XV]ND PDP\ ]DSDPLĊWDü

:
: RIHUFLH )RWREDĞQL Vą WHĪ VHQVRU\F]QH
NVLąĪNL SHUVRQDOL]RZDQH ² VWZRU]RQH
RGSRZLHGQLR GR ZLHNX NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL Z
SU]HG]LDOH ODW .VLąĪNL VHQVRU\F]QH QLH Vą
SU]HáDGRZDQH LOXVWUDFMDPL FR VSUDZLD ĪH Vą
F]\WHOQH GOD PDOXV]ND ,FK ]DGDQLHP MHVW
SREXG]HQLH Z\REUDĨQL L FLHNDZRĞFL PDáHJR
F]\WHOQLND ]\WHOQLND 6ą WHĪ SRP\ĞODQH Z WDNL VSRVyE E\
F
SR ODWDFK VWDQRZLá\ SLĊNQą SDPLąWNĊ GOD %\ü PRĪH Z SU]\V]áRĞFL NXSLRQH G]LĞ
REGDURZDQHJR G]LHFND NVLąĪHF]NL EĊGą SUDZG]LZ\P VNDUEHP Z
HSRFH SRZV]HFKQHM F\IU\]DFML
=DPDZLDMąF NVLąĪNL Z ILUPLH )RWREDĞQLH QLH
]DPDZLDP\ W\ONR XVáXJL DOH SUDZG]LZ\ :\ VZRMH NVLąĪNL PRĪHFLH NXSLü MXĪ G]LĞ QD
'R WHJR JURQD ]DOLF]\ü G]LĞ PRĪQD UyZQLHĪ RVRELVW\ SUH]HQW $JDWD ĝOLZLĔVND ² DXWRUND VWURQLH )RWREDVQLH SO ] NRGHP UDEDWRZ\P
NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL NWyUH PRJą VWDü VLĊ EDUG]R )RWREDĞQL Z PLDUĊ PRĪOLZRĞFL VWDUD VLĊ Ä0DJD]\Q3U]HGV]NROD´ RWU]\PDFLH ]QLĪNL
)RWREDVQLH SO ]DSUDV]DMą
RVRELVW\P SUH]HQWHP L SLĊNQą SDPLąWNą GRGDZDü ]GMĊFLD URG]LFyZ L LQQ\FK EOLVNLFK
3 G]LHFNX RVyE MHĞOL W\ONR RWU]\PD WDNLH
3HUVRQDOL]RZDQHHUVRQDOL]RZDQH NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL ER R QLFK
WX PRZD WR ERJDWR LOXVWURZDQH RSRZLHĞFL IRWRJUDILH 5REL WR Z FHQLH SURGXNWX SRQLHZDĪ
]DOHĪ\DOHĪ\ MHM QD VWZRU]HQLX URG]LQQHM SDPLąWNL
]
NWyU\FK F]ĊĞFLą VWDMH VLĊ G]LHFNR 'R NVLąĪNL NWyUD VWDQLH VLĊ SUDZG]LZ\P
NVLąĪNRZ\FK LOXVWUDFML PRĪQD GRGDü ]GMĊFLD URG]LQQ\P VNDUEHP áąF]ąF\P SRNROHQLD
G]LHFND Z WDNL VSRVyE ĪH Z\JOąGDMą MDN LFK
LQWHJUDOQD F]ĊĞü

1DD VWURQLH )RWREDVQLH SO PRĪQD ]REDF]\ü FDáą
1
NVLąĪNĊ SU]HG ]DNXSHP FR VSUDZL ĪH áDWZLHM
MHVW GREUDü ]GMĊFLD SDVXMąFH GR VFHQ NVLąĪNL
'R VWZRU]HQLD MHGQHM ILUPD )RWREDĞQLH
Z\NRU]\VWXMH PLQLPXP GR ]GMĊü ']LĊNL
QRZRF]HVQ\P WHFKQRORJLRP ]GMĊFLD [[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP
Z\NRU]\VW\ZDQH Z LOXVWUDFML PRĪQD
RGSRZLHGQLRGSRZLHGQLR VIRUPDWRZDü GRĞZLHWOLü L
R WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP
HG\WRZDü Z WDNL VSRVyE ĪH G]LHFL Z\JOąGDMą
MDNE\ QDSUDZGĊ XF]HVWQLF]\á\ Z SU]\JRGDFK
]ZLHU]ąWHN Z Z\U\VRZDQ\P ĞZLHFLH
3RáąF]HQLH UĊF]QHM SUDF\ ] GRVNRQDá\PL
QDU]ĊG]LDPL JUDILF]Q\PL GDMH Z\MąWNRZ\ HIHNW
NWyU\ ] SHZQRĞFLą ]DFKZ\FL PDá\FK
E
ERKDWHURRKDWHURZ MDN UyZQLHĪ LFK URG]LFyZ

&R PRİHP\ SRGDURZDþ ']LĊNL WHPX ĪH G]LHFNR ZLG]L Z NVLąĪFH VLHELH ']LĊNL QRZRF]HVQHM WHFKQRORJLL WUDG\F\MQH
G]LHFLRP G]LčNL WHFKQRORJLL L VZRLFK QDMEOLĪV]\FK áDWZLHM MHVW PX VLĊ NVLąĪNL ]\VNXMą QRZ\ Z\PLDU $JDWD
1RZRF]HVQH WHFKQRORJLH QD GREUH ]DDQJDĪRZDü Z OHNWXUĊ NVLąĪND MHVW GOD ĝOLZLĔVND DXWRUND SURMHNWX )RWREDVQLH SO
RGELRUF\ FLHNDZV]D D PDOHF VWDMH VLĊ MHM
PDU]\ R W\P DE\ GRURVáH G]LHFL SR ODWDFK
]DGRPRZLá\ VLĊ Z QDV]HM FRG]LHQQRĞFL L G]LĞ SUDZG]LZ\P ERKDWHUHP 3U]HGH ZV]\VWNLP ZUDFDá\ GR NVLąĪHF]HN Z NWyU\FK PRJą
QLNRJR MXĪ QLH G]LZL ĪH GZXODWHN VSUDZQLHM MHGQDN PáRG\ F]áRZLHN F]XMH VLĊ ]QDOHĨü SDFKQąFH G]LHFLĔVWZHP SDPLąWNL D
REVáXJXMH WDEOHW RG QLHMHGQHJR GRURVáHJR GRZDUWRĞFLRZDQ\ L ]EXGRZDQ\ QDZHW RGF]\W\ZDü MH VZRLP G]LHFLRP
SU]HGVWDZLHQLHPU]HGVWDZLHQLHP JR MDNR RVRE\ QD NWyUHM
1 S S
1LHNWyU]\LHNWyU]\ SDWU]ą QD WR ] QDG]LHMą LQQL ]
SRND]XMąFRND]XMąF MHGQRF]HĞQLH MDN Z\JOąGDáD PDPD
QLHSRNRMHP -HGQDN QRZRF]HVQH WHFKQRORJLH PRĪQD SROHJDü OXE EDEFLD NLONDG]LHVLąW ODW WHPX
PRJą VSUDZLü ĪH GRW\FKF]DVRZH U]HF]\ GOD )RWREDĞQLH QLH W\ONR EDZLą DOH L XF]ą ² IDEXáD
QDV]\FK SRFLHFK ]\VNDMą SUDZG]LZą GXV]Ċ RSLHUD VLĊ QD W\P ĪH G]LHFNR VWDUD VLĊ SRPyF
1LH PD SLĊNQLHMV]HJR SUH]HQWX GOD PDOXFKD ]ZLHU]ąWNX Z NáRSRWDFK V]XND NUHDW\ZQ\FK
QLĪ GHG\NRZDQ\ XSRPLQHN Sá\W\ ] UR]ZLą]DĔ OXE RGGDMH ]QDOH]LRQą ZF]HĞQLHM
SLRVHQNDPL Z NWyU\FK SDGD LPLĊ G]LHFND ]JXEĊ 5\PRZDQH WHNVW\ VSUDZLDMą ĪH WUHĞü
P
PDVNRWNLDVNRWNL ]ZUDFDMąFH VLĊ GR G]LHFND SR LPLHQLX MHVW áDWZLHM SU]\VZDMDOQD L PRĪQD Mą V]\ENR
F]\ PLVLH LPLWXMąFH V]XP ] EU]XV]ND PDP\ ]DSDPLĊWDü

:
: RIHUFLH )RWREDĞQL Vą WHĪ VHQVRU\F]QH
NVLąĪNL SHUVRQDOL]RZDQH ² VWZRU]RQH
RGSRZLHGQLR GR ZLHNX NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL Z
SU]HG]LDOH ODW .VLąĪNL VHQVRU\F]QH QLH Vą
SU]HáDGRZDQH LOXVWUDFMDPL FR VSUDZLD ĪH Vą
F]\WHOQH GOD PDOXV]ND ,FK ]DGDQLHP MHVW
SREXG]HQLH Z\REUDĨQL L FLHNDZRĞFL PDáHJR
F]\WHOQLND ]\WHOQLND 6ą WHĪ SRP\ĞODQH Z WDNL VSRVyE E\
F
SR ODWDFK VWDQRZLá\ SLĊNQą SDPLąWNĊ GOD %\ü PRĪH Z SU]\V]áRĞFL NXSLRQH G]LĞ
REGDURZDQHJR G]LHFND NVLąĪHF]NL EĊGą SUDZG]LZ\P VNDUEHP Z
HSRFH SRZV]HFKQHM F\IU\]DFML
=DPDZLDMąF NVLąĪNL Z ILUPLH )RWREDĞQLH QLH
]DPDZLDP\ W\ONR XVáXJL DOH SUDZG]LZ\ :\ VZRMH NVLąĪNL PRĪHFLH NXSLü MXĪ G]LĞ QD
'R WHJR JURQD ]DOLF]\ü G]LĞ PRĪQD UyZQLHĪ RVRELVW\ SUH]HQW $JDWD ĝOLZLĔVND ² DXWRUND VWURQLH )RWREDVQLH SO ] NRGHP UDEDWRZ\P
NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL NWyUH PRJą VWDü VLĊ EDUG]R )RWREDĞQL Z PLDUĊ PRĪOLZRĞFL VWDUD VLĊ Ä0DJD]\Q3U]HGV]NROD´ RWU]\PDFLH ]QLĪNL
)RWREDVQLH SO ]DSUDV]DMą
RVRELVW\P SUH]HQWHP L SLĊNQą SDPLąWNą GRGDZDü ]GMĊFLD URG]LFyZ L LQQ\FK EOLVNLFK
3 G]LHFNX RVyE MHĞOL W\ONR RWU]\PD WDNLH
3HUVRQDOL]RZDQHHUVRQDOL]RZDQH NVLąĪNL GOD G]LHFL ER R QLFK
WX PRZD WR ERJDWR LOXVWURZDQH RSRZLHĞFL IRWRJUDILH 5REL WR Z FHQLH SURGXNWX SRQLHZDĪ
]DOHĪ\DOHĪ\ MHM QD VWZRU]HQLX URG]LQQHM SDPLąWNL
]
NWyU\FK F]ĊĞFLą VWDMH VLĊ G]LHFNR 'R NVLąĪNL NWyUD VWDQLH VLĊ SUDZG]LZ\P
NVLąĪNRZ\FK LOXVWUDFML PRĪQD GRGDü ]GMĊFLD URG]LQQ\P VNDUEHP áąF]ąF\P SRNROHQLD
G]LHFND Z WDNL VSRVyE ĪH Z\JOąGDMą MDN LFK
LQWHJUDOQD F]ĊĞü

1DD VWURQLH )RWREDVQLH SO PRĪQD ]REDF]\ü FDáą
1
NVLąĪNĊ SU]HG ]DNXSHP FR VSUDZL ĪH áDWZLHM
MHVW GREUDü ]GMĊFLD SDVXMąFH GR VFHQ NVLąĪNL
'R VWZRU]HQLD MHGQHM ILUPD )RWREDĞQLH
Z\NRU]\VWXMH PLQLPXP GR ]GMĊü ']LĊNL
QRZRF]HVQ\P WHFKQRORJLRP ]GMĊFLD [[[ JSXSFEWRMI TP
Z\NRU]\VW\ZDQH Z LOXVWUDFML PRĪQD
RGSRZLHGQLRGSRZLHGQLR VIRUPDWRZDü GRĞZLHWOLü L
R WXYHMS$JSXSFEWRMI TP
HG\WRZDü Z WDNL VSRVyE ĪH G]LHFL Z\JOąGDMą
MDNE\ QDSUDZGĊ XF]HVWQLF]\á\ Z SU]\JRGDFK
]ZLHU]ąWHN Z Z\U\VRZDQ\P ĞZLHFLH
3RáąF]HQLH UĊF]QHM SUDF\ ] GRVNRQDá\PL
QDU]ĊG]LDPL JUDILF]Q\PL GDMH Z\MąWNRZ\ HIHNW
NWyU\ ] SHZQRĞFLą ]DFKZ\FL PDá\FK
E
ERKDWHURRKDWHURZ MDN UyZQLHĪ LFK URG]LFyZ





/DPSNL G]LHFLÇFH



3UDNW\F]QH L QRZRF]HVQH ODPSNL QD ELXUNR GOD G]LHFL SU]\GDG]Ã VLÇ ND×GHPX SRF]ÃWNXMÃFHPX
QDXNRZFRZL SURMHNWDQWRZL SLVDU]RZL EÃGÕ LQ×\QLHURZL 3RVWDZ QD RÐZLHWOHQLH NWµUH SRSUDZL NRPIRUW
QDXNL 7ZRMHM SRFLHFK\ D WDN×H VSUDZL ×H ZQÇWU]H ]\VND ]XSHÊQLH LQQ\ FKDUDNWHU

.D×GD GRVWÇSQD Z QDV]HM RIHUFLH ODPSND GOD G]LHFND GRVNRQDOH QDGDMH VLÇ GR XVWDZLHQLD SU]\ ELXUNX
']LÇNL ×DUµZNRP /(' ]DSHZQLV] RGSRZLHGQLH ZDUXQNL GR QDXNL 2ÐZLHWOHQLH SXQNWRZH MHVW
V]F]HJµOQH ]DOHFDQH PÊRG\P RVRERP NWµUH ZLÇNV]RÐÅ F]DVX VSÇG]DMÃ QD SLVDQLX F]\WDQLX
EÃGÕ SUDF\ SU]\ NRPSXWHU]H SRGF]DV NWµU\FK QDMZD×QLHMV]D MHVW GEDÊRÐÅ R Z]URN RUD]
RGSRZLHGQLÃ SRVWDZÇ FLDÊD 3RQDGWR SURGXNW\ SRVLDGDMÃ EH]SLHF]QÃ HODVW\F]QÃ
NRQVWUXNFMÇ LGHDOQÃ GOD GUREQ\FK GÊRQL
























0DJLF





]DFKZ\Å VLÇ

PDJLÃ NRORUµZ


























1,/6(1 3ROVND
XO %XGRZODQD /XEOLQ
ZZZ QLOVHQ SO



VNOHS#QLOVHQ SO

/DPSNL G]LHFLÇFH



3UDNW\F]QH L QRZRF]HVQH ODPSNL QD ELXUNR GOD G]LHFL SU]\GDG]Ã VLÇ ND×GHPX SRF]ÃWNXMÃFHPX
QDXNRZFRZL SURMHNWDQWRZL SLVDU]RZL EÃGÕ LQ×\QLHURZL 3RVWDZ QD RÐZLHWOHQLH NWµUH SRSUDZL NRPIRUW
QDXNL 7ZRMHM SRFLHFK\ D WDN×H VSUDZL ×H ZQÇWU]H ]\VND ]XSHÊQLH LQQ\ FKDUDNWHU

.D×GD GRVWÇSQD Z QDV]HM RIHUFLH ODPSND GOD G]LHFND GRVNRQDOH QDGDMH VLÇ GR XVWDZLHQLD SU]\ ELXUNX
']LÇNL ×DUµZNRP /(' ]DSHZQLV] RGSRZLHGQLH ZDUXQNL GR QDXNL 2ÐZLHWOHQLH SXQNWRZH MHVW
V]F]HJµOQH ]DOHFDQH PÊRG\P RVRERP NWµUH ZLÇNV]RÐÅ F]DVX VSÇG]DMÃ QD SLVDQLX F]\WDQLX
EÃGÕ SUDF\ SU]\ NRPSXWHU]H SRGF]DV NWµU\FK QDMZD×QLHMV]D MHVW GEDÊRÐÅ R Z]URN RUD]
RGSRZLHGQLÃ SRVWDZÇ FLDÊD 3RQDGWR SURGXNW\ SRVLDGDMÃ EH]SLHF]QÃ HODVW\F]QÃ
NRQVWUXNFMÇ LGHDOQÃ GOD GUREQ\FK GÊRQL
























0DJLF





]DFKZ\Å VLÇ

PDJLÃ NRORUµZ


























1,/6(1 3ROVND
XO %XGRZODQD /XEOLQ
ZZZ QLOVHQ SO



VNOHS#QLOVHQ SO

7TIGNEPM^YNIQ] WMʚ [ WTV^IHE˵] []WSOMIN NEOS˒GM EVX]OYɹ[ W^OSPR]GL >ESTEXVYNIQ]
TV^IHW^OSPE M W^OS] RE XIVIRMI GEIKS OVENY
+[EVERXYNIQ] EXVEOG]NRI GIR] W^]FOʈ HSWXE[ʚ SVE^ W^IVSOM EWSVX]QIRX TVSHYOXɹ[
W^OSPR]GL VIRSQS[ER]GL TVSHYGIRXɹ[ %WXVE &EQFMRS *MSVIPPS 7X 1ENI[WOM (IVJSVQ
; REW^]Q WOPITMI OYTMW^ FPSOM XIGLRMG^RI M V]WYROS[I JEVF] OVIHOM OPINI FMFY] TʚH^PI
XSVRMWXV] TMɹVRMOM M [MIPI MRR]GL
4V^] HY˵]GL ^EQɹ[MIRMEGL TVSTSRYNIQ] EXVEOG]NRI VEFEX] SVE^ TVI^IRX]
2
2MI GMI G^IOEN [INH˳ RE WXVSRʚ [[[ FMYV[E TP M ^VɹF ^EOYT] NY˵ H^M˒



7TIGNEPRE SJIVXE HPE W^Oɸ M TV^IW^OSPM


/E˵HE W^OSE M TV^IHW^OSPI OXɹVI Y REW ^VSFM ^EOYT] QS˵I PMG^]ʊ RE
HSHEXOS[] VEFEX [ []WSOSˑGM E˴

7/328%/89. 7-ʘ > 2%1- &= >=7/%ʈ 7;ɝ. -2(=;-(9%02= /3(
RMI HSX]G^] XS[EVɹ[ SFNʚX]GL TVSQSGNʈ






































8IP /SQ
[[[ FMYV[E TP



FMYVS$FMYV[E TP

7TIGNEPM^YNIQ] WMʚ [ WTV^IHE˵] []WSOMIN NEOS˒GM EVX]OYɹ[ W^OSPR]GL >ESTEXVYNIQ]
TV^IHW^OSPE M W^OS] RE XIVIRMI GEIKS OVENY
+[EVERXYNIQ] EXVEOG]NRI GIR] W^]FOʈ HSWXE[ʚ SVE^ W^IVSOM EWSVX]QIRX TVSHYOXɹ[
W^OSPR]GL VIRSQS[ER]GL TVSHYGIRXɹ[ %WXVE &EQFMRS *MSVIPPS 7X 1ENI[WOM (IVJSVQ
; REW^]Q WOPITMI OYTMW^ FPSOM XIGLRMG^RI M V]WYROS[I JEVF] OVIHOM OPINI FMFY] TʚH^PI
XSVRMWXV] TMɹVRMOM M [MIPI MRR]GL
4V^] HY˵]GL ^EQɹ[MIRMEGL TVSTSRYNIQ] EXVEOG]NRI VEFEX] SVE^ TVI^IRX]
2
2MI GMI G^IOEN [INH˳ RE WXVSRʚ [[[ FMYV[E TP M ^VɹF ^EOYT] NY˵ H^M˒



7TIGNEPRE SJIVXE HPE W^Oɸ M TV^IW^OSPM


/E˵HE W^OSE M TV^IHW^OSPI OXɹVI Y REW ^VSFM ^EOYT] QS˵I PMG^]ʊ RE
HSHEXOS[] VEFEX [ []WSOSˑGM E˴

7/328%/89. 7-ʘ > 2%1- &= >=7/%ʈ 7;ɝ. -2(=;-(9%02= /3(
RMI HSX]G^] XS[EVɹ[ SFNʚX]GL TVSQSGNʈ






































8IP /SQ
[[[ FMYV[E TP



FMYVS$FMYV[E TP





/DOND 0HWRR WR VNOHS LQWHUQHWRZ\ Z NWµU\P ]QDMG]LHV] ÐSLÃFH ODONL ] XV]NDPL L SLÇNQH
R]GRE\ GR G]LHFLÇF\FK SRNRLNµZ 3R]QDM QDV]H QLHWX]LQNRZH SURGXNW\ L RGZLHGÕ QDV
QD ZZZ ODONDPHWRR SO

-HVWHÐP\ 2ĆFMDOQ\P '\VWU\EXWRUHP RU\JLQDOQ\FK ODOHN 0HWRR



35202&-$




.2$/$ &0 3/86 /$/.$ = 86=.$0, : %,$É(- 68.,(1&(


3URPRF\MQ\ SDNLHW /DOND NRDOD FP ] LPLHQLHP SOXV QDV] EHVWVHOOHU ODOND ] XV]NDPL Z ELDÊHM

VXNLHQFH ] LPLHQLHP

1D ODONDFK ] LPLHQLHP QD ×\F]HQLH XPLHV]F]DP\ GRZROQ\ QDSLV : W\P FHOX Z RNLHQNX QDOH×\ ZSLVDÅ LPLÇ RUD]
Z\EUDÅ NRORU F]FLRQNL L LQIRUPDFMÇ QD MDNLHM ODOFH NWµUH LPLÇ PDP\ XPLHÐFLÅ 1S .RDOD =RVLD 8V]DWND 0DU\VLD
&]DV RF]HNLZDQLD QD ODONÇ ] LPLHQLHP WR RN GQL URERF]H ]DPµZLHÌ Z\V\ÊDP\ MX× QD GUXJL G]LHÌ

/DOHF]NL ĆUP\ 0HWRR VÃ RU\JLQDOQH L SRVLDGDMÃ V\PERO &( FR R]QDF]D ×H SURGXNW MHVW ]JRGQ\ ] SRGVWDZRZ\PL
Z\PDJDQLDPL ]GURZLD EH]SLHF]HÌVWZD L ÐURGRZLVND \PDJDQLDPL ]GURZLD EH]SLHF]HÌVWZD L ÐURGRZLVND
Z

3/1






























::: /$/.$0(722 3/




8OLFD :LHU]ELFND D _ 5DGRP :RMHZµG]WZR PD]RZLHFNLH 7HOHIRQ _ H PDLO KHOOR#ODONDPHWRR SO

/DOND 0HWRR WR VNOHS LQWHUQHWRZ\ Z NWµU\P ]QDMG]LHV] ÐSLÃFH ODONL ] XV]NDPL L SLÇNQH
R]GRE\ GR G]LHFLÇF\FK SRNRLNµZ 3R]QDM QDV]H QLHWX]LQNRZH SURGXNW\ L RGZLHGÕ QDV
QD ZZZ ODONDPHWRR SO

-HVWHÐP\ 2ĆFMDOQ\P '\VWU\EXWRUHP RU\JLQDOQ\FK ODOHN 0HWRR



35202&-$




.2$/$ &0 3/86 /$/.$ = 86=.$0, : %,$É(- 68.,(1&(


3URPRF\MQ\ SDNLHW /DOND NRDOD FP ] LPLHQLHP SOXV QDV] EHVWVHOOHU ODOND ] XV]NDPL Z ELDÊHM

VXNLHQFH ] LPLHQLHP

1D ODONDFK ] LPLHQLHP QD ×\F]HQLH XPLHV]F]DP\ GRZROQ\ QDSLV : W\P FHOX Z RNLHQNX QDOH×\ ZSLVDÅ LPLÇ RUD]
Z\EUDÅ NRORU F]FLRQNL L LQIRUPDFMÇ QD MDNLHM ODOFH NWµUH LPLÇ PDP\ XPLHÐFLÅ 1S .RDOD =RVLD 8V]DWND 0DU\VLD
&]DV RF]HNLZDQLD QD ODONÇ ] LPLHQLHP WR RN GQL URERF]H ]DPµZLHÌ Z\V\ÊDP\ MX× QD GUXJL G]LHÌ

/DOHF]NL ĆUP\ 0HWRR VÃ RU\JLQDOQH L SRVLDGDMÃ V\PERO &( FR R]QDF]D ×H SURGXNW MHVW ]JRGQ\ ] SRGVWDZRZ\PL
Z\PDJDQLDPL ]GURZLD EH]SLHF]HÌVWZD L ÐURGRZLVND \PDJDQLDPL ]GURZLD EH]SLHF]HÌVWZD L ÐURGRZLVND
Z

3/1






























::: /$/.$0(722 3/




8OLFD :LHU]ELFND D _ 5DGRP :RMHZµG]WZR PD]RZLHFNLH 7HOHIRQ _ H PDLO KHOOR#ODONDPHWRR SO

ANGIELSKI DLA DZIECI PIOSENKI KAPITAN
NAUKA, OPRACOWANIE ZBIOROWE

NNNN NhN NNNNNN NNNNNNNNNN NN NNNNNN
3N NNNN dN NdNNć, dNNNNN NNóNNN

WWW.FABRYKAWAFELKOW.PL NNchNNNNN NNżNN NNNNNNN N żNcNN
NNNNNgN NNNNNNNNN

MARKOWE PRODUKTY WYSOKIEJ JAKOŚCI. NASZ SKLEP INTERNETOWY POSIADA 29,90
NAJBOGATSZĄ OFERTĘ W POLSCE. ZAPRASZAMY NA ZAKUPY!






NATURALNA PASTA DO ZĘBÓW,
ORGANICZNY BANAN I XYLITOL, SKIP HOP, STALOWY BIDON SOWA ZOO
50G, JACK N'JILL ChcN NN NNN NNć! TN NłNNN NNNcN

NNNNNNNN NNNNN NNgNNN N XNNNNNNN NNNNNNNdNNNNN N NNNNóżNNNNNNNch
NNNNNcNNch, NNNNch dNNN N NNNNNNNłNch NNNNNcNchN
ONgNNNcNNN NNłNdNNNN NNNNNNNNNą
NNNNNNcNNńNNNN N NdNNNNNN 108,00
29,90





PLECAK LITTLELIFE SPIDERMAN LASSIG, PLECAK WOREK
LITTLE MONSTER GRANAT
ZNNNNNN N NNNNNNN NNNNNNNN NNNcNN
NNNdNNNNN N NNNNN N�NN NNN NNNN NNNNNNNcNNNN ŁNdNN N NNNNNNcNNN NNNNN NNNcNN
dNN NNNNchóN Nd NN 3 NNNN żNcNNN NNNNNNcNNNN NNNNN NNNIGN DNNNNNNłN
NN NNNóN NNNNNNNN NNN NNNNNN NN NNNNNNN
139,00
79,00








SKIP HOP, PLECAK ZOO JANOD, KLOCKI DREWNIANE Z MATĄ DO

PACKS ŻYRAFA ZABAWY KUBIX 40 SZTUK LITERY I CYFRY

NNcNN NNN NNcNN NNNN NdNNNNN NNNN ZNNNNN NNNNNNNNch, dNNNNNNNNch NNNcNóN
NNNNNNNN NNNcNN dNN NNNNdNNNNNNNN KNNNx N NNNą dN NNNNNN NNNNcNNNNNN NNNNN
N NdNNNNNN NNdNNN NNN NNcNNcNNN cNN NNż NNNNNNN Nż NN NNNNNNNóN – NNNścNNNóN
NNNNcNNNN NNNNNdNN N NNNNNNcNNNNNN NN Nch ścNNNNch NNNNNNN FABRYKAWAFELKOW.PL SALON

99,00 N cNNNNNNN NNN NNNN NNNNNNN NNN N NNNNNN NNNNNNNN
149,00 NNNNNNNNNN NNN N NNNNN NNN NN NNN NN NN
NNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN

ANGIELSKI DLA DZIECI PIOSENKI KAPITAN
NAUKA, OPRACOWANIE ZBIOROWE

NNNN NhN NNNNNN NNNNNNNNNN NN NNNNNN
3N NNNN dN NdNNć, dNNNNN NNóNNN

WWW.FABRYKAWAFELKOW.PL NNchNNNNN NNżNN NNNNNNN N żNcNN
NNNNNgN NNNNNNNNN

MARKOWE PRODUKTY WYSOKIEJ JAKOŚCI. NASZ SKLEP INTERNETOWY POSIADA 29,90
NAJBOGATSZĄ OFERTĘ W POLSCE. ZAPRASZAMY NA ZAKUPY!






NATURALNA PASTA DO ZĘBÓW,
ORGANICZNY BANAN I XYLITOL, SKIP HOP, STALOWY BIDON SOWA ZOO
50G, JACK N'JILL ChcN NN NNN NNć! TN NłNNN NNNcN

NNNNNNNN NNNNN NNgNNN N XNNNNNNN NNNNNNNdNNNNN N NNNNóżNNNNNNNch
NNNNNcNNch, NNNNch dNNN N NNNNNNNłNch NNNNNcNchN
ONgNNNcNNN NNłNdNNNN NNNNNNNNNą
NNNNNNcNNńNNNN N NdNNNNNN 108,00
29,90





PLECAK LITTLELIFE SPIDERMAN LASSIG, PLECAK WOREK
LITTLE MONSTER GRANAT
ZNNNNNN N NNNNNNN NNNNNNNN NNNcNN
NNNdNNNNN N NNNNN N�NN NNN NNNN NNNNNNNcNNNN ŁNdNN N NNNNNNcNNN NNNNN NNNcNN
dNN NNNNchóN Nd NN 3 NNNN żNcNNN NNNNNNcNNNN NNNNN NNNIGN DNNNNNNłN
NN NNNóN NNNNNNNN NNN NNNNNN NN NNNNNNN
139,00
79,00








SKIP HOP, PLECAK ZOO JANOD, KLOCKI DREWNIANE Z MATĄ DO

PACKS ŻYRAFA ZABAWY KUBIX 40 SZTUK LITERY I CYFRY

NNcNN NNN NNcNN NNNN NdNNNNN NNNN ZNNNNN NNNNNNNNch, dNNNNNNNNch NNNcNóN
NNNNNNNN NNNcNN dNN NNNNdNNNNNNNN KNNNx N NNNą dN NNNNNN NNNNcNNNNNN NNNNN
N NdNNNNNN NNdNNN NNN NNcNNcNNN cNN NNż NNNNNNN Nż NN NNNNNNNóN – NNNścNNNóN
NNNNcNNNN NNNNNdNN N NNNNNNcNNNNNN NN Nch ścNNNNch NNNNNNN FABRYKAWAFELKOW.PL SALON

99,00 N cNNNNNNN NNN NNNN NNNNNNN NNN N NNNNNN NNNNNNNN
149,00 NNNNNNNNNN NNN N NNNNN NNN NN NNN NN NN
NNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN

‹ Œ‡•–‡ä›ǫ



ƒƒƒ ‹†• ’ƒ…Š‹‡ „ƒƒƒ‹ ‹ Œ‡äŽ‹ …Š‘…‹ƒĂ ƒ ‘‡– œƒ‹‡•œ ‘…œ›ǡ œ‘„ƒ…œ›•œ ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”‹¸
‹ †œ‹‡…‹ „‹‡‰ƒŒ¦…‡ ’‘ ’ŽƒĂ›Ǥ
Š…‡›ǡ DŽ› ƒ•œ‡ †œ‹‡…‹ …œ—Ï› ™‹ƒ–” ™‡ ™Ï‘•ƒ…Šǡ •Ï‘Ñ…‡ ƒ „—œ‹ƒ…Š ‹ •Ï›•œƒÏ› •œ— ˆƒŽǤ
—„‹› ’ƒ–”œ‡© ƒ •œ…œ¸äŽ‹™‡ †œ‹‡…‹ǡ ƒ œƒ„ƒ™¸ǡ ƒ ”ƒ†‘ä©Ǥ –‡Ă …Š…‡› •Ï›•œ‡© •œ— ˆƒŽǡ
œƒ‰Ï—•œƒ› ’”œ‡œ 䏋‡…ŠǤ


ƒ…› Œ‡•–‡ä›ǫ




ƒƒƒ ‹†• Œ‡•– ™‡•‘σ Œƒ †œ‹‡…‹ œ ƒ–—”›ǡ ’‘‰‘†ƒ ‹ ‘†™ƒĂƒǤ †œ‹‡ •™‘Œ¦ †”‘‰¦ǡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ‹‡
‹ •™‘„‘†‹‡Ǥ ‡•– ’‡Ïƒ Ž—œ—Ǥ
œ‹‡…‹ ™ ƒ•œ›…Š —„”ƒ‹ƒ…Š œ‹‡”œƒŒ¦ ™ ’‘†•‘ƒ…Š ™ •–”‘¸ ‘•œƒŽƒ…‹‡Œ ‡Ž‡‰ƒ…Œ‹ǡ •–›Ž‘™‡‰‘
‹‡Ïƒ†—ǡ ”ƒ†‘•‡Œ –™×”…œ‘ä…‹Ǥ „‹‡”ƒ› †œ‹‡…‹ ƒŽ‡ ‹ ‹‡ ’”œ‡•œƒ†œƒ› ™ „›…‹— •‘„¦Ǥ ƒƒƒ ‹†•
–‘ †œ‹‡…‹ ’‡Ï‡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡Œ ‡•’”‡•Œ‹Ǥ

‹ Œ‡•–‡ä›ǫ



ƒƒƒ ‹†• ’ƒ…Š‹‡ „ƒƒƒ‹ ‹ Œ‡äŽ‹ …Š‘…‹ƒĂ ƒ ‘‡– œƒ‹‡•œ ‘…œ›ǡ œ‘„ƒ…œ›•œ ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”‹¸
‹ †œ‹‡…‹ „‹‡‰ƒŒ¦…‡ ’‘ ’ŽƒĂ›Ǥ
Š…‡›ǡ DŽ› ƒ•œ‡ †œ‹‡…‹ …œ—Ï› ™‹ƒ–” ™‡ ™Ï‘•ƒ…Šǡ •Ï‘Ñ…‡ ƒ „—œ‹ƒ…Š ‹ •Ï›•œƒÏ› •œ— ˆƒŽǤ
—„‹› ’ƒ–”œ‡© ƒ •œ…œ¸äŽ‹™‡ †œ‹‡…‹ǡ ƒ œƒ„ƒ™¸ǡ ƒ ”ƒ†‘ä©Ǥ –‡Ă …Š…‡› •Ï›•œ‡© •œ— ˆƒŽǡ
œƒ‰Ï—•œƒ› ’”œ‡œ 䏋‡…ŠǤ


ƒ…› Œ‡•–‡ä›ǫ




ƒƒƒ ‹†• Œ‡•– ™‡•‘σ Œƒ †œ‹‡…‹ œ ƒ–—”›ǡ ’‘‰‘†ƒ ‹ ‘†™ƒĂƒǤ †œ‹‡ •™‘Œ¦ †”‘‰¦ǡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ‹‡
‹ •™‘„‘†‹‡Ǥ ‡•– ’‡Ïƒ Ž—œ—Ǥ
œ‹‡…‹ ™ ƒ•œ›…Š —„”ƒ‹ƒ…Š œ‹‡”œƒŒ¦ ™ ’‘†•‘ƒ…Š ™ •–”‘¸ ‘•œƒŽƒ…‹‡Œ ‡Ž‡‰ƒ…Œ‹ǡ •–›Ž‘™‡‰‘
‹‡Ïƒ†—ǡ ”ƒ†‘•‡Œ –™×”…œ‘ä…‹Ǥ „‹‡”ƒ› †œ‹‡…‹ ƒŽ‡ ‹ ‹‡ ’”œ‡•œƒ†œƒ› ™ „›…‹— •‘„¦Ǥ ƒƒƒ ‹†•
–‘ †œ‹‡…‹ ’‡Ï‡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡Œ ‡•’”‡•Œ‹Ǥ

ƒ ’”ƒ…—Œ‡›ǫ




•œ›•–‹‡ —„”ƒ‹ƒ •¦ –‡•–‘™ƒ‡ ’”œ‡œ †œ‹‡…‹ ‹ ‹…Š —™ƒ‰‹ ™”ƒœ œ‡ •’‘•–”œ‡Ă‡‹ƒ‹ †‘”‘•Ï›…Š •¦ ™ƒĂ›‹ ™•ƒœ×™ƒ‹ ’”œ› ’”‘Œ‡–‘™ƒ‹— ‹ ’”‘†—…Œ‹Ǥ ‘†•–ƒ™¦ ƒ•œ‡‰‘

†œ‹ƒÏƒ‹ƒ Œ‡•– ”‡ƒ–›™‘ä©ǡ •‘Ž‹†‘ä© ‹ ’”ƒ…ƒ ƒ† †‘•‘ƒŽ‡‹‡ ƒĂ†‡‰‘ œ ƒÏ›…Š •œ…œ‡‰×Ïי ™›‘Ñ…œ‡‹ƒ —„”ƒÑǤ
„‹‡”ƒ› †œ‹‡…‹ –ƒǡ Œƒ •ƒ‹ •‹¸ —„‹‡”ƒ›Ǥ ”‘†——Œ‡› —„”ƒ‹ƒ ’”œ›Œƒœ‡ 䔑†‘™‹•—ǡ „‘ 䙋ƒ–ǡ ™ –×”› ی‡› Œ‡•– –›Ž‘ ’‘Ă›…œ‘› ‘† ƒ•œ›…Š †œ‹‡…‹ǡ ‹‡†›ä ‹ ‰‘ ’”œ‡ƒĂ‡›Ǥ
…œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ •œƒ…—— †Žƒ ‹›…Šǡ †Žƒ 䔑†‘™‹•ƒǡ †Žƒ 䙋ƒ–ƒǤ…œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ •œƒ…—— †Žƒ ‹›…Šǡ †Žƒ 䔑†‘™‹•ƒǡ †Žƒ 䙋ƒ–ƒǤ …œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ǡ Ç ’‘™‹› ™‹‡”œ›© ™ •‹‡„‹‡ ‹ ’‘†¦Ăƒ© œƒ ƒ”œ‡‹ƒ‹ǡ „‘ ’”‘†—‘™ƒ‹‡ —„”ƒÑ Œ‡•– ƒ•œ›

•’‡Ï‹‘› ƒ”œ‡‹‡Ǥ „”ƒ‹ƒ ƒƒƒ ‹†• •¦ „ƒ”†œ‘ „‡œ’‹‡…œ‡ Ǧ ‹‡ œƒ™‹‡”ƒŒ¦ –‘•›…œ›…Š •—„•–ƒ…Œ‹ …Š‡‹…œ›…Šǡ •¦ —•œ›–‡ œ ™‹‡Ž¦ •–ƒ”ƒ‘ä…‹¦ Ǧ › –‡Ă ‹‡ Ž—„‹›
‰”›œ¦…›…Š ‡–‡ǡ ™‹¸… ‹‡ ™•œ›™ƒ› ‹…Š †‘ —„”ƒÑ †œ‹‡…‹¸…›…ŠǤ †„ƒÏ‘ä…‹¦ ’‘†…Š‘†œ‹› †‘ ™•œ›™ƒ›…Š ‰—œ‹×™ ‹ œƒ×™ǡ „‘ †Žƒ ƒ• 䙋ƒ†…œ› –‘ ‘ ’‘ƒ†’”œ‡…‹¸–‡Œ Œƒ‘ä…‹Ǥ






































ƒ†œ™‘Ñ ‘††œ‹ƒÏ …œ‡™ǣ ή ͜͠ ͘͞͡ ͙͙͡ ͘͜͜
ƒ†œ™‘Ñ •Ž‡’ †›‹ƒ ȋ Ȍǣ ή ͜͠ ͛͛͟ ͚͘͞ ͜͜͝
„•Ï—‰ƒ ‘††œ‹ƒÏ …œ‡™ǣ ’ǤǦ ’–Ǥ ͠ǣ͘͘ Ǧ ͙͞ǣ͘͘
„•Ï—‰ƒ •Ž‡’ †›‹ƒ ǣ ’ǤȂ •‘„Ǥ ͡ǣ͘͘Ǧ ͚͙ǣ͘͘Ǥ ‹‡†œ‹‡Žƒǣ ͙͘ǣ͘͘ Ǧ ͚͘ǣ͘͘












‘–ƒ–̻„ƒƒƒ‹†•Ǥ’Ž ȁ ™™™Ǥ„ƒƒƒ‹†•Ǥ’Ž




O  * ͚͘ά Ǥ Ǥ

ƒ ’”ƒ…—Œ‡›ǫ




•œ›•–‹‡ —„”ƒ‹ƒ •¦ –‡•–‘™ƒ‡ ’”œ‡œ †œ‹‡…‹ ‹ ‹…Š —™ƒ‰‹ ™”ƒœ œ‡ •’‘•–”œ‡Ă‡‹ƒ‹ †‘”‘•Ï›…Š •¦ ™ƒĂ›‹ ™•ƒœ×™ƒ‹ ’”œ› ’”‘Œ‡–‘™ƒ‹— ‹ ’”‘†—…Œ‹Ǥ ‘†•–ƒ™¦ ƒ•œ‡‰‘

†œ‹ƒÏƒ‹ƒ Œ‡•– ”‡ƒ–›™‘ä©ǡ •‘Ž‹†‘ä© ‹ ’”ƒ…ƒ ƒ† †‘•‘ƒŽ‡‹‡ ƒĂ†‡‰‘ œ ƒÏ›…Š •œ…œ‡‰×Ïי ™›‘Ñ…œ‡‹ƒ —„”ƒÑǤ
„‹‡”ƒ› †œ‹‡…‹ –ƒǡ Œƒ •ƒ‹ •‹¸ —„‹‡”ƒ›Ǥ ”‘†——Œ‡› —„”ƒ‹ƒ ’”œ›Œƒœ‡ 䔑†‘™‹•—ǡ „‘ 䙋ƒ–ǡ ™ –×”› ی‡› Œ‡•– –›Ž‘ ’‘Ă›…œ‘› ‘† ƒ•œ›…Š †œ‹‡…‹ǡ ‹‡†›ä ‹ ‰‘ ’”œ‡ƒĂ‡›Ǥ
…œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ •œƒ…—— †Žƒ ‹›…Šǡ †Žƒ 䔑†‘™‹•ƒǡ †Žƒ 䙋ƒ–ƒǤ…œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ •œƒ…—— †Žƒ ‹›…Šǡ †Žƒ 䔑†‘™‹•ƒǡ †Žƒ 䙋ƒ–ƒǤ …œ›› †œ‹‡…‹ǡ Ç ’‘™‹› ™‹‡”œ›© ™ •‹‡„‹‡ ‹ ’‘†¦Ăƒ© œƒ ƒ”œ‡‹ƒ‹ǡ „‘ ’”‘†—‘™ƒ‹‡ —„”ƒÑ Œ‡•– ƒ•œ›

•’‡Ï‹‘› ƒ”œ‡‹‡Ǥ „”ƒ‹ƒ ƒƒƒ ‹†• •¦ „ƒ”†œ‘ „‡œ’‹‡…œ‡ Ǧ ‹‡ œƒ™‹‡”ƒŒ¦ –‘•›…œ›…Š •—„•–ƒ…Œ‹ …Š‡‹…œ›…Šǡ •¦ —•œ›–‡ œ ™‹‡Ž¦ •–ƒ”ƒ‘ä…‹¦ Ǧ › –‡Ă ‹‡ Ž—„‹›
‰”›œ¦…›…Š ‡–‡ǡ ™‹¸… ‹‡ ™•œ›™ƒ› ‹…Š †‘ —„”ƒÑ †œ‹‡…‹¸…›…ŠǤ †„ƒÏ‘ä…‹¦ ’‘†…Š‘†œ‹› †‘ ™•œ›™ƒ›…Š ‰—œ‹×™ ‹ œƒ×™ǡ „‘ †Žƒ ƒ• 䙋ƒ†…œ› –‘ ‘ ’‘ƒ†’”œ‡…‹¸–‡Œ Œƒ‘ä…‹Ǥ






































ƒ†œ™‘Ñ ‘††œ‹ƒÏ …œ‡™ǣ ή ͜͠ ͘͞͡ ͙͙͡ ͘͜͜
ƒ†œ™‘Ñ •Ž‡’ †›‹ƒ ȋ Ȍǣ ή ͜͠ ͛͛͟ ͚͘͞ ͜͜͝
„•Ï—‰ƒ ‘††œ‹ƒÏ …œ‡™ǣ ’ǤǦ ’–Ǥ ͠ǣ͘͘ Ǧ ͙͞ǣ͘͘
„•Ï—‰ƒ •Ž‡’ †›‹ƒ ǣ ’ǤȂ •‘„Ǥ ͡ǣ͘͘Ǧ ͚͙ǣ͘͘Ǥ ‹‡†œ‹‡Žƒǣ ͙͘ǣ͘͘ Ǧ ͚͘ǣ͘͘












‘–ƒ–̻„ƒƒƒ‹†•Ǥ’Ž ȁ ™™™Ǥ„ƒƒƒ‹†•Ǥ’Ž




O  * ͚͘ά Ǥ Ǥ





.IWXIQ TMVEVIQ KVE QIQS

4S^REN H^MOʈ TV^]VSHʚ 0SRHNM QVɹ[OSNEH] VIOMR] QET]
[MIPSV]F] M MRRI
TMʚORMI MPYWXVS[ERI OEVX] +VE TEQMʚGMS[E HPE H^MIGM
M HSVSW]GL >[]GMʚ^Gʈ ^SWXENI KVEG^ OXɹV] ^RENH^MI
RENFEVH^MIN TEWYNʈGI TEV]
'IRE ^







0.0 /ɸOS M /V^]˴]O

; XIN RS[IN KV^I [ OɹOS M OV^]˵]O WXEVEN WMʚ NEO RENW^]FGMIN
YQMI˒GMʊ [ NIHRIN PMRMM X[SNI TMSROM RE W^EGLS[RMG]
4MIV[W^] KVEG^ OXɹVIQY WMʚ XS YHE SXV^]QYNI TGLIOʚ ũ
TYROX 9[EKE [W^]WXOS ^EPI˵] SH XEOX]OM 4EVXMʚ []KV][E
KVEG^ OXɹV] TSWMEHE REN[MʚOW^ʈ MPS˒ʊ TGLIIO ũ TYROXɹ[

'IRE ^


/E˴H] VSH^MG QEV^] EF] NIKS H^MIGOS F]S ^HVS[I W^G^ʙˑPM[I M QʇHVI RMI

TV^IW^OEH^E NIˑPM HS XIKS [W^]WXOMIKS QE HSFV] KYWX
1IQS HSX]OS[I [ [SVIG^OY
9TSHSFERME M TSG^YGMI IWXIX]OM QS˴IQ] OW^XEXS[Eʉ SH QEIKS RMI FI^
^REG^IRME Wʇ [MʙG V^IG^] OXɸVI []FMIVEW^ HPE W[SNIN TSGMIGL] 2MI^[]O] [EVMERX KV] X]TY QIQS TSPIKENʈG] RE
^RENH][ERMY TEV ^E TSQSGʈ HSX]OY ;EPGS[EXI OPSGOM
;W^]WXOMI V^IG^] OXɹVI ^RENH^MIW^ [ REW^]Q WOPITMI []FMIVEPM˒Q] ^I W^G^IKɹPRʈ WXEVERRS˒GMʈ QENʈ Vɹ˵Rʈ TS[MIV^GLRMʚ OXɹVʈ REPI˵] VS^TS^REʊ TEPGEQM
XEO F] WTIRME] REN[E˵RMINW^I OV]XIVME &]] GMIOE[I M [W^IGLWXVSRRMI VS^[MNE] YQMINʚXRS˒GM +VE ^REOSQMGMI VS^[MNE ^Q]W HSX]OY
8[SNIKS H^MIGOE F]] WXEVERRMI []OSRERI ^ HSFV]GL QEXIVMEɹ[ F] MGL HIWMKR F] TV^]NIQR] HPE
SOE QEPYGLɹ[ M GS REN[E˵RMINW^I F] G^EW WTʚH^SR] [ MGL XS[EV^]WX[MI F] []NʈXOS[] 'IRE ^
>ETVEW^EQ]






+VE []ˑGMK 6ETMHMTPI\ G]VO .ERSH

+VE OEVGMERE ']VOS[] []˒GMK JVERGYWOMIN QEVOM
.%23( XS [WTERMEE ^EFE[E HPE H[ɹGL HS G^XIVIGL
SWɹF ũ ^EVɹ[RS H^MIGM NEO M HSVSW]GL

'IRE ^








1IVGM 1EQE YP 8VEOXSVS[E [IN˒GMI SH YP (YʿWOMIN -- TMʚXVS PSOEP RV Q ŽɹH˳ XIP [[[ QIVGMQEQE TP

.IWXIQ TMVEVIQ KVE QIQS

4S^REN H^MOʈ TV^]VSHʚ 0SRHNM QVɹ[OSNEH] VIOMR] QET]
[MIPSV]F] M MRRI
TMʚORMI MPYWXVS[ERI OEVX] +VE TEQMʚGMS[E HPE H^MIGM
M HSVSW]GL >[]GMʚ^Gʈ ^SWXENI KVEG^ OXɹV] ^RENH^MI
RENFEVH^MIN TEWYNʈGI TEV]
'IRE ^







0.0 /ɸOS M /V^]˴]O

; XIN RS[IN KV^I [ OɹOS M OV^]˵]O WXEVEN WMʚ NEO RENW^]FGMIN
YQMI˒GMʊ [ NIHRIN PMRMM X[SNI TMSROM RE W^EGLS[RMG]
4MIV[W^] KVEG^ OXɹVIQY WMʚ XS YHE SXV^]QYNI TGLIOʚ ũ
TYROX 9[EKE [W^]WXOS ^EPI˵] SH XEOX]OM 4EVXMʚ []KV][E
KVEG^ OXɹV] TSWMEHE REN[MʚOW^ʈ MPS˒ʊ TGLIIO ũ TYROXɹ[

'IRE ^


/E˴H] VSH^MG QEV^] EF] NIKS H^MIGOS F]S ^HVS[I W^G^ʙˑPM[I M QʇHVI RMI

TV^IW^OEH^E NIˑPM HS XIKS [W^]WXOMIKS QE HSFV] KYWX
1IQS HSX]OS[I [ [SVIG^OY
9TSHSFERME M TSG^YGMI IWXIX]OM QS˴IQ] OW^XEXS[Eʉ SH QEIKS RMI FI^
^REG^IRME Wʇ [MʙG V^IG^] OXɸVI []FMIVEW^ HPE W[SNIN TSGMIGL] 2MI^[]O] [EVMERX KV] X]TY QIQS TSPIKENʈG] RE
^RENH][ERMY TEV ^E TSQSGʈ HSX]OY ;EPGS[EXI OPSGOM
;W^]WXOMI V^IG^] OXɹVI ^RENH^MIW^ [ REW^]Q WOPITMI []FMIVEPM˒Q] ^I W^G^IKɹPRʈ WXEVERRS˒GMʈ QENʈ Vɹ˵Rʈ TS[MIV^GLRMʚ OXɹVʈ REPI˵] VS^TS^REʊ TEPGEQM
XEO F] WTIRME] REN[E˵RMINW^I OV]XIVME &]] GMIOE[I M [W^IGLWXVSRRMI VS^[MNE] YQMINʚXRS˒GM +VE ^REOSQMGMI VS^[MNE ^Q]W HSX]OY
8[SNIKS H^MIGOE F]] WXEVERRMI []OSRERI ^ HSFV]GL QEXIVMEɹ[ F] MGL HIWMKR F] TV^]NIQR] HPE
SOE QEPYGLɹ[ M GS REN[E˵RMINW^I F] G^EW WTʚH^SR] [ MGL XS[EV^]WX[MI F] []NʈXOS[] 'IRE ^
>ETVEW^EQ]






+VE []ˑGMK 6ETMHMTPI\ G]VO .ERSH

+VE OEVGMERE ']VOS[] []˒GMK JVERGYWOMIN QEVOM
.%23( XS [WTERMEE ^EFE[E HPE H[ɹGL HS G^XIVIGL
SWɹF ũ ^EVɹ[RS H^MIGM NEO M HSVSW]GL

'IRE ^








1IVGM 1EQE YP 8VEOXSVS[E [IN˒GMI SH YP (YʿWOMIN -- TMʚXVS PSOEP RV Q ŽɹH˳ XIP [[[ QIVGMQEQE TP

1$6=<&+ .6,ÆIJ(. 1,( 02IJ( 3,26(1., 35=('6=.2/$.$ 3,26(1., 1$6=(*2


=$%5$.1ÆÈ : 7:2,0 '208 ;OBKE[JFNZ UV QJPTFOLJ [OBOF XT[ZTULJN '=,(&,þ67:$ &'
+FE[JF QPDJnjH [ EBMFLB ,SBLPXJBD[FL KFEFO D[Z
E[JFDJPN PSB[ JDI SPE[JDPN J E[JBELPN
8 LTJnjȈFD[DF [FCSBOP NFMPEJF 1JFTLJ NB’F EXB UP QJPTFOLJ [OBOF XT[ZTULJN
E[JFDJPN PSB[ JDI SPE[JDPN J E[JBELPN
QS[FLB[ZXBOF [ QPLPMFOJB OB QPLPMFOJF 8 LTJnjȈFD[DF [FCSBOP NFMPEJF QS[FLB[ZXBOF
LUØSF OB E’VHP [BKNnj VXBHǗ [BSØXOP [ QPLPMFOJB OB QPLPMFOJF LUØSF OB E’VHP [BKNnj
NB’ZDI KBL J XJǗLT[ZDI QPDJFDI VXBHǗ [BSØXOP NB’ZDI KBL J XJǗLT[ZDI QPDJFDI

&(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǰǶ Ƕǭ =ü







%(=3,(&=1( '=,(&,$., /,7(5., , &<)(5., : =22

;BQFXOJFOJF CF[QJFD[FǩTUXB E[JFDJPN ,TJnjȈFD[LB [BXJFSB XFTP’F XJFST[ZLJ E[JǗLJ
UP KFEOP [ OBK XBȈOJFKT[ZDI [BEBǩ LUØSZN N’PET[F E[JFDJ QP[OBKnj MJUFSLJ J DZGFSLJ
: Q D V ] \ P V N O H S L H ] Q D M G Ç 3 D ÿ V W Z R N V L Ç ij N L SPE[JDØX OBVD[ZDJFMJ PQJFLVOØX /BT[B PSB[ QPETUBXPXF E[JB’BOJB J [OBLJ
NBUFNBUZD[OF KBL QMVT NJOVT [OBL SØXOPǴDJ
G O D G ] L H F L N V L Ç ij N L G O D Pý R G ] L H ij \ N R O R U R Z D Q N L LTJnjȈLB [BXJFSB OBKXBȈOJFKT[F [BTBEZ %PXJFE[nj TJǗ UFȈ EP D[FHP T’VȈnj X [EBOJV
CF[QJFD[FǩTUXB /BVLB SFHV’ [BDIPXBOJB
G O D G ] L H F L N V L Ç ij N L N X O L Q D U Q H R U D ] S R U D G Q L N L TJǗ X SØȈOZDI TZUVBDKBDI PECZXB TJǗ LSPQLB XZLS[ZLOJL J [OBL [BQZUBOJB /BUPNJBTU
TUBST[F QPDJFDIZ CǗEnj NPH’Z EPTLPOBMJǎ
D[[ZUBOJF NFUPEnj TZMBCPXnj
] V H U L L 6 L R V W U D 0D U L D QS[F[ [BCBXǗ D
&(1$ ǯDZ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǮDz ǶǶ =ü





$.$'(0,$ $.$'(0,$ 35(=(17•:
.5($7<:1(*2 '=,(&.$ "LBEFNJB QSF[FOUØX UP XTQBOJB’B LTJnjȈLB EMB

"LBEFNJB LSFBUZXOFHP E[JFDLB [BXJFSB E[JFDJ J N’PE[JFȈZ E[JǗLJ LUØSFK CǗEnj NPH’Z
XJFMF XTQBOJB’ZDI QSPKFLUØX OB P[EPCZ QS[ZHPUPXBǎ QJǗLOF QSF[FOUZ EMB OBKCMJȈT[ZDI
J QS[FENJPUZ LUØSF LBȈEF E[JFDLP NPȈF J PSZHJOBMOF P[EPCZ ǴXJnjUFD[OF 8T[ZTULJF
TBNPE[JFMOJF XZLPOBǎ B QØȇOJFK [BXBSUF X "LBEFNJJ QSPQP[ZDKF Tnj CBSE[P
QSBLUZD[OJF XZLPS[ZTUBǎ MVC LPNVǴ ’BUXF EP XZLPOBOJB B LBȈEZ PQJT PQBUS[POZ
QPEBSPXBǎ KFTU CBSXOZNJ GPUPHSBöBNJ
&(1$ ǯǶ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǯǶ ǶǶ =ü







/(*(1'< 32/6.,( /(*(1'< 32/6.,(

-FHFOEZ 1PMTLJF UP PQPXJFǴDJ -FHFOEZ 1PMTLJF UP PQPXJFǴDJ TUBOPXJnjDF
TUBOPXJnjDF XJFMLnj MJUFSBDLnj QS[ZHPEǗ XJFMLnj MJUFSBDLnj QS[ZHPEǗ [BSØXOP EMB
[BSØXOP EMB OBKN’PET[ZDI KBL UFȈ EMB OBKN’PET[ZDI KBL UFȈ EMB TUBST[ZDI
TUBST[ZDI QBTKPOBUØX OJFTBNPXJUZDI QBTKPOBUØX OJFTBNPXJUZDI IJTUPSJJ LUØS[Z
IJTUPSJJ LUØS[Z E[JǗLJ OJFK CǗEnj NPHMJ E[JǗLJ OJFK CǗEnj NPHMJ DIPǎ OB DIXJMǗ
WHO ZHZ _ VNOHS#Z\GDZQLFWZRPDUWHO SO DIPǎ OB DIXJMǗ QPXSØDJǎ EP QJǗLOZDI QPXSØDJǎ EP QJǗLOZDI D[BTØX TXPKFHP
E[JFDJǩTUXB
D[BTØX TXPKFHP E[JFDJǩTUXB
ZZZ Z\GDZQLFWZRPDUWHO SO &(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü

1$6=<&+ .6,ÆIJ(. 1,( 02IJ( 3,26(1., 35=('6=.2/$.$ 3,26(1., 1$6=(*2


=$%5$.1ÆÈ : 7:2,0 '208 ;OBKE[JFNZ UV QJPTFOLJ [OBOF XT[ZTULJN '=,(&,þ67:$ &'
+FE[JF QPDJnjH [ EBMFLB ,SBLPXJBD[FL KFEFO D[Z
E[JFDJPN PSB[ JDI SPE[JDPN J E[JBELPN
8 LTJnjȈFD[DF [FCSBOP NFMPEJF 1JFTLJ NB’F EXB UP QJPTFOLJ [OBOF XT[ZTULJN
E[JFDJPN PSB[ JDI SPE[JDPN J E[JBELPN
QS[FLB[ZXBOF [ QPLPMFOJB OB QPLPMFOJF 8 LTJnjȈFD[DF [FCSBOP NFMPEJF QS[FLB[ZXBOF
LUØSF OB E’VHP [BKNnj VXBHǗ [BSØXOP [ QPLPMFOJB OB QPLPMFOJF LUØSF OB E’VHP [BKNnj
NB’ZDI KBL J XJǗLT[ZDI QPDJFDI VXBHǗ [BSØXOP NB’ZDI KBL J XJǗLT[ZDI QPDJFDI

&(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǰǶ Ƕǭ =ü







%(=3,(&=1( '=,(&,$., /,7(5., , &<)(5., : =22

;BQFXOJFOJF CF[QJFD[FǩTUXB E[JFDJPN ,TJnjȈFD[LB [BXJFSB XFTP’F XJFST[ZLJ E[JǗLJ
UP KFEOP [ OBK XBȈOJFKT[ZDI [BEBǩ LUØSZN N’PET[F E[JFDJ QP[OBKnj MJUFSLJ J DZGFSLJ
: Q D V ] \ P V N O H S L H ] Q D M G Ç 3 D ÿ V W Z R N V L Ç ij N L SPE[JDØX OBVD[ZDJFMJ PQJFLVOØX /BT[B PSB[ QPETUBXPXF E[JB’BOJB J [OBLJ
NBUFNBUZD[OF KBL QMVT NJOVT [OBL SØXOPǴDJ
G O D G ] L H F L N V L Ç ij N L G O D Pý R G ] L H ij \ N R O R U R Z D Q N L LTJnjȈLB [BXJFSB OBKXBȈOJFKT[F [BTBEZ %PXJFE[nj TJǗ UFȈ EP D[FHP T’VȈnj X [EBOJV
CF[QJFD[FǩTUXB /BVLB SFHV’ [BDIPXBOJB
G O D G ] L H F L N V L Ç ij N L N X O L Q D U Q H R U D ] S R U D G Q L N L TJǗ X SØȈOZDI TZUVBDKBDI PECZXB TJǗ LSPQLB XZLS[ZLOJL J [OBL [BQZUBOJB /BUPNJBTU
TUBST[F QPDJFDIZ CǗEnj NPH’Z EPTLPOBMJǎ
D[[ZUBOJF NFUPEnj TZMBCPXnj
] V H U L L 6 L R V W U D 0D U L D QS[F[ [BCBXǗ D
&(1$ ǯDZ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǮDz ǶǶ =ü





$.$'(0,$ $.$'(0,$ 35(=(17•:
.5($7<:1(*2 '=,(&.$ "LBEFNJB QSF[FOUØX UP XTQBOJB’B LTJnjȈLB EMB

"LBEFNJB LSFBUZXOFHP E[JFDLB [BXJFSB E[JFDJ J N’PE[JFȈZ E[JǗLJ LUØSFK CǗEnj NPH’Z
XJFMF XTQBOJB’ZDI QSPKFLUØX OB P[EPCZ QS[ZHPUPXBǎ QJǗLOF QSF[FOUZ EMB OBKCMJȈT[ZDI
J QS[FENJPUZ LUØSF LBȈEF E[JFDLP NPȈF J PSZHJOBMOF P[EPCZ ǴXJnjUFD[OF 8T[ZTULJF
TBNPE[JFMOJF XZLPOBǎ B QØȇOJFK [BXBSUF X "LBEFNJJ QSPQP[ZDKF Tnj CBSE[P
QSBLUZD[OJF XZLPS[ZTUBǎ MVC LPNVǴ ’BUXF EP XZLPOBOJB B LBȈEZ PQJT PQBUS[POZ
QPEBSPXBǎ KFTU CBSXOZNJ GPUPHSBöBNJ
&(1$ ǯǶ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǯǶ ǶǶ =ü







/(*(1'< 32/6.,( /(*(1'< 32/6.,(

-FHFOEZ 1PMTLJF UP PQPXJFǴDJ -FHFOEZ 1PMTLJF UP PQPXJFǴDJ TUBOPXJnjDF
TUBOPXJnjDF XJFMLnj MJUFSBDLnj QS[ZHPEǗ XJFMLnj MJUFSBDLnj QS[ZHPEǗ [BSØXOP EMB
[BSØXOP EMB OBKN’PET[ZDI KBL UFȈ EMB OBKN’PET[ZDI KBL UFȈ EMB TUBST[ZDI
TUBST[ZDI QBTKPOBUØX OJFTBNPXJUZDI QBTKPOBUØX OJFTBNPXJUZDI IJTUPSJJ LUØS[Z
IJTUPSJJ LUØS[Z E[JǗLJ OJFK CǗEnj NPHMJ E[JǗLJ OJFK CǗEnj NPHMJ DIPǎ OB DIXJMǗ
WHO ZHZ _ VNOHS#Z\GDZQLFWZRPDUWHO SO DIPǎ OB DIXJMǗ QPXSØDJǎ EP QJǗLOZDI QPXSØDJǎ EP QJǗLOZDI D[BTØX TXPKFHP
E[JFDJǩTUXB
D[BTØX TXPKFHP E[JFDJǩTUXB
ZZZ Z\GDZQLFWZRPDUWHO SO &(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü &(1$ ǮǮ ǶǶ =ü

4PE]GMXɰ NIWX RS[ʈ TVʚ˵RMI VS^[MNENʈGʈ WMʚ QEVOʈ OXɹVE TS[WXEE
[
[ []RMOY TSʈG []RMOY TSʈG^IRME H[ɹGL G^IWOMGL JMVQ QQGMXɰ NIHIR ^ REN[MʚOW^]GL
TVSHYGIRXɹ[ QIFPM QMINWOMGL [ )YVSTMI M SVE^ LːM˚Xʜ G^ G^SS[] G^IWOM
TVSHYGIRX TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ M FSMWO TSʈG^]PM W[SNʈ H^MEEPRS˒ʊ TSH QEVOʈ
TPE]GMXɰ ^ Hʈ˵IRMIQ HS TV^IHWXE[MIRME RMI X]POS [ )YVSTMI G^IWOMIKS
HIWMKRY EPI Vɹ[RMI˵ [TVS[EH^IRME NEOS˒GMS[IKS TVSHYOXY HIH]OS[ERIKS
TV^IHI [W^]WXOMQ HPE H^MIGM M YOMIVYROS[ERIKS RE EOX][R] []TSG^]RIO
[ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN

>EFE[E



>EFE[E NIWX NIHRʈ ^ TSHWXE[S[]GL TSXV^IF RMI X]POS H^MIGM ; HSFMI
TERS[ERME XIPI[M^NM M [MVXYEPRIKS ˒[MEXE [ WMIGM G^ʚWXS XS SRI []KV][ENʈ
^ ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y ^EFE[ʈ RE TS[MIXV^Y >I[RʚXV^RI TPEGI ^EFE[ X]QG^EWIQ Wʈ QMINWGIQ
^
WTSX]OEʿ PYH^M Vɹ˵R]GL KIRIVEGNM M KVYT WTSIG^R]GL FYHYNʈ OSRXEOX]
QMʚH^]PYH^OMI M ^ETI[RMENʈ MHIRX]JMOEGNʚ ^ HER]Q QMINWGIQ >ETI[RMENʈ
EOX][RS˒ʊ JM^]G^Rʈ TV^IGM[WXE[MENʈG Nʈ ^EFE[MI TEW][RIN K[EVERXYNʈ
TV^IWXV^Iʿ OXɹVE RMI SJIVYNI KSXS[]GL VS^[Mʈ^Eʿ PIG^ MRWTMVYNI HS X[SV^IRME
[EWR]GL %OX][RE ^EFE[E []OW^XEGE TS^]X][RI TSHIN˒GMI HS ˵]GME
SX[EVXS˒ʊ M GLʚʊ [WTɹTVEG] ^ MRR]QM %QFMGNʈ QEVOM 4PE]GMXɰ NIWX [T][ RE
KYWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒YWX H^MIGOE ^E TS˒VIHRMGX[IQ []WSOMIN NEOS˒GM OSRGITGNM SVE^
K
TV^IQ]˒PER]GL M TMʚOR]GL HIXEPM [ OSRXIO˒GMI HERIKS QMINWGE



(IWMKR
·   

  e ]
/E˵H] TPEG ^EFE[ RMI NIWX NIH]RMI ^FMSVIQ FEVH^MIN G^] QRMIN
, $ e, JYROGNSREPR]GL IPIQIRXɹ[ PIG^ H^MʚOM W[SNIN [MIPOS˒GM ũ
^REG^ʈG]Q IPIQIRXIQ TV^IWXV^IRM TYFPMG^RIN 7[SMWX] HIWMKR
‰ , , , M Í
WTIRMENʈG] [W^]WXOMI OV]XIVME FI^TMIG^IʿWX[E M JYROGNSREPRS˒GM
QE [EVXS˒ʊ HSHERʈ ũ RMISGIRMSRʈ [EVXS˒ʊ IWXIX]G^Rʈ KH]˵
[]WSOMIN NEOS˒GM JSVQE RMIF][EPI HSFV^I [T][E RE IWXIX]G^RI
4PEGI ^EFE[ TSWXV^IKERMI G^S[MIOE 4SW^G^IKɹPRI IPIQIRX] TPEGY ^EFE[ EPI
M GEI M GEI ^IWXE[] QYW^ʈ HSFV^I TVI^IRXS[Eʊ WMʚ WEQI [ WSFMI

ŵ 63& 63= NIHREO Vɹ[RMI˵ [ VE^MI TSXV^IF] WXERS[Mʊ HSTIRMIRMI TV^IWXV^IRM
ŵ 63& 63= 2%896% [ RMIOXɹV]GL TV^]TEHOEGL TSHTSV^ʈHOS[Eʊ WMʚ [ MRR]GL

ŵ ;33(= (33 ^EHSQMRS[Eʊ 7OERMENʈGI HS ^EFE[] YWTSOENENʈGI []VE^MWXI G^]
RMITS^SVRI ^E[W^I [ RS[SG^IWR]Q HIWMKRMI &I^TMIG^IʿWX[S
ŵ 4-4) %+) SVE^ ^KSHRS˒ʊ ^ [W^]WXOMQM RSVQEQM Wʈ SG^][MWXI
ŵ %6%/2)% [ TV^]TEHOY IPIQIRXɹ[ TPEGɹ[ ^EFE[ 4PE]GMXɰ

ŵ 8%= 40%=
ŵ +)13 +)13
ŵ [[[ TPE]GMXI IY
ŵ 1-2-3

ŵ 13:)3 LERHIP$QQGMXI TP


Click to View FlipBook Version
Previous Book
DPS Samachar August-min
Next Book
buku program MAJLIS AMBANG MERDEKA 2018